Scheme Chemistry Paper 2. Form 4.

2016

No. Rubric Marks ∑
1 (a) (i) the number of protons in an atom 1 1
(ii) the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom 1 1
(b) (i) same number of protons but different number of neutrons// same 1 1
proton number but different nucleon number
(ii) X and Y 1 1
(c) No. of protons = 11
No. of electrons = 11
1 1
No. of neutrons = 12 (all correct)
( d )(i) 2.8.7 1 1
(ii)
1.Nucleus is shown &
label X
1 2
X 2. Correct number of shells
with correct number of
electrons 1

(e) (i) Electrons in the outermost shell 1 1
(ii) 1 / one 1 1
(f) 1 1
35
X
17
TOTAL 11

No. Rubric Marks ∑
2(a) 2.8.2 1 1
(b) Has stable electron arrangement // octet ( in outermost shell) 1 1
(c) Q 1
Attraction between nucleus and valence electron is weaker in Q / 1
stronger in P
1
Q is easier to release electron
3
(d)(i) P/Q 1
(ii) 2P + 2H2O  2POH + H2 // 2Q + 2H2O  2QOH + H2 1 2
(e)(i) Double // covalent 1 1
(ii) Force of attraction between molecules particles weak 1
Little heat needed to overcome this force
1 2
Total 10

8 2. Quantitatively : State the number of moles for reactants 1 and products correctly. correct formulae of reactants and products. 1.1 1 1 (b)(i) Number of mole of lead atoms = // // 207 207 0. 1 2 TOTAL 10 No Rubic Mark ∑ 4 (a) Zinc carbonate 1 1 (b) ZnCO3 ZnO + CO2 1 1 (c) Zinn nitrate 1 1 (d) Nitrogen dioxide 1 2 Oxygen 1 (e) 2Zn(NO3) 2ZnO + 4NO2 +O2 1 1 . 2. Fun ctional apparatus. Pb : O = 0.25  107.9 1 1 Number of mole of oxygen atoms = / 16 0. PbO2 1 2 (iv) PbO2 + 2H2  Pb + 2H2O 1. dry hydrogen gas/ U-tube with CaCl2 and oxide of lead.35 / 0.01 (ii) 108. Label : Heat. correct balanced chemical equation.02 16 (iii) 1. 1 2. 2. 1 Note : ecf (error carried forward) 1 2 If (b)(iii) given PbO.9  105. 1 2 107. Qualitatively : State name of reactants and products correctly.02 / 1: 2 1 2. 2 No Rubrik Marks ∑ Oxide of lead 3(a) Dry hydrogen gas Heat 1.01 : 0. PbO + H2  Pb + H2O 1+1 marks (v) 1 mole of lead (IV) oxide/ PbO2 react with 2 moles of hydrogen /H2 produce 1 mol of lead /Pb and 2 moles of water / H2O.

of mol of H2SO4 = 0.7 V 1 1 (ii) The distance between Mg to Cu is bigger than Zn to Cu in 1 1 electrochemical series. 1 1 // ionises completely // strong alkali (b ) (i) Sodium chloride 1 1 (ii) HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2O Correct formula of reactants 1 Correct formula of products 1 2 r: ionic equation (c) 1.ion // 1 small amount of hydroxide ions / Or 1. OH .5 (20) / 1000 1 = 0. 3 (f) 1 1 ZnO + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2O (g) (i) A white precipitate is produced 1 1 (ii) The white precipitate dissolves 1 1 (h) The solution obtained in (f) contains zinc ion 1 1 TOTAL 10 No.01 mol 2. Rubric Marks ∑ 5 (a) (i) Allow flow of ions through it 1 1 (b) (i) Magnesium 1 1 (ii) Mg is more electropositive than Copper // higher than copper in 1 1 electrochemical series// Mg releases electrons (iii) Mg  Mg2+ + 2e 1 1 (c) (i) Blue to colourless // intensity of blue colour decreases // Blue 1 1 solution becomes paler // Blue solution decolourised (ii) Cu2+ + 2e  Cu 1 (d ) (i) Decrease // lower than 2. Mol NaOH = 0. Sodium hydroxide solution is a strong alkali 2. (e) Mg + Cu2+  Cu + Mg2+ 1 1 Total 9 No. Ammonia ionises partially// sodium hydroxide ionises/ 1 dissociate completely 2 2. Rubic Mark ∑ 6 (a) (i) Y 1 1 (ii) Highest concentration of hydroxide ions . No. Produces low concentration of hydroxide ions / OH . Produce high concentration of OH – ions (d ) 1.01 / 2 .

