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Unit: Turn of the Century

Unit Set: Done at the end of the previous class (a test


day) - 5 minutes
Students will watch this video describing the dangers of wealth inequality:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Xa9T2OMzmw
- What does the speaker mean when they say not all men [and women] are
created equal? (some are born rich)
- What problems does this cause? (they take all the wealth for themselves and
keep it from the poor)
Explain to students that history has taught us what happens if wealth inequality
continues unchecked, and that will be the focus of this unit.
- Ask when the car, the airplane, and the factory were invented. Have students
look it up if they dont know (invented at the turn of the century)
o Why are those inventions so significant? (make our lives easier)

Explain that it also made it a lot easier to make money, and when money is
involved, things tend to get out of hand.
Students will be presented with the following objectives and generalizations to keep
in mind for the next unit.
GENERALIZATIONS
- Technological progress may lead to opportunity but it may also lead to
corruption.
- Given the resources, companies and governments are capable of both harm
and good.
UNIT OBJECTIVES
- TSWBAT describe the working conditions of the 1900s, discuss why these
working conditions became so bad, and explain how legislation impacted
immigrants, minorities, the wealthy, and the poor.
- TSWBAT describe the new role media and other technologies had in
influencing the daily lives of Americans.
Unit: Turn of the Century

Robber Barons
Topic Grade/Class Date
th
Robber Barons 10 Grade US History 11/22/16
Standards History 2e Econ 1a 1d 3b Math 2a
Content objective(s) Language objective(s)
TSWBAT describe how the Robber TSWBAT use language skills to create a slogan for
Barons got their reputation, and a bumper sticker in relation to the Robber Barons.
apply that knowledge by creating
a bumper sticker.
Key vocabulary: Predatory pricing, Corruption, Monopoly
Essential Question(s)? How did the Robber Barons get their bad reputation?

Time: 45 Instructional Techniques and Activities


m
Pass out Handout 1. Briefly explain new grading policy and wait for
screams and crying. (if no screams or crying, wait instead for a slight
sign of distress.)
- Why do you all seem so upset?
- Cant I do whatever I want? Im the teacher, arent I? Its my
classroom, Im the one that makes the rules.
- Heres the problem. If you guys arent working, youre living your
Engager lives and not making ME any money.
5 mins - While youre not working, I have to teach you. That takes time
out of my busy schedule of improving the world for humanity.
Announce that Im not serious.
Have students write a sentence or two about why they thought the new
grading policy is unfair and then share with a neighbor. (ACCT: notebook
check, 30 pts)
If time left in this segment, have some students share with the class.
(H2e)
Informati Mention to students the relevance of the opener, and back up a bit to
on review the industrial revolution and its new technology.
20 mins - Does anyone remember from world studies what important
worldwide event happened at the turn of the century?
- Why was it so significant?
Economy changed from agriculture to factories and industry.
- I was trying to buy the iPhone 5 on the day it came out and it was
$400. Now you can find them for $175. Why do you think that is?
(new things are more expensive)
- Its not fun for the buyer to have to pay more, but what if youre
the one selling them? Do you like the price high like that? Why?
(make more money)
- So if youre a farmers son or an immigrant and you hear about an
opportunity to make more money in this new factory thing in the
city than you ever would on a farm, what do you want to do?
(move to work in a factory)
Explain that this is a common idea. Explain the accomplishments of
Unit: Turn of the Century

Rockefeller, Morgan, Carnegie, and Vanderbilt. (E1d) Define MONOPOLY


(complete control of entire market) (E3b)
- Why would people look up to them?
- How do you think these guys got this rich? Was it honestly, by
following the rules? Or do you think they cheated a little bit or
stepped on some toes?
Shift gears to the origin of the term robber baron.
- Ask a random student what a robber is. The answer is probably
right.
- Ask class what a baron is. The answer may not be right. Ask a
student to look it up if nobody knows.
- Predict how the owner of a massive company like Rockefeller and
Carnegie whos rich beyond compare might be a robber baron,
and tell them to remember my example. (mistreats
workers/cheats them out of money/labor)
- Use the word corrupt. (dishonest or illegal behavior by
powerful people)
o Check if students know definition.
Explain various tactics of robber barons.
- Call 2 student representatives to the front of the room. Hand them
cards with their names on them for each demonstration.
- Round 1: Paying low wages.
o Name cards: Carnegie, worker
o Assume Carnegie makes $500 a month. He owes the worker
$200 a month.
- Do 500-200 on the board. (M2a)
o Ask class: What can you buy with an extra $200?
o Inform Carnegie that he runs the company and can do
whatever he wants to the workers, including just keeping
some of their wages for himself to grow his wealth.
- Round 2: Buying out suppliers (E1a)
o Name cards: Carnegie, Resource owner, Carnegies
competition
o The resource owner has 4 available units of iron ore.
Carnegie needs 2 units to run his company successfully. He
can afford all 4. Carnegies competition hasnt bought their
supply of ore yet.
o Ask Carnegie: Youre out to make the most money you
possibly can, and you lose money for every competitor your
customers go to. So whats the best way to make the most
money possible? (buy resources so competition cant have
them)
- Round 3: Predatory Pricing
o Ask Class: Whats a predator? (an animal that hunts other
animals.) Write answer on the board.
o Hand out name cards: Carnegie, Carnegies competition,
Buyer.
o Establish that Carnegie and Carnegies competition make
Unit: Turn of the Century

the exact same steel, and to make one steel beam, it costs
Carnegie and Carnegies competition both $100. So how
much do they HAVE to sell it for to not lose money? ($100)
o Establish that Carnegie sells his steel at $200, and
Carnegies competition sells his steel at $150. Ask buyer:
Who will you buy from? (competition)
o Carnegie has such a big business he can afford to lose a
profit for a little while. What if Carnegie sells his steel at
$90? Without knowing that, buyer, who do you buy from?
o Ask competition: What do you do now? You cant sell
cheaper than Carnegie because then youd lose more profit.
Youre out of options and you just lost all your customers.
(go out of business)
o CFU: Why is that called predatory pricing?
- CFU: When poor people heard this was happening, what did they
start to think of the Robber Barons that were exploiting them?
Explain that, like many billionaires do today, the Robber Barons began to
donate to charity to try to make up for their exploitation (though the
exploitation continued all the same). Emphasize the irony of trying to
help the poor people they made (and are continually making) poor.
Activity Begin by showing examples of modern bumper stickers. Maybe mine.
15 mins - What is the purpose of a bumper sticker? (to show off your opinion
or identity)
Show examples of political bumper stickers from past presidencies
(nothing recent).
- What kind of language do these stickers use?
Mention that bumper sticker slogans are simple and catchy, and many
times humorous.
Students will have the opportunity to create their own bumper sticker as
if they were a poor worker at the turn of the century.
The sticker should:
1. Have color and an image of some kind
2. Show effort
3. Answer the question What would I think of the Robber Barons if I
was a poor worker in the 1890s - 1900s?
Closure - Did I scare you guys at the beginning at all? Why?
5 mins As a ticket out the door, students will revisit the handout, and explain
how 3 things I said sound like what got the Robber Barons their
reputation.
Materials needed: Accountability:
Paper, cut horizontally (80) Notebook check (end of unit): 30 points
Handout 1 (75) Bumper sticker: 20 points

