# Thermochemistry

A. Objectives
1. Determine the heat change through a simple experiment
2. Determine the calorimeter constant
3. Determine the change of entalphy reaction
B. Theory

A calorimeter is an object used for calorimetry, or the process of measuring the
heat of chemical reactions or physical changes as well as heat capacity. Differential
scanning calorimeters, isothermal microcalorimeters, titration calorimeters and
accelerated rate calorimeters are among the most common types. A simple calorimeter
just consists of a thermometer attached to a metal container full of water suspended
above a combustion chamber.

Heat is energy transferred from one object to object because the difference
temperature . In the seventeenth century, Galileo, Newton, and other scientists
generally support the theory of ancient Greek atomic experts, who consider that heat
as a form of molecular motion. In the next century, methods were developed to
measure the amount of heat that is leaving or entering into an object quantitatively,
and found that when two objects equal to the amount of heat that enters another object.
This discovery led to the development of the theory of heat seemed to work as an
eternal material -an invisible fluid called "caloric" - which is not created and
destroyed, but only flows out of objects to other objects (Tipler, 1998).
A calorimeter measures the heat evolved or absorbed by a system in a chemical
change, e.g. a chemical reaction. The heat evolved (or absorbed) by a chemical
reaction causes the temperature of the calorimeter to rise (or fall). The magnitude of
the temperature rise (or fall) depends on the quantity of heat evolved (or absorbed) in
the reaction and on the knowledge of the heat capacity of the calorimeter. The latter is
defined as the quantity of heat absorbed by the calorimeter necessary to raise the
temperature of the calorimeter by exactly one °K, hence it is always positive. The heat
capacity CS of the calorimetric system is calculated as:
heat absorbed by the calorimeter
CS =
temperature rise produced
(http://www.chemistry.mcmaster.ca/~ayers/chem2PA3/labs/CALORIMETRYI
NTRO.pdf)

Because the pressure inside the calorimeter is constant (atmospheric pressure). Multiplying the temperature change by the mass and specific heat capacities of the substances gives a value for the energy given off or absorbed during the reaction. a calorimeter is just an insulated vessel with stirrer. (http://en.org/wiki/Calorimeter Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions Most reactions of interest to chemists are carried out at constant pressure. It does not account for the heat loss through the container or the heat capacity of the thermometer and container itself. Dividing the energy change by how many moles of A were present gives its enthalpy change of reaction. at it’s simplest. The sample is placed in a small cup and sealed under an oxygen . If the temperature of the water bath decreases. and loose-fitting lid to keep the contents at atmospheric pressure. the substances are added to a calorimeter and the initial and final temperatures (before the reaction started and after it has finished) are noted. 2010: 64) Calorimetry and heat Capacity The amount of heat transferred during a reaction can be measured with a device called calorimeter. Philip Reid.wikipedia. chemists generally use ∆ H rather than ∆ U as a measure of the change in energy of the system. A somewhat more complicated device called a bomb calorimeter is used to measure the heat released during a combustion reaction. we say that the reaction is exothermic(chemical reactions that are accompanied by the release of heat). and the heat evolved or absorbed is calculated from the temperature change.(Thomas Engel. If the temperature of the water bath increases. or burning of a flammable substance. heat flows from the system (the contents of the reaction vessel) to the surroundings (the water bath and the vessel). the heat flows instead from the surroundings to the system. one can be calculated from a measurement of the other. a thermometer. Imagine that a reaction involving a stoichiometric mixture of reactants ( the system ) is carried out in a constant pressure reaction vessel with diathermal walls immersed in a water bath (the surroundings). The reaction is carried out inside the vessel. and we say that the reaction is endothermic(chemical reactions that are accompanied by the absorption of heat). To find the enthalpy change per mole of a substance A in a reaction between two substances A and B. However. the temperature measurement makes it possible to calculate the entalphy change ∆H during a reaction. This method is used primarily in academic teaching as it describes the theory of calorimetry. In this case.

