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Adolescent Parents’ Values: The Role Played by
Retrospective Perceptions of The Family-of-
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Article in Journal of Child and Family Studies · May 2015
DOI: 10.1007/s10826-015-0211-x

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Isabel Narciso. Gonçalves & Cícero R. Pereira Journal of Child and Family Studies ISSN 1062-1024 J Child Fam Stud DOI 10.1007/s10826-015-0211-x 1 23 . Miguel M.Adolescent Parents’ Values: The Role Played by Retrospective Perceptions of The Family-of-Origin Ana Prioste.

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g. preventive and 3 Escola de Psicologia. laborations are more likely to be socialized by families. Byng-Hall 2008. Introduction rent collectivist and individualist values.. whether their retrospective per- ceptions of parenting and relationship qualities within their families-of-origin during adolescence predicted their cur. (e. Per- the adults’ collectivist values but not their individualist sonal values are influenced by the interrelations of macro values. (Campbell and Gilmore 2007). Universidade de Lisboa. Portugal Beyond the influences of family-of-origin. considering the 1 Faculdade de Psicologia da Universidade de Lisboa. The results also suggest that values chronosystemic variables (e. Bowen 1978. Universidade de Lisboa. Several theoretical perspectives. social learning theory (e. 2006. educational and economic contexts). therapeutic interventions with families. individuals 4 Instituto Cieˆncias Sociais. in a sample Retrospective perceptions of adolescents’ parents. Imber-Black 1993. Rokeach 1973. Schwartz 1994). Bandura 1977). social. Bowlby 1988) and family system theories (e. 1980). Lisbon. Family-of-origin is a particularly influential system in in- Implications for practice and for the theories on parenting. political. son’s life and social organization (Rohan 2000). converge in the assumption that certain values and behaviors (e. cycle stages) (Bengtson et al.g.. cultural and mythological inheritances (Hall erational transmission are discussed. namely. Minuchin 1984. tive perceptions of supporting and non-rejecting parenting micro (e. Author's personal copy J Child Fam Stud DOI 10. Marin et al. attachment theory (e. values ing supported that retrospective perceptions of parenting have essential roles in the lives of individuals and groups and relationship qualities in the family-of-origin predicted (Roest et al. dividuals’ lives that mediates its effects through genetic. 2002. individual and family life that preserve and protect family connections and col. and its influence is extensive over the life Relational climate  Family-of-origin  Parental practices  cycle. affective.com (Belsky et al. da Universidade.g. Gonc¸alves3 • Cı´cero R. So. Universidade do Minho. Lisbon. also have agentic roles in determining their value orienta- Portugal tions as they face several challenges. 1981).86 years old. family-of-origin influences and family intergen.g.. 2009. positive parenting seems to Portugal be a key variable for promotional... Braga. 2013).g. Participants in- cluded 110 Portuguese adults with a mean age of Values represent a set of structuring principles of a per- 46. Portugal and between parenting behaviors and child’s adjustment 2 Faculdade de Psicologia. nuclear family) and for value acquisition. Keywords Collectivist values  Individualist values  dividual’s lives.g. parenting behaviors) & Ana Prioste are assimilated from one’s experiences within the family anaprioste@gmail.1007/s10826-015-0211-x ORIGINAL PAPER Adolescent Parents’ Values: The Role Played by Retrospective Perceptions of The Family-of-Origin Ana Prioste1 • Isabel Narciso2 • Miguel M. This study highlights the importance of retrospec. Pereira4 Ó Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015 Abstract Family-of-origin is an important system in in. family-of-origin. demands and changes 123 . The results of structural equation model. Brofenbrenner 1986). The aim of this study was to investigate.g.. Alameda associations between values and parenting (Grusec 2002).. Palazzoli et al. values. 1649-013 Lisboa.

