RFID-based System for School Children

Transportation Safety Enhancement
AUTHOR: G. Radhika , G.I.S.T
GUIDENCE: B. Sita madhuri (Asst .prof)

Abstract: This paper presents a system to monitor pick- This section presents the most related work to the problem
up/drop-off of school children to enhance the safety of addressed by this paper. In a system is proposed to track the
children during the daily transportation from and to school. children using a child module that transmits the tracking
The system consists of two main units, a bus unit and a information to a database and a mobile device. The
school unit. The bus unit the system is used to detect when a disadvantages of this system are that the module may not be
child boards or leaves the bus. This information is convenient for children and wide-scale deployment is
communicated to the school unit that identifies which of the expensive. Authors in report a tracking system that utilizes
Android terminals that communicate among themselves
children did not board or leave the bus and issues an alert
using Bluetooth technology to form clusters. The clusters
message accordingly. The system has a developed web- communicate the relevant information using WLAN. The
based database-driven application that facilities its major drawback of this system is that the deployment cost is
management and provides useful information about the high. There are commercial systems for tracking children
children to authorized personal. A complete prototype of the such as Bluetooth-based tracking devices which are
proposed system was implemented and tested to validate the designed to be worn by children as a bracelet or a necklace .
system functionality. The results show that the system is In this type of tracking, these devices can be connected with
promising for daily transportation safety. a mobile application and can alert the parents if their child
went outside a range specified by them. If the child walked
Keywords-RFID; system integration; engineering outside this range, the device will send an alert to the
design; transportation safety; detection parent. In addition, the application sends the location of the
child by using a geographical map. One disadvantage of this
type of applications is that they work only in a limited
Children safety is of utmost importance to their parents. Other products may rely on biometric features such as the
Despite the best safety measures, children, due to their lack Kid track biometric system in which the children scan their
of skills to protect themselves, may end up in a situation palms across a palm reader when they enter the bus It uses
that endangers their life (e.g. crossing the road without an infrared light to image the palm unique pattern. It uses
paying attention to traffic). In this paper, we focus on a green and red LEDs to ensure the scan works. Then, the
particular risk associated with the daily bus trip to and from scans are sent for cross-referencing against a secure
school. There have been previous incidents where a child is database of pre-registered users’ patterns. Based on this, the
forgotten in the bus and eventually die because of administration can find the information of that bus, where
suffocation. To improve transportation safety, some schools and when it tracked the child, and where the bus was at that
employ a bus supervisor to look after the children inside the time. The disadvantages of this approach is that it is not
bus. Nonetheless, human oversight or supervisor absence automatic and difficult for young children to place their
may still lead to a heartbreaking ending as in the previously palms correctly on the scanner. This may lead to inaccurate
cited stories. data if the scanner did not detect a child’s palm.
This paper presents a system to monitor the daily bus
pick-up/drop-off of children to enhance the overall safety of 3 SYSTEM DESIGN
the daily bus transportation to/from school. The system
aims at automatically detecting when a child boards or
3.1 System Engineering Requirements
leaves the bus and issue an alert message when a child does Our system is designed with the following engineering
not board or leave the bus to reduce the parents’ concerns requirements:
about using the bus for the daily transport of their children  The system should recognize each child and detect
without being lost or forgotten. when every child boards or leaves the bus.
 The system should have a database to store student’s
The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 information.
reviews the most relevant work to the theme of this paper.  The system should be easy to re-configure.
In section 3, the overall system design is presented. Section  The communication should be reliable.
4 gives a detailed description of system implementation and
testing. Finally, section 5 concludes the paper.

3.2 Design Constraints The constraints are the restrictions on the design. They are
imposed by the environment and the customer. The

