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In mathematics, a Fourier series (English pronunciation: a superposition of the corresponding eigensolutions. This

/frie/) is a way to represent a (wave-like) function as superposition or linear combination is called the Fourier

the sum of simple sine waves. More formally, it decom- series.

poses any periodic function or periodic signal into the From a modern point of view, Fouriers results are some-

sum of a (possibly innite) set of simple oscillating func-

what informal, due to the lack of a precise notion of

tions, namely sines and cosines (or, equivalently, complex function and integral in the early nineteenth century.

exponentials). The discrete-time Fourier transform is a Later, Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet[3] and Bernhard

periodic function, often dened in terms of a Fourier se- Riemann[4][5][6] expressed Fouriers results with greater

ries. The Z-transform, another example of application, precision and formality.

reduces to a Fourier series for the important case |z|=1.

Fourier series are also central to the original proof of Although the original motivation was to solve the heat

the NyquistShannon sampling theorem. The study of equation, it later became obvious that the same tech-

Fourier series is a branch of Fourier analysis. niques could be applied to a wide array of mathematical

and physical problems, and especially those involving lin-

ear dierential equations with constant coecients, for

which the eigensolutions are sinusoids. The Fourier se-

1 History ries has many such applications in electrical engineering,

vibration analysis, acoustics, optics, signal processing,

See also: Fourier analysis History image processing, quantum mechanics, econometrics,[7]

thin-walled shell theory,[8] etc.

The Fourier series is named in honour of Jean-Baptiste

Joseph Fourier (17681830), who made important con-

tributions to the study of trigonometric series, after 2 Denition

preliminary investigations by Leonhard Euler, Jean le

Rond d'Alembert, and Daniel Bernoulli.[nb 1] Fourier in-

troduced the series for the purpose of solving the heat In this section, s(x) denotes a function of the real variable

equation in a metal plate, publishing his initial results in x, and s is integrable on an interval [x0 , x0 + P], for real

his 1807 Mmoire sur la propagation de la chaleur dans numbers x0 and P. We will attempt to represent s in that

les corps solides (Treatise on the propagation of heat in interval as an innite sum, or series, of harmonically re-

solid bodies), and publishing his Thorie analytique de la lated sinusoidal functions. Outside the interval, the series

chaleur (Analytical theory of heat) in 1822. The Mmoire is periodic with period P (frequency 1/P). It follows that

introduced Fourier analysis, specically Fourier series. if s also has that property, the approximation is valid on

Through Fouriers research the fact was established that the entire real line. We can begin with a nite summation

an arbitrary (continuous)[1] function can be represented (or partial sum):

by a trigonometric series. The rst announcement of this

great discovery was made by Fourier in 1807, before the

French Academy.[2] Early ideas of decomposing a pe- A0

N

riodic function into the sum of simple oscillating func- sN (x) = + An sin( 2nx

P +n ), integer for N 1.

2 n=1

tions date back to the 3rd century BC, when ancient as-

tronomers proposed an empiric model of planetary mo-

sN (x) is a periodic function with period P. Using the

tions, based on deferents and epicycles.

identities:

The heat equation is a partial dierential equation. Prior

to Fouriers work, no solution to the heat equation was

known in the general case, although particular solutions sin( 2nx + n ) sin(n ) cos( 2nx ) + cos(n ) sin( 2nx )

P P P

were known if the heat source behaved in a simple way, { ( )} ( ) (

1 i 2nx + 1 i

2nx

P +n +

1

in particular, if the heat source was a sine or cosine sin( 2nx

+ n ) Re e P n

= e

P i 2i 2i

wave. These simple solutions are now sometimes called

eigensolutions. Fouriers idea was to model a complicated

heat source as a superposition (or linear combination) of we can also write the function in these equivalent forms:

simple sine and cosine waves, and to write the solution as where:

1

2 2 DEFINITION

no longer complex conjugates. The formula for c is also

unchanged:

x0 +P x0 +P

1 i

2nx 1 2

cn = Re{s(x)} e P dx + i Im{s(x)} ei

P x0 P x0

x0 +P x0 +P

1 2nx 1

= (Re{s(x)} + i Im{s(x)}) ei P dx =

P x0 P x0

amplitudes and harmonically related frequencies. Their sum- 2.2 Convergence

mation is called a Fourier series. The Fourier transform, S(f) (in

blue), which depicts amplitude vs frequency, reveals the 6 fre-

In engineering applications, the Fourier series is generally

quencies (at odd harmonics) and their amplitudes (1/odd num-

presumed to converge everywhere except at discontinu-

ber).