Marin. it is possible that the values of parents within adolescent children aiming of effects of parenting and family relations on adolescent contributing to knowledge about the transmission of values collectivist values are similar to those in adulthood because within the family-of-origin and to the underlying literature the motivational principles that collectivist values represent on values and family influences (e. volved in an intact family with adolescent children and 1998) regardless of the class of values. proposing that values serve as moti- Chang et al. value acquisition model (Grusec dards for how to interact with others would be motivated to and Goodnow 1994) and filter model (Scho¨npflug and Bilz achieve those standards in their relationships. 2004). Collectivist values refer to velopmental tasks over the life span and over the gen- group-oriented or values focused on social outcomes. For example. et al. Because of this. However. monly named as ‘‘sandwich generation’’ (Trommsdorff and ental rejection on the (in)effectiveness of value acquisition Nauck 2006). 2013). measured by the Schwartz Values Survey’s (SVS): col. i. Taris et al.. monoparental cohabitation. Imber-Black 1993. 123 . Martin 2012). Moreover. the highlighted the following relationships: (a) the influences generation of parents with adolescent children is com- of variables such as parental emotional support and par.. and (b) the theory of human values developed bereisen 2004. and (b) the role of ‘‘sandwiched’’ between their children and parents’ needs family relationship quality as a mechanism that filters so. Pinquart and Sil. values affect relationships and de- lectivist and individualist. Thus.. (Bengtson et al. ental practices embedded in affect.g. and balancing individual and family wellbeing The majority of previous studies on family values had (McGoldrick and Shibusawa 2012). we adopted: (a) the family focused on similarities between children’s. From a developmental perspective. Prioste et al.. life. i. Bengtson et al.g. 2008). and requests. the acquisition and transmission process regarding the contents individual’s values may be continued or changed by life of values. and determinant to order the values—personal versus so. by Schwartz (1992). remarried family) must be cial outcomes—proposed by Schwartz et al. collectivist values.. (2012). Taris et al. Grusec and Goodnow 1994. is strongly associated with family relational climate tive perceptions of parenting and relationship qualities with (Kolak and Volling 2007. values. values. Rudy and Grusec 2006. the particular role played by vating factors guiding all socializing aspects of individuals the retrospective relationship qualities in the family-of-o. families with adolescent children individualist values mean self-oriented values or values are focused on caring for their children and their indi- focused on personal outcomes (Prioste et al. 2011) and family the family-of-origin in the collectivist and individualist relations (Trommsdorff 2009). parents’ report of parenting and rela- cialized values and selects and reinforces collectivist val.. Taris 2000. Grusec and Goodnow 1994. Byng-Hall 2008. as guiding princi- (e. 2015). individuals that endorse values that set stan- Existing models [e. tionship qualities in their family-of-origin simultaneously ues via relationship pattern modeling (Prioste et al. Falcke and Wagner grandparents’ values and on the process of the transmission 2005. Miermont 1994. 2009. research has highlighted the that were lived and learned within the family-of-origin on roles of familial and parental variables on this process current behaviors and values (Belsky et al. support and discipline Therefore. Grusec et al. parents’ and system theories (e. divorce or remarriage component in these processes (Scho¨npflug and Bilz 2009) which means that family configuration (e. On the other hand. suggesting the impact of the values and experiences and Zanna 1996). values. and erations. To study the relation between values and retrospective Research on family transmission of values has mainly perceptions of family-of-origin. Roest et al. more positive perceptions of new family. Considering that the values’ content is a core experiences associated to marriage. we sought to explore the roles of retrospec- focus. 2009] and perspectives [e. Grusec 2002. Author's personal copy J Child Fam Stud throughout their life spans (e.e.g. the relevance of specific values or type of values rigin in parents’ values and its contents has been poorly means more motivation to attain goals underlying those explored in the literature (Roest et al. For instance. of these values (e.. parents.g. Stattin et al. Thus.. 2012). 2009). Palazzoli et al. So. the individual and family life cycle and respective tasks Scho¨npflug and Bilz 2009)] underline the selectivity of the influence values (Trommsdorff 2009).. 2000. 2015.e.g. 2009. transitions to work and career development parental practices and family relationships lead to an and parenthood) (Roest et al.g. 2002. influenced their own values and is influenced by their own Research also points out that positive parenting. viduation-socialization development. we considered as an influential variable in the study of values focused on the two higher order motivational values types transmission through generations (e. Yi. 2002. might be more relevant to individuals who are in- Pinquart and Silbereisen 2004. 2000. involve the maintenance and promotion of family practices Grusec et al. intact family.. ples. par.g. 2009). becoming a member of a (Schwartz 1994). different stages in bereisen 2004) and evolutionary (Scho¨npflug 2001. 2015. Thus. Rohan 1980). Thus. caring for their own Schwartz et al..g. Indeed.g. salience (Pinquart and Sil. past and current elevated likelihood that those perceptions will constitute a contexts act as a continuum that shapes an individual’s source of an individual’s values (Yu et al.

