Ortiz, Ken Aisa G.



As highly industrialized buildings and organizations became rampant, ways to properly
organized people and organization have been the concerns of many experts in various fields
including management. In response to this, various theories of management were formulated and
made known to the public. Some of these theories include the scientific management, systems
theory, chaos theory, theory X and theory Y, and contingency theory. The term "management"
refers to the activities involved in the four general functions: planning, organizing, leading and
coordinating of resources. Notice that the four functions are still recurring to different
organizations even those of the present. In this paper, we’ll see if the theories in management are
still used today by focusing on one of those theories and on one agency of the government
namely the scientific management and the Department of Public Works and Highways,

One of the early theories about management was the Scientific Management. Its most
famous proponent was Frederick Taylor, a mechanical engineer who believed that it was
management’s task to design jobs properly and to provide incentives to motivate workers that
they may be motivated to be productive in their works and thus have higher output for the
organization. The theory of scientific management laid the foundation for the formation of many
other management systems and theories. Some of the relatively newer and modern theories
includes the contingency theory, systems theory and chaos theory. Contingency theory basically
the “it depends” approach since it says that there is no one best solution or method in completing
a task because approaches should be contingent, meaning it depends on the situation, therefore,
when managers make a decision, they must take into account all aspects of the current situation.
Systems theory, on the other hand, states that different systems affect a worker and in the same
way, workers also affect the systems around them. And finally, the chaos theory is simply a
theory that recognizes that events indeed, just as change, are inevitable and are rarely controlled.

although relatively old. Scientific management. the most fundamental concept that economics hold. and train them to work at maximum efficiency rather than simply assigning workers to just any job. The latter is a field or a study that is dominating the systems in the in the world in the present. a concept that is still used today in Economics. that is. But now. Some of those theories still make sense but there are also some aspects of such theories that have already been debunk by other theories. in fact. . Frederick Taylor was highly interested in efficiency. The study and the use of economic principles have become more relevant and pervasive as globalization.” or simple habit and common sense. monitoring worker performance and providing instructions and supervision to ensure that they’re using the most efficient ways of working. specifically the scientific management applies to it. His four principles for his theory of scientific management includes replacing working by “rule of thumb. and lastly. he would realize that some still somehow apply the principles of the said theories. matching workers to their jobs based on capability and motivation. allocating the work between managers and workers so that the managers spend their time planning and training. can we say that they are still being practice now or have they already been forgotten by the managers of today and was unfortunately been simply dismissed as obsolete? If one would only look more closely to some of agencies and organizations. offers us some of the principles that we may equally consider now as did people before. Frederick Taylor’s sentiment for efficiency is still relevant today. the relationship and interactions between countries across the globe. and instead use the scientific method to study work and determine the most efficient way to perform specific tasks. Thus. has been growing. Let’s look at an executive department of the government and try to observe if one of the theories. allowing the workers to perform their tasks efficiently and at the same time the management take over all the work for which they are better fitted than the workmen. Frederick Taylor believes that one could develop the one “best” way to complete a task using the scientific methods.

As the primary engineering and construction arm of the government. The first principle says suggest to develop a science for each element of a man’s work. DPWH are among the first agencies to have implemented the electronic National Government Accounting . the Spanish used the forced labor in the construction of the first roads in the Philippines. the King of Spain designated the Spanish Governor General in the country as Chief of Public Works assisted by “Junta Consultiva” through a Royal Degree in 1867. How does the idea of scientific management apply to an agency in the current setting of the Philippine government. design. It is also responsible for the maintenance of the Philippine road network and irrigation system. As Spain was in its expansion program in the islands. Now. water resource development projects and other public works in accordance with national objectives. To rectify this problem of corruption in the department. which replaces the old rule-of” thumb method. In order to pursue their objective. So we have already defined both the scientific management and the Department of Public Works and Highways. to one of its executive departments—DPWH? Before answering such question. construction and maintenance of infrastructures such as roads and bridges. it resorted to a policy of attraction by way of public works construction. During the Spanish times. According to the research I’ve made. flood control systems. is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for all safety of projects in the field of public works. It is actually good to study DPWH because its history stretches back as far as the history of the Philippine government itself. let us first define DPWH? So what is DPWH? The Philippines’ Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH). DPWH is highly perceived as one of the most corrupt agencies in the country. the DPWH is responsible for the planning. it engaged itself in a series of Integrity Assessment. Those public works projects were not only used in connecting towns and fortresses but also used in improving communications. do we see scientific management being applied in the DPWH? To answer this question. It was in 1868 when the Bureau of Public Works and Highways (Obras Publicas) and Bureau of Communications and Transportation (Communicationes y Meteologia) were organized under a civil engineer known as “Director General”. According to my research. let us check some of Taylor’s four principles of scientific management and see if each applies to the said agency.

