DUBAI

09-11th of November
2013

Eng. Fabrizio Mori

TOWER CRANES
ADDITIONAL TRAINING
FOR IB’s INSPECTORS

Types of Tower Cranes
1.Rail Mounted, supported on a carriage
running on a parallel set of rails.
2.Outrigger Mounted
3.On a fixed base, supported on a concrete
base.
4.Climbing type, supported by floors during
the construction of a multi-stored building.
5.On crawler tracks. 3

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5 .

Slewing Tower & Non-Slewing Tower • Slewing: the slewing ring is situated at the bottom of the tower and the whole of the tower and jib assembly slews relative to the base of the crane. 6 (should be tied to the to a fixed structure.) . • Non-Slewing: The slewing ring is situated at or near the top of the tower and the jib slews about the vertical axis of the tower which itself remains stationary.

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Inclined trolley Jib 3.Horizontal Trolley Jib 2. Types of Jib 1.Luffing Jib 4.Fixed Radius Jib 8 .

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and places these horizontal members on the first of two mast sections. 10 . The mobile crane then adds the counterweights.HOW TOWER CRANES ARE ERECTED • Tower cranes arrive at the construction site in a convoy of trucks. The crew uses a mobile crane to assemble the jib and the machinery section.

ERECTION OF A TOWER CRANE .

ERECTION OF A TOWER CRANE .

ERECTION OF TOWER CRANE .

• The construction crew uses the tower crane to lift steel. • They often rise hundreds of feet into the air. and can reach out just as far. TOWER CRANES • Tower cranes are a common fixture at any major construction site. . concrete. large tools and a wide variety of other materials.

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COUNTER WEIGHT JIB COUNTER JIB SLEWING RING TOWER BALLAST RAILS / ……. ..

that allows the crane to rotate: • On top of the slewing unit are three parts: 17 .PARTS OF THE CRANE • All tower cranes consist of the same basic parts: • The base is bolted to a large concrete pad that supports the crane. • The base connects to the mast (or tower).the gear and motor -. which gives the tower crane its height. • Attached to the top of the mast is the slewing unit -.

• A trolley runs along the jib to move the load in and out from the crane's center: 18 . which is the portion of the crane that carries the load.PARTS OF THE CRANE • The long horizontal jib (or working arm).

PARTS OF THE CRANE •The shorter horizontal machinery arm. which contains the crane's motors and electronics as well as the large concrete counter weights: 19 .

PARTS OF THE CRANE OPERATOR’S CAB 20 .

The use of the anemometer is required for the self-erecting tower crane with a hook height of over 30 meters and top-slewing cranes. The crane jiib must be equipped with a basket .

This shall be equipped with the emergency stop .The crane remote control must be equipped with external lights to indicate the condition of the machine. The green light should be placed so as to be visible from the people who are close to the crane. In case of using remote control.

as a general rule 100 mm). . The image provides an example of conformity: the toe boards is high enough to prevent it (at least 50 mm.The skirting must avoid falling objects.

very dangerous The tower crane must have landings at least every 10 meters Balconies in the tower avoiding falling objects and operators .In the tower there are no landings.

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The lack of a wiper for the cabin implies poor visibility Example not in accordance Example in accordance .

The distance shown in the picture may be a hazard to the operator. The walkways must always have openings smaller than 20 mm. .The openings in the walkways can create a danger of falling.

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This plate is also impossible to identify the necessary information that should always be included in the warnings and labels . Plate in a incomprehensible language if not equipped with original translations.The label must indicate the name of the crane. Flow diagram: the label should always indicate the loads that the crane can lift.

• The closer the load is positioned to the mast. the more weight the crane can lift safely. 31 . General safety rules • The maximum load that a crane can lift is determined by the design rating but the crane cannot lift as much weight if the load is positioned at the end of the jib.

weigh many tons. the crane can lift a maximum of 10 tonnes but if the load trolley moves in to 15 metres then it can lift 20 tonnes. . • The second element of stability is the counterweight. These weights. seen at the opposite end from the jib.• In a 300 tonne-metre rated crane for example. Load switches in the cab control this to prevent overloading. if the operator positions the load 30 metres from the mast. the whole structure is like a large seesaw.

SAFETY Measures . • Overlapping levels with other cranes. • Away from excavation sites. . To avoid collision some one (competent person) should plan the sequence of crane 33 movements.Site • Away from high voltage power lines. • Prevailing Wind-speeds. • Away from water accumulation – water leaking under the foundation of the crane.

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DEEP ESCAVATION 35 .

FOUNDATION OF THE CRANE 36 .

37 .

INTERFERENCE BETWEEN CRANE 38 .

PPE • Safety Harness • Helmets • Safety Shoes • Fire Extinguishers • Easily Accessible • Trained 39 . Safety Measures .

the trolley motion. or the travel motion 40 . Crane Safety Equipment • Automatic Safe Load Indicator • Load Radius Indicator • Motion Limiting Devices • Overload Cut-out devices • Level Indicator • Anemometer • Machinery Guarding • Zoning Devices (two or more cranes – limit the slew.

(catwalks should be provided with handrails) • Clear vision from cab 41 . • Ladders – Landing (Platform) • Access to and along jibs and counter jibs for inspection and servicing should be made safe. Crane Safety • Lighting Protection (Earthing) • Rail mounted tower cranes should be fitted with an audible travel alarm.