1980. and 2. All participants were involved in that focus on how one connects with others.5 % in Lisbon and good internal consistencies for the Collectivist (a = . Informed consent docu- imply the pursuit of autonomy and independence of action ments had previously been signed by all participants.6 %). The Collectivist This sample of 110 (N = 110) parents with adolescent class is composed of Relational. translation and adaptation by Menezes and Campos 1991 and Prioste et al.e. the sample. to assist participants in completing the questionnaires if Thus. large families. The SVS Participants assesses eight types that are organized into two classes of values—Individualist and Collectivist. The EMBU-M includes 23 items that are single-parent or divorced families) who were participating rated by the participants (separately for their mothers and in a broader study about intergenerational family fathers) on a four-point Likert scale (1 = ‘‘no. respectively). In regard to religion. Social children was comprised of 52 mothers (47. 2012). which examined the posed of 238 participants (the larger sample was composed participants’ retrospective perceptions about their parents’ of parents with adolescents who were involved in intact. DP = 4. We expect that positive retrospective probabilistic sampling strategy. was available by e-mail and telephone over family cohesion and cooperation (Scho¨npflug 2001). 123 . (SVS. individualist values might represent a threat to in. Adventure. The source of these motivational principles may be found in the unique man. 2012) in- cludes a single list of 63 values that are rated as guiding Method principles of life on a scale that ranges from (1) ‘‘Not important’’ to (6) ‘‘Fundamentally important’’. Schwartz 1992. 37. never’’. personally to the participants or were mailed in cases of Indeed. 2015) of a sample of majority had no histories of significant psychological or 505 Portuguese adolescent children. we recollected data on another 33. inclusion in the present study. Using a snowball process. Exploration of the roles of retrospective perceptions (dis)similarities in values and relationship patterns.7 % had cesses the importance of values that emphasize one’s dis- received between 10 and 12 years of education and 30 % connection from others. and with the family-of-origin (i. The can be separated from their adhesion to individualist values voluntary nature of their participation was also explained because the motivational principles that these values entail and confidentiality was assured. parents’ perceptions of the qualities of parental questions arose. we also found Portuguese geographic regions: 64.88) surrounding areas.7 % in other regions of the country. 53. The questionnaire packets were delivered lectivist values but not the individualist values of parents. 16. and thought (Schwartz et al. Traditionalism. 1975). For on parents’ actual values seems to be highly relevant be. The In a previous study (Prioste et al. this class emphasizes values (M = 46. Participants were informed about the main practices and family relationships in the family-of-origin objectives of the research via a written document. parenting styles.88).81). Quality assessment of memories of paternal and ma- ternal rearing practices. participants were required to cause the narratives that are built about the past can be be parents who were involved in intact families. Measures ners in which individuals interact and perceive the world and not in the socialization processes of their families-of. Author's personal copy J Child Fam Stud 1998).. consistently group/family identities by reinforcing individual needs for all participants.3 %) or serious health problems Individualist classes showed good internal consistencies (83.e. one researcher. 