285-285) C. with interval 0. Determination of neutralization heat of acid-base Put 20mL acid into calorimeter. record the interval 1 minutes after mixing temperature add into the calorimeter Create a graph of temperature vs time interval Determinethe Calorimeter Constant 2. The reactants are ignited electrically. water-filled container. the measurement provides a value for ∆E rather than ∆H. and the evolved heat is calculated from the temperature change of surrounding water. Mix NaOH – CH3COOH for the second experiment 3. Mix HCl –NH4OH for the Create a graph of temperature vs time interval third experiment Calculate the of neutralization heat of acid-base reaction . Determination of calorimeter constant Put 20mL cold water into stir the mixture and record the calorimeter.5 minutes record the temperature. atmosphere inside a steel “bomb” that is placed in an insulated. Procedure 1. add into the calorimeter 1. Since the reactionn takes place at constant volume but not constant pressure. Mix NaOH. record the temperature temperature for 10minutes at Take 20 mL hot water.2008.5 M HCl 1 M Hot and cold water NaOH 1 M D. Apparatus and reagent Apparatus : Reagent : Calorimeter NH4OH 1 M Beaker glass CH3OOH 1 M Thermometer CuSO4 0.HCl for the first experiment 2. (McMurry-Fay. mix and record the record the temperature temperature for 5 minutes Put 20 mL base into beaker glass.

34. 34.5 1.5 minutes ethanol (2:8.0 2. Determination of calorimeter constant Calculate the dilution heat of Temperature of cold water in calorimeter = 29 °Cethanol = 302 °K in water Temperature of hot water before being put into a calorimeter = 58ᵒC = 331 °K Temperature final = 34 °C = 307 °C Water temperature after mixing for 10 minutes at intervals of 1 minute t (min) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T (°C) 35 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 b. 34.5 5. Observation sheet a.5 3. 35 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 1 1 NaOH – 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 CH3COOH HCl – NH4OH 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 c.0 (minute) Temperature NaOH – HCl 34.0 4.0 3. 3.5 2. 34. 8:2) E. 34. 6:4. 34.0 1. 34. Determination of heat dilution of ethanol in water Put water and ethanol make it mix and record the volume of mixture 10 ml record the temperature for 4 minutes temperature initial of water and with interval 0. 4:6. 34. Determination of heat dilution of ethanol in water Temperature of water = 30 °C = 303 °K Temperature of ethanol = 29 °C = 302 °K Mix water and ethanol with composition a follows : Composition A B C D Volume of water (mL) 2 4 6 8 Volume of ethanol (mL) 8 6 4 2 Temperature after mixing : . Determination of neutralization heat of acid-base reaction Temperature of HCl = 30°C Temperature of CH3COOH = 30°C Temperature of NaOH = 30°C Temperature of NH4OH = 29°C Temperature after mixing = 35 Time intervals 0.5 4.

0 2. 31. 31.0 3.5 1. 31.5 3.5 2.Time intervals 0. 32. 31 31 (ᵒC) 2 2 2 2 2 2 Composition B 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 Composition C 32.0 Temperature Composition A 31.5 4.0 1. 32 32 32 32 32 32 2 2 Composition D 31. 31. 31. 31. 31. 31 31 31 31 31 5 5 5 .

2 35 34. Determination of calorimeter constant 35.E.6 33.4 Temperature 34.8 34.8 33.4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Time interval Graph 1.2 j/g K Temperature of cold water in calorimeter = 29 °C = 302 °K Tempperature of hot water before being put into a calorimeter = 58°C = 331 °K Temperature final = 34 °C = 307 °C m cold water= ρ x v g ¿1 x 20 mL mL ¿ 20 g mh ot water =ρ x v g ¿1 x 20 mL mL ¿ 20 g Q1=m ×c ×∆ T 0 307−302 ¿ K −1 −1 ¿ 20 gr × 4.6 34.2 Hot water and Cold Water 34 33. Temperature vs time interval of cold and hot water Ρ water = 1g/mL C water = 4. Analysis Data 1.2 J g K × ¿ ¿ 420 J Q2=m ×c ×∆ T .