005 (1000) / 20 1 3 = 0.6 and carbon atom is 2. 1 4.8. 1 3. Electron arrangement of oxygen atom is 2.1 and oxygen atom is 2. 2 atoms of sodium combine with one atom of oxygen to 8 form ionic compound Na2O//can be derived from diagram of electronic structure 1 9.ion are held together by strong electrostatic forces. Rubric Marks ∑ 7 (a) [Able to explain the electron arrangement involve in the formation of ionic bonding between sodium and oxygen] Answer: 1. Carbon atom has 4 valence electrons oxygen atom has 6 valence electrons.25 mol dm -3 Total 10 No. Covalent compound 1 2.4. Concentration of H2SO4 = 0.01 x 20 / 20 = 0. Carbon atom contributes 4 electrons and each oxygen atom contributes 2 electrons. 1 5. 4 1 = 0. Sodium atom has 1 valence electron and oxygen atom has 6 valence electrons.005 mol 3.6. Ionic compound 1 2. In order to achieve the stable/ octet electron arrangement. Sodium atom donates 1 electron to form Na+// Na → Na+ + e. 1 MAX 8. One carbon atom shares electron with 2 oxygen atoms 1 7. Na+ and O2. Electron arrangement of sodium atom is 2. 1 (b) [Able to explain the electron arrangement involve in the formation of covalent bonding between oxygen and carbon] Answer: 1. Oxygen atom accepts two electrons to form O2-// 1 O + 2e → O2- 7. 1 3. 1 6. Involves transfer of electron // donates and accepts electrons 1 4.25 mol dm-3 Or MaVa / MbVb = 1/ 2 Mb = 2 x 0. In order to achieve octet/stable electron arrangement. 1 6. 1 5. Two pairs of electrons are shared between carbon and MAX oxygen // double covalent bond is formed between 1 6 .

The ions in ionic electricity in molten or compound can move aqueous solution but freely in molten state or covalent compounds do not aqueous solution conduct electricity in any 2. More heat energy needed to overcome the strong forces of attraction. Ionic compounds are soluble 1. 6 [Any 2 physical properties and their explanation] TOTAL 20 . 1+2 compound 2. Covalent compounds 1+2 dissolve in organic solvent because both are similar in nature /consist of MAX neutral molecules. Ionic compounds conduct 1. [Able to compare the physical properties of ionic compound and (c) covalent compound and explain it correctly ] Physical Properties Explanation Melting and boiling 1. soluble in water. There are strong point of ionic electrostatic forces of compound is higher attraction between ions than covalent with opposite charge. covalent compound 1+2 state. 2. contains neutral / uncharged molecules / particles. 5 carbon and oxygen . Because water in water but not soluble in molecules are bipolar organic solvent // covalent which can separate the compounds are soluble in positive and negative organic solvent but not ions in ionic compounds.

6 No Rubic Mark ∑ 8(a) Process whereby ionic compounds in molten or aqueous state are broken down/decomposed using electricity. Substance that can conduct electricity when in molten or 1 aqueous solution and undergoes chemical changes 1 2 .

ions is higher. - 5. 2.discharged to form electrons to form O2 */oxygen gas 2 I2 */ iodine 4.Pb2+ move to cathode.2H+ + 2e  H2 2 10 .move to anode Cl. 1 3. Cl2 + 2e 1 1 1 4 TOTAL 20 . Experiment I Experiment II 2 1.Pb2+ discharged /accept 2.discharged/release 3. 1.ion selected for discharge 4. OH. Cl- (iii) Able to explain how products formed and write half-equations as follows.H+ discharged/accept electrons to form Pb*/lead electrons to form H2 * /hydrogen gas 2 3.and OH.move to anode 2 2. Pb2+ + 2e  Pb 4. concentration of Cl.1 mol dm-3 HCl ..2I  I2 + 2e 5. I. 7 (b)(i) 1 To melt electrolyte // To form molten electrolyte To produce freely moving ions in Experiment I 1 2 / freely moving ions exist in Experiment II 1 (ii) Able to state 1 2 Experiment I : Pb2+ .4OH  2H2O + O2 + 4e *Can imply from half equation (c) Able to explain how products formed and state the effect as follows. In both acids H+ ions discharged// hydrogen gas produced.H+ move to cathode I. In 0. I- Experiment II : H+ . OH. 1. Cl. Chlorine produced // 2Cl.