Handout 1
Dear Students,
Unit: Turn of the Century

It has come to my attention that students are not producing the quality and
quantity of work they are capable of. It is for this reason that I am instituting
a new grading policy.
From now on, I will require a 5-page paper to be submitted to me every week
on the material we are currently learning. There will be no late work
tolerated. I will not listen to concerns regarding this matter. These papers will
be worth 100% of your grade for this class, so you might struggle with this
for the rest of the time youre in my class. Dont worry, though, if it seems
like Im being too harsh. I can make it a little better: Ill be here to proofread
your papers anytime you want me to.
Im implementing this policy because I make more money the more students
learn, and what better way to learn than constantly writing papers! And also
because its my class, so I make the rules. I worked hard to be here, so I can
make everyone else work hard too, because Im the one making the money
doing this stuff in the long run.
Yours,
Ms. Restivo

Bumper Sticker Rubric


CATEGORY 5 3 1 0
Relevance All graphics are related All graphics are related All graphics relate to Graphics do not relate
of Images to the topic and make it to the topic and most the topic. to the topic.
easier to understand. make it easier to
understand.
Required The sticker includes all All required elements are All but 1 of the Several required
Elements required elements as included on the poster. required elements elements were
well as additional are included on the missing.
information. poster.
Clarity Image can be easily Image cannot be easily Image cannot be Image is absent OR
identified and the identified OR slogan can easily identified AND slogan is absent.
slogan is readable from be read from 4 ft. away. slogan can be read
6 ft. away. from 4 ft. away.
Use of Used time well during Used time well during Used some of the Did not use class time
Class Time class period. Focused class period. Usually time well during class to focus on the project
on getting the project focused on getting the period. There was OR often distracted
done. Never distracted project done and never some focus on others.
others. distracted others. getting the project
done but occasionally
distracted others.
Unit: Turn of the Century

Immigrants
Topic Grade/Class Date
th
Immigrants 10 Grade US History 11/22/16
Standards History 2g 2h Writing 2a 3a
Content objective(s) Language objective(s)
TSWBAT describe the quality of life of TSWBAT use informal language to create
many immigrants in the 1900s by fictional accounts of life as an immigrant in
writing a letter home as a 1900s the 1900s in the form of a friendly letter.
immigrant.
Key vocabulary: Immigrate, Emigrate, Social Darwinism
Essential Question(s)? What was the nature of the immigrant experience at the
turn of the century?
Time: 45 Instructional Techniques and Activities
m
Begin by sharing a photo of my great-grandparents, who came from
Russia (one side) and Italy (the other)in the 1930s
- Stand up if you or your parents were born in another country.
Students go around the room sharing what country their family is mostly
from. This includes students who are not first or second generation
Engager
immigrants. Tally each different country as students mention them.
10 Mins
There should be a relatively diverse population on the board.
Ask students to reflect on a scale of 1 to 10 whether they think life as the
first immigrant of their family coming to a new country is easy or
difficult. Tell them to justify their answers in their notebooks and share
their responses with their neighbors.
Informati Begin by briefly discussing the concept of evolution in the following way.
on Check for prior knowledge of the theory and make sure to disclaim that
10 mins this is only one of the many interpretations of how humans got on earth.
Use an example of bugs on a leaf. Show visual aids.
- Usually the leaves in this area of the forest are green. The bugs
are also usually green, because it helps them camouflage with the
leaves and avoid frogs that want to eat them. Sometimes, though,
the bugs are blue, and the frogs can see them easily. The blue
bugs are usually the first ones to be eaten.
- Then, a new species of plant starts to grow in the forest whose
leaves are blue instead of green. The plants with green leaves
begin to die out.
- How does this help the blue bug?
- After this happens which color bug would be eaten more?
Introduce the term survival of the fittest
- Ask students to explain the term in relation to the example.
Attribute quote to Charles Darwin.
- Ask students to define social.
- Ask students to then predict the meaning of social Darwinism
(the poor were meant to be poor)
Mention conditions in other countries, like China (boxer rebellion and
political unrest), Ireland (potato famine), and Eastern Europe (religious
Unit: Turn of the Century

unrest).
- What did we talk about yesterday? Whats happening in America?
(industry is growing, opportunity)
- Ask students if anyone has ever heard of the American Dream.
- What do you want to do if you hear of a country far away that
offers you opportunities you wouldnt get in your home country?
(go there)
- Introduce vocab: Immigrate and Emigrate
Pass out Handout 1. Have the students complete the guided notes while
viewing the following clip: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LfvxpPlYC0
(Coming to America: New Yorks immigrants)

Revisit social Darwinism, use Irish as an example. (H2g)


- If youre Irish and cant find a job because people are prejudiced
against you for being Irish, what dont you have? (money)
- And what do you need to live that you cannot afford if you dont
have money? (food, housing)
Explain that if a child is not given opportunities to succeed while growing
up due to circumstances outside their control (like racism), it makes
them more likely to be poor in the future.
- Why is this?
- Now think like a racist. If you see this cycle over and over with
people who dont look like you, what might you start to think is the
reason it happens to them and not you? (its because theyre Irish)
- How does this sound like social Darwinism?
- Did this idea help or hurt the immigrants? How?
Transition to activity: Do you think some immigrants might even be
missing their home country?
Briefly explaining friendly letter writing format using the model, and
ask that students take out a piece of notebook paper.
Revisiting the opening engager, the students will choose a nation of their
heritage, and write a 1-page letter to a relative (real or imaginary) about
their experiences as an immigrant to the United States in the 1900s.
(W2a;3a)
Activity The letter should:
20 mins 1. Be written in first person
2. Be between and 1 page
3. Answer the following questions:
a. What is a day in the life of an immigrant like?
b. What is housing/work like?
c. How do you feel about America? Do you miss home? (H2h)
Ask students to share one thing they wrote with their neighbor.
Ask students to revisit their 1-10 scale from the beginning of the lesson.
- How many of you changed your number? (H2h)
Closure
Exit ticket:
5 mins
Students will take 3-5 sentences and explain their reasoning for changing
their number or keeping it the same. Students will explain why their
number changed/did not change, using examples.
Unit: Turn of the Century

Materials needed: Accountability:


Handout 1 (75) Notebook check (end of unit): 30 points
Model letter Letter: 20 points
Unit: Turn of the Century

Handout 1
Name: ___________________________

1. The first wave of immigrants hit the US in ____________________(year).


2. Most of the first wave of immigrants came from these 3 countries:
________________________________________________________________
3. The second wave of immigrants in the late 1840s came from Ireland
because of ________________________________________.
4. Many Italians, Poles, and Hungarians came to the US in the 1880s for:
(circle one)
economic opportunity / religious freedom / the Big Mac
5. Most immigrants travelled to the US by
________________________________.
6. Circle the area of the ship where poor immigrants would MOST LIKELY
be kept.