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Tower Cranes • Visual Examination • Overload Test • (SWL raised to sufficient height to ensure that each tooth of the train of gears is subjected to the load then lowered to 100 mm to 200 mm above the ground. • SWL (100 mm to 200 mm) – 25 % of SWL (100 mm to 200 mm) 44 . • For horizontal jib cranes with trolleys the trolley should be set at the maximum radius for SWL. • SWL should then be increased by 25 % and this load hoisted sufficiently to ensure that each tooth of the train of gears is subjected to the overload then lowered to 100 mm to 200 mm just clear of the ground.

45 . • The radius at which the test load corresponds to 110 % of the SWL should be marked and the test load should never be taken beyond this point. Continued • Indicator test: • The crane should never loaded beyond 100 % of its SWL.

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Crane owner’s file
Each tower crane should have its own machine history
file, in either paper or electronic format, in which all
records of maintenance activities are kept by the tower
crane owner. These should include the following (as
applicable):
• EC Declaration of Conformity;
• pre-delivery inspections;
• special maintenance procedures;
• service reports and worksheets;
• breakdown reports and worksheets;
• daily and weekly inspection reports;
• records of component replacement;
• records of major overhaul;
• erection, reconfiguration and dismantling records;
• test reports;

BS EN 7121 PART 5

7.9.2 Crane owner’s file
• wire rope and hook test certificates;
• thorough examination reports;
• records of defect rectification;
• data logger records;
• records of supplementary tests;
• records of modifications and upgrades;
• safety alerts from manufacturers;
• records of extraordinary events (e.g.
replacement or repair of significant load
bearing components, severe overloading or
wind loading);
• records of unusual applications.

BS EN 7121 PART 5 7. • breakdown reports and worksheets. The records in the site machine history file will be less comprehensive than those in the owner’s file as they will only refer to the period during which the crane was on that particular site. This file should include the following (as applicable): • service reports and worksheets. including records of modifications and upgrades. • daily and weekly inspection reports. including records of defect rectification. . A machine history file should also be kept on site by the user to record all maintenance activities carried out on the crane while it is erected on that site.2.2 Crane user’s file to be kept on site Under LOLER1998 [3] Regulation 5. • thorough examination reports and records of supplementary tests. component replacement and work completed following extraordinary events. Copies of records from the site file should be added to the tower crane owner’s machine history file to ensure that the owner’s file contains a complete “cradle to grave” record for the particular crane. where a crane is on site for an extended period the user is required to be able to demonstrate that the crane has been adequately maintained. • erection and reconfiguration records.9.

• after assembly and before being put into service at a new site or in a new location. LOLER Regulation 9(2)(b). NOTE 2 This does not apply to a crane which moves from one location to another to perform a lifting operation. In this case the Declaration of Conformity will cover the use of the crane for the first 6 month or 12 month period. LOLER Regulation 9(2)(a).BS EN 7121 PART 5 TYPE OF INSPECTION Thorough examination of a crane is required by LOLER 1998 [2] Regulation 9 in the following circumstances: • before being put into use for the first time. . • where safety depends on the installation conditions: • after installation and before being put into service for the first time. and is operating within the scope of the current report of thorough examination. is not fixed in position. LOLER Regulation 9(1): NOTE 1 The only exception to this is if the crane is new and the owner has an EC Declaration of Conformity that was made not more than 12 months prior to the crane being used for the first time.

LOLER Regulation 9(3)(a)(iv). LOLER Regulation 9(3)(a)(i) and (ii). . • after exceptional circumstances have occurred.BS EN 7121 PART 5 TYPE OF INSPECTION • periodically whilst in service. at maximum intervals of 6 months for cranes that lift people and 12 months for cranes that lift goods only. or in accordance with an examination scheme. LOLER Regulation 9(3)(a)(iii).

. which could increase risks in use.BS EN 7121 PART 5 Scope of thorough examination before the crane is put into use for the first time The competent person who undertakes the thorough examination should decide the scope of the examination. Records of tests and inspections carried out by the manufacturer should also be taken into account. It should also take into account when the crane was made and the likely deterioration since manufacture. The extent of the thorough examination should reflect the likelihood of failure and the actual risk which could arise from any such failure.

As a minimum. checked and tested in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. . The scope of the thorough examination should be proportional to the complexity of the installation and take into account the reports of previous thorough examinations.BS EN 7121 PART 5 Scope of thorough examination following installation The competent person who undertakes the thorough examination should decide the scope of the examination. LOLER 1998 [2] Regulation 9(2)(a) and (b) requires that this establishes that the crane has been installed correctly and is safe to use. where applicable. the examination should ensure the crane has been installed.

BS EN 7121 PART 5 Scope of periodic thorough examination The defined scope of thorough examination should be drawn up in advance of the examination and should identify those parts of the crane that should be thoroughly examined. together with required supplementary supporting reports and tests and the extent to which they should be witnessed. These intervals should reflect the anticipated rate of deterioration and the likelihood and potential consequences of failure. where appropriate. The defined scope of thorough examination should specify the intervals at which the crane (or individual parts thereof) should be thoroughly examined (within the statutory maximum periods specified by LOLER 1998 [2] and MCA LOLER 2006 [6] of 6 months and 12 months) and. intervals for specific supplementary supporting reports and tests. .

and should take into account the reports of previous thorough examinations. Exceptional circumstances include an overload. use for particularly arduous duties. where applicable. failure of a structural component or being subjected to weather in excess of design parameters. jib clash.BS EN 7121 PART 5 Thorough examination after exceptional circumstances LOLER 1998 [2] and MCA LOLER 2006 [6] require that if the crane is subjected to exceptional circumstances it has to be removed from service and subjected to a thorough examination to determine whether it is safe to be returned to service. The scope of the thorough examination should be proportional to the nature of the exceptional circumstances and the extent of any repairs. . collision.