because query the database. There are three types of RFID readers based on their One essential part in our system is the database-driven web- frequency ranges. The Bus Unit Description The bus unit will detect the children when they board/leave D. We chose passive RFID tags since they have a short The system is divided into two main units: bus unit located reading range which fit our requirement to detect the child inside the school bus. driver can drive only one bus. A.3 Top Level Description of theProposed further processing (e. The school unit is the central unit tags that need maintenance and regular replacement of where it collects data from all the buses. The business rules of the database of our system are:  A child can be in only one bus.constraints considered in our system are: The RFID reader will be located inside the school bus by  The system should not be harmful for human beings or the entrance. buses and drivers. they are cheaper than active when he boards or leaves the bus and then this information RFID tags and need no maintenance in contrast to active is sent to the school unit. the website. The distance can be controlled to be short or long as required. System There are two types of RFID tags. On the other hand. low frequency. other related authorized personal. Each child will wear a card with RFID tag attached to it.  The deployment cost is reasonable. but an  The system is automatic and user friendly. high frequency and ultra. Based on the received information. the reader will not detect him. the server communicates with an SMS gateway to send notification in case a child is detected missing. Moreover. The Entity-Relationship (ER) diagram of the database is shown in figure 2. attributes and relationships of the database. or principle within a specific organization” .It helps to determine entities. and it sends a text message notification to their parents. The System Web-based the bus.1: The Proposed System Architecture many children. but a are safe and legally approved. passive and active tags. administrator can add. This technology consists of a reader and tags. child’s information can be retrieved from the database for 3. The server simultaneously acts as database server and web server to host the web-application developed to manipulate the system setting. It will use RFID technology to achieve this Application purpose. when s/he boards or school. Our proposed system provides the following advantages:  A child has one or many relatives. attendance record has one child. and a school unit located inside the when he is close to the reader (i. based application to manipulate the system. which is not harmful since it uses frequency ranges that  A bus may be driven by one or more drivers.  A relative may have many children registered at the  The system uses RFID tags for children detection school. and high frequency. checks if there are missing children. system database. In addition. But if the child  The device should hurt the child in any way. System Database The database of the system has to meet certain business rules. update. and query the system database. and unambiguous description of a policy. procedure. modify. but a bus may have Fig.g. The B. A business rule is “a brief.  The system should provide an option to choose The bus unit is responsible for sending relevant tag between different Languages. . .  A child may have many attendance records. We chose to use UHF RFID reader. Also. The bus unit is responsible for detecting the child leaves the bus). the children when they are inside the bus. was outside near the bus. each parent can view the status of his/her children if they board/leave the bus in the morning and afternoon. update. adds them to the battery. precise. There are two options to log into the it has a faster data transfer than the others. C. The School Unit Description proposed architecture is shown in figure 1. texting the parent). delete or view information about students and their relatives.e. as a parent or as an administrator. The school unit consists of a server interfaced with GSM modem to receive data from the bus. It will be positioned where it will only detect the environment. information to the school unit where it will be stored and  Children’s information should be available for processed.

tag number as the reader reads them where each tag number consists of 8 bytes in hexadecimal format. Then.1. Figure 4 shows the form of the 4.2 Communication between Two Modems Two TMAS GSM/GPRS modems were used to send data from the bus unit to the school unit. stop bit. This calling. they interfaced properly. A C-program was detects the children when they board/leave the bus. Fig. However. The unit test was held ATmega32 microcontroller is used to interface the reader for all the units in our system: RFID reader and tags. GSM modems connectivity was tested using TMAS GSM-GPRS modem test program with the AT commands the tags by setting the reader parameters appropriately that are responsible for sending and receiving SMS and (baud rate.1.1 The RFID Reader 4. start bit.2 Microcontroller (At mega 32) configured as required for the system. A microcontroller is used to interface the RFID reader with the GSM modem. parity check bit). a max232 chip is used to convert signals from RS232 serial The bus unit consists of an RFID reader.1 Bus Unit RS232. due to the difference in voltage levels. The RFID reader logic circuits (power range: 0 V to + 5 V). It should be designed to increase the likelihood of finding an error and checking the functionality Fig.2: ER diagram of the database 4 IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTING A prototype of the system is implemented and tested. If the microcontroller reads the data from the RFID reader. The GSM modem is used to send this the GSM modem through a microcontroller to verify that data to the school unit. was used to test the reader support for multi-tag reading and verify the structure of the tags’ numbers. One of modems is located in the bus unit to send SMS which contains the tag serial numbers to another GSM modem in the school unit.5: Reader-microcontroller interface circuit Fig.3: Bus Unit 4. The units were implemented individually at first and they were tested to check if they were working properly. A terminal program was used to check if the reader can read At first.1. GSM and the GSM modem in the bus unit for data exchanging as modems and school server. they were integrated and 4. shown in figure 5. The reader communicates with microcontroller using serial communication interface 4. the LED will be turned on to indicate the successful read of the tag number. Testing is very crucial part to validate the functionality of the proposed system. a GSM modem port to signals suitable for use in TTL compatible digital and a control unit as shown in figure 3.4: Testing the RFID Reader and Tags of the proposed system. The flow chart is shown in figure 6. Fig. It is written to exchange the data between the RFID reader and located inside the bus. data bits. .3 GSM Modem The Reader was connected to a PC using RS232 cable.