7. Immigrants with _____________________ or _____________________ were


sent back to their home countries, accounting for about ____% of
immigrants.
8. Irish immigrants were frequently persecuted because
___________________________.
9. The __________________________________ in 1882 banned further Chinese
immigration.
10. Briefly describe immigrant working conditions:
________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
11. Briefly describe immigrant living conditions:
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Unit: Turn of the Century

Letter Model
Dear Vladimir,
How are you? How is the family? I am well. I am having a
good time in America, though it is much different than I
thought it would be. We live in a house even smaller than
the one in Russia. To make ends meet, we need to work
day and night at multiple jobs. Even the children must
work to help us all survive. Its very hard, but were
making it work. My husband went to work at a factory,
but they barely pay him at all. Its so frustrating, just
thinking about the Robber Barons in their big mansions
while were in their factories slaving away! Not only that,
but we get so many dirty looks from the Americans here.
So, all in all, yes, its very difficult to be away from the
family and to be treated so poorly in this new country,
and sometimes I miss Russia very much. But, tomorrow is
a new day nonetheless.
With love,
Olga
Rubric
CATEGORY 5 3 1 0
Content The letter contains at The letter contains 3- The letter contains 1- The letter contains no
Accuracy least 5 accurate facts 4 accurate facts 2 accurate facts accurate facts about
about the topic. about the topic. about the topic. the topic.

Ideas Ideas were Ideas were Ideas were The letter seemed to
expressed in a clear expressed in a pretty somewhat organized, be a collection of
and organized clear manner, but the but were not very unrelated sentences.
fashion. It was easy organization could clear. It took more It was very difficult to
to figure out what the have been better. than one reading to figure out what the
letter was about. figure out what the letter was about.
letter was about.
Format Complies with all the Complies with almost Complies with Complies with less
requirements for a all the requirements several of the than 75% of the
friendly letter. for a friendly letter. requirements for a requirements for a
friendly letter. friendly letter.
Unit: Turn of the Century

Length The letter is 10 or The letter is 8-9 The letter is 5-7 The letter is less than
more sentences. sentences. sentences. 5 sentences.
Unit: Turn of the Century

Trusts
Topic Grade/Class Date
th
Progressives 10 Grade US History 11/22/16
Standards History 1a 2e Economics 1a 2d 3b Reading 2f
Content objective(s) Language objective(s)
TSWBAT describe the reasoning Students will read primary sources to gather
Roosevelt used in passing the Sherman evidence for a claim.
antitrust act by participating in a
simulation.
Key vocabulary: Commodity, Supply and Demand, Competitive Market,
Monopoly
Essential Question(s)? Why did trusts present a danger to the United States?

Time: 90 Instructional Techniques and Activities


m
As students arrive, hand them each 5 individual monopoly dollars.
Choose three random students to be vendors, and give them each 10
pens.
Explain that the pens are for sale and the students could really use a
new one, but dont really NEED it. The vendors job is to get the other
students to buy them and raise as much money as they can. They are
advertising and competing for business, so they must be creative with
pricing and marketing, including policy decisions like special deals. Each
vendor inhabits one corner of the room, and students are given 10
minutes to move around the room and buy and sell the pens.
After the buying period, each vendor counts their money. As the totals
are recorded, the pens are returned to the vendors and the cash is
returned to the customers, and the class discusses why the students
chose to buy pens from one vendor over another.
Engager - Was it difficult to make a profit?
25 mins - Was it difficult to choose which vendors to buy from?
- Does it make a difference that both other vendors are selling pens
as well?
Mention that the student who had the highest profit is buying out the
other two vendors and he/she is the only person who sells pens. There is
no other competition for this vendor. Give all the pens to him/her and
remind him/her that s/he is trying to make money and to change those
strategies accordingly. The rest of the class is told that they must buy at
least 2 pens or will receive an F on their next exam. Students are given
5 minutes to purchase their pens, and reconvene afterward.
- Was it difficult to make a profit?
- How did the vendor change their selling tactics?
- What problems did it cause?
- If you couldnt buy a pen, how did you feel knowing youd get an
F?
Unit: Turn of the Century

Introduce vocabulary. Have students predict meaning for each.


- Commodity (a widely available item that looks identical to others
of its type)
- Currency (money)
- Supply and Demand (Amount of goods for sale and the amount of
people to buy them)
o Explain large supply + small demand = cheap, small supply
+ large demand = expensive.
- Competitive market
- Monopoly/Trust
o What is the object of the game Monopoly? (to own the
Informati
whole board)
on
Reference the simulation.
15 mins
- What happens when one person controls the market?
Review.
- Who remembers us talking about the owners of these monopolies?
What did people call them? (Robber Barons)
- Who did they hire? (Immigrants and poor people)
- What was life like for them? Where did they live?
Explain the term Gilded Age
Ask the students for solutions to this problem.
- What can be done to remedy this?
Introduce students to progressivism, and transition to activity to explain
Sherman Anti-Trust act.
Students will receive handout 1. Students will read the speech and
underline the text whenever Roosevelt praises the trusts. Students will
Activity circle the text whenever he criticizes the trusts. Students will then
35 mins answer the questions on a separate sheet of paper.
- Were there parts that confused you?
If necessary dissect a few sentences with students, time permitting.
Students will discuss answers with class.
Ask students if similar situations occur today even when these laws are
Closure
in place.
10 mins
Exit ticket: Students will respond in 1-2 sentences.
Do trusts do more harm than good? Why?
Materials needed: Accountability:
30 cheap ballpoint pens Notebook check (end of unit): 30 points
$175 in monopoly singles Roosevelt questions: 18 points
Handout 1 (75)
Unit: Turn of the Century