• crane travelling base. pins and other fastenings. including fasteners and tie bars. including fasteners and slew ring. ladders and rest platforms and guard rails. including fasteners. drive system and rail track including fasteners and end stops. • slewing mechanism throughout its full range of movement. • base information board. NOTE 1 This list is not exhaustive. • central (base) ballast. grillage. including fasteners. • tower sections and ties. internal climbing collar. • slew section structure. chassis.2 Components to be included The following components should be included in the defined scope of thorough examination for a tower crane (as applicable): • base structure.BS EN 7121 PART 5 8. NOTE 2 Luffing jib cranes should be at maximum radius. • all bolts. cast-in anchors. cruciform base.7. .

BS EN 7121 PART 5 8. windows. including pendants. including hydraulic systems.2 Components to be included • power supply cables and slip rings. • control cabinets and wiring.7. fasteners. • hydraulic luffing systems. security bars. • “A” frame. • hoist and luffing winches and brakes. • cab. . • counterjib and counterweights. fasteners. including controls. seating. wipers and load charts. indicators. guard rails and signage. heating. access ladders. including sheaves.

walkway. safety line. . including terminations. • rail travel limits.BS EN 7121 PART 5 8. and wind sail boards. • slack rope limits. • hook block.7. fasteners. including sheaves. hook and fall change system. including pendants. • devices indicating: • over hoist limits. • luffing limits. moment and radius). • trolley limits. • trolley. and trolley winch.2 Components to be included • limiting and indicating devices including: • rated capacity system (measurement of load. sheaves. • jib structure. • running wire ropes. including wheels and basket. pivots. • anemometer.

5. at the start of testing the crane should be positioned on a straight and level track with firm foundations and free from obstructions. 9. NOTE 1 During the raising of any load it might be necessary to luff-in the jib. or trolley-in the load so that the radius is not exceeded owing to deflection of the tower. .2 Test procedure The crane should be functionally tested without a load applied to determine whether it is working properly. then lowered to between 100 mm and 200 mm above the ground and the crane operated through all its permitted motions.1 Preparation When testing a rail mounted crane. With the trolley or jib at the maximum radius for the rated capacity.5. a load equivalent to the rated capacity should be raised until every tooth in the train of gears has been subjected to the load.5 Overload testing 9.BS EN 7121 PART 5 9. to determine whether the crane is safe to proceed with the test.

Any movement of the trolley beyond the set position and towards the clamps indicates a problem with the trolley brake. For other cranes. .5 Overload testing The load should then be increased by the amount specified by the manufacturer and this load hoisted until each tooth in the train of gears has been subjected to the overload. Suitable devices should be fitted to the jib. which should be investigated and rectified before further testing is carried out. then lowered to between 100 mm and 200 mm above the ground and the crane operated through its permitted motions. at a position 50 mm beyond the maximum radius for the maximum rated capacity to prevent the trolley from moving beyond this point. the load lifting attachments should be positioned at the maximum radius for the maximum rated capacity. For horizontal jib cranes with trolleys. for example clamps.BS EN 7121 PART 5 9. the trolley should be set at the maximum radius for the maximum rated capacity.

NOTE 2 For most tower cranes it is possible to operate the maximum rated capacity at a number of radii. . taking care to stop before the clamp is reached.BS EN 7121 PART 5 9.5 Overload testing A load equivalent to the appropriate rated capacity should then be raised until each tooth in the train of gears has been subjected to the load. so for these cranes the motions include moving the load back to the maximum radius position for that rated capacity. then lowered to between 100 mm and 200 mm above the ground and the crane operated throughout all its permitted motions. to determine whether the crane is safe to proceed with the test. subject to site limitations.

During the overload test the crane should remain stable and the brakes on each motion should function effectively. Where the loaded crane can travel on rail tracks. the overload should be travelled the appropriate length of the track with the jib at right angles. During the overload test.5 Overload testing The load should then be increased to the test load specified by the manufacturer and hoisted until each tooth in the train of hoist gears has been subjected to the overload. for example the lowest possible speed of the crane. then lowered to between 100 mm and 200 mm above the ground and the crane operated throughout its permitted motions to ensure the overload is applied to all parts. If the tests are limited owing to site conditions it might be necessary to dismantle and reassemble the test load at different positions throughout the arc of slew to enable the crane to be thoroughly tested over its working area.BS EN 7121 PART 5 9. Otherwise duties should be restricted. where such duties are permitted. at both sides and in line with it. . the crane should be operated at speeds appropriate to the safe control of the load.

