Week  2.

1  -­‐  Hydroelectricity  

Welcome  everybody.  

 

Last  week  we  have  looked  into  concept  of  energy  and  the  energy  use  of  some  major  sectors.  

 

By  now  it  will  be  clear  for  you  all  that  our  energy  need  in  the  world  is  significant.  

 

So   the   big   question   is:   Do   we   have   enough   renewable   energy   sources   available   on   planet  
earth  to  sustain  our  enormous  energy  need?  

This  week,  we  will  look  at  the  most  important  renewable  energy  sources.  

 

We   will   make   rough   estimations   on   what   these   energy   sources   potentially   can   deliver   in  
reference  to  our  energy  needs.  

 

We  will  do  this  using  rough  -­‐back-­‐of-­‐the  envelope-­‐calculations.  

 

This  week  will  give  you  some  first  insights  in  what  are  the  opportunities  and  limitations  of  
the  various  energy  source.  

 

Be  aware  that  we  only  make  rough  estimations  this  week.  

 

Later   on   during   this   course   we   will   look   in   more   detail   to   the   technological   and   system  
aspects  of  the  various  renewable  energy  sources.  

 

In  this  first  video  lecture  we  will  take  a  look  at  Hydro  power.  

 

There  are  many  large  Hydro  power  plants  around  the  world.  

 

 

    The   turbine   is   connected   to   a   huge   electric   generator   to   convert   the   mechanical   energy   into   electrical  energy.     When  estimating  the  potential  energy  of  Hydro  power.  the  most  important  factors  are  the   available  waterflow.     Losses  in  the  system  are  mainly  caused  by  friction  at  the  edges  of  the  pipe.     The  turbine  and  electrical  losses  also  further  reduce  the  efficiency.     The   turbine   in   the   dam   is   pushed   in   motion   and   the   potential   energy   is   converted   to   mechanical  energy.     The  ITAIPU  dam  is  the  second  largest  hydropower  plant  on  the  planet.   The  water  is  forced  through  the  pipe  or  ‘penstock’  by  gravity.But  most  of  them  look  like  this.     As  example  we  take  a  close  look  at  the  Itaipu  Dam  on  the  border  of  Brazil  and  Paraguay  to   get  a  feeling  of  how  to  estimate  the  potential  of  hydro  energy.     The  generator  is  connected  via  transformers  to  the  electricity  grid  to  deliver  electricity  in  the   grid.       .  and  the  height  difference  of  the  water   representing  the  potential  energy  to  be  converted.     Water  that  contains  potential  energy  is  collected  in  a  reservoir  behind  a  dam  and  flows  to   the  intake  .  either  via  melting  snow  or  rain.

27TWh  per  day.       .     For  the  Itaipu  dam  we  arrive  at  a  little  more  than  7  kWh/Watt/year.     A   value   expressed   in   kWh/W/year   will   also   be   used   for   other   renewable   technologies   we   introduce  this  week  for  comparison.6  TWh  per  year  or  0.     Another   way   of   comparing   the   yield   of   any   renewable   energy   source   is   to   look   at   the   annual   energy   yield   per   rate   power   or   in   other   words   how   much   kWh   of   energy   is   generated   per   year  per  Watt  of  installed  capacity.     So.35  kWh/person/per  day  would  equal  0.9  kWh  per  day.        Another   parameter   used   in   the   industry   to   compare   the   production   of   different   powerplants  is  the  capacity  factor.45  man  units  of  energy  production  per  day.     If  we  assume  the  generated  energy  is  solely  used  by  the  200  million  inhabitants  of  brazil.It   has   a   total   installed   generation   capacity   of   14GW.6  TWh  by  the  14  GW  of  installed  capacity.     It  is  an  easy  tool  to  estimate  energy  production  over  a  period  of  time.  we   arrive  at  total  electricity  generation  of  1.  1.     One  personal  unit  of  energy  was  equal  to  2.   and   has   reached   a   record   energy   generation  of  98.     In  this  case  we  have  to  divide  98.     Let’s  relate  that  back  to  the  energy  unit  of  one  person  as  we  have  discussed  last  week.35  kWh  for  every  person  everyday.