Handout 1
The growth of cities has gone on beyond comparison faster than the growth
of the country, and the upbuilding of the great industrial centers has meant a
startling increase, not merely in the aggregate of wealth, but in the number of very
large individual, and especially of very large corporate, fortunes. The creation of
these great corporate fortunes has not been due to the tariff nor to any other
governmental action, but to natural causes in the business world, operating in other
countries as they operate in our own.
The process has aroused much antagonism, a great part of which is wholly
without warrant. It is not true that as the rich have grown richer the poor have
grown poorer. On the contrary, never before has the average man, the wage-
worker, the farmer, the small trader, been so well off as in this country and at the
present time. There have been abuses connected with the accumulation of wealth;
yet it remains true that successful enterprise, of the type which benefits all
mankind, can only exist if the conditions are such as to offer great prizes as the
rewards of success.
The captains of industry
who have driven the
railway systems across
this continent, who have
built up our commerce,
who have developed our
manufactures, have on the
whole done great good
to our people. Without
them the material
development of which
we are so justly proud
could never have taken place...
An additional reason for caution in dealing with corporations is to be found in the
international commercial conditions of today. The same business conditions which
have produced the great aggregations of corporate and individual wealth have
made them very potentin the strife for commercial supremacy among the nations
of the world. America has only just begun to assume that commanding position in
the international business world which we believe will more and more be hers. It is
of the utmost importance that this position be not jeoparded, especially at a time
when the overflowing abundance of our own natural resources and the skill,
business energy, and mechanical aptitude of our people make foreign markets
essential. Under such conditions it would be most unwise to cramp or to fetter the
youthful strength of our Nation.
All this is true; and yet it is also true that there are real and grave evils, one
of the chief being over-capitalization because of its many baleful consequences; and
a resolute and practical effort must be made to correct these evils.
Unit: Turn of the Century

There is a widespread conviction in the minds of the American people that


the great corporations known as trusts are in certain of their features and
tendencies hurtful to the general welfare. This springs from no spirit of envy or
uncharitableness, nor lack of pride in the great industrial achievements that have
placed this country at the head of the nations struggling for commercial
supremacy It is based upon sincere conviction that combination and concentration
should be, not prohibited, but supervised and within reasonable limits controlled;
and in my judgment, this conviction is right.
Corporations engaged in interstate commerce should be regulated if they are
found to exercise a license working to the public injury. It should be as much the aim
of those who seek for social- betterment to rid the business world of crimes of
cunning as to rid the entire body politic of
crimes of violence. Great corporations exist
only because they are created and
safeguarded by our institutions; and it is
therefore our right and our duty to see that
they work in harmony with these
institutions.
The first essential in determining
how to deal with the great industrial
combinations is knowledge of the facts--
publicity. In the interest of the public, the
Government should have the right to
inspect and examine the workings of the
great corporations engaged in interstate
businessWhat further remedies are
needed in the way of governmental
regulation, or taxation, can only be
determined after publicity has been
obtained, by process of law, and in the course of administration. The first requisite
is knowledge, full and complete--knowledge which may be made public to the world.
Artificial bodies, such as corporations and joint stock or other associations,
depending upon any statutory law for their existence or privileges, should be
subject to proper governmental supervision, and full and accurate information as to
their operations should be made public regularly at reasonable intervals.
The large corporations, commonly called trusts, though organized in one
State, always do business in many States, often doing very little business in the
State where they are incorporated. There is utter lack of uniformity in the State laws
about them; and as no State has any exclusive interest in or power over their acts,
it has in practice proved impossible to get adequate regulation through State action.
Therefore, in the interest of the whole people, the Nation should, without interfering
with the power of the States in the matter itself, also assume power of supervision
and regulation over all corporations doing an interstate business. This is especially
true where the corporation derives a portion of its wealth from the existence of
some monopolistic element or tendency in its business.
Unit: Turn of the Century

Answer the following in 3-5 sentences each on a separate sheet of


paper.
1. What are some of the benefits or good aspects of business according to
Roosevelt?

2. What does Roosevelt think about trusts? What should be done about them?
Unit: Turn of the Century

Handout 1: Modified for Simple English


Cities have grown faster than farms, and building factories means a large
increase in the wealth of the United States. It also means very large fortunes owned
by people and by companies. These large fortunes did not come from the
government. They came because of what naturally happens in the business world. It
is the same for other countries as it is for ours.
This process has made many people upset. They have few reasons to be
upset. It is not true that as the rich have grown richer the poor have grown poorer.
Instead, farmers, workers, and average people are better off in this country than
they ever were before. There are people and companies that treat others poorly to
get more money. But, it is still true that successful innovation that benefits
everybody can only happen if there are rewards for being successful.
The owners of large
railroad companies and
big factories have done a
lot of good for America.
Without them we wouldnt
have developed all this
new technology.
Another reason we
should be careful when
telling companies what
to do is because of trade
between countries . The
same business conditions that allowed companies to gain large fortunes in America
also allows them to be very powerful in trade with other countries. America has only
just started becoming powerful. It is very important that we dont lose our power,
especially because all our new technology requires us to work together with other
countries. It would not be a good decision to make businesses less powerful.
All this is true; but, these corporations are very greedy and are not treating
people well. We must try and fix this.
Many Americans believe that trusts or monopolies are harmful to the
public. These people are not jealous. They still are proud of what our country has
accomplished. These people believe that these companies should not be closed, but
they should be watched and regulated. I agree with these people. Corporations
doing things that injure the public should be watched and regulated. If you want to
improve the society you live in, you should stop businesses from hurting people.
These big companies only exist because our government helps them and protects
them. Our government has to make sure these companies follow the rules.
To fix this, the first thing we need to do is look at the public facts. To protect
everyone, the Government should have the right to see what the companies do. We
cant tell anything else until we use the law to get these companies to show the
Unit: Turn of the Century

government how they work. We cant do anything until we have full knowledge. The
government should require these companies to release all their information about
how they run their business, and the companies should release information
regularly.
The large corporations, called trusts, do business in many States. There is no
structure in State laws for these corporations. We have tried to make laws in the
State government, but it is impossible to enforce our rules with State laws.
Therefore, to protect everyone, the Federal United States Government should
regulate companies that do business in
more than one state. This is especially true
when trusts make money by being
monopolies.

Answer the following in 3-5


sentences each on a separate
sheet of paper.
1. What are some of the benefits or good
aspects of business according to Roosevelt?

2. What does Roosevelt think about trusts?


What should be done about them?
Unit: Turn of the Century

1. What are some of the benefits or good aspects of business


according to Roosevelt?
Big business drives innovation and improves quality of life
Big business helps the USs position in international trade
Big business generates money for the US government
Big business causes cities to grow larger
2. What does Roosevelt think about trusts? What should be done
about them?
Trusts do a lot of good things for society (such as the above).
However, trusts also present a danger to the American
public (working to the public injury)
The government exists to regulate companies for social
betterment.
Trusts should be subject to proper governmental
supervision and should make operations public.
The regulations should be decided by the Federal
government and not the States.
CATEGORY 3 2 1 0
Identifies facts Student accurately Student accurately Student accurately Student does not
locates at least 4 locates 3 pieces of locates 1-2 pieces of provide evidence.
pieces of evidence in evidence in the evidence in the
the speech. speech. speech.
Answering the Student successfully Student successfully Student only Student does not
question and thoroughly answers all parts of answers one part of answer the question.
answers all parts to the question. the question.
the question.
Use of class Used time well during Used time well during Used some of the Did not use class
time each class period. each class period. time well during each time to focus on the
Focused on getting Usually focused on class period. There project OR often
the project done. getting the project was some focus on distracted others.
Never distracted done and never getting the project
others. distracted others. done but
occasionally
distracted others.