0 331−307 ¿ K −1 −1 ¿ 20 gr × 4.5 2 2.03 gr ml−1=41.02mol 0.02mol 0.2 J g K × ¿ ¿ 2016 J Q3=Q2−Q1 =2016 J −420 J =1596 J 0 307−302¿ K ¿ ¿ Q3 1596 J C= = ¿ ∆T 2.HCl 35.5 0C = 307.2 gr Q4 =m× c × ∆ T . 0.8 34.02mol 0.6 0.5 5 Time Interval HCl+ NaOH → NaCl+ H 2 O 0. so the mass of the solution mass=40 ml ×1.5 3 3.5 0K .5 1 1.02 mol Volume of the solution is 40 ml.2 34 33. Tinitial= 300C = 3030K mol NaCl=1 M × 20 ml=20 mmol=0.5 4 4.02mol . .HCl Temperature 34.02mol 0.02mol 0.2 35 34.4 NaOH .6 34. Determination of neutralizatiom heat of acid – base  HCl – NaOH NaOH .8 33.02mol 0.02mol Tconstant = 34.

02mol 0.02mol 0.02 0.02mol 0. Tinitial = 300C = 3030K mol CH3COONa ¿ 1 M ×20 ml=20 mmol=0. so the mass of the solution mass=40 ml ×1.5 1 1.02mol Tconstant = 340C = 3070K. 0 307.02mol 0.02 mol  NaOH – CH3COOH NaOH .184 J Q5=C × ∆ T 0 307.5 2 2.934 J Q6 ∆ H= =108596.5 3 3.92 gr Q4 =m× c × ∆ T .098 gr ml−1=43.02mol 0.5 4 4.5 5 Time Interval NaOH +C H 3 COOH →C H 3 COONa+ H 2 O 0.75 J Q6=Q 4+ Q5=2171. 0.CH3COOH 40 35 30 25 20 NaOH .2 J K × ¿ ¿ 1437.02mol .6 KJ −1 0.2 gr × 3.96 J g K × ¿ ¿ 734.CH3COOH Temperature 15 10 5 0 0.5−303 ¿ K −1 ¿ 319.02 mol Volume of the solution is 40ml.7 J mol−1 =108.5−303 ¿ K −1 −1 ¿ 41.

02 mol Tconstant= 340C= 3070K.NH4OH Temperature 15 10 5 0 0.92 gr × 4.8 J Q6=Q 4+ Q5=1983.250K mol NH4Cl ¿ 1 M ×20 ml=20 mmol=0.02 mol Volume of the solution is 40ml.68 J mol−1=99.2 J K × ¿ ¿ 1276.5 3 3.02 mol 0.02mol 0. .5 4 4.02 mol 0.5 2 2. 0 307−303 ¿ K −1 −1 ¿ 43.02 mol 0.02 mol .5 1 1.2 KJ mol−1 0.NH4OH 40 35 30 25 20 HCl .02mol 0.2336 J Q5=C × ∆ T 0 307−302 ¿ K −1 ¿ 319.5 5 Time Interval H Cl + N H 4 OH → N H 4 Cl+ H 2 O 0. 0.02 mol  HCl – NH4OH HCl .0336 J Q6 ∆ H= =99151.02 mol 0.6 gr Q4 =m× c × ∆ T . Tinitial= 290C = 301.02 J g K × ¿ ¿ 706. so the mass of the solution mass=40 ml ×1.015 gr ml−1=40.

2 .793 g/ml.96 J g K × ¿ ¿ 732. ∆T = 319.344 g. (304. (304. V = 0.42 J/mole = 3. V = 1 g/ml.4 J Q6=Q 4+ Q5=2159.616 J ∆H = qtotal / mole = 426.∆T = 2 g.2 – 303) 0K = 383.892 J Q6 ∆ H= =107994.2 °K Mass of wate r = ῤ.04 J qtotal = q1 +q2+q3 = 10.616 J / 0.6 J mol−1 0.6 gr × 3.2 J/g 0K. 2.∆T = 6.04 J = 426. (304.2 J/0K .496 J q3 = C.2 oC = 304.344 g Mole of ethanol = m/Mr = 6. 2 ml = 2 gram T water = 30 °C = 303 °K q1 = mw.c.091 kJ/mole Composition B Tconstant = 32 oC = 305 °K Mass of water = ῤ.25 ¿ K −1 −1 ¿ 40.344 g/ 46 g/mole = 0.2 . Determination of heat dilution of ethanol in water Composition A Tconstant = 31.4 J/g 0K.302) 0K = 33. 4.46 J K ×¿ ¿ 1436.492 J Q5=C × ∆ T 0 307−301.25 ¿ K −1 ¿ 258. 4 ml = 4 gram .303) 0K = 10.08 J + 33. 8 ml = 6.c.138 mole Tethanol = 29 oC = 302 0K q2 = me. V = 1 g/ml.496 J + 383.02 mol 3. 0 307−301.138 mole = 3091.08 J Mass of ethanol = ῤ.