50 m x 0.1. On self erecting cranes the hatch: can be under the driver seat.4.2 m x 0. 5. BS EN 14439/2007 + A2:2009 The design requirements for controls and control stations shall conform to EN 13557 with the changes according to Table 2. 5.4. 5.55 m x 0.6 The minimum dimensions for effective hatch apertures shall be 0. can have its dimensions reduced to 0.55 m.50 m when necessary due to the size of the crane .1.4.5 On tower cranes. only if a other solution isn't possible.6 m minimum . windscreens wiper and washers shall be provided on the front cabin window. the dimensions of the standing area shall be 0.7 For self-erecting tower cranes .1.

1 times the rated capacity under normal conditions of use.2.4.1 General The rated capacity limiter shall operate at a load as close as possible to the rated capacity to prevent the crane operator from handling load greater than the rated capacity .2. one operating on the rated capacity.Operating requirements 5.4 Rated capacity limiters . The procedure to set up the load moment limiters of the crane shall be described in the instruction handbook (Clause 7) .BS EN 14439/2007 + A2:2009 5. NOTE The limitation of the load moment is ensured with at least 2 limiters . the other on the radius . When the rated capacity limiter operates due to a load exceeding the rated capacity or due to a load moment exceeding the rated capacity the limiter shall operate at a load or a load moment greater or equal to 1.4. .4.

lt shall be a visual warning signal defined in 5.1 The rated capacity indicator shall give a warning of the approach to the rated capacity at a value between 90 % and 95 % of the rated capacity . .4. 5.2.2.2.4.5.BS EN 14439/2007 + A2:2009 5.2. Use of the alternative setting of the standard rated capacity limiter foreseen by the manufacturer is not considered as overriding if the crane is kept within its designed and stated capacity as given in the instruction handbook .2 Overriding Provision far overriding the rated capacity limiter shall not be provided. this rated capacity indicator may be installed on the crane .4.4 .6.4.5 Rated capacity indicators 5. On tower cranes provided with remote controls .

6. storage of the trolley) provision may be at the control station.7 For trolley drives on horizontal jib using ropes the breakage of a trolley travelling rope shall initiate the stop of the trolley . 5.4.2.4.4.6. 5.2 Overriding When it is necessary to override motion limiters in normai operation (e.2 The tower cranes shall be provided with indicators as shown in the Table 4.4.5. Other means providing equivalent information can also be used.2.2. The overriding devices shall be hold-to-run types and the crane components and the crane's stability shall not be endangered .2. 5.g. change of the falls number .BS EN 14439/2007 + A2:2009 5.1 Motion limiters The motion limiters shall be provided according to Table 5. The choice is given between the solutions marked with a cross .

at the request of the user k) Trolleying limiter YES I) A-frame position limiter YES a Working space limiter and crane being interdependent. Motion LIMITER a) Hoisting limiter YES b) Lowering limiter YES c) Slack rope limiter NO d) Slewing limiter No if power supply via slipping assembly e) Travelling limiter YES f) Derricking limiter YES g) Telescoping limiter NO if erection work . if the control station is moved during service limiter i) Working space limiter a Not mandatory. the power supply shall be such that when the crane is "on". .YES if working condition h) Control station position YES. at the request of the user according to the risk analysis of the job site j) Anti-collision device Not mandatory. the working space limiter is automatically "on" .

audible signal) .2. When visual signals are used far indicator. . The guards which may be used as walkways or work platform shall be designed far this use.3.1 Guards for moving parts During the access to the control station . the information about the wind level shall be given to the driver and could be achieved by different means (speed value.10 Anemometer Tower cranes shall be provided with an anemometer except for self erecting cranes with a height under hook of less than 30 m measured with a horizontal jib . 5. In any case the driver shall have a warning level and an alarm level.4.3 Guarding 5. see Annex C far the choice of the color. When an anemometer is installed. see EN 13586. visual signal.4.BS EN 14439/2007 + A2:2009 5.4. moving parts shall be guarded by safety distances as defined in EN ISO 13857 or by provision of removable or fixed guards.

furthermore the falling of the trolley shall not be possible. trolley wheels .BS EN 14439/2007 + A2:2009 5. guards and access closures shall be fitted with hinges or other means to prevent them from falling.2 Prevention of crane components from falling Crane parts such as gears . Covers . The output gears of the slewing gears shall be provided with covers or any other device avoiding their falling in case of rupture. The trolleys shall be designed so that the wheels do not slip out from the railway in case of rupture of the axis.3. pulleys .4. covers and boxes shall be designed . assembled and fixed in such a way to prevent them from falling during normal operation. .

furthermore the falling of the trolley shall not be possible.3.4. Covers . trolley wheels.BS EN 14439/2007 + A2:2009 5. pulleys. The output gears of the slewing gears shall be provided with covers or any other device avoiding their falling in case of rupture. The trolleys shall be designed so that the wheels do not slip out from the railway in case of rupture of the axis. . assembled and fixed in such a way to prevent them from falling during normal operation. guards and access closures shall be fitted with hinges or other means to prevent them from falling.2 Prevention of crane components from falling Crane parts such as gears. covers and boxes shall be designed.

2 .4.BS EN 14439/2007 + A2:2009 5.4. Means of access can include a passing through the structure of the crane even if the dimension does not comply with EN 13586.8 Completed by 5.1 5.2 Crushing hazard between moving parts 6.4 Access 5.4.4 Manholes .1 General The design requirements far access shall confarm to EN 13586 with the changes as shown in Table 6.4.3 Rung ladders Completed by 6 .4.Design requirements tor access Clause in EN 13586:2004 Topic Change In this European Standard 6.4.4.4. Table 6 .4.6 Completed by 5.4.