Use this rubric for each question. There are 18 points total in the
assignment.


Unit: Turn of the Century

Lifestyle Changes
Topic Grade/Class Date
th
Lifestyle Changes 10 Grade US History 11/22/16
Standards History 2e Econ 1a 1d Research and Reasoning 1d
Content objective(s) Language objective(s)
TSWBAT describe the effects
technology has on quality of life by
creating a top ten inventions list.
Key vocabulary: Innovation, Technology
Essential Question(s)? How can advances in technology revolutionize a culture?

Time: 45 Instructional Techniques and Activities


m
Show this video (this is Louis CK on Conan talking about how technology
is ruining everything):
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q8LaT5Iiwo4
Then, show this quote:
- Students today depend upon paper too much. They dont know
how to write on a slate without getting chalk dust all over
themselves. They cant clean a slate properly. What will they do
when they run out of paper? Principals Association, 1815
Then, show this quote:
- Students today cant prepare bark to calculate their problems.
Engager
They depend upon their slates which are more expensive. What
10 mins
will they do when the slate is dropped and it breaks? They will be
unable to write! Teachers Conference, 1703
Then, show this quote:
- [Writing] will create forgetfulness in the learners souls, because
they will not use their memories; they will trust to the external
written characters and not remember of themselves. Socrates,
895 CE
CFU: What do all these quotes talk about? What do you think of their
arguments?
- Write down answer and think pair share.
Informati Introduce vocabulary. Students will predict meaning before hearing the
on answer.
10 mins - Innovation
- Technology
Ask what defines a technology. Remind students that things we
consider to be old and outdated and obsolete were the height of
technology at some point (floppy disks, bayonets, abacus, agriculture)
Review:
- What was the industrial revolution?
- Why were new technologies important to everyday people?
(makes everything easier)
Introduce students to influential inventors and inventions: telephone,
radio, airplane, electricity, spinning jenny
Unit: Turn of the Century

- What happens when technology makes everything so much easier


that things that used to take you 8 hours now only takes you 2?
(more free time)
- What do you want to do with your free time? (whatever you want)
Explain that this led to the development of leisure time, including
amusement parks and the first major league baseball teams.
Also explain the impact of technology on poor people.
- Youre a poor farmer who has to spend 14 hours a day working in
his field just to make ends meet. The only thing you can do to
speed it up is hire workers or buy a bunch of plows. Suddenly this
automatic mechanical harvester comes along and does what you
can do in 14 hours in 4 hours without you having to do anything.
- What does this mean for you? (more efficient and can make more
money, more time)
Display this quote:
"I do not think there is any thrill that can go through the human heart
like that felt by the inventor as he sees some creation of the brain
unfolding to success... such emotions make a man forget food, sleep,
friends, love, everything." -- Nikola Tesla
- CFU: How did people feel about progress in technology?
Pass out handout 1. For this activity students will create a graphic
organizer of what they think are the top 10 most important inventions to
come out of the industrial revolutions. In one column, they will record the
name of the invention. The second column is for a description of what
the invention does. The third column requires the student to infer what
Activity you would have to do to achieve the same results without the invention
20 mins (if Thomas Edison hadnt invented the lightbulb, we would still be using
lamps and candles). A word bank of 40 inventions is also provided to the
students, though they can go outside it if they wish.

After the students finish, go around the room and ask that each student
shares their top three.
Ask students why some people are afraid of technological progress even
though weve seen all the good it does.
Closure Exit ticket: in 3-5 sentences, students will answer the following question:
5 mins List a few ways in which the life of an American in 1900 was much easier
than a hundred years ago. Then, compare ways in which your life in 2016
is easier than an Americans in 1900 in relation to new technology.
Materials needed:
Handout 1 (75)
Unit: Turn of the Century

Handout 1
Name: ______________ Countdown: Most important industrial revolution
inventions
# Name Inventor What does this What did people have to
of invention do? do before this invention?
inventio
n
10

2
Unit: Turn of the Century

List of Inventions and Inventors


During the Industrial Revolution
Cotton Gin - Eli Whitney Food Canning Nicolas Appert

Steam Engine - Oliver Evans Machine for Crushing Stone - Eli


Whitney Blake
Steamboat - John Fitch and Robert
Fulton Spinning Jenny James Hargreaves

Clock - Eli Terry Iron Buildings - James Bogardus

Mechanical Reaper (crop Bee-keeping hives - Lorenzo Lorraine


harvester) - Cyrus Hall McCormick Langstroth
Handgun with Interchangeable Steel Plow- John Deere
Parts - Samuel Colt
Dynamite - Alfred Nobel
Tire - Charles Goodyear
Bacteria removal process for milk
Telegraph - Samuel F. B. Morse and juices (Pasteurization) - Louis
Mass-Produced Steel - Henry Pasteur
Bessemer Steam Generator - Stephen Wilcox
Sewing Machine - Elias Howe Radio Guglielmo Marconi
Suspension Bridge - John Roebling Airplane Orville and Wilbur Wright
Steam Locomotive - Matthias Baldwin Game board - Milton Bradley
Electric fire alarm system - Moses Stock ticker - Edward Calahan
Farmer
Modern day fire hydrant - Birdsill
Newspaper Printing Press - Richard Holly, Jr.
M. Hoe
Film - John Hyatt
Safety pin - Walter Hunt
Measuring instruments (i.e.
Anesthesia Horace Wells rulers, measuring cups) - Joseph
Saxton
Electricity for Power Thomas Edison
Unit: Turn of the Century

Door lock - Linus Jr. Yale Signal flare - Martha Coston

Bicycle - Thomas R. Pickering Car and Motorcycle Engine -


Gottleib Daimler
Telephone - Alexander Graham Bell
Barbed wire - Joseph Glidden
Street Light - Charles Brush
Cable car - Andrew Hallidie
Muckrakers
Topic Grade/Class Date
Muckrakers 10th Grade US History 11/22/16
Standards History 1a Oral Expression 1a Reading 1a
Content objective(s) Language objective(s)
TSWBAT infer the changing role of TSWBAT use context clues and close reading to
muckrakers in society by examining properly play the whiteboard race game.
modern investigative journalism.
Additionally, TSWBAT evaluate the effect
of The Jungle on working conditions by
participating in a whiteboard race.
Key vocabulary: Expos, Investigative Journalism
Essential Question(s)? What was a muckrakers role in US society? Were they
successful?
Time: 90 Instructional Techniques and Activities
m
Students will be instructed to make a T chart (modeled if necessary) with
one column labeled food and one column labeled workers.

Explain to students that you will be reading an excerpt from Upton Sinclairs
The Jungle. As you read, students will put a tally mark in the food column
every time they hear something that concerns them about the condition of
the food being described. Students put a tally mark in the workers call him
Engager when they hear something that concerns them about the working conditions
mins being described.

Begin reading the passage that begins with cut up by the 2000 revolutions
a minute flyers And ends with Two cents more a pound.