microcontroller contained the AT commands. The separately. For example. it inserts a new row for each student who is listed in the school bus system in the attendance the messages in it. if it is the time where bus in the morning is set to “no” to indicate the student did the bus is collecting students from their houses at the not enter the bus yet. each for a record table with the date. The second GSM modem received the SMS admin functionalities were considered. 7 (a): Send SMS 7(b): Read SMS Fig.2 Receiving the Data from the Bus Unit After the SMS is sent from the first GSM modem. for sending SMS. the commands. Then.3. First. First. Similarly. Then.6: Flowchart of code used to read tag number First. This server will receive the data sent from the bus unit via a GSM modem. analyse and save it. The rest of the columns are left empty. the combination is wrong. The following that the first GSM modem sent as shown in figure 7(b). Fig. the authentication is verified by attempting valid/invalid username and/or password combinations. morning. the successfully from the first GSM modem and the second information of students and their relatives as shown in GSM. program to ensure that microcontroller sent the correct AT commands to GSM modem.3 School Unit At the school unit. viewing attendance record) were tested and verified.7: Testing communication between two GSM modems 4. At the beginning. it is received by the second GSM modem that is interfaced to the school server via the serial communication port and RS232 cable. where the web-based application and database are hosted and stored. the different functionalities provided by the web- the first GSM modem as shown in figure 7(a) using AT based application were verified. then it opens the file for entering the bus in the Next it connects to the serial communication port “COM1” morning. and notifies the parents if necessary. As aspects were tested: obvious from the figure 7. for example. The code was verified using a terminal  Deleting/updating existing information. After that. The code works as follows. There are four text files. one GSM modem was interfaced with the AVR  Displaying the details of the students.1 Web-based Application and Database This section presents some tests that we had carried out to verify the functionalities of our web-based application. the communication between these GSM modems Whenever. the word “Testing” was sent  Accessing existing information. it opens a text file and saves compares them to those in the text file. figure 8.  Inserting new information as shown in figure 9. there is a server. it connects to the database and from and sends some AT commands to read the messages the students table it selects the serial numbers and received by the modem. updates the database. the functionalities provided for normal users (e.g. relatives microcontroller (AtMega8) using RS232. The first entry for entering the certain time interval. .8: Accessing existing information 4. written in C.3. the access is denied. It is also responsible for notifying the parents in case of emergencies. Fig. A code written in PHP reads the received SMS. 4. were tested using Terminal program by sending SMS from Then.

For example. then it The integrated system shown in figure 12 was tested and the selects the student’s ID and updates the corresponding results are shown in table 1. then it updates ATTEND_MOR_ENTR column which corresponds to this time. if it is the morning entering bus file. the system gets his relative’s information from the database and sends a notification in the chosen language.4 The system Integration Test If it gets a serial number that matches one in the file.11: SMS gateway test After the entries for all students that appeared in the text file are updated. language. If there is a child who did not enter/leave the bus. Fig. RFID-based detection unit located inside the bus detects the RFID tags worn by the children. via a GSM modem.9: Add new information driver’s phone number as shown in figure 10.3 SMS Notifications The PHP code written for the SMS gateway was tested. There are many integer values for different languages. The sent message contains the student name (useful for parents with multiple children) and bus Fig. Fig. Fig. column to that time interval in his entry for that day in the attendance record table. The result of testing the code is shown in figure 11. 12 The full integrated system Table 1: Integration test for the whole system 5 CONCLUSION This paper presented an RFID-based system that aims at enhancing the safety of children during the daily bus trip to and from the school. the relevant data to the system database server. The text can be set to whatever the user wants to send. password. It then sends.10: The parent notification message 4. the system checks the students that did not enter/leave the bus. the following parameters are set: user ID. the value is 0 and for Arabic the value is 64. 4. For English. To use the SMS gateway. and the messages. The user ID and password are given by the gateway provider. The language has to be set before writing the text so that it can be sent properly. The system checks and detects .3. recipients.

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