0 1 2. Steps 3 to 8 are repeated twice.0 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution . conical flask. 1 3.00 . 1 5. Macid X 26. 9. Calculation the mass of NaOH needed 2. Wash the beaker and transfer the content in the beaker/ container into the volumetric flask. 1 6. 1 5. 1 6 6 Add more distilled water to make up to the calibration mark. Macid X Vacid 1 _____________ = __ Malkali X Valkali 1 1 2. 1 (b)(i) 1 Apparatus: pipette. Initial reading is recorded// final reading is recorded. 8. Pipette 25. hydrochloric acid 1 Procedure: 3. Rubric Marks ∑ 9 (a)(i) A solution in which its concentration is known. Add a few drops of phenolphthalein/ any indicator. Dissolve the NaOH in a small amount of distilled water in a beaker / container. 1 4.00 1 _____________ = __ 1 2.0 X 25.0 x 25. retort stand 1 2 Materials: 2. 1 1 1. Weigh 8g of NaOH. Titration is stopped when the colour changes from pink 1 to colourless. The burette is filled with HCl. 8 No.0 cm3 of sodium hydroxide into a conical flask.Transfer the dissolved NaOH into a 100 cm3 volumetric flask. 4. 1 7. 1 10 Tabulation of data : 1 Titration 1 2 3 1 Final reading /cm3 Initial reading/ cm3 Volume of acid used / cm3 10 9(b)(ii) 1.92 mol dm-3 1 26. burette.0 3. Macid = = 1.0 x100 1 Mass = x 40 = 8 g 1000 2. HCl is added slowly from the burette to the NaOH 1 solution while swirling the flask.

To the first part. 1 2. Rinse the residue/ precipitate with distilled water 1 4 Add the residue/ precipitate into nitric acid until in excess / no more effervescence occurs/ all precipitate dissolved 5 Filter 1 6 Heat the filtrate until saturated / one third / 1/3 of original 1 volume 1 7. (c) [Able to describe the procedure to prepare magnesium nitrate salt] 1. Dissolve zinc nitrate in water and divide into two parts / portions / test tubes 1 2. To second portion. White precipitate. 1 6 6. 5.Chemical equation for the formation of magnesium carbonate: MgSO4 + Na2CO3  MgCO3 + Na2SO4 1 10. Brown precipitate / ring/ layer formed. Concentrated H2SO4 acid added down the side of 1 slanted test-tube.ions] 1. 9 3 TOTAL 20 No Rubic Mark ∑ 10(a) [able to state name of a soluble salt and an insoluble salt] Example: 1 Soluble salt : copper(II) sulphate 2 Insoluble salt : Barium sulphate 1 3 H2SO4 + CuO  CuSO4 + H2O 1 CuO can replace with CuCO3 // Cu(OH)2 1 4 BaCl2 + Na2SO4  BaSO4 + 2NaCl Note: 3 and 4 are equations to the named salts 1 4 (b) [Able to describe suitable chemical test : Tests for Zn2+ and NO3. Cool 1 8 . add NH4OH / ammonia aqueous / NaOH aqueous untill excess.Filter and dry / press in between filter papers 1 9 . Add magnesium sulphate solution to sodium carbonate solution in a beaker. Chemical equation for the formation of magnesium nitrate: MgCO3 + 2HNO3  Mg(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2 1 10 TOTAL 20 . Stir / shake. soluble (in excess of NH 4OH / 1 ammonia /NaOH solution ) 4. Shake 1 3. Stir and filter the mixture 1 3. add dilute H2SO4 acid and FeSO4 1 solution/ crystals.