Briefly ask students to share which column had more tallies and why. Have
students write their response in their notebook and think pair share with
their neighbor.
Informatio Review: Why was the newspaper so big all of a sudden? (technological
n progress)
20 mins - What is the purpose of marketing? (to sell things)
- What kind of stories sell the most newspapers? (juicy ones)
Introduce vocabulary: Investigative Journalism, Expose, Muckraking
Write the following questions on the board.
- What does this piece do to make me want to read/watch it?
- Why should I be upset by the subject matter?
- What is the message of the filmmaker?
Students will take out a piece of paper, and as the class watches clips of
modern muckraking or investigative journalism, students will write
answers to the aforementioned questions for each to be discussed in class
(ACCT: 10 points)

Blackfish (about maltreatment of orcas at Sea World):


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w2vG_Ifu4zg
Food, Inc. (about the efforts of Big Food to cover up ingredients and
additives): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0z9DadeSsGw
The Cove (about the dolphin hunting problem in Japan):
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4KRD8e20fBo
The Thin Blue Line (about police and judicial misconduct during a murder
investigation): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dNL5A4D0G4g

Introduce students to a few famous muckrakers: Ida Tarbell, Lincoln Steffens,


and Jacob Riis.
Introduce Upton Sinclair and a brief summary of the Jungle, and mention
that it was read to them earlier. Mention that Sinclair wanted The Jungle to
help the plight of immigrants and the working poor be recognized by middle
class. Explain that we will look more closely at the effect the book had on
the public.

Display groups. Students will then arrange themselves into their pre-
arranged groups for the game, the teacher having made sure to separate
students learning English and students who cause disturbances together.
Activity Students will be provided a passage from The Jungle. They will be given 3
mins minutes to read it. The students in each group are instructed to highlight or
underline all the wow! sentences, or sentences that jump out at them as
being particularly disgusting or horrifying. After students have read and
highlighted the passage, display the first of a series of 5 multiple choice
questions (in appendix). The group that can write the letter for the correct
answer on their whiteboard and hold it up the fastest gets a point for their
team. This process repeats for 2 more passages.

A different student must hold up the whiteboard each time to ensure that
every student is participating.

The 5th question for each passage is worth 0 points and is always the same,
asking whether their group highlighted more wow sentences about food or
about working conditions, to be revisited later. The members of the team
with the most points get a piece of candy.

Explain to students the aftermath of the book: the creation of the FDA and
the meat inspection act of 1906.

Display the following quote: Perhaps you will be surprised to be told that I
failed in my purpose, when you know of all the uproar that 'The Jungle' has
been creating. But then all that uproar is accidental and was due to an
entirely different cause. I wished to frighten the country by a picture of what
its industrial masters were doing to their victims; entirely by chance I had
stumbled on another discoverywhat they were doing to the meat supply of
the civilized world. In other words, I aimed at the public's heart, and by
accident I hit it in the stomach.
- What does Upton Sinclair mean by the last sentence?
- Why does he think that?
The groups disperse and go back to their assigned seats.
- There [most likely] was a mix of sentences that concerned everyone
about both food and working conditions. So then why did the public
care more about their food? (because food affects them personally)
Closure
- How is this similar to some current issues?
mins
Exit ticket: Students will write 3-5 sentences to respond to the following
question.
What was the role of a muckraker in 1900? Is it the same role muckrakers
have in 2016? Why has it changed or not changed?
Materials needed: Accountability:
Set of 6 whiteboards Notebook check (end of unit): 30 points
6 dry erase markers Muckraking observations: 10 points, for
PPT with questions and pre-made groups completion
Passage 1/2/3 (75)
Appendix (questions on powerpoint)
Appendix

1
Jurgis heard of these things little by little, in the gossip of those who were obliged to perpetrate
them. It seemed as if every time you met a person from a new department, you heard of new
swindles and new crimes. There was, for instance, a Lithuanian who was a cattle butcher for the
plant where Marija had worked, which killed meat for canning only; and to hear this man
describe the animals which came to his place would have been worthwhile for a Dante or a Zola.
It seemed that they must have agencies all over the country, to hunt out old and crippled and
diseased cattle to be canned. There were cattle which had been fed on "whiskey-malt," the refuse
of the breweries, and had become what the men called "steerly" which means covered with
boils. It was a nasty job killing these, for when you plunged your knife into them they would
burst and splash foul-smelling stuff into your face; and when a man's sleeves were smeared with
blood, and his hands steeped in it, how was he ever to wipe his face, or to clear his eyes so that
he could see? It was stuff such as this that made the "embalmed beef" that had killed several
times as many United States soldiers as all the bullets of the Spaniards; only the army beef,
besides, was not fresh canned, it was old stuff that had been lying for years in the cellars.

2
Let a man so much as scrape his finger pushing a truck in the pickle rooms, and he might have a
sore that would put him out of the world; all the joints in his fingers might be eaten by the acid,
one by one. Of the butchers and floorsmen, the beef-boners and trimmers, and all those who used
knives, you could scarcely find a person who had the use of his thumb; time and time again the
base of it had been slashed, till it was a mere lump of flesh against which the man pressed the
knife to hold it. The hands of these men would be criss- crossed with cuts, until you could no
longer pretend to count them or to trace them. They would have no nails, they had worn them
off pulling hides; their knuckles were swollen so that their fingers spread out like a fan. There
were men who worked in the cooking rooms, in the midst of steam and sickening odors, by
artificial light; in these rooms the germs of tuberculosis might live for two years, but the supply
was renewed every hour. There were the beef-luggers, who carried two-hundred-pound quarters
into the refrigerator-cars; a fearful kind of work, that began at four o'clock in the morning, and
that wore out the most powerful men in a few years. There were those who worked in the chilling
rooms, and whose special disease was rheumatism; the time limit that a man could work in the
chilling rooms was said to be five years. There were the wool-pluckers, whose hands went to
pieces even sooner than the hands of the pickle men; for the pelts of the sheep had to be painted
with acid to loosen the wool, and then the pluckers had to pull out this wool with their bare
hands, till the acid had eaten their fingers off. There were those who made the tins for the canned
meat; and their hands, too, were a maze of cuts, and each cut represented a chance for blood
poisoning. Some worked at the stamping machines, and it was very seldom that one could work
long there at the pace that was set, and not give out and forget himself and have a part of his
hand chopped off. There were the "hoisters," as they were called, whose task it was to press the
lever which lifted the dead cattle off the floor. They ran along upon a rafter, peering down
through the damp and the steam; and as old Durham's architects had not built the killing room for
the convenience of the hoisters, at every few feet they would have to stoop under a beam, say
four feet above the one they ran on; which got them into the habit of stooping, so that in a few
years they would be walking like chimpanzees. Worst of any, however, were the fertilizer men,
and those who served in the cooking rooms. These people could not be shown to the visitor, for
the odor of a fertilizer man would scare any ordinary visitor at a hundred yards, and as for the
other men, who worked in tank rooms full of steam, and in some of which there were open vats
near the level of the floor, their peculiar trouble was that they fell into the vats; and when they
were fished out, there was never enough of them left to be worth exhibiting, sometimes they
would be overlooked for days, till all but the bones of them had gone out to the world as
Durham's Pure Leaf Lard!