    Let’s  say  a  certain  region  has  about  500mm  of  rain  per  year  and  there  is  no  meltwater  from   mountainsnow  or  glaciers.   which   is   1000   kg/m^3.     500mm  of  rain  per  year.     This  is  something  electricity  grid  operators  are  very  keen  of  to  ensure  stability  on  the  grid.     We  will  look  in  to  those  later  this  week.     .     By   multiplying   that   with   the   density   of   water.5  m^3  of  water  per  square  meter.       Let’s  work  through  an  example.  is  equal  to  0.     Which   is   the   annual   production   divided   by   the   installed   capacity   and   the   hours   in   a   year   (8760).     For   fossil   fuel   plants   like   gas   and   coal   plants   the   capacity   factor   can   be   very   close   to   one   meaning  it  will  run  almost  continuously  on  installed  capacity.     So   you   could   say   on   average   the   Dam   produces   80   %   of   the   time   electricity   on   maximum   capacity  80%  .     Other  renewable  energy  sources  like  solar  and  wind  can  have  much  lower  capacity  factors.80.     For  now  we  will  make  an  estimate  of  the  potential  of  hydroelectricity  W/m^2.   we   get   that   per   square   meter  of  land  there  is  500  kg  of  water  per  year.The  Itaipu  dam  has  a  capacity  factor  of  0.

  g   is   the   gravitational   constant   of   9.14   kWh.   M   is   the   mass   of   the   water.8.     If   we   know   the   size   of   this   area   we   can   estimate   the   total   energy   potential   of   a   certain   region  or  dam.   and   h   is   the   height   difference   between   the   source   and   the   outflow  of  the  dam.  this  calculation  assumes  that  all  potential  energy  is  converted  into  electricity.     For   these   numbers   we   get   490   Kilo   Joules   of   potential   energy   per   square   meter   per   year   which   is   equal   to   about   0.015   W/m^2.       .     In  reality  this  is  not  the  case  and  dependent  on  the  landscape  surrounding  the  Dam.   so   now   we   know   the   energy   density   in   terms   of   kWh/m^2/year.     A  hydroelectricity  dam  is  usually  build  next  to  a  natural  lake  or  water  reservoir  that  collects   the  water  fallen  on  a  large  area  through  a  network  of  rivers.     Where   E_pot   is   the   potential   energy   in   Joule.     The   total   area   from   which   the   reservoir   collects   the   water   is   referred   to   as   the   catchment   area  enclosed  by  the  red  line  in  this  picture.     We  can  express  this  in  power  per  area  by  dividing  by  the  total  seconds  in  a  year  to  get  0.     Which  we  will  assume  is  100m.   To  calculate  the  potential  energy  of  this  amount  of  water  we  will  use  this  equation.     However.

 and  divide  the  annual  energy  production   which   of   the   dam   by   the   catchment   area.     The  catchment  area  stretches  an  incredible  1.35  million  square  km.   when   calculating   the   potential  and  achievable  energy  density.65  m^3  of  water.   to   verify   it’s   typical  power  and  yield.     The  remainder  equals  a  mass  of  0.     With   this   conversion   efficiency   of   20%   we   arrive   at   an   achieved   energy   density   of   0.     In  this  area  the  averaged  annual  rainfall  is  1650  mm/year.073  kWh/m^2/year.     If  we  now  take  a  look  at  the  actual  data  of  the  dam.     This   is   almost   the   same   energy   density   as   we   found   a   moment   ago.Now   we   are   going   back   to   the   itaipu   dam   and   we   will   make   a   rough   estimation.07   kWh/m^2/year.   using   the   potential   energy   formula   we   arrive  at  0.   including   the   collection   losses   as   well   as   the   conversion   efficiency  of  the  turbines  in  the  dam  itself.   we   find   that   the   they   are   achieving   approximately   0.   we   can   also   take   the   reservoir   surface   area   of   1350   square   kilometers   as   a   measure  for  the  required  land.     About  1000  mm  per  year  of  this  water  is  evaporated  before  it  is  passing  the  dam.     The   overall   conversion   efficiency   of   potential   energy   to   electrical   energy   of   this   dam   is   estimated   to   be   about   20%.35  kWh/m^2/year.     If   we   take   the   height   of   the   dam.     However.   which   is   196m.     .