Evacuation of an elevating contrai station in the event of power failure or suchlike shall be possible by alternative means of egress .BS EN 14439/2007 + A2:2009 5. .4. Where such a distance cannot be obtained. Type 1 ladders shall have rest platforms at least every 1O m. When a ladder is used for this purpose. Furthermore far self-erecting cranes: Flights of type 1 ladders shall be positioned to prevent persons falling more than 1O m maximum. guards (when possible) and warning notices shall be fitted .4.2 Crushing hazard between moving parts Where persons could be present between moving parts a safety distance of at least 0. the dimensions defined in EN 13586 are not applicable. 5. The dimension m (clear width.4. the first flight of ladder may be of 1O m maximum .2 m and the dimension d (distance between the center line of the rung and vertical surface) may be reduced to O.4. Table 4) may be reduced to 0.3 Far all types of tower cranes. 1 m allowing the use of the rung at least by one foot.5 m shall be observed.

1 Generai lf it is not possible to lower the jib to the ground to carry out a visual inspection of the jib .4. 5. When during erection/dismantling.4.4. the use of personal protective device against the falls shall be possible all along the jib .4 m. far type 2 access according EN 13586 the minimum dimensions far effective hatch apertures shall be 0.BS EN 14439/2007 + A2:2009 5.4 Hatch apertures lf the crane construction does not allow larger dimensions .4.4.personal protective device against the falls shall be fixed along the jib to reach the mechanism(s) . repair or the maintenance the basket cannot be used.side protection .5 m by 0. In addition a walkway with : .5 Access provided in a horizontal jib 5.5. a basket fixed to the trolley shall be provided . or .4.

8 m.2 Walkway The width of the walkway shall comply with EN 13586:2004. Table 6 type 2.5. When the size of the jib is sufficient to walk inside the jib (dimension between the walkway and the upper member equal or more than 1. toe board is provided only on one side (see Figure 1).4.4.8 m) . When the dimension between the walkway and the upper member is less than 1. .BS EN 14439/2007 + A2:2009 5.03 m. toe boards shall be provided on each side of the walkway with a minimum height of 0.

5.35 m.4. admissible load and number of persons .4.5.4. Manufacturers shall take into consideration the weight and the number of persons when determining the basket. entanglement.BS EN 14439/2007 + A2:2009 5. Table 7. hand rail and steel wire rope.4. walkway .g. 5. warnings concerning residual risks e . instructions and markings shall be provided tor the use of the basket: how to reach the basket. The side protection shall comply with EN 13586:2004 .4 4 Basket The minimum dimension of the length/width of the basket shall be 0. handrail and steel wire rope Manufacturers shall take into consideration the dimension of the jib when determining the position of the walkway .3 Position of the walkway. . type 2.5 x 0. shearing .

.4. The minimum illumination shall be 50 lux.5 Lighting A fixed non-dazzling service lighting shall be provided and so arranged that the necessary illumination of the control is provided. For maintenance. When the general area lighting does not permit sufficient illumination in a machinery cabinet. the minimum illumination shall be 200 lux which may be obtained by additional movable lighting . supplementary lighting shall be provided.BS EN 14439/2007 + A2:2009 5.

6.2) : • it shall be indicated by a continuous green light located so that it is visible to the persons next to the crane. see Annex C.1.8) and of EN 12077-2 (5. This indicator is not necessary if this information is available on the remote control.4.BS EN 14439/2007 + A2:2009 5.2 When cable less control is engaged.6 Outside indicators on the crane 5.4.1 When outside indicators on the crane are requested far anemometer and anti collision devices . 5.4.5 . • a yellow light installed on the crane visible to the driver shall give a warning of approach to the rated capacity at a value which gives the crane driver time to react to the warning and prevent the crane from being overloaded .6. . to fulfil requirements of EN 13557 (C.

the light indicating that the device is out of order or in fault .3. The light used shall be: a yellow flashing light for the warning leve! . C.3 When an anti-collision device is installed and when outside indicators are requested by local authorities . .BS EN 14439/2007 + A2:2009 Outside indicators on the crane C.2 When an anemometer is installed and when outside indicators are requested by local authorities . shall be a white flashing light.2 and C. The light signals shall be visible by all the persons concerned . the type of the light signals shall be as given in C. a red flashing light for the alarm leve!. a flashing green light should be used. C. NOTE In some cases when local authorities request to have a warning indicating that the crane is in free slewing mode.1 When outside indicators in order to inform the persons working on the site about the crane condition are used.

NOTE The declaration of conformity of the tower crane confirms that fitness for purpose has been achieved . The procedure to test tower crane with a rated capacity above 100 t shall be determined by the manufacturer .3.1 General Load tests shall be performed taking into account the positions and configurations causing the maximum loads or the maximum tensions in the most important crane components. .BS EN 14439/2007 + A2:2009 D. The manufacturer shall specify the positions of the loads.3.3 Load tests D. there is no need to produce a further test report or test certificate giving the result of the fitness for purpose .3. The special load curves mentioned in the table are load curves calculated with reduced acceleration and speeds and/or permissible wind speeds which are specified by the manufacturer .