ities, since the functions encountered in engineering are

more well behaved than the ones that mathematicians can

provide as counter-examples to this presumption. In par-

ticular, the Fourier series converges absolutely and uni-

An in

2i e = 12 (an ibn ) forn > 0 formly to s(x) whenever the derivative of s(x) (which may

def

cn = 12 A0 = 12 a0 forn = 0 not exist everywhere) is square integrable.[10] If a func-

c tion is square-integrable on the interval [x0 , x0 +P], then

|n| forn < 0.

the Fourier series converges to the function at almost ev-

The inverse relationships between the coecients are: ery point. Convergence of Fourier series also depends on

the nite number of maxima and minima in a function

which is popularly known as one of the Dirichlets con-

dition for Fourier series. See Convergence of Fourier se-

An = a2n + b2n n = atan2 (an , bn ) .

ries. It is possible to dene Fourier coecients for more

When the coecients (known as Fourier coecients) general functions or distributions, in such cases conver-

are computed as follows:[9] gence in norm or weak convergence is usually of interest.

mation improves as N . The innite sum, s (x), is

called the Fourier series representation of s.

Both components of a complex-valued function are real-

valued functions that can be represented by a Fourier se-

ries. The two sets of coecients and the partial sum are

given by:

x0 +P 2nx

CRn = 1

P x0

Re{s(x)} ei P dx and

x0 +P 2nx

CIn = 1

Im{s(x)} ei P dx

P x0 Another

visualisation of an approximation of a square wave

N

2nx

N

2nx

N by taking the rst 2nx

1, 2, 3 and 4 terms of its Fourier

sN (x) = CRn ei P +i CIn ei P = (Cseries. CIn

Rn + i(An ) ei P animation

interactive . can be seen here)

| {z }

n=N n=N n=N

Cn

2.4 Example 2: Fouriers motivation 3

1

an = s(x) cos(nx) dx = 0, n 0.

1

bn = s(x) sin(nx) dx

2 2

= cos(n) + 2 2 sin(n)

n n

2 (1)n+1

= , n 1.

n

It can be proven that Fourier series converges to s(x) at

every point x where s is dierentiable, and therefore:

visualisation of an approximation of a sawtooth half-sum of the left- and right-limit of s at x = . This is

wave of the same amplitude and frequency for a particular instance of the Dirichlet theorem for Fourier

comparison series.

s(x)

1

x

0

3 2 2 3

function s(x) = x/ on the interval (, ]

Animated plot of the rst ve successive partial Fourier series

The Fourier series expansion of our function in Example

1 looks more complicated than the simple formula s(x) =

We now use the formula above to give a Fourier series x/, so it is not immediately apparent why one would need

expansion of a very simple function. Consider a sawtooth the Fourier series. While there are many applications,

wave Fouriers motivation was in solving the heat equation. For

example, consider a metal plate in the shape of a square

whose side measures meters, with coordinates (x, y)

x [0, ] [0, ]. If there is no heat source within the plate,

s(x) = , for < x < , and if three of the four sides are held at 0 degrees Celsius,

while the fourth side, given by y = , is maintained at

the temperature gradient T(x, ) = x degrees Celsius, for

s(x + 2k) = s(x), for < x < and k Z. x in (0, ), then one can show that the stationary heat

distribution (or the heat distribution after a long period

In this case, the Fourier coecients are given by of time has elapsed) is given by

4 3 BEGINNINGS

( )

(1)n+1 sinh(ny)

(

n ) i2f x

1

T (x, y) = 2 sin(nx) . F {S(f )} = S[n] f e df,

n=1

n sinh(n) n= P

(

n ) i2f x

Here, sinh is the hyperbolic sine function. This solution = S[n] f e df,

of the heat equation is obtained by multiplying each term n= P

of Eq.1 by sinh(ny)/sinh(n). While our example func-

2nx def

tion s(x) seems to have a needlessly complicated Fourier = S[n] ei P = s (x).

series, the heat distribution T(x, y) is nontrivial. The n=

function T cannot be written as a closed-form expression.

This method of solving the heat problem was made pos- The constructed function S(f) is therefore commonly

sible by Fouriers work. referred to as a Fourier transform, even though the

Fourier integral of a periodic function is not convergent

at the harmonic frequencies.[nb 2]

2.5 Other applications

Basel problem by using Parsevals theorem. The example

generalizes and one may compute (2n), for any positive This immediately gives any coecient ak of the trigono-

integer n. metrical series for (y) for any function which has such

an expansion. It works because if has such an expan-

sion, then (under suitable convergence assumptions) the

2.6 Other common notations integral

coecients of several dierent functions. Therefore, it is 1

y

customarily replaced by a modied form of the function ak = (y) cos(2k + 1) dy

1 2

(s, in this case), such as s or S, and functional notation 1 ( )

y y y y

often replaces subscripting: = a cos cos(2k + 1) + a cos 3 cos(2k + 1) +

1 2 2 2 2

2nx

s (x) = s(n) e i P ing cos(2j + 1) y y

2 cos(2k + 1) 2 for j k vanish when

n= integrated from 1 to 1, leaving only the kth term.