(305 – 303) 0K = 638.4 J qtotal = q1 +q2+q3 = 33.c.344 g.6 J + 45.172 g/ 46 g/mole = 0.6384J / 0.2 J/0K .2 kJ/mole Composition C Tconstant = 32 oC = 305 0K Mass of water = ῤ.4 J = 717.4 J = 711. 2.8384 J + 638.172g. V = 0. V = 1 g/ml.4 J/g 0K. 4 ml = 3. (305 .793 g/ml.344 g/ 46 g/mole = 0.2 J/g 0K.∆T = 6. ∆T = 319.∆T = 3. V = 0. 6 ml = 6 gram T water = 30 oC = 303 0K q1 = mw.4 J qtotal = q1 +q2+q3 = 50. 4.4 J + 22. 2.069 mole Tethanol = 29 oC = 302 0K q2 = me.4 J Mass of ethanol = ῤ.069 mole = 10313. (305 .303) 0K = 50. (305 .172 g Mole of ethanol = m/Mr = 3.138 mole = 5200.2 J/g 0K.∆T = 6 g.6384 J ∆H = qtotal / mole = 711. 4.4 J/g 0K.6768 J / 0.758 g Mole of ethanol = m/Mr = 6.6 J/mole = 10. 6 ml = 4.6 J Mass of ethanol = ῤ. (305 .6768 J + 638.303) 0K = 33.793 g/ml. ∆T = 319.31 kJ/mole .56 J/mole = 5.302) 0K = 22.6768 J q3 = C.8384 J q3 = C.2 J/0K .138 mole Tethanol = 29 oC = 302 0K q2 = me.6768 J ∆H = qtotal / mole = 717. (305 – 303) 0K = 638.c.∆T = 4 g.c.T water = 30 °C = 303 °K q1 = mw.302) 0K = 45.c.

we prepared acid solutions HCl (30˚C).302) 0K = 7. we could find : q1 = 420 Joule q2 = 2016 Joule q3 = q1-q2 = 1596 Joule also the heat capacity (C) C= 319. 4.934 Joule then ΔH = q6/0.6 KJ−1 . a. NH4OH (29˚C).6 J Mass of ethanol = ῤ.2 J = 360. from this data we could find : q4 = 734. From this data. we calculated the heat capacity(C) by a calorimeter. 2 ml = 1.7 J mol−1=108.2 J/g 0K. The temperature of cold water was 29 ˚C and the temperature of hot water was 58 ˚C.6128 J q3 = C. Discussion 1) Determination of calorimeter constant In this experiment. 8ml = 8 gram T water = 30 oC = 303 0K q1 = mw.c.034 mole Tethanol = 29 oC= 302 0K q2 = me.2 J/ 0K . NaOH and HCl were mixed for 5 minutes. the constant temperature that we got was 34˚C. (304 .4 J/g 0K. V = 1 g/ml.75 Joule q6 = q4+q5 = 2171.c. 2. and this mixture resulted the constant temperature 32˚C.2 Joule/K 2) Neutralization heat of acid and base In this experiment. CH3COOH (30˚C) and base solutions NaOH (v˚C).∆T = 1. Composition D Tconstant = 31 oC = 304 0K Mass of water = ῤ.6128 J + 319.∆T = 8 g. After 10 minutes. (304 – 303) 0K = 319. V = 0.6 kJ/mol F.02 = 108596.586 g/ 46 g/mole = 0.586 g Mole of ethanol = m/Mr = 1. cold water and hot water was mixed.034 mole = 10600.586g.6 J + 7. ∆T = 319.376 J / mole = 10.184 Joule q5 = 1437.4128 / 0.793 g/ml. we calculated the change of entalphy from the acid- base solutions. (304-303) 0K = 33.4128 J ∆H = qtotal / mole = 360.2 J qtotal = q1 +q2+q3 = 33.