3. static test in manufacturer's accordance with column 2 is specifications sufficient admissible wind speed calm or in accordance with manufacturer's specifications.BS EN 14439/2007 + A2:2009 D.2 Static test Column 1 2 3 Test load 125 % 125 % (in % of the load (in % of the special load curve) curve) admissible movement successive admissible speed reduced speed in accordance withnot prescribed.3. . permanent deformations or damages affecting the function or safety of the crane are visible and if no connections have loosened or become damaged. The static test shall be considered successful if no ruptures. respectively The test load shall have a distance of 100 mm to 200 mm from the floor for a period of time of at least 10 min.

3.3 Dynamic test Test load 110% 110% (in % of the load (in % of the special Curve load curve) admissible combined movements admissible speed maximum speed which is admissible tor the suspended load admissible wind maximum operating wind speed as speed specified by the manufacturer The tests shall include the repeated starting and stopping of each movement throughout the whole sequence of the movement. The dynamic test shall be considered successful if the corresponding components have performed their functions and if the subsequent examination has not revealed any damage on the components of drive or supporting structure and if no connection has loosened or sustained damage .D.3. .

lifting equipment may lift safely in the most efficient configuration. This applied proof load shall never exceed the elastic limit of the item being tested . Proof Load Test The application of a predetermined load excess of SWL to assess the ability of the equipment to withstand operation requirements. or any combination of these that are lifted. persons. For wire rope.g. e.8 of its WLL. DAC REQUIREMENTS 06/2012 DEFINITIONS Load Means any material. Safe Working Limit (SWL) Maximum load (mass). eye to eye in a straight vertical line. lowered or suspended by the Lifting Equipment. Working Load Limit (WLL) Maximum load (mass). a sling used in a chocked condition its safe working load is approximately 0.. lifting equipment may lift safely in a particular configuration. chain and fiber rope slings this is in direct lift i.e.

Safety Gear or catching devices. Brakes. iv.g. If essential parts with safety functions are to be rebuilt or exchanged. Load carrying parts (e. in its entirety and at a given location or environment. anchorages. this is considered to be a ―Major Repair‖. DAC REQUIREMENTS 06/2012 Repair Restoring the original state of equipment by rebuilding or exchanging parts or units. Over-Speed Governors. This is the case particularly in respect of the exchange of the following: i. Driving mechanisms and controls. iii. Inspection Any physical activity. related to ensuring that an item of ―Lifting Equipment‖. The period is defined by the fact that the equipment should remain always the same In-service Inspection In-service inspection of lifting equipment undertaken onshore after installation of the Lifting Equipment and prior to being put into service . v. open or closed spelters sockets. meets the specified design and operating Standards and is safe to operate for a specified period. ii. primary structures etc).

remove covers or open gearboxes . • Operation manual & loading chart (refer to point 4. • Indicator appropriate to the boom. walking surfaces shall be skid-resistant type. Thorough Inspection Inspection for compliance with manufacturers‘ specifications and safe operation. rope terminal fittings and anchorages. • Security of the counterweight. cracks or damaged structural component including supports and outriggers where fitted. wire rope manufacture certificate • Water draining from air reservoirs. • Operation of the crane through all motions with particular attention to brakes. • Ropes. • Fire extinguishers are in place and satisfactory for use. • Pneumatic systems and hydraulic systems including their safety devices. fuel level and lubrication.1 c) • Crane for any loose. checking the correspondence of the removable weights to those shown on the counterweight chart. tools and materials other than those for which storage provision is made. • The condition of the Crane cabin (tidy condition and free from grease and oil. visibility forward & other sides). rags. • Load moment system where fitted is correctly set or fitted (or both) with the program appropriate to the boom or jib length.DAC REQUIREMENTS 06/2012 16. as a minimum: Lifting Equipment • Oil. * while undertaking the inspection. • Operation of all limit switches or cut-outs and safety devices (the checks to be made in non-operation status). steps or both. rope drums and sheaves for any damage and wear. • While using telephone or radio communications (checks for functioning of the call signal and clearly hearing the messages). in case of suspecting indications like noise.2. and fly-jib lengths and falls or parts of rope. • Safe access (hand-hold. jib or fly-jib length is fitted.

Installation procedures. the IB shall ensure that an independent competent person be engaged by the owner to provide advice and documentation to support the continued use of the lifting equipment/Scaffolding. there shall also be an obligation from the IB for the inspector to enquire the following information: • Information about previous inspections. building ties. grade and instruction. Wire rope size. foundations. grades and torque. . Bolt sizes. Markings etc.DAC REQUIREMENTS 06/2012 (c) Upon arriving at any inspection site. safe working load charts in English and/or Arabic language and in case not available and not possible to provide. Inspection procedures. engineering drawings. 1 Site: Place at which inspection is being undertaken. • Manufacturing Operations Manual. • If the Inspector cannot obtain sufficient information the inspection must be treated like a first inspection and therefore proceed with the normal‘ inspections. Operator or Maintenance Manuals of the equipment.

quality of maintenance shall be taken into account prior to establishing the period of the inspection . Note 1: The inspection period is based on a normal working day of up to 8 hrs and a 5/6-day working week (2400 hours). and if the manufacturer’s recommendations are not available a competent person must specify.DAC REQUIREMENTS 06/2012 Periodic inspections Periodic Examination carried out based on equipment condition especially before put into service. When usage of the lifting equipment exceeds these figures a competent person must specify exactly. The inspection shall also include the manufactures items. the working environment. what the period of these inspections is. in writing. frequency and type of usage. the frequency and severity of use of the lifting equipment. in writing. Factors such as the environment. all the items/components to be inspected together with the acceptance/rejection criteria to be applied by the inspector.