2nx In these few lines, which are close to the modern

= S[n] ej P notation engineering common

formalism used in Fourier series, Fourier revolutionized

n=

both mathematics and physics. Although similar trigono-

In engineering, particularly when the variable x repre- metric series were previously used by Euler, d'Alembert,

sents time, the coecient sequence is called a frequency Daniel Bernoulli and Gauss, Fourier believed that such

domain representation. Square brackets are often used to trigonometric series could represent any arbitrary func-

emphasize that the domain of this function is a discrete tion. In what sense that is actually true is a somewhat

set of frequencies. subtle issue and the attempts over many years to clarify

this idea have led to important discoveries in the theories

Another commonly used frequency domain representa- of convergence, function spaces, and harmonic analysis.

tion uses the Fourier series coecients to modulate a

Dirac comb: When Fourier submitted a later competition essay in

1811, the committee (which included Lagrange, Laplace,

Malus and Legendre, among others) concluded: ...the

( manner in which the author arrives at these equations is

n)

def not exempt of diculties and...his analysis to integrate

S(f ) = S[n] f ,

n=

P them still leaves something to be desired on the score of

generality and even rigour.

where f represents a continuous frequency domain.

When variable x has units of seconds, f has units of

hertz. The teeth of the comb are spaced at multiples 3.1 Birth of harmonic analysis

(i.e. harmonics) of 1/P, which is called the fundamental

frequency. s (x) can be recovered from this representa- Since Fouriers time, many dierent approaches to den-

tion by an inverse Fourier transform: ing and understanding the concept of Fourier series have

4.2 Fourier series of Bravais-lattice-periodic-function 5

been discovered, all of which are consistent with one an- may write any arbitrary vector r in the coordinate-system

other, but each of which emphasizes dierent aspects of of the lattice:

the topic. Some of the more powerful and elegant ap-

proaches are based on mathematical ideas and tools that

a1 a2 a3

were not available at the time Fourier completed his orig- r = x1 + x2 + x3 ,

inal work. Fourier originally dened the Fourier series a1 a2 a3

for real-valued functions of real arguments, and using the where ai = |ai|.

sine and cosine functions as the basis set for the decom-

Thus we can dene a new function,

position.

Many other Fourier-related transforms have since been ( )

dened, extending the initial idea to other applications. g(x , x , x ) := f (r) = f x a1 + x a2 + x a3 .

1 2 3 1 2 3

This general area of inquiry is now sometimes called a1 a2 a3

harmonic analysis. A Fourier series, however, can be

This new function, g(x1 , x2 , x3 ) , is now a function of

used only for periodic functions, or for functions on a

three-variables, each of which has periodicity a1 , a2 , a3

bounded (compact) interval.

respectively: g(x1 , x2 , x3 ) = g(x1 + a1 , x2 , x3 ) =

g(x1 , x2 + a2 , x3 ) = g(x1 , x2 , x3 + a3 ) . If we write

a series for g on the interval [0, a1 ] for x1 , we can dene

4 Extensions the following:

1 m1

hone (m1 , x2 , x3 ) := g(x1 , x2 , x3 )ei2 a1 x1 dx1

a1 0

We can also dene the Fourier series for functions of two

variables x and y in the square [, ] [, ]: And then we can write:

m1

f (x, y) = cj,k eijx eiky , g(x1 , x2 , x3 ) = hone (m1 , x2 , x3 ) ei2 a1 x1

j,kZ(integers) m1 =

Further dening:

1

cj,k = f (x, y)eijx eiky dx dy.

4 2

a2

Aside from being useful for solving partial dierential htwo (m , m , x ) := 1

m2

equations such as the heat equation, one notable appli- a2 0

cation of Fourier series on the square is in image com-

a2 a1 (

pression. In particular, the jpeg image compression stan- 1 1 m

i2 a 1 x1 +

= dx2 dx1 g(x1 , x2 , x3 ) e 1

dard uses the two-dimensional discrete cosine transform, a2 0 a1 0

which is a Fourier transform using the cosine basis func-

tions. We can write g once again as:

m1 m2

4.2 Fourier series of Bravais-lattice- g(x1 , x2 , x3 ) = htwo (m1 , m2 , x3 )ei2 a1 x1 ei2 a2 x2

periodic-function m1 = m2 =

The Bravais lattice is dened as the set of vectors of the ne:

form:

a3

1 m3

hthree (m1 , m2 , m3 ) := htwo (m1 , m2 , x3 ) ei2 a3 x3 dx3

R = n1 a1 + n2 a2 + n3 a3 a3 0

1 1 1

vectors. Assuming we have some function, f(r), such that = dx 3 dx 2 dx1 g(x1 , x2 , x3 )

a3 0 a2 0 a1 0

it obeys the following condition for any Bravais lattice

vector R: f(r) = f(r + R), we could make a Fourier se- We write g as:

ries of it. This kind of function can be, for example, the

eective potential that one electron feels inside a peri-

m1

odic crystal. It is useful to make a Fourier series of the g(x , x , x ) = hthree (m1 , m2 , m3 )ei2 a1 x1 ei2