2˚C.6768 Joule qcal= 638. and this mixture resulted the constant temperature 31˚C.0336 Joule then ΔH = q6/0.496 Joule qcal= 383.4 Joule q6 = q4+q5 = 2159. Both of them were mixed for 4 minutes amount 10ml.6 Joule/mol = 107. After 4 minutes mixed. From this temperature we could find : qw = 33. it resulted the constant temperature 31. the temperature of solutions before mixed and after mixed have changed and increased.56 J/mole = 5. and the ethanol 29˚C.8 Joule q6 = q4+q5 = 1983. Composition of this mixture consisted of 2ml of water and 8ml of ethanol.9 KJ/mol From this experiment we knew that the reactions is included Exoterm reaction because during the mixed process. b. NaOH and CH3COOH were mixed for 5 minutes.04 Joule qtot= qw + qe +qcal = 426.42 J/mole = 3. we calculated the change of entalphy by a calorimeter.02 = 99151.08 Joule qe = 33.68 Joule/mol = 99.2 kJ/mole .02 = 107994. 3) Heat dilution of ethanol in water In this experiment.892 Joule then ΔH = q6/0.616 Joule then ΔH = 3091.2 KJ/mol c. from this data we could find : q4 = 706. From this temperature we could find : qw = 10.4 Joule qtot= qw + qe +qcal = 717.6768 Joule then ΔH = 5200. Composition of this mixture consisted of 4ml of water and 6ml of ethanol. it resulted the constant temperature 32˚C.091 kJ/mole b.492 Joule q5 = 1436.6 Joule qe = 45. After 4 minutes mixed. HCl and NH4OH were mixed for 5 minutes. and this mixture resulted the constant temperature 30˚C.2336 Joule q5 = 1276. We prepared water (aquades) 30˚C. This experiment divided by 4 parts: a. from this data we could find : q4 = 732.

376 J/mol = 10. The heat change can be determined (thermochemistry) with a calorimeter 2. After 4 minutes mixed.6 kJ/mol b) Recomendation 1.pdf I.4128 Joule then ΔH = 10600. 108. Questions . USA: Pearson Education. Calorimeter constant can be found and determined by mixed cold water and hot water in a calorimeter for few times and calculated it. Change of entalphy reactions can be determined through this experiment by mixed acid-base solutions and ethanol-water in a calorimeter for few times and calculated it : Acid base solution: 1.31 kJ/mol 4.ca/~ayers/chem2PA3/labs/ CALORIMETRYINTRO.4 Joule qe = 22.6 J/mole = 10. Look at the scala of thermometer carefully 2. After 4 minutes mixed. http://www.8384 Joule qcal= 638.2 Joule qtot= qw + qe +qcal = 360. Composition of this mixture consisted of 4ml of water and 6ml of ethanol.org/wiki/Calorimeter McMurry-Fay. From this temperature we could find : qw = 33. c.2008. 107.wikipedia. it resulted the constant temperature 31˚C.4 Joule qtot= qw + qe +qcal = 711. 10.2 KJmol−1 3.6 kJ/mol G.6 Joule qe = 7.6128 Joule qcal= 319.2 Joule/K 3.9 KJ/mol Water ethanol: 1. 10.6384 Joule then ΔH = 10313.chemistry.2 kJ/mole 3. 5. Source http://en. From this temperature we could find : qw = 50. it resulted the constant temperature 32˚C. 99. Composition of this mixture consisted of 4ml of water and 6ml of ethanol. 3.Chemistry. Record the temperature as soon as possible H.091 kJ/mole 2. Conclusion and recomendation a) conclusion 1.31 kJ/mol d. C = 319.6 KJ−1 2.mcmaster.

2 Hot water and Cold Water 34 33.2 35 34.8 33. Determination of calorimeter constant 35.1. Determine the calorimeter constant by drawing graph showed relationship between the temperature of the mixture of cold water and hot water vs time intervals 2.6 34. NaOH-CH3COOH. Calculate the heat of neutralization of NaOH-HCl. Calculate the heat of dilution of ethanol in water based on the experimental Answers : 1. Determination of acid-baseneutralization heat .4 Temperature 34.8 34.4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Time interval 2.6 33. HCl- NH4OH by drawing graph showed relationship between the temperature of the mixture of acid-base vs time intervals 3.