EN (Europe) 6. JIS (Japanese) . • The inspector shall verify the crane manufacturer recommendation who designed the cranes according to the following standards: 1. AS (American) 2. self-tightening wedge type sockets. hand spliced eyes. U-bolt grips shall not be used except for elevators. DIN (German) 5. BSI (British) 4. FEM (European) 3. and ferrule secured eyes or any other system with equivalent safety. Also.DAC REQUIREMENTS 06/2012 • The inspector shall ensure that the Wire rope terminations formed by means of metal filled socket.

before issuing any Inspection Certificate. the cranes designed to the above mentioned codes shall be inspected as per Examination scheme approach. The recommendation shall clearly state the no need to conduct the proof load test and stipulate the time frame of the proof load test and the inspection body shall approve as per the recommendation and this shall be included in the checklist of inspection In case the recommendation not available.DAC REQUIREMENTS 06/2012 There are many other standards in each country but will be mostly derived by one of the above mentioned codes. address every issue raised in the previous Inspection Report. if any. Where the no of lifts are electronically logged and checked against the acceptable life cycle of the crane stipulated by the crane manufacturer In case of unavailability of the manufacturer recommendation or examination by competent person against electronic logging of the equipment. the inspection bodies shall conduct the proof load test every four years and this shall be reported The inspector must then. .

When usage of the lifting equipment exceeds these figures a competent person must specify exactly. the frequency and severity of use of the lifting equipment. in writing. Note 1: The inspection period is based on a normal working day of up to 8 hrs and a 5/6-day working week (2400 hours). in writing. . The inspection shall also include the manufactures items. frequency and type of usage. the working environment. Factors such as the environment. quality of maintenance shall be taken into account prior to establishing the period of the inspection Note 2: As the result of a periodic inspection. all the items/components to be inspected together with the acceptance/rejection criteria to be applied by the inspector.DAC REQUIREMENTS 06/2012 Periodic inspections Periodic Examination carried out based on equipment condition especially before put into service. and if the manufacturer‘s recommendations are not available a competent person must specify. a competent person may recommend a major inspection. what the period of these inspections is.

. usage and its operating environment. control and operational anomalies. (ii) Non-destructive examination to an appropriate Standard. (iii) Controls and emergency stop. The following items shall be considered for major inspection: (i) Structural. 2. (v) Manufacturer‘s safety upgrades. mechanical. A crane‘s design life may not be the same as its actual life and depends on such factors as its classification. Guidance on condition monitoring is given in ISO 12482-1. (vii) The capacity and viability of upgrading the crane to the requirements of the latest Standard. The following cranes shall be subjected to a major inspection: (a) Cranes that have reached the end of their design life or. Devices are available to record the actual usage of a crane to enable assessment of its remaining design life. electrical. (iv) Braking systems. Notes: 1. (vi) Adequacy of safety instructions and manuals. (b) Old cranes that are to be re-commissioned and that do not have previous operating records or that were designed and built to unknown Standards.DAC REQUIREMENTS 06/2012 Major inspection Inspection to assess the suitability of the Lifting Equipment for continued safe operation. after 25 years for the structure and 10 years for the mechanical components. where this is unknown. (c) Cranes that are to be upgraded or modified. instrumentation.

b) Lifting Equipment Identification: The IB‘s must ensure the ability to identify lifting equipment by say Serial Number and Model Number.2.2. if the equipment is found unsafe and represents an imminent danger the IB must advise the owner to cease use of the equipment and report this incident immediately to the related authority in Dubai. . • The Chief or senior Inspector/ Engineer must co-sign the checklist whenever he makes verification visits to the site. 4. The checklist forms shall contain sufficient space to indicate the results of evaluating the inspection methods. or some form of Registration Number.2 Inspectors Checklists: • The Inspection Body shall use Checklist forms containing all the requirements of relevant BS/ EN inspection standards prepared internally and approved by DAC. If the lifting equipment (and some of their critical components) cannot be identified (even by location in the case of fixed cranes) the IB shall consider this as a defect in the crane which must be reported immediately to related authority in Dubai.DAC REQUIREMENTS 06/2012 4.3 Reporting Defects in equipment under inspection: a) Inspectors are required to be capable of making identification of all types of defects found in equipment under inspection. The Inspector must sign in the checklist after recording all necessary information.

A ‘Periodic Inspection‘. General Requirements: a) For all lifting Equipment the first and all subsequent inspections shall include all functional tests. overload and safety tests. (ii) Detailed visual inspection of all structural and critical components.3.DAC REQUIREMENTS 06/2012 4. and (v) Checks for corrosion. b) In the event of a major repair the lifting equipment shall be subjected to a Periodic inspection and Proof Load Test or other inspections specified by a competent person. includes the following: (i) Identification of all critical components and areas.2 Inspection Frequencies: Lifting Equipment The mandatory inspection frequency intervals pertaining to all Contractors‘ “Lifting Equipment” are summarized in Annex 2. prior to being returned to normal service. (iv) Checking of tolerances for wear limit on critical components. (ii) Tolerance checking where any wear is observed. .