3
Cut up by the two-thousand-revolutions- a-minute flyers, and mixed with half a ton of other
meat, no odor that ever was in a ham could make any difference. There was never the least
attention paid to what was cut up for sausage; there would come all the way back from Europe
old sausage that had been rejected, and that was moldy and white it would be dosed with borax
and glycerin, and dumped into the hoppers, and made over again for home consumption. There
would be meat that had tumbled out on the floor, in the dirt and sawdust, where the workers had
tramped and spit uncounted billions of consumption germs. There would be meat stored in great
piles in rooms; and the water from leaky roofs would drip over it, and thousands of rats would
race about on it. It was too dark in these storage places to see well, but a man could run his hand
over these piles of meat and sweep off handfuls of the dried dung of rats. These rats were
nuisances, and the packers would put poisoned bread out for them; they would die, and then rats,
bread, and meat would go into the hoppers together. This is no fairy story and no joke; the meat
would be shoveled into carts, and the man who did the shoveling would not trouble to lift out a
rat even when he saw one there were things that went into the sausage in comparison with
which a poisoned rat was a tidbit. There was no place for the men to wash their hands before
they ate their dinner, and so they made a practice of washing them in the water that was to be
ladled into the sausage. There were the butt-ends of smoked meat, and the scraps of corned beef,
and all the odds and ends of the waste of the plants, that would be dumped into old barrels in the
cellar and left there. Under the system of rigid economy which the packers enforced, there were
some jobs that it only paid to do once in a long time, and among these was the cleaning out of the
waste barrels. Every spring they did it; and in the barrels would be dirt and rust and old nails and
stale water and cartload after cartload of it would be taken up and dumped into the hoppers
with fresh meat, and sent out to the public's breakfast. Some of it they would make into
"smoked" sausage but as the smoking took time, and was therefore expensive, they would call
upon their chemistry department, and preserve it with borax and color it with gelatin to make it
brown. All of their sausage came out of the same bowl, but when they came to wrap it they
would stamp some of it "special," and for this they would charge two cents more a pound.
Plessy v. Ferguson
Topic Grade/Class Date
th
Plessy v. Ferguson 10 Grade US History 11/22/16
Standards History 1a 1b 2e 2g 2h Civics 1c 2f 2g Reading 1a 2f
Content objective(s) Language objective(s)
TSWBAT analyze the word equality in TSWBAT collect context clues from primary
relation to the Plessy v. Ferguson sources and use that information to create
legacy by doing a gallery walk. an informed claim.
Key vocabulary: Equality, Separate but Equal
Essential Question(s)? In what ways did the Plessy decision impact the lives of
African Americans in the South?
Time: 90 Instructional Techniques and Activities
m
As the students are walking in the door, hand every other student either
$100 of Monopoly money or a plastic nickel. When students enter the
room, the following will be written on the board:
You have all received equal treatment from the government. Write down
some ways that you can make a difference with what you have been
given. (Hint: Feel free to think outside of the box!) Be prepared to share
your favorite idea when the bell rings.
Have students think-pair-share their responses, and then ask for a couple
volunteers to share.
- What does the word equal mean?
Display appendix A
Engager
- Are they being treated equally?
10 mins
- Could someone make the argument that they are not being
treated equally?
Display appendix B
- Are they being treated equally?
- Could someone make the argument that they are not?
Explain that Im treating everyone equally by giving everyone money.
Its not the same kind of money, but Im still giving everyone money, so
its equal.
- Is this fair? Why or why not?
Students will respond to this question in their notebooks and think-pair-
share with a partner.
Informati Explain that a very similar thing happened (but not with money) in the
on 1890s in the United States.
15 mins Review: Ask students what amendments came out of reconstruction (13,
14, 15).
Introduce the Separate Car Act in Louisiana.
- Predict: Do you think the cars were actually equal?
Show a picture of the white car and a picture of the black car.
- What differences do you see?
Tell students the basic story of Plessy v. Ferguson, beginning with the
group of black citizens who intentionally tried to get the case to the
supreme court, and ending with the verdict.
Briefly go over the role of the supreme court in lawmaking.
- Whats the fastest way to get an unfair law to go away? (supreme
court)
Watch this video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DoOlEPoc1PE
- What does separate but equal mean?
- Why is this decision so important? Whats the big deal?
- What did this decision lead to?
Introduce the activity as an opportunity for students to get a glimpse into
the society that allows this to happen.
Pass out handout 1. Students will go around the room on a gallery walk.
There are 8 documents (Appendix) that students will analyze. They will
answer the questions for each document, and then we will reconvene
Activity
after everyone has finished their worksheet.
40 mins
Go through the answers to each of the questions for the gallery walk by
asking students to share answers with the class.
- Who does Jefferson really think are created equal?
- How are African Americans treated in the constitution?
- What would the dissenting judges say about the arguments in the
majority opinion?
Closure - Should the constitution be continually changed to reflect our
20 mins
developing society? Or is it a set-in-stone rulebook for running the
US?
Students will respond to the last question in 3-5 sentences on a separate
sheet of paper for an exit ticket.
Materials needed: Accountability:
Handout 1 (75) Notebook check (end of unit): 30 points
1 of each source in appendix Gallery Walk Handout: 10 points for
completion
Handout 1
Name: ______________________________________
Document A: Year written _______________
What does the Declaration of Independence say are the rights every person has?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Document B: Year written _______________
This was written by Thomas Jefferson, who also wrote the Declaration of
Independence. How do his views on equality of races compare with what he said in
the Declaration?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Document C: Year written _______________
Who does all other Persons refer to? Why are they only worth 3/5 of a free
person?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Document D: Year written _______________
How does Jefferson clarify his belief that blacks are inferior to whites?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Document E: Year written _______________
What does this amendment guarantee to every resident of the United States?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Document F: Year written _______________
What does the Supreme Court believe is the flaw of Homer Plessys argument?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
What does the court believe about laws made to abolish racial prejudice?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Document G: Year written _______________
What does the dissenting opinion believe the real meaning of the segregation law
is?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Document H: Year taken _______________
What does this photograph reveal about the legacy of Plessy v. Ferguson?
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Appendix
a. The Declaration of Independence, 1776
a. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal,
that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights,
that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
b. Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia, 1787
a. Comparing [Negros] by their faculties of memory, reason, and
imagination, it appears to me, that in memory they are equal to the
whites; in reason much inferior, as I think one could scarcely be found
capable of tracing and comprehending the investigations of Euclid; and
that in imagination they are dull, tasteless, and anomalous. This
unfortunate difference of color, and perhaps of faculty, is a powerful
obstacle to the emancipation of these people.
c. The Constitution of the United States, 1789
a. Article I, Section 2, Paragraph 3: Representatives and direct Taxes shall
be apportioned among the several States which may be included
within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall
be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons,
including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding
Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons
d. Thomas Jefferson to Henri Gregoire, 1809
a. Be assured that no person living wishes more sincerely than I do, to
see a complete refutation of the doubts I have myself entertained and
expressed on the grade of understanding allotted to them [Negroes] by
nature, and to find that in this respect they are on a par with ourselves.
My doubts were the result of personal observation on the limited
sphere of my own State, where the opportunities for the development
of their genius were not favorable, and those of exercising it still less
so. I expressed them therefore with great hesitation; but whatever be
their degree of talent it is no measure of their rights. Because Sir Isaac
Newton was superior to others in understanding, he was not therefore
lord of the person or property of others. On this subject they are
gaining daily in the opinions of nations, and hopeful advances are
making towards their re-establishment on an equal footing with the
other colors of the human family.
e. Section of The Fourteenth Amendment, 1868
a. Section. 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States and
subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and
of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any
law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the
United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or
property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its
jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. Section. 5. The Congress
shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions
of this article
f. Majority Opinion (6-1), Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896
a. The object of the [Fourteenth] Amendment was undoubtedly to enforce
the absolute equality of the two races before the law, but, in the nature
of things, it could not have been intended to abolish distinctions based
upon color, or to enforce social, as distinguished from political,
equality, or a commingling of the two races upon terms unsatisfactory
to either. Laws permitting, and even requiring, their separation, in
places where they are liable to be brought into contact, do not
necessarily imply the inferiority of either race to the other, and have
been generally, if not universally, recognized as within the competency
of the state legislatures in the exercise of their police power. We
consider the underlying fallacy of [Plessys] argument to consist in the
assumption that the enforced separation of the two races stamps the
colored race with a badge of inferiority. If this be so, it is not by reason
of anything found in the act, but solely because the colored race
chooses to put that construction upon it. The argument also assumes
that social prejudices may be overcome by legislation, and that equal
rights cannot be secured to the negro except by an enforced
commingling of the two races. We cannot accept this proposition. If the
two races are to meet upon terms of social equality, it must be the
result of natural affinities, a mutual appreciation of each others merits,
and a voluntary consent of individuals. Legislation is powerless to
eradicate racial instincts, or to abolish distinctions based upon physical
differences, and the attempt to do so can only result in accentuating
the difficulties of the present situation. If the civil and political rights of
both races be equal, one cannot be inferior to the other civilly or
politically. If one race be inferior to the other socially, the constitution
of the United States cannot put them upon the same plane.
g. Dissenting Opinion, Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896
a. The white race deems itself to be the dominant race in this country.
And so it is, in prestige, in achievements, in education, in wealth, and
in power. So, I doubt not, it will continue to be for all time, if it remains
true to its great heritage, and holds fast to the principles of
constitutional liberty. But in view of the constitution, in the eye of the
law, there is in this country no superior, dominant, ruling class of
citizens. There is no caste here. Our constitution is color-blind, and
neither knows nor tolerates classes among citizens. In respect of civil
rights, all citizens are equal before the law. The humblest is the peer of
the most powerful. Sixty millions of whites are in no danger from the
presence here of eight millions of blacks. The destinies of the two
races, in this country, are indissolubly linked together, and the
interests of both require that the common government of all shall not
permit the seeds of race hate to be planted under the sanction of law.
What can more certainly arouse race hate, what more certainly create
and perpetuate a feeling of distrust between these races, than state
enactments which, in fact, proceed on the ground that colored citizens
are so inferior and degraded that they cannot be allowed to sit in
public coaches occupied by white citizens? That, as all will admit, is the
real meaning of such legislation as was enacted in Louisiana.
h. At the Bus Station, 1940

