Provincia  Marista  Mediterránea  
                                                                                                     Colegio  “La  Sagrada  Familia”  
 
UNIT 2: INTERACTION AND THE BODY  

Our sense organs detect information from the environment and our sensory neourons transmit
this information to our brain.

SIGHT

1. Light enters through the cornea and the pupil.

2. Iris is a muscle that controls the amount of light that enters our eye.

3. The lens focuses the light which allows images to be projected onto the retina.

4. Nerve receptors in the retina send this information to our brain along the optic nerve.

HEARING

1. Soundwaves enter through the auditory canal and make the eardrum vibrate [outer ear].

2. This vibration cause the three small bones to vibrate [middle ear].

3. When this vibrations reach the cochlea, they are transformed into electrical signals [inner
ear].

4. The auditory nerve sends these signals to our brain.

The semicircular canals keep our balance and equilibrium [inner ear].

SMELL AND TASTE

- Air enters our noise through our nostrils.

- Chemicals in the air contact with nerve receptors.

- The nerve receptors send this information to our brain along the olfactory nerve.

- The receptor cells for taste are on the tongue, inside each taste bud: bitter, sour, salty and
sweet.

TOUCH

The dermis contains small vessels and nerves, which detect sensations (temperature, pain,
texture) and send this information to our brain.
 
                 Provincia  Marista  Mediterránea  
                                                                                                     Colegio  “La  Sagrada  Familia”  
 
UNIT 2: INTERACTION AND THE BODY  

PROCESSING INFORMATION

The nervous system (made up of neurons) receives information, analyses it and interprets it and
responds by sending messages which cause body to react. It´s made up of two parts:

1.-CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

Two parts:

- Brain (cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem).

The brain is the control center of the whole nervous system; it is protected by the
cranium or skull.

* Cerebrum (biggest part): controls the voluntary movements. It has two
hemisphere.

* Cerebellum: controls balance, movements and coordination.

* Brain stem: controls involuntary movements (breathing, digestion…) and conects
the brain to the spinal cord.

- Spinal cord: - made up of nerve tissue.
- controls reflect actions.
- runs from our brain down our spine.
- it´s protected by the vertebrae.

2.-PERIPHERIAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

Nerves which carry message to and from the central nervous system.

1. Sensory neurons transport information from the sensors to the brain.

2. The brain interprets the information and decide how to respond.

3. Motor neurons carry messages from the brain to our body and muscles.
 
                 Provincia  Marista  Mediterránea  
                                                                                                     Colegio  “La  Sagrada  Familia”  
 
UNIT 2: INTERACTION AND THE BODY  

The locomotor system (musculoskeletal system) enables us to move. It´s made up of skeleton,
joints and muscles.

*SKELETON

- Supports, gives shape to our body and protects organs.

- Made up of bones (hard bone tissue) and cartilage (flexible tissue).

- Three types:

a) Short and wide  support and stability (vertebrae)

b) Flat and thin  protect internal organs (ribs)

c) Long and strong  movement (femur, humerus)

*JOINTS (where two bones meet)

Ligaments (elastic tissue) connects the bones at the joints. Three types:

a) Fixed  don´t move (skull).

b) Semiflexible  some movement (vertebrae).

c) Flexible  a lot of movement (elbow, wrist, knees, ankles).

*MUSCLES

- Over 600.

- Shape to our body.

- Contract and relax.

- Connected to bones by tendons.

- Voluntary (arms, legs) and involuntary (heart).