EDIT 720 Jennifer N. Hudson, M.Ed.

Annotated Bibliographies #9
#1 Mayer, R.E., & Moreno, R. (2010). Techniques that reduce extraneous cognitive load and
manage intrinsic cognitive load during multimedia learning. In J. L. Plass, R. Moreno, & R.
Brunken (Eds.), Cognitive Load Theory (pp.131-152). New York: Cambridge.
In this article, it discussed what is considered multimedia learning. Multimedia learning involves
words and pictures (Mayer & Moreno, 2010, pp. 131).Computer-based learning is when
information is being presented on a computer (Mayer & Moreno, 2010, pp. 131). When
conducting multimedia learning, research and theory based practices should be involved (Mayer
& Moreno, 2010, pp. 131).
There are different ways people can learn with multimedia instruction. The three main principles
are dual channels, limited capacity, and active processing (Mayer & Moreno, 2010, pp. 132).
When having multimedia learning going on, there are different stages to the cognitive process.
The stages are first you have the multimedia presentation, sensory memory, working memory,
and then information is transferred to long-term memory (Mayer & Moreno, 2010, pp. 132).
The triarchic theory of cognitive load has three different kinds of processed learning. They are
extraneous cognitive load, intrinsic cognitive load, and germane cognitive load (Mayer &
Moreno, 2010, pp. 133).
#2 van Merrienboer, J.J., & Kester, L. (2014). The four-component instructional design model:
Multimedia principles in environments for complex learning. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The
Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. (pp. 104-148). New York: Cambridge.
This chapter discussed the four-component instructional design (van Merrienboer & Kester,
2014, pp. 104). The four components include learning tasks, supportive information, procedural
information, and part-task practice (van Merrienboer & Kester, 2014, pp. 104).
In the learning task component, tasks are usually real-life tasks (van Merrienboer & Kester,
2014, pp. 106). Learners must use problem-solving strategies and reasoning (van Merrienboer &
Kester, 2014, pp. 106).
In the supportive information component, this is where the information is being presented to
support the learning task (van Merrienboer & Kester, 2014, pp. 106). The way problems should
be handled and organized are presented in this component also (van Merrienboer & Kester, 2014,
pp. 106).
The procedural information comes before the learning task (van Merrienboer & Kester, 2014, pp.
106). It provides the step-by-step routine on how to organize and present information to the
learners (van Merrienboer & Kester, 2014, pp. 106).
The part-task practice component is when there are additional practice problems from the
learning task (van Merrienboer & Kester, 2014, pp. 106).

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EDIT 720 Jennifer N. Hudson, M.Ed.

#3 Low, R., & Sweller, J. (2014). The modality principle learning. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The
Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. (pp. 227-246). New York: Cambridge.
This chapter was about the modality effect. This effect happens when a mixed-mode presentation
is more effective than a single-mode presentation (Low & Sweller, 2014, pp. 227). The sources
of information effects the outcome of the modality effect (Low & Sweller, 2014, pp. 228).
The Paivio’s dual-coding theory is closely associated with the modality effect (Low & Sweller,
2014, pp. 228). Due to the cognitive work load theory, some instructional materials and
techniques could be considered ineffective (Low & Sweller, 2014, pp. 228).
There were many different experiments in this chapter to demonstrate the effects of the modality
effect. Two experiments show that “effective memory capacity was increased when a dual rather
than a single modality was used” (Low & Sweller, 2014, pp.231).
In another group of experiments, it required participants to listen to specific target words (Low &
Sweller, 2014, pp. 232). Words were also monitored while looking at or listening to a target word
(Low & Sweller, 2014, pp. 232).
#4 Renkl, A. (2014). The worked examples principle in multimedia learning. In R. E. Mayer
(Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. (pp. 391-412). New York: Cambridge.
This chapter discussed how learners gain more information from worked examples (Renkl, 2014,
pp. 391). The worked examples principle is a problem and the solution (Renkl, 2014, pp. 392).
Worked examples have steps of how to get to the solution (Renkl, 2014, pp. 392). There is a
specific procedure used to learn from worked examples (Renkl, 2014, pp. 392).
The procedures are a principle should be introduced (Renkl, 2014, pp. 392). Problem solving is
applied through the examples provided (Renkl, 2014, pp. 392). Learners will work on the
problems once they have understood to apply the principle (Renkl, 2014, pp. 392).
From experiments, superior learning happens from worked examples compared to the traditional
method of solving a problem (Renkl, 2014, pp. 393-394).
During Tarmizi and Sweller study, they didn’t find a group difference with a learning outcome
where worked examples were effective (Renkl, 2014, pp. 395). However, Berthold and Renkl
thought otherwise (Renkl, 2014, pp. 397). They felt as if worked examples involved little
working memory load (Renkl, 2014, pp. 397).
#5 Mayer, R. E. Hegarty, M., Mayer, S., & Campbell, J. (2005). When Static Media Promote
Active Learning: Annotated Illustrations Versus Narrated Animations in Multimedia Instruction.
Journal Of Experimental Psychology. Applied, 11(4), 256-265.
I selected this article because this week we were reading about reduce the extraneous load. The
article discusses how animation is not always the best way to present graphics on how things
work (Mayer, Hegarty, Mayer, Campbell, 2005, pp. 256).

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EDIT 720 Jennifer N. Hudson, M.Ed.

In this study, they chose computer-based animation and narration as their treatment (Mayer,
Hegarty, Mayer, Campbell, 2005, pp. 256). Illustrations and printed text materials were also
considered during the study as well (Mayer, Hegarty, Mayer, Campbell, 2005, pp. 256).
There was a theoretical and practical goal used for research (Mayer, Hegarty, Mayer, Campbell,
2005, pp. 256). The theoretical goal was, “to examine the cognitive processes underlying
learning from multimedia” (Mayer, Hegarty, Mayer, Campbell, 2005, pp. 256). The practical
goal was, “to determine whether the general assumptions concerning the value of animation
upheld in a series of scientifically rigorous experiments” (Mayer, Hegarty, Mayer, Campbell,
2005, pp. 256).
What I discovered in this article was that all graphics are not equally effective (Mayer, Hegarty,
Mayer, Campbell, 2005, pp. 265).

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