08 J Mass of ethanol = ῤ. (304. 4.616 J / 0.2 J/0K .8 34.08 J + 33.c.04 J qtotal = q1 +q2+q3 = 10.NH4OH 34 33.∆T = 2 g. V = 1 g/ml.8 33.2 HCl .2 J/g 0K.5 1 1.HCl NaOH .091 kJ/mole Composition B .2 35 34.138 mole = 3091. ∆T = 319. V = 0.4 NaOH .496 J + 383.5 3 3.42 J/mole = 3.2 .CH3COOH 34.302) 0K = 33. (304.344 g/ 46 g/mole = 0.∆T = 6.4 J/g 0K. (304.344 g Mole of ethanol = m/Mr = 6.344 g.6 34. 35.c. 2 ml = 2 gram T water = 30 °C = 303 °K q1 = mw. 8 ml = 6.138 mole Tethanol = 29 oC = 302 0K q2 = me.2 – 303) 0K = 383. Determination of heat dilution of ethanol in water Composition A Tconstant = 31.793 g/ml.5 5 3.2 °K Mass of wate r = ῤ.5 4 4.496 J q3 = C.5 2 2.6 33.616 J ∆H = qtotal / mole = 426.04 J = 426.4 0. 2.303) 0K = 10.2 oC = 304.2 .

c.303) 0K = 33. V = 0. 6 ml = 4.172g.4 J Mass of ethanol = ῤ.4 J + 22.8384 J q3 = C. V = 0. V = 1 g/ml.6768 J + 638.6384 J ∆H = qtotal / mole = 711. (305 .138 mole Tethanol = 29 oC = 302 0K q2 = me.6768 J ∆H = qtotal / mole = 717. (305 . 6 ml = 6 gram T water = 30 oC = 303 0K q1 = mw.4 J qtotal = q1 +q2+q3 = 50.6768 J / 0.c.∆T = 6 g.172 g/ 46 g/mole = 0.172 g Mole of ethanol = m/Mr = 3. 4 ml = 3.069 mole Tethanol = 29 oC = 302 0K q2 = me.303) 0K = 50.2 J/g 0K.344 g/ 46 g/mole = 0.302) 0K = 22.138 mole = 5200. 4. V = 1 g/ml.4 J qtotal = q1 +q2+q3 = 33.344 g. (305 . ∆T = 319. (305 . 2.∆T = 3.6 J Mass of ethanol = ῤ.302) 0K = 45. (305 – 303) 0K = 638.4 J/g 0K.6768 J q3 = C.4 J/g 0K.793 g/ml.793 g/ml. 2.4 J = 711.2 J/0K .2 kJ/mole Composition C Tconstant = 32 oC = 305 0K Mass of water = ῤ.069 mole .c.8384 J + 638.6384J / 0.56 J/mole = 5. (305 – 303) 0K = 638.Tconstant = 32 oC = 305 °K Mass of water = ῤ. 4 ml = 4 gram T water = 30 °C = 303 °K q1 = mw.2 J/g 0K.∆T = 4 g.∆T = 6.2 J/0K .758 g Mole of ethanol = m/Mr = 6. ∆T = 319.c.6 J + 45.4 J = 717. 4.

4 J/g 0K. (304-303) 0K = 33.6 kJ/mol . (304 – 303) 0K = 319.6 J/mole = 10.c.6 J + 7.793 g/ml.2 J = 360. 8ml = 8 gram T water = 30 oC = 303 0K q1 = mw.c.31 kJ/mole Composition D Tconstant = 31 oC = 304 0K Mass of water = ῤ.6128 J + 319.4128 / 0. = 10313. 2 ml = 1.6 J Mass of ethanol = ῤ.2 J/g 0K.2 J qtotal = q1 +q2+q3 = 33. V = 0. V = 1 g/ml.376 J / mole = 10.2 J/ 0K . 2.∆T = 8 g.∆T = 1. 4.6128 J q3 = C.4128 J ∆H = qtotal / mole = 360. (304 .586g.034 mole Tethanol = 29 oC= 302 0K q2 = me.586 g/ 46 g/mole = 0.586 g Mole of ethanol = m/Mr = 1.302) 0K = 7. ∆T = 319.034 mole = 10600.

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