16.4 % in the and Individualist classes (a = .27 %) and 58 Concern and Spirituality types and refers to the importance fathers (52. ticipants were recruited over a 2-year period with a non- zlawick et al. collaboration of the Portuguese Association of Large porting and non-rejecting parenting support and positive Families (APFN). In both cases. Regarding educational levels. perceptions of parenting and relationship quality within the we collected data on 66. i. Center.. population by Canavarro (1996). The participants completed the Procedures Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran—My memories (EMBU-M. The Personal Values Questionnaire origin.6 % of family relational climate) will positively predict the col. Perris et al.73 %) ranging in age between 33 and 58 years of interdependent values. and 19 years old).90 and a = .4 % in the North. the Collectivist and psychiatric complaints (87.4 % of the sample.86 for the Collectivist and Individualist religious believers. adapted for the Portuguese The participants were selected from a larger sample com. retrospective perceptions of sup.6 % were non-practicing (a = . The Indi- intact marriages and had adolescent children (between 15 vidualist class—composed of Social Power. In the current study.3 % of Personal Balance and Personal Achievement types—ac- the participants had received higher education.86. 32. had received between 6 and 9 years of education. The participants lived in the following classes. Value assessment. The par- more influential than the actual reality of the past (Wat.

52. and all parameters were estimated using the three dimensions of parenting style: Emotional Support. of-origin (PRQFO) were high-order latent variables mea- a = . and mothers’ rejection. 12.82 for the father) tions of parenting and relationship qualities in the family- and Rejection (perceptions of Rejection by the mother. Personal Balance (PB). Por. maximum likelihood algorithm with AMOS 19. The participants com. AGFI = . Traditionalism (T). The Interpersonal Relationships dimension in. PR was measured as the fathers’ tuguese adaptation: Matos and Fontaine 1992). The estimated pa- Cohesion. sion (C) and conflict (CO). rameters (see Fig.81. 123 .85) and Centrifugal Families (a = .41. and Individualist Values (IV) were Conflict comprises items such as ‘In my family we are measured as Social Power (SP).00.70).76. rameters of model 2 (see Fig. CFI = . Importantly. despite this model ex- We tested the proposed model with a set of structural hibiting an having an acceptable fit to the data (v163 = equation models with latent variables. most of the time’’) and assesses the following missing data. 23. were a reliable predictor of the collectivist values of the 41. and Conflict. this model exhibited inverted)—that explained 45 % of the variance. 81. sured by the adults’ perceptions of parental rejection (PR). 83.76 for the father). 11 and 61 were in. the strong divergence of the factorial structure of the FES scale between the original version (Moos and Moos 1989) and the Portuguese validation study of the FES (Santos and Results Fontaine 1995). 2. and Spirituality (S). Because of each latent variable was constrained at 1. 23. To guarantee the statistical identification had good internal consistencies. GFI = . which involved 9 items (3. 42. 2). 1) and a model in which we specified the retro- (perceptions of Overprotection by the mother and father. Moos and Moos 1989. 33.07). and a = . 21. We CFI = . and a = . p \ . 1) showed that retrospective perceptions 32.001. the factor loading of one of the indicators of (a = . Santos and Fontaine the model and reduce the number of paths estimated (see (1995) found two factors among the complete scale that Little et al. which ex. we specified the following two models: a model the Emotional Support and Rejection dimensions to eval. Cohesion includes items such Relational (R).81. the estimated pa- (a = . 2002).07).76. 13. with six latent variables in which the adults’ Collectivist uate the participants perceptions of the quality of the values were predicted by retrospective perceptions of par- practices of their parents. a = . GFI = . since we found unsatisfactory enting and relationship qualities in the family-of-origin internal consistency for the Overprotection sub-scale (see Fig. 11.001. 