2012 and was transferred in Bicol Region from September 8. He became the Project Manager of the Zambales District Engineering Office (DEO) in 1993. Today. 2014 until his recent assignment in NCR. became Regional Director of Cagayan Valley Region from November 21. He also served the Internal Audit Service as Director III from July 2004 to August 2007. and developing the workman. they have successfully implemented the Training Oversight Committee . One is its director. the DPWH has a selection criteria on the Evaluation of applicants or candidates for appointment to Entry Level Positions. the department is even tasked to continuously develop its technology for the purpose of ensuring the safety of all infrastructure. Today. whereas in the past he chose his own work and trained himself as best he could. Navarro has a string of accomplishments and notable achievements. we see that forced labor is no longer existent but rather. In fact. there are already proper processes not just in selecting the employees who will lead and guide the workers but even the choice of the workers themselves. The king didn’t employ any criteria but just simply designated a specific person. The Department also conduct some trainings and seminars to further develop their employees. They even follow the procedures according to the provisions of R. the King of Spain only designated the Spanish Governor General in the country as Chief of Public Works assisted by “Junta Consultiva” through a Royal Degree in 1867. The second principle suggests the scientific selection and then training. He has an extensive experience that started in the University of Northern Philippines College as a Instructor in 1980. If we look at its history. Before. if we’ll see the officials of the DPWH really have enough qualifications to handle their respective positions.System. the Spanish used the forced labor in constructing roads and bridges. Furthermore. in order to pursue their objective.A. appointed as OIC-Assistant District Engineer of the Olongapo City Sub-DEO in 1994 and as District Engineer of Bataan 2nd DEO in 1998. teaching. He was designated in September 2007 as one of the two Assistant Regional Directors of DPWH Regional Office I after his one-month stint as ARD of the National Capital Region. This clearly shows the utilization of science and technology in solving an issue or rather a problem in the department. 7041 and its implementing guidelines. No. Melvin B. Navarro was named Officer-In-Charge of the Planning Service in June 2008 until he was again designated as OIC-Assistant Regional Director of DPWH Region 1. as mentioned above. In fact. Engr.

I would like to emphasize here that even if the said theory is already a relatively old one or perhaps may have even been considered as obsolete by some. well. it could still be applied.” The Department of Public Works and Highways is one of the agencies in the executive department of the Philippines. As such. . series 2001. issued last August 2001. some part of it. Going back to the theory. the third principle states the cooperation of the workers with the men so as to ensure all of the work being done in accordance with the principles of the science which has been developed. it is undoubtedly a big organization which needs to apply certain principles from management theories in order to be more effectively operate. In one of the DPWH employee reviews. “the employees work 8 hours a day and 5 days a week. There are a lot of principles that could be applied and the theory of scientific management is obviously one. which was formed through the issuance of Department Order. Teamwork of the workers are needed on this agency. one said. 145. TOC has been working hard to improve the quality of the training programs and significantly increase the size of the budget by identifying new course offerings and increase the size of the training programs.” Another said. It is important that the workers should cooperate and do their jobs properly. by the organizations that exist today. “ it was fun and a good learning experience working on DPWH even though it was an intership and without salary I feel the nature of being part of the company through my supervisor and co intern.(TOC).

dpwh.ph/officials/undersecretary/pacanan/index.ph/bureau_services/cfms/director.htm http://www.indeed.gov.ph/pdf/issuances/do/11/do_043_s2011.wikipedia.pdf http://www.gov.SOURCES: http://www.strategicleadershipinstitute.dpwh.net/news/the-historical-evolution-of-management-theory- from-1900-to-present-the-changing-role-of-leaders-in-organizations-/ http://www.ph/cmp/Dpwh/reviews .com.gov.htm https://en.dpwh.org/wiki/Department_of_Public_Works_and_Highways_(Philippines) http://www.