1 2 3

potential then when applying Blochs theorem. First, we m1 = m2 = m3 =

6 4 EXTENSIONS

axis, a2 lies in the x-y plane, and a3 has components of

(

all three axes). ) The denominator is exactly the volume

i2 a 1 xof

1 +the

a2 xprimitive

2 + a x3 unit cell which is enclosed by the three

m m2 m3

three

g(x1 , x2 , x3 ) = h (m1 , m2 , m3 )e 1 3 .

primitive-vectors a1 , a2 and a3 . In particular, we now

m1 ,m2 ,m3 Z

know that

Now, every reciprocal lattice vector can be written as

K = l1 g1 + l2 g2 + l3 g3 , where li are integers and gi

a1 a2 a3

are the reciprocal lattice vectors, we can use the fact that dx1 dx2 dx3 = dx dy dz.

gi aj = 2ij to calculate that for any arbitrary recipro- a 1 (a2 a3 )

cal lattice vector K and arbitrary vector in space r, their We can write now h(K) as an integral with the traditional

scalar product is: coordinate system over the volume of the primitive cell,

instead of with the x1 , x2 and x3 variables:

( ) ( )

a1 a2 a3 l1 l2 l3

Kr = (l1 g1 + l2 g2 + l3 g3 ) x1 + x2 + x3 = 2 x1 + x2 + x3 .

a1 a2 a3 a 1 a2 a3

h(K) = 1 drf (r) eiKr

a1 (a2 a3 ) C

And so it is clear that in our expansion, the sum is actually

over reciprocal lattice vectors: And C is the primitive unit cell, thus, a1 (a2 a3 ) is the

volume of the primitive unit cell.

f (r) = h(K) eiKr ,

K

4.3 Hilbert space interpretation

where Main article: Hilbert space

1 1 1 a1 a2 inxa3 iKr

h(K) = dx3 dx2 dx1 f x1 + {e

x2n =+ex 3 : ne Z}. is an orthonormal basis for the

a3 0 a2 0 a1 0 a1 space

a2 L2 ([,

a3 ]) of square-integrable functions on [,

Assuming ]. This space is actually a Hilbert space with an inner

product given for any two elements f and g by

a1 a2 a3

r = (x, y, z) = x1 + x2 + x3 , 1

a1 a2 a3 def

f, g =

f (x)g(x) dx.

2

we can solve this system of three linear equations for x,

y, and z in terms of x1 , x2 and x3 in order to calculate The basic Fourier series result for Hilbert spaces can be

the volume element in the original cartesian coordinate written as

system. Once we have x, y, and z in terms of x1 , x2 and

x3 , we can calculate the Jacobian determinant:

f= f, en en .

x x x n=

1 1 1

x y z This corresponds exactly to the complex exponential for-

x x2 mulation given above. The version with sines and cosines

2 x2

is also justied with the Hilbert space interpretation. In-

x y z

deed, the sines and cosines form an orthogonal set:

x x3 x3

3

x y z

which after some calculation and applying some non- cos(mx) cos(nx) dx = mn , m, n 1,

trivial cross-product identities can be shown to be equal

to:

sin(mx) sin(nx) dx = mn , m, n 1

a1 a2 a3 (where mn is the Kronecker delta), and

a1 (a2 a3 )

(it may be advantageous for the sake of simplifying cal-

culations, to work in such a cartesian coordinate system, cos(mx) sin(nx) dx = 0;

5.1 Compact groups 7

Plancherels theorem.

If c0 , c1 , c2 , . . . are co-

ecients and n= |cn |2 < then there is a

unique function f L2 ([, ]) such that f(n) =

cn for every n.

The rst convolution theorem states that if f and g

are in L1 ([, ]), the Fourier series coecients of

the 2-periodic convolution of f and g are given by:

[f\

2 g](n) = 2 f(n) g(n),

[nb 4]

Sines and cosines form an orthonormal set, as illustrated above.