41. angry often’. we used only our aims. However. 71. we decided to perform an exploratory factorial analysis on the Interpersonal Relationships di. PES was measured as fathers’ and amines their perceptions about the quality of their family mothers’ emotional support. AGFI = . Our dependent variables were cludes 27 items that are measured on three sub-scales specified as second-order latent variables and measured as (Family Cohesion.85). spective perceptions of parenting and relationship qualities a \ . Collectivist Values (CV) were measured as agree) to 6 (Totally agree).01.90. RMSEA = . We used a variance– 261.89) and Conflict (a = . 82. the adults’ perceptions of parental emotional support (PES) pleted the Interpersonal Relationships dimension of Family and the adults’ perceptions of their family-of-origin rela- Environment Scale (FES. 2) revealed that the retro- spective perceptions of parenting and relationship quality in Data Analyses the family-of-origin (b = . p \ . Family Expressivity and Family Con.) were not a predictor of the individualist values of the adults. In both models.01). of parenting and relationship quality in the family-of-origin verted). which involved 14 items (1.30. 61. items 2. 53. cided to retain the items with saturation upon . multi-item parcels of the four dimensions of the SVS. tionships quality (FRQ). 43.90. 51.34.82. Specifically. 53 and 52 were adults (b = . We started by analyzing the retrospective perceptions of mension of the FES using the principal-axis factor method parenting and relationship quality in the family-of-origin as a with obliquin rotation and we have found two factors— predictor of adults’ Collectivist values. an acceptable fit to the data (v163 = 262.5). FRQ was measured as cohe- relations. Centripetal Families of the models. Social Concern (SC) as ‘We have lots of time and attention to each other’. we found good internal consistency as predictor variables of the Individualist values of the values for Emotional Support (perceptions of Emotional adults (see Fig. items 3. p \ . To address Rejection and Overprotection.85.12. We used In a Portuguese validation study of the FES with a multi-item parcels to specify the latent variables to simplify sample of children and adolescents. 22. flict) and rated on a scale that ranges from 1 (Totally dis. found good internal consistency values for Cohesion Regarding the Individualist values. Family Relationship Qualities. Author's personal copy J Child Fam Stud 4 = ‘‘Yes. covariance matrix of the items with pairwise deletion of RMSEA = . 31. In this study. Adventure (A) and Personal Achievement (PA). retrospective percep- Support by the mother. We de. 43. ns.

CF conflict. PR perception of rejection. 1 Standardized maximum likelihood coefficients for the structural equation model depicting the relationship between retrospective perception of parenting and relationships quality in family- of-origin and Collectivist values. T Traditionalism. IV individualist values. PRQFO retrospective perception of parenting and relationships quality in family- of-origin. FRQ perception of family relations quality. 2 Standardized maximum likelihood coefficients for the structural equation model depicting the relationship between retrospective perception of parenting and relationships quality in family- of-origin and Individualist values. PES perception of emotional support. C cohesion. PR perception of rejection.05) and dashed lines represent non-significant coefficients Fig. FRQ perception of family relations quality. PES perception of emotional support. Solid lines represent significant coefficients (p \ . A adventure. C cohesion. PB personal balance.05) and dashed lines represent non- significant coefficients 123 . CV collectivist values. Solid lines represent significant coefficients (p \ . PA personal achievement. SP social power. SC Social Concern. S Spirituality. PRQFO retrospective perception of parenting and relationships quality in family- of-origin. Author's personal copy J Child Fam Stud Fig. R Relational. CF conflict.