 due  to   the  change  in  the  water  cycle.  a  general  estimate  can  be  made   of  the  potential  energy  that  can  be  gained  from  this  source.  fauna.008W/m^2.   This   gives   a   good   indication   of   the   amount   of   land   that   is   sacrificed   for   the   hydro   power   plant.   whereas   for   the   reservoir  surface  area  we  find  a  surface  power  density  of  8.  the  energy  potential  is  not  the  only  factor  that  should  be  considered.     It  is  also  interesting  to  take  a  look  at  the  surface  power  density  or  specific  power  for  both   defined  areas.     Also   the   immediate   and   long   term   effects   on   the   surroundings   and   the   climate   should   be   taken  into  account.     This  reservoir  has  a  huge  impact  on  the  local  flora.     In  case  of  really  large  Hydroelectricity  projects.     Hydroelectricity  mostly  requires  a  dam  to  be  built.       .3  W/m^2.  and  landscape.  and  is  often  used  when  comparing  the  impact  of  hydropower  plants.  with  some  fairly  simple  rough  calculations.  the  local  climate  could  even  change.  in  order  to  create  a  reservoir.   As  you  can  see.     When  we  do  this  we  get  a  higher  energy  density  of  73  kWh/m^2/year.     We  can  find  this  by  dividing  the  energy  density  by  all  the  hours  in  a  year.     For   the   entire   catchment   area   we   get   a   power   density   of   0.     However.

    As   you   can   see.     The  most  important  factor  is  the  availability  of  water.     In  2015  the  estimated  global  installed  capacity  was  1211  GW.  are  low.   the   global   potential   of   new   hydropower  is  relatively  limited.     Typically  the  carbon  footprint  of  Hydroelectricity  is  24  gCO2/kWh  on  average.  and  a  mostly  natural  height  difference.   the   carbon   footprint   of   hydropower   does   greatly   depend   on   each   individual   project.One  of  the  biggest  benefits  of  Hydropower  is  the  consistency  of  the  power  source  because   of  it’s  high  capacity  factor.   the   carbon  footprint  per  kWh  of  generated  energy.     Because   of   the   necessity   of   a   natural   feature   that   allows   for   the   easy   implementation   of   Hydropower   and   the   impact   on   the   surroundings   of   a   dam.   Also.       .   because   of   the   scale   of   the   projects   and   the   lifetime   of   30   to   over   100   years.  producing  approximately  3975   TWh  of  electricity.     However.  according  to   research  of  the  Intergovernmental  panel  on  climate  change  from  2014.  which  have  an  average  carbon  footprint  of   820  gCO2/kWh.     Although  it  is  not  always  free  from  seasonal  intermittency.  as  well  as  the  cost  per  kWh.     Also  the  environmental  impact  of  a  hydropower  plant  should  be  taken  into  account.   there   are   a   few   major   factors   that   have   to   already   be   in   place   before   hydropower  can  be  considered.     This  is  much  lower  than  coal  fired  power  plants.

This  represents  approximately  16.     If  we  divide  it  by  the  global  population  of  7.47   kWh/person/day.6%  of  the  global  electricity  demand.  and  about  70%  of  all   renewable  electricity.     With  these  tools  you  can  try  to  make  your  own  assessment  of  hydroelectricity.4  billion  people  and  days  in  a  year  we  get  1.     In  the  next  video  we  will  look  into  physical  potential  wind  energy         .     This  is  a  slightly  more  then  half  a  human  unit.      We  can  also  express  the  production  of  hydroelectricity  in  our  own  units.     Estimations  for  the  global  potential  of  energy  for  hydro  go  up  to  25%  of  the  global  energy   use.