1 After an Inspection Body has completed an inspection of Lifting Equipment/Scaffold and found no significant issues the inspection body must issue an Inspection Certificate for Lifting Equipment/Scaffold. The certificate shall be signed by the authorized Inspector who has performed the inspection. or by any other appropriate authority assigned by the IB. Computer-generated (Electronic Signature) or rubber stamped signatures are not allowed on the certificates. Certificates not conforming to the above requirements shall be rejected.5. . In case of scaffolding the certificate shall be signed by scaffold inspector and approved by Chief/ Senior supervisor or Civil Structural Engineer (or however named). The Inspection Body shall produce an Inspection Certificate for lifting Equipment on the inspection to fulfill the client‘s needs. the related authority requirements and the applicable clauses of BS/ BS EN standards.DAC REQUIREMENTS 06/2012 4.5 Inspection Certificate/Report 4.

DAC REQUIREMENTS 06/2012

4.5.2 The certificate shall include the following information as a minimum; (*)
mandatory for compliance with ISO/IEC 17020 are marked with an
asterisk:
1* Designation of the document, i.e. as an inspection report or an inspection
certificate, as appropriate,
2* Identification of the document, i.e. date of issue and unique identification,
3* Identification of the issuing inspection body Name and address of the IB
issuing / endorsing the certificate,
4* Identification of the client Lifting equipment Owner‘s/ Contractor‘s
name and address,
5* Description of the inspection work ordered, 6* Date(s) of
inspection and Type of Inspection,
7 Information on where the inspection was carried out, The address of the
premises at which the Inspection was made,
8 Manufacturer or Supplier of equipment name and address,
9* Identification of the object(s) inspected and, where applicable,
identification of the specific components that have been inspected and
identification of locations,

DAC REQUIREMENTS 06/2012

10 Unique Identification Numbers, brief description and SWL of the
equipment,
11 Any reservations or restrictions on the use or Maximum Capacity of the
equipment,
12* Information on what has been omitted from the original scope of work,
13* Identification or brief description of the inspection method(s) and
procedure(s) used, mentioning the deviations from, additions to or
exclusions from the agreed methods and procedures,
14 Identification of equipment used for measuring/testing,
15 Where applicable, and if not specified in the inspection method or
procedure, reference to or description of the sampling method and
information on where, when, how and by whom the samples were taken,
16* If any part of the inspection work has been subcontracted, the results of
this work shall be clearly identified,
17 The Due date of next Thorough Inspection,
18 The Due date of next Proof Load Test, if applicable,

DAC REQUIREMENTS 06/2012
19 Applicable Reference Standard / Code,
20 Details of any major Repairs / Alterations carried out on the
equipment, provided that the clients inform IB‘s inspector of any
modifications or structural repairs,
21 Details of latest Inspection / Tests previously performed including
any NDT if possible,
22 Measuring units (for Loads / Weights) shall be in either/both Metric
kilograms or pounds,
23 Information on environmental conditions during the inspection, if
relevant,
24* the results of the inspection including a declaration of conformity and
any defects or other non-compliances found (results can be
supported by tables, graphs, sketches and photographs),
25 A statement that the inspection results relate exclusively to the work
ordered or the object(s) or the lot inspected,
26 A statement that the inspection certificate/report shall not be
reproduced except in full without the approval of the inspection body
and the client,
27 The inspector's mark or seal, if any,

31 *Location of Scaffolding with gridlines indication. Certificates issued by third party IBs that fail to give any of the above details will be liable to rejection by the relevant authority in Dubai.DAC REQUIREMENTS 06/2012 28* Names (or unique identification) of the staff members who have performed the inspection and in cases when secure electronic authentication is not undertaken. W & L). Signature. 29 Name. (if different than the inspector who performed the test) 30 Clearly defined Liability Clause of the IB 30 *Measurement of Scaffolding Structure (H. 32 *Scaffolding Classification 33 *Scaffolding Number of working platform (refer to Approved Code of Practice) 34 *Hard weather Conditions (ex. Therefore the Inspection Body must only issue an Inspection Certificate when it is satisfied that the lifting equipment is likely to be able to perform all the normal lifts within its capacity in accordance with the relevant load chart . heavy rain & Winds). their signature.3 of ISO/IEC 17020). and Designation of signing Authority of IB. (see also clause 13.

wall / pillar cranes. vehicle lifts or hoists etc.9. crabs. powered working platforms.12. alteration or major repair derricks • At discretion of survey • Winches.DAC REQUIREMENTS 06/2012 FREQUENCY FOR LIFTING EQUIPMENT TYPE PROOF LOAD TEST INSPECTION (SWL) Lifting Equipments: • Pedestal cranes.6. mobile cranes. tower • On initial supply Every twelve (12) cranes • After reinstallation. • Mobile or movable jacks and associated “Lifting Equipment” LIST OF STANDARDS PRODUCT TASK NAME STANDARD Tower Crane Code of practice for safe use of BS 7121 – 2: Inspection.15 Tower Crane Code of practice for safe use of BS 7121:Part 5 Section 14 cranes (Tower) . substantial months • Overhead traveling cranes. forklifts.7. hoist (air and electric). Telfer hoist. Testing cranes (Tower) and Examination Sections 5.