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Environmental issues in Bangladesh

The sum total of all surroundings of a living organism, including natural


forces and other living things, which provide conditions for development and
growth as well as of danger and damage.

We can divided environmental issues in Bangladesh into two terms-

1. Short Term

2. Long Term

Environmental
issues

1. Short 2. Long
Term Term
1. Waste disposal 1.Public Health issue
2. Public health issue 2.Air pollution
3. Sound pollution 3.Water pollution
4. Natural disaster 4.urbanization &
Institutionalization
(Flood, drought, cyclone, 5.soil pollution
Soil waste) 6.artifacial fertilizer

7. Natural
disaster (earthquake)

8. Population
growth (gender issue)

9. Migration

10. Deforestation

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Waste Disposal: The over consumption of resources and creation of plastics are
creating a global crisis of waste disposal. Developed countries are notorious for
producing an excessive amount of waste or garbage and dumping their waste in the
oceans and, less developed countries. Nuclear waste disposal has tremendous
health hazards associated with it. Plastic, fast food, packaging and cheap electronic
wastes threaten the well being of humans. Waste disposal is one of urgent current
environmental problem.

Public health issue

Public health has improved markedly in Bangladesh over the past three decades.
Life expectancy at birth is approximately 70 years, just above the World Health
Organizations world average of 69 years. Maternal mortality, infant and child
mortality, and malnutrition rates have all declined substantially, and Bangladesh is
on track to achieve its Millennium Development Goals for maternal and child health.
Nevertheless, Bangladesh faces major health challenges. The national population is
projected to grow to between 200 to 225 million over the next four decades. While
fertility has declined, women have on average 2.3 children, and only about half use
modern and effective contraceptive methods.

Nevertheless, Bangladesh faces major health challenges. The national


population is projected to grow to between 200 to 225 million over the next
four decades. While fertility has declined, women have on average 2.3
children, and only about half use modern and effective contraceptive
methods. Despite improvements in maternal health, Bangladesh still ranks
in the bottom fourth of countries worldwide with approximately 240 deaths
per 100,000 live births. Only one-in-four births takes place in a health care
facility, putting both mothers and babies at risk. Although infant and child
mortality is decreasing, poor nutrition is a critical health problem in
Bangladesh. About half of children age 6-59 months suffers from anemia;
four-in-ten are stunted; and one in three is underweight. Bangladesh has
one of the worst burdens of childhood malnutrition in the world.

Communicable diseases are a major cause of death and disability in


Bangladesh. While the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) has declined
substantially, Bangladesh still ranks among the top ten countries in the world
with the highest TB burden. The disease is found primarily among the poor
and least educated populations. Pneumonia and water-borne diseases also

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are widely prevalent. Pneumonia and other infections are major causes of
death among young children.

The toll of non-communicable diseases chronic diseases, cancer, diabetes,


cardiovascular diseases, and chronic respiratory diseases is increasing in
Bangladesh as the population becomes more urbanized. In the first national
survey to measure blood pressure and blood glucose, about one in three
women and about one in five men age 35 and older has elevated blood
pressure and roughly one in ten has elevated blood glucose, an indication of
diabetes. Cancer is the sixth leading cause of death in Bangladesh,
accounting for more than 150,000 deaths annually.

Sound pollution

Sound is unwanted noise .When there is lot of noise in the environment, it is


termed as noise pollution.

World Health Organization stated that Noise must be recognized as


a major threat to human well-being

Transportation systems are


the main source of noise
pollution in urban areas.

Construction of buildings,
highways, and streets cause
a lot
of noise, due to the usage of
air compressors, bulldozers,
loaders, dump trucks, and
pavement breakers.

Industrial noise
3 also adds to
the already unfavorable
Loud speakers, plumbing,
boilers, generators, air
conditioners, fans, and
vacuum cleaners add to the
existing
noise pollution.

Air Pollution

The condition in which the air is contaminated by foreign


substantences or the substances themselves.

This contamination of air causes harm or discomfort to humans,


animals, plants and the whole environment itself.

Different types of Air Pollution

Smog

Green House Effect

Accidental Air Pollution

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Industrial Air Pollution

Transport related Air pollution

Thousands of people in Bangladeshs capital, Dhaka, are dying


prematurely because of air pollution.

An estimated 15,000 deaths, as well as several million cases of


pulmonary, respiratory and neurological illness are attributed to poor air
quality.

According to WHO vehicular air pollution is a major cause of respiratory


distress in urban Bangladesh

Migration

About 15 million people in Bangladesh alone could be on the move by 2050 because
of climate change causing the worst migration in human history. There is no specific
definition for environmental migrants. But the working definition which is now
widely accepted across countries asserts that those who have been forced to leave
their traditional habitat temporarily or permanently because of marked
environmental disruption that jeopardize their existence and seriously affected the
quality of their life are identified as environmental migrants.

Deforestation: Our forests are natural sinks of carbon dioxide and produce fresh
oxygen as well as helps in regulating temperature and rainfall. At present forests
cover 30% of the land but every year tree cover is lost amounting to the country of
Panama due to growing population demand for more food, shelter and cloth.
Deforestation simply means clearing of green cover and make that land available
for residential, industrial or commercial purpose.

Water Pollution.

Water pollution creates serious health hazard for Bangladesh. The dumping of municipal wastes,
hospital wastes and toxic environmental discharges from mostly industries pollute both surface
and ground water sources. The most dangerous threat emanating from environmental degradation
is the arsenic contamination of ground water.

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Artificial fertilizer

Chemical fertilizers are primarily made from nonrenewable sources, including fossil
fuels.

They grow plants but do nothing to sustain the soil. The fillers do not promote life or soil
health, and even packages labeled complete do not include the decaying matter
necessary to improve soil structure. In fact, chemical fertilizers dont replace many trace
elements that are gradually depleted by repeated crop plantings, resulting in long-term
damage to the soil.

Because the nutrients are readily available, there is a danger of over fertilization. This not
only can kill plants but upset the entire ecosystem.

Chemical fertilizers tend to leach, or filter away from the plants, requiring additional
applications.

Repeated applications may result in a toxic buildup of chemicals such as arsenic,


cadmium, and uranium in the soil. These toxic chemicals can eventually make their way
into your fruits and vegetables.

Long-term use of chemical fertilizer can change the soil pH, upset beneficial microbial
ecosystems, increase pests, and even contribute to the release of greenhouse gases.