The integral of sine, cosine and their product is zero (green and where:

red areas are equal, and cancel out) when m, n or the functions

are dierent, and pi only if m and n are equal, and the function

used is the same.

def

( def ( ))

[f 2 g] (x) = f (u) g[pv(x u)]du, and pv(x) =Arg eix

| {z }

furthermore, the sines and cosines are orthogonal to the value principal

constant function 1. An orthonormal basis for L2 ([,])

consisting of real functions is formed by the functions 1 = f (u) g(x u) du, 2 is g(x) when-periodic.

of their span is a consequence of the StoneWeierstrass = f (u) g(x u) du, 2 are functions both when2 any over i

theorem, but follows also from the properties of classical 2

kernels like the Fejr kernel. The second convolution theorem states that the

Fourier series coecients of the product of f and

g are given by the discrete convolution of the f and

5 Properties g sequences:

function on R which is k times dierentiable, and its kth [fd

g](n) = [f g](n).

derivative is continuous.

all n.

Main articles: Compact group, Lie group, and Peter

If f is a 2-periodic even function, then bn = 0 for Weyl theorem

all n.

If f is integrable, lim|n| f(n) = 0 , One of the interesting properties of the Fourier transform

limn+ an = 0 and limn+ bn = 0. This re- which we have mentioned, is that it carries convolutions

sult is known as the RiemannLebesgue lemma. to pointwise products. If that is the property which we

seek to preserve, one can produce Fourier series on any

A doubly innite sequence {an} in c0 (Z) is the se-

1 compact group. Typical examples include those classical

quence of Fourier coecients of a function in L ([0,

groups that are compact. This generalizes the Fourier

2]) if and only if it is a convolution of two se-

2 [12] transform to all spaces of the form L2 (G), where G is a

quences in (Z) . See

compact group, in such a way that the Fourier transform

If f C 1 (T) , then the Fourier coecients fb (n) carries convolutions to pointwise products. The Fourier

of the derivative f can be expressed in terms of the series exists and converges in similar ways to the [,]

Fourier coecients f(n) of the function f, via the case.

formula fb (n) = inf(n) . An alternative extension to compact groups is the Peter

Weyl theorem, which proves results about representations

If f C k (T) , then fd (k) (n) = (in)k f(n) .

of compact groups analogous to those about nite groups.

In particular, since fd(k) (n) tends to zero, we have

Fourier coecients converge to zero faster than the 5.2 Riemannian manifolds

kth power of n.

Main articles: Laplace operator and Riemannian mani-

Parsevals theorem. If f belongs

to L 2

([, ]), then fold

(n)|2 = 1 |f (x)|2 dx .

n= | f 2

8 6 APPROXIMATION AND CONVERGENCE OF FOURIER SERIES

We say that p is a trigonometric polynomial of degree N

when it is of the form

N

can be used to produce Fourier series on the sphere. p(x) = pn einx .

n=N

If the domain is not a group, then there is no intrinsi- Note that fN is a trigonometric polynomial of degree N.

cally dened convolution. However, if X is a compact Parsevals theorem implies that

Riemannian manifold, it has a LaplaceBeltrami oper-

ator. The LaplaceBeltrami operator is the dierential Theorem. The trigonometric polynomial

operator that corresponds to Laplace operator for the Rie- fN is the unique best trigonometric polynomial

mannian manifold X. Then, by analogy, one can consider of degree N approximating f(x), in the sense

heat equations on X. Since Fourier arrived at his basis that, for any trigonometric polynomial p fN

by attempting to solve the heat equation, the natural gen- of degree N, we have

eralization is to use the eigensolutions of the Laplace

Beltrami operator as a basis. This generalizes Fourier se- fN f 2 < p f 2 ,

2

ries to spaces of the type L (X), where X is a Riemannian where the Hilbert space norm is dened as:

manifold. The Fourier series converges in ways similar to

the [, ] case. A typical example is to take X to be the

sphere with the usual metric, in which case the Fourier 1

g2 = |g(x)|2 dx.

basis consists of spherical harmonics. 2

Main article: Pontryagin duality Main article: Convergence of Fourier series

See also: Gibbs phenomenon

The generalization to compact groups discussed above

does not generalize to noncompact, nonabelian groups. Because of the least squares property, and because of the

However, there is a straightfoward generalization to Lo- completeness of the Fourier basis, we obtain an elemen-

cally Compact Abelian (LCA) groups. tary convergence result.

This generalizes the Fourier transform to L1 (G) or L2 (G), Theorem. If f belongs to L2 ([, ]), then f converges

where G is an LCA group. If G is compact, one also to f in L2 ([, ]), that is, fN f 2 converges to 0 as

obtains a Fourier series, which converges similarly to the N .

