What Kind of Disease can we From in Tomatoe Seeds?

By: [Author],[Group 1]

2017

Abstract
Abstract Anthracnose disease is most common to be found on tomato. Colletotrichum
spp. was the causative agent of tomato anthracnose based on Koch’s Postulates. To prove the
pathogenicity, four steps of Koch’s Postulates must be fulfilled: 1) associate the suspected
pathogen with the disease consistently 2) isolate and characterize the suspected pathogen 3)
inoculate the suspected pathogen to a healthy host 4) re-isolate and characterize the pathogen.
The final culture with re-isolated pathogen showed similar characteristics with the isolated
pathogen in step 2, fulfilling Koch’s Postulates.

Introduction

Anthracnose of tomatoes is caused by Colletotrichum spp. (4). This fungal disease is
common to be found on tomatoes, which then affect the fruits, leaves, stems, and roots.
Anthracnose has become a serious issue for the farmers as it can cause abundant of yield into
rotten tomatoes during warm and wet conditions. Symptoms that can be found on the tomatoes
are small, water soaked, black circular lesions with concentric rings. In a moisture condition,
fruiting structures or spores are released from the lesions and spread to other parts. Lesions that
spread internally cause the soft decay (3).

Colletotrichum spp. overwinter as small, black microsclerotia in the soil and as acervulus
in plant debris. In the early growing season, spores from soil and plant debris are dispersed to
the lower leaves of the tomato plant. The fungal spore on the infected leaves can cause
secondary infection to other part like green fruit by splashing rainwater. Anthracnose symptoms
will not be found on the green fruit, not till the fruit begin to ripe. Hence, the lesions are more
visible on a ripe tomato (3).

Robert Koch, a German physician born in 1843, was also the founder of bacteriology. He
was the first to identify bacteria is the causal agent of anthrax, cholera, and tuberculosis. Later,
Koch developed a method to prove the pathogenicity, called Koch’s Postulates. Koch’s
Postulates are carried out to confirm a suspected pathogen is indeed the causing agent of a
disease (2). The four steps of Koch’s Postulates are:

3. and the surface consisting many small. The tomato showed black circular lesions with concentric ring. To obtain a pure culture. The same pathogen characterized in step 2 must be re-isolated from the inoculated diseased host. . The suspected pathogen must be consistently associated with the same disease. The disease must be reproduced in a healthy host inoculated with the isolated organism. The objective of this study was to identify Colletotrichum spp. A small sample from the margin of a lesion of the tomato was transferred to a PDA plate using a sterile scalpel. The diameter of the lesions was up to 15mm (Figure 1). 2.Step 2 of Koch’s Postulates. black spores. 1. The suspected pathogen must be isolated in pure culture and its characteristics described. the PDA plate was covered with mycelium colony. as the causative agent for tomato anthracnose based on Koch’s Postulates. a small mycelium colony sample that was actively growing at the margin was isolated and transferred to a new PDA plate . Materials and Methods Infected tomato was collected from a farm. After a week. 4.

.

pathogen that was grown on the tomato was re-isolated on a PDA plate. The surface of the wound was covered with dark specks and the surrounding region became sunken and dark. After surface sterilizing. the PDA plate with isolated pathogen from the infected tomato showed a massive of white mycelium with some orange and black color at the bottom part. After that. . Results Step 2 of Koch’s Postulates: A week later.Step 4 of Koch’s Postulates.Step 3 of Koch’s Postulates. The final culture was examined . Then. showing a white mycelium with a black circular lesion at the center area. a healthy tomato was prepared and surface-sterilized with 10% bleach solution. Step 3 of Koch’s Postulates: After the inoculation of healthy tomato. an isolated pathogen sample from the pure culture was transferred to the wound of the tomato using a flamesterilized scalpel. Wet cotton was placed on top of the sample to create a moisture condition. a flame-sterilized scalpel was used to create a wound on the surface of the tomato. A week later. In the next step. the healthy tomato that was inoculated with the isolated pathogen was placed in a moist chamber . followed by rinsing with sterile water until no longer smell bleach. The purpose of the wound was to enable the penetration of isolated pathogen into the tomato. the tomato was infected by the isolated pathogen.In order to prove the pathogenicity of the pathogen isolated from the tomato. a pure culture of the isolated pathogen was obtained.

ct. There are several species of this genus produce severe disease problem in a wide range of plants like crops and vegetables. Literature Cited 1. (n. Conclusion was reached in this experiment. The symptoms of anthracnose of tomato could only be seen during the ripening stage. Y. which fulfill Koch’s Postulate. Retrieved October 9. In order to prove that the isolated pathogen was the causing agent of anthracnose tomato.d.d. Koch's postulates — History of vaccines. thus a ripen tomato was used as the host plant. from http://www. This study proved that Colletotrichum spp. Both the isolated and re-isolated pathogen in the PDA plate had similar characteristics (white mycelium with black circular lesion in the center).org/content/koch%E2%80%99spostulates 3. 2013. 2013.gov/caes/lib/caes/documents/publications/fact_sheets/plant_pathology_a . causing huge economic losses in the market (1). Part of the re-infected tomato was again transferred to a PDA plate to verify the presence of Colletotrichum spp. From the result above. The final culture showed a positive result. was responsible for the anthracnose of tomato. Colletotrichum Database. 2013. Retrieved October 9. the isolated pathogen was inoculated into a healthy tomato.broadinstitute. Anthracnose of tomato [Abstract].d. Retrieved October 9. from http://www. as the causing agent of tomato anthracnose based on Koch’s Postulates.). The genus Colletotrichum is one of the most common plant-pathogenic fungi. Colletotrichum Database. (n. The result from the PDA plate would then be used as a comparison with the final result. a healthy tomato had become a rotten tomato with similar symptoms and characteristics as the original infected tomato. from http://www. (n. History of Vaccines RSS. By examining the PDA plate. The result obtained from step 3 must show the same symptoms with step 1. This result showed that a similar pathogen was infecting the same host.org/annotation/genome/colletotrichum_group/MultiHome. 1- 2. four steps of Koch’s Postulates must be fulfilled: 1) associate the suspected pathogen with the disease consistently 2) isolate and characterize the suspected pathogen 3) inoculate the suspected pathogen to a healthy host 4) re-isolate and characterize the pathogen.). the re-isolated pathogen displayed the similar characteristics with the pathogen in step 2.html 2. The growth of white mycelium with black circular lesion showed that the suspected pathogen was present in the tomato. while step 4 must present the same characteristics with step 2. Li. Discussion This study aimed to prove Colletotrichum spp.). In order to prove the pathogenicity.historyofvaccines. Step 4 of Koch’s Postulates: The pathogen was re-isolated in a PDA plate. Part of the infected tomato was transferred to a PDA plate.

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