a.
Review
Time: 45 Instructional Techniques and Activities
m
The students will enter the classroom and sit in their (pre-made) teams.
These teams are displayed on the board so they can immediately sit with
Engager
their team members.
5 mins
The teacher will explain the rules of the game.
Explain that the game is called Jeopardy Grudge Match.
As in the PowerPoint attached, students will play a typical game of
jeopardy.

Informati
on
15 mins
However, there are added rules. When students begin, their teams will
each be given a cup with 10 pennies in it.
Play starts with group 1. A spokesperson from group 1 picks a question
from any category worth a certain number of pennies. Questions worth 1
penny are easy, and questions worth 5 pennies are the hardest. Once the
question is read, students from every team may stand up (for their team)
to answer the question. The first one to stand gets priority. If the
standing student gets the question correct for their team, their team
sends someone to take however many pennies the question was worth
away from another team, and add it to their penny stash.
Group 2 then chooses a question. Play continues in this fashion until all
questions are answered.
Once all questions are answered, students are given a chance to make a
wager of pennies within their team. Each team writes down the number
of pennies they want to bet for the bonus round consisting of 5
questions relating to the unit.
Activity If the students team gets ALL 5 bonus questions correct, they win the
40 mins number of pennies they wagered. If they get one of the questions wrong,
they lose the number of pennies they wagered.

The winner of the game is the team with the most pennies. These
students get a piece of candy or something similar.
Closure Pass out an index card.
Exit ticket: Students are told to write down up to 2 specific questions
about a part of the unit they dont understand. This is not collected for
accountability purposes; instead students turn in the card to get it back
on test day.
20 mins Make it clear that I will not answer broad questions like what caused
poverty in the 1900s? but I will answer more specific questions like
what did the Sherman Anti-Trust act say?
When they get it back, I will have written the answers to their questions
on the card.
Materials needed:
$1 in pennies
PowerPoint with questions
Unit End
Students will be given the Unit Assessment during their next class. The cards they
filled out at the end of the review period will be returned to them with answers to
their questions written on them. They can use these cards on the test.
During that time, I will check their notebooks against the following rubric, for 30
points.

CATEGORY 10 7 5 0
Preparedness Brings notebook to Almost always brings Almost always brings Often forgets needed
class and is always notebook to class notebook but materials OR is
ready to work. and is ready to work. sometimes needs to rarely ready to get to
settle down and get work.
to work
Opener Activity Always participates Almost always Sometimes Consistently does not
in the opening think- participates in the participates in the participate in the
pair-share activity, opening think-pair- opening think-pair- opening think-pair-
and consistently share activity, and share activity, and share activity OR
writes 2-3 sentences almost always writes sometimes writes 1-3 Rarely responds to
in response to 1-3 sentences in sentences in opening activity in
opening activity. response to opening response to opening notebook.
activity. activity.
Notes Takes copious and Takes notes every Takes notes most Rarely takes notes.
effective notes every day. days.
day.
References
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NBC. YouTube. 2015. Accessed December 02, 2016.
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