[, ] case, but if G is noncompact, one obtains instead

We have already mentioned that if f is continuously dif-

a Fourier integral. This generalization yields the usual

ferentiable, then (i n)f(n) is the nth Fourier coe-

Fourier transform when the underlying locally compact

cient of the derivative f. It follows, essentially from

Abelian group is R.

the CauchySchwarz inequality, that f is absolutely

summable. The sum of this series is a continuous func-

tion, equal to f, since the Fourier series converges in the

6 Approximation and convergence mean to f:

of Fourier series Theorem. If f C 1 (T) , then f converges to f

uniformly (and hence also pointwise.)

An important question for the theory as well as applica-

This result can be proven easily if f is further assumed

tions is that of convergence. In particular, it is often

nec-

to be C 2 , since in that case n2 f(n) tends to zero as n

essary in applications to replace the innite series

. More generally, the Fourier series is absolutely

by a nite one,

summable, thus converges uniformly to f, provided that

f satises a Hlder condition of order > . In the

absolutely summable case, the inequality supx |f (x)

N

fN (x) = inx

f (n)e . fN (x)| |n|>N |f(n)| proves uniform convergence.

n=N

Many other results concerning the convergence of Fourier

This is called a partial sum. We would like to know, in series are known, ranging from the moderately simple re-

which sense does fN(x) converge to f(x) as N . sult that the series converges at x if f is dierentiable at x,

9

the Fourier series of an L2 function actually converges

almost everywhere. [1] These three did some important early work on the wave

equation, especially D'Alembert. Eulers work in this

These theorems, and informal variations of them that

area was mostly comtemporaneous/ in collaboration with

don't specify the convergence conditions, are sometimes Bernoulli, although the latter made some independent

referred to generically as Fouriers theorem or the contributions to the theory of waves and vibrations (see

Fourier theorem.[13][14][15][16] here, pg.s 209 & 210, ).

[2] Since the integral dening the Fourier transform of a pe-

riodic function is not convergent, it is necessary to view

6.3 Divergence the periodic function

{ 2nxand} its transform as distributions. In

this sense F ei P is a Dirac delta function, which is

Since Fourier series have such good convergence prop-

an example of a distribution.

erties, many are often surprised by some of the nega-

tive results. For example, the Fourier series of a contin- [3] These words are not strictly Fouriers. Whilst the cited ar-

uous T-periodic function need not converge pointwise. ticle does list the author as Fourier, a footnote indicates

The uniform boundedness principle yields a simple non- that the article was actually written by Poisson (that it was

constructive proof of this fact. not written by Fourier is also clear from the consistent use

of the third person to refer to him) and that it is, for rea-

In 1922, Andrey Kolmogorov published an article ti- sons of historical interest, presented as though it were

tled Une srie de Fourier-Lebesgue divergente presque Fouriers original memoire.

partout in which he gave an example of a Lebesgue-

[4] The scale factor is always equal to the period, 2 in this

integrable function whose Fourier series diverges almost case.

everywhere. He later constructed an example of an inte-

grable function whose Fourier series diverges everywhere

(Katznelson 1976).

9 References

[1] John Stillwell, Logic and Philosophy of mathematics in

7 See also the nineteenth century, Routledge History of Philosophy

Volume VII (2013) p. 204.

[3] Lejeune-Dirichlet, P. (1829). "Sur la convergence des

Dirichlet kernel sries trigonomtriques qui servent reprsenter une fonc-

tion arbitraire entre des limites donnes" [On the con-

Discrete Fourier transform vergence of trigonometric series which serve to represent

an arbitrary function between two given limits]. Journal

Fast Fourier transform fr die reine und angewandte Mathematik (in French). 4:

157169.

Fejrs theorem [4] Ueber die Darstellbarkeit einer Function durch eine

trigonometrische Reihe [About the representability of a

Fourier analysis function by a trigonometric series]. Habilitationsschrift,

Gttingen; 1854. Abhandlungen der Kniglichen

Fourier sine and cosine series Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gttingen, vol. 13,

1867. Published posthumously for Riemann by Richard

Dedekind (in German). Archived from the original on 20

Fourier transform

May 2008. Retrieved 19 May 2008.

the Representation of Functions by Trigonometric Se-

Laurent series the substitution q = eix transforms a ries (1867). Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics

Fourier series into a Laurent series, or conversely. 16401940, Ivor Grattan-Guinness (ed.); pg. 492. Else-

vier, 20 May 2005. Accessed 7 Dec 2012.

This is used in the q-series expansion of the j-

invariant. [6] Theory of Complex Functions: Readings in Mathematics,

by Reinhold Remmert; pg 29. Springer, 1991. Accessed

Multidimensional transform 7 Dec 2012.

[7] Nerlove, Marc; Grether, David M.; Carvalho, Jose L.

Spectral theory (1995). Analysis of Economic Time Series. Economic The-

ory, Econometrics, and Mathematical Economics. Else-

SturmLiouville theory vier. ISBN 0-12-515751-7.