our findings and non-rejecting parenting to value acquisition (Grusec show that positive parenting. Limitations and Future Studies cannot be stimulated by the same source of values. how Scho¨npflug and Bilz 2009). 2000. solidarity (Bengtson et al. it is unclear lescent identity construction process (Sabatier and Lan.. jecting. the evolutionary perspective This work highlights the importance of perceptions of (Scho¨npflug 2001. 2015). Implications for Research and Practice Our results should be examined in future work involving more complex methodological designs and data analysis The results of the present study contribute to the field of procedures. and thus we cannot infer causal associations between the variables analyzed here. 123 . and the selection of the sample via a non-probabilistic adolescent parents may be more oriented to collectivist sampling strategy limit the rigor of the analyses and preclude values that are more congruent with their family concerns generalization of the results to the Portuguese population. Taris 2000). it is possible that our results are reinforced The exploratory nature of our study. specifically. Specifically. Additionally. 2015).e. it is also possible that the perception of this cannot be generalized to parents who belong to another threat influence the construction of the narratives built about family configuration (e. these results ship quality in the family-of-origin predict collectivist values also have implications for the literature on parenting. the findings of the study cycle stage. of-origin through parenting and family relational climate?. as a component of family myths the class of value and its underlying motivations. larger and more diverse samples should be ence of the family-of-origin. specifically the extensiveness used in future work. representations of the family-of-origin still practices would predict collectivist and individualist values influence values in adulthood. So. self-needs tend to be are relational patterns experienced in the family-of-origin stimulated by other social systems (Prioste et al. collectivist values serve as repre. supporting and non-re- et al. monoparental or reconstituted the past. The results are consistent with the emphasis of this literature on the extent of the influence of studies that have emphasized the importance of supportive rearing practices into adulthood. only a single regulation of autonomy processes and on the maintenance of measure was used to assess values as guiding principles of proximity and family harmony and to better support ado. methodologies. Despite the changes in social context and personal roles that occur over This study investigated whether perceived quality of parental the life cycle.. contrarily to individualist values. Furthermore. Pinquart and Silbereisen 2004. this ship quality experienced within the family-of-origin. Thus. whether these findings can be generalized to other measures. shaping the perceptions of parenting and relation. Schwartz 1994) and can be stimulated by the family or issues: which values have been transmitted by the family- perceptions of the family. the small sample size by the family’s life cycle stage of the sample. thus. (Linares 1996). (Palazzoli et al. these perceptions of the family-of-origin alone can be a source of findings suggest that values that preserve and protect family collectivist values. parents’ individualist Because of the specificities of the sample (e.and social-interests. life. Together. 2002). Finally. also Our findings can potentially guide family psychologists contribute to the process of identification with the family that and therapists in the development and the implementation help to guarantee the continuity of the family identity (Cigoli of specific interventions to work on family mythology and Scabini 2006). negrand-Willems 2005). given but not individualist values. which highlights the conti- of parents with adolescent children. 1980) or mythology (Linares 1996). Our findings support our nuity and importance of the role of family in the socialization hypothesis: positive perceptions of parenting and relation. mixed intergenerational transmission by acknowledging the influ. Prioste et al.g. is important to collectivist values maintenance over The data also support the perspective of family and social the life cycle. Values. longitudinal studies. of children (Bengtson et al. through parental practices and family relationships?. illuminating psychological practices to sentations of the need to maintain the status quo (Pereira et al.g. and this measure was self-reported. such as self. Moreover.. Author's personal copy J Child Fam Stud Discussion of family and parental influences on values. study was a cross-sectional. thus. married values may be a major threat in this specific family’s life parents with adolescent children). at this stage. The associated with parental values and roles? data support the theory of value organization (Schwartz 1992) in that different motivations. In this line. Thus. the parental roles are focused on the confidence in current findings.g. In one hand. our findings provide support for connections and collaboration are more likely to be socialized the existence of different sources of values that vary with by families.. On the other Replications with larger samples are necessary to increase hand. Scho¨npflug and Bilz 2009) and the results family relations on values and shows that retrospective of previous studies (e. 2002). i. which values are actually being transmitted to children family cohesion and adaptive dynamics (Scho¨npflug 2001. families) or to another stage of family life cycle. Individualist values might represent a threat to in-group/. and needs and the overload of caring requests. promote positive parenting by focusing on the following 2005.

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