10 10 EXTERNAL LINKS

[8] Flugge, Wilhelm (1957). Statik und Dynamik der Schalen. Walter Rudin (1976). Principles of mathematical

Berlin: Springer-Verlag. analysis (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.

ISBN 0-07-054235-X.

[9] Dorf, Richard C.; Tallarida, Ronald J. (1993-07-15).

Pocket Book of Electrical Engineering Formulas (1 ed.). A. Zygmund (2002). Trigonometric series (third

Boca Raton,FL: CRC Press. pp. 171174. ISBN ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

0849344735.

ISBN 0-521-89053-5. The rst edition was pub-

[10] Georgi P. Tolstov (1976). Fourier Series. Courier-Dover. lished in 1935.

ISBN 0-486-63317-9.

Oeuvres de Fourier. 1888, pp. 218219 (in French). 10 External links

Gallica.bnf.fr. 2007-10-15. Retrieved 2014-08-08.

thefouriertransform.com Fourier Series as a prelude

[12] fa.functional analysis - Characterizations of a linear sub-

to the Fourier Transform

space associated with Fourier series. MathOverow.

2010-11-19. Retrieved 2014-08-08. Characterizations of a linear subspace associated

[13] William McC. Siebert (1985). Circuits, signals, and sys- with Fourier series

tems. MIT Press. p. 402. ISBN 978-0-262-19229-3.

An interactive ash tutorial for the Fourier Series

[14] L. Marton; Claire Marton (1990). Advances in Electronics

and Electron Physics. Academic Press. p. 369. ISBN

Phasor Phactory Allows custom control of the har-

978-0-12-014650-5. monic amplitudes for arbitrary terms

[15] Hans Kuzmany (1998). Solid-state spectroscopy. Fourier Series 3D interactive demonstration

Springer. p. 14. ISBN 978-3-540-63913-8. HTML5 and JavaScript webpage: Interactive

Fourier Series demonstration (time, frequency,

[16] Karl H. Pribram; Kunio Yasue; Mari Jibu (1991). Brain magnitude and phase axes in 3D view)

and perception. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. p. 26.

ISBN 978-0-89859-995-4. Java applet shows Fourier series expansion of an ar-

bitrary function

9.1 Further reading Example problems Examples of computing

Fourier Series

William E. Boyce; Richard C. DiPrima (2005). Ele-

mentary Dierential Equations and Boundary Value Hazewinkel, Michiel, ed. (2001), Fourier series,

Problems (8th ed.). New Jersey: John Wiley & Encyclopedia of Mathematics, Springer, ISBN 978-

Sons, Inc. ISBN 0-471-43338-1. 1-55608-010-4

Joseph Fourier, translated by Alexander Free- Weisstein, Eric W. Fourier Series. MathWorld.

man (published 1822, translated 1878, re-released

2003). The Analytical Theory of Heat. Dover Pub- Fourier Series Module by John H. Mathews

lications. ISBN 0-486-49531-0. Check date values

in: |date= (help) 2003 unabridged republication of Joseph Fourier A site on Fouriers life which was

the 1878 English translation by Alexander Freeman used for the historical section of this article at the

of Fouriers work Thorie Analytique de la Chaleur, Wayback Machine (archived December 5, 2001)

originally published in 1822. SFU.ca 'Fourier Theorem'

Enrique A. Gonzalez-Velasco (1992). Connections

Example of the mechanical generation of a Fourier

in Mathematical Analysis: The Case of Fourier Se-

series to draw a plane curve, Fourier curve tracing

ries. American Mathematical Monthly. 99 (5):

427441. doi:10.2307/2325087.

This article incorporates material from example of Fourier

Katznelson, Yitzhak (1976). An introduction to series on PlanetMath, which is licensed under the Creative

harmonic analysis (Second corrected ed.). New Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.

York: Dover Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-486-63331-

4.

Felix Klein, Development of mathematics in the 19th

century. Mathsci Press Brookline, Mass, 1979.

Translated by M. Ackerman from Vorlesungen ber

die Entwicklung der Mathematik im 19 Jahrhundert,

Springer, Berlin, 1928.

11

11.1 Text

Fourier series Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourier_series?oldid=762814082 Contributors: The Anome, Tarquin, PierreAbbat,

DrBob, Michael Hardy, Nixdorf, Delirium, Loisel, Looxix~enwiki, Ahoerstemeier, Stevenj, Drz~enwiki, Charles Matthews, Dysprosia,

Samsara, Robbot, Hankwang, MathMartin, Sverdrup, Prara, Wile E. Heresiarch, Tea2min, Pdenapo, Giftlite, MathKnight, Waltpohl,

Mboverload, CryptoDerk, Knutux, LucasVB, Antandrus, Anythingyouwant, Lumidek, Ribamar, Cvalente, ELApro, Thorwald, Edudobay,

D6, Rich Farmbrough, Gadykozma, DonDiego, Paul August, Bender235, ZeroOne, Gaussmarkov, Maqsarian, Bobo192, Johnteslade, Matt

Britt, La goutte de pluie, Samadam, Cherlin, Hectigo, LutzL, Msh210, Arthena, PAR, RJFJR, Oleg Alexandrov, Tbsmith, Jacobolus, MFH,

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navedala, DVdm, Bgwhite, FrankTobia, YurikBot, Wavelength, Bambaiah, Sceptre, RussBot, Hede2000, Grubber, Archelon, Rsrikanth05,

Theshadow27, LMSchmitt, Gareth Jones, Mccready, Jperret, Bota47, Ms2ger, Tetracube, Petri Krohn, Tyomitch, Raeyin, Cmglee,

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Colonies Chris, Bob K, Tamfang, Dreadstar, Eliyak, Jim.belk, Lim Wei Quan, Dicklyon, Waggers, JoeBot, Martin Kozk, AlsatianRain,

Paul Matthews, CRGreathouse, CmdrObot, Jackzhp, Shorespirit, HenningThielemann, Unmitigated Success, Myasuda, BigGoose2006,

A.kverma, Kupirijo, Wrwrwr, ChrisKennedy, Entangledphotons, Quibik, Doug Weller, Robertinventor, Hanche, Kablammo, The Hy-

brid, Jomoal99, Futurebird, Escarbot, BigJohnHenry, Sbandrews, Eleuther, Trlkly, Thenub314, Spamicles, Coee2theorems, Richard

Giuly, VoABot II, AuburnPilot, Hypergeek14, Jaakobou, JJ Harrison, 28421u2232nfenfcenc, Tenniszaz, MartinBot, Mrten Berglund,

Nono64, JonathonReinhart, Lld2006, MistyMorn, Mike.lifeguard, Falquaddoomi, Jacksonwalters, Gombang, Policron, DorganBot, Jux-

tapos99, Natl1, LovaAndriamanjay, PowerWill500, Idioma-bot, VolkovBot, JohnBlackburne, LokiClock, AlnoktaBOT, Bovineboy2008,

Philip Trueman, Beng186, One zero one, Hesam7, DennyColt, Mr. PIM, GirasoleDE, SieBot, Zbvhs, Faradayplank, RSStockdale, OKBot,

Anchor Link Bot, Denisarona, Loren.wilton, ClueBot, Stokito, Mild Bill Hiccup, Excirial, Justin545, PixelBot, Brews ohare, Wikeepedian,

Danielsimonjr, Ant59, DumZiBoT, AlanM1, XLinkBot, Galoisgroupie, Charles Sturm, Simplix, RyanCross, Addbot, Olli Niemitalo,

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mats, PavelSolin, Obersachsebot, Xqbot, Bdmy, Adrian Wiemer, Jhbdel, RibotBOT, AliceNovak, Charithjayanada, Constructive editor,

FrescoBot, Anterior1, Sawomir Biay, PiratePi, Citation bot 1, Lost-n-translation, Alipson, Jonesey95, Ashok567, Tcnuk, Rthimmig,

TobeBot, Lotje, Afreiden, 777sms, Gzorg, Bj norge, Dalba, Kakahw, Fblasqueswiki, Newty23125, Teckcheong, EmausBot, KHamsun,

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Sebasgonky, GreenC bot and Anonymous: 336

11.2 Images

File:AtomicOrbital_n4_l2.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/04/AtomicOrbital_n4_l2.png License: CC-

BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons by Zinder using CommonsHelper. Original artist: The original

uploader was DMacks at English Wikipedia

File:Fourier_Series.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2c/Fourier_Series.svg License: Public domain Con-

tributors: Own work Original artist: Jim.belk

File:Fourier_heat_in_a_plate.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a7/Fourier_heat_in_a_plate.png Li-

cense: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Loisel at English Wikipedia

File:Fourier_series_and_transform.gif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2b/Fourier_series_and_

transform.gif License: CC0 Contributors: File:Fourier transform time and frequency domains (small).gif Original artist: Lucas V. Barbosa

File:Fourier_series_integral_identities.gif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a2/Fourier_series_integral_

identities.gif License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: LucasVB

File:Fourier_series_sawtooth_wave_circles_animation.gif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7e/Fourier_

series_sawtooth_wave_circles_animation.gif License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Cmglee

File:Fourier_series_square_wave_circles_animation.gif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1a/Fourier_

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File:Periodic_identity_function.gif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e8/Periodic_identity_function.gif Li-

cense: Public domain Contributors: No machine-readable source provided. Own work assumed (based on copyright claims). Original artist:

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utors: Own work Original artist: Krishnavedala

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