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Macedonian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp.

183226 (2013)
MJCCA9 621 ISSN 1857-5552
UDC: 542.613.4:547.9
Received: April 8, 2013
Accepted: July 15, 2013 Review



Miha Oman, Mojca kerget, eljko Knez

Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering,

University of Maribor, Smetanova 17,
SI-2000 Maribor, Slovenia

In the present work, a literature review of the application of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for
the isolation of nutraceuticals and some other phytochemicals up to December of 2012 is presented. The
manuscript provides knowledge of SFE processes and possible applications of SFE for the extraction
of bioactive compounds that serve as nutraceuticals. Compounds are classified into groups based on their
chemical nature (carotenoids, flavonoids and other phenolic compounds, essential oils, lipids and fatty acids,
and alkaloids and other bioactive phytochemicals), and they are reviewed in tabular form along with the plant
material from which they were extracted using supercritical fluids.

Keywords: supercritical fluid extraction; nutraceuticals; phytochemicals; plant material

2012 ,

, , , ,

: ; ; ;

184 Miha Oman, Mojca kerget, eljko Knez

1. INTRODUCTION higher densities are achieved; the higher the den-

sity of the medium, the higher the solubility of the
In recent time, there is greater emphasis on solute [1]. The most common solvent used as a
the recovery of high value-added products by us- supercritical fluid is carbon dioxide (CO2). When
ing sustainable technologies. One of the ways to polar components are extracted and supercritical
achieve this is the application of sub- and super- CO2 (SCCO2) is used as a solvent, a polar modi-
critical fluids (ScF). ScF can be applied as solvents fier or cosolvent is mixed with SCCO2 to en-
for precipitation and micronization (PGSS, hance solubility. Examples of such a modifier are
RESS, etc.), as reaction medium, as mobile phase methanol, ethanol, etc.
for chromatography (supercritical fluid chroma- When a modifier is added, not only solubili-
tography SFC), and as solvent for extraction, ty but also viscosity and density are increased. Be-
which is the most investigated process. From an cause of the increase in density and viscosity, the
economic point of view, technologies involving diffusivity in the mobile phase decreases, hence
elevated pressures require high investment costs mass transfer is reduced.
for highpressure equipment. Because of this, it is To obtain the highest yields possible, the
reasonable to apply supercritical fluid extraction process has to be optimized. First, the influence
(SFE) for the separation of components with high of process parameters on the extraction has to be
added value, such as nutraceuticals, pharmaceu- studied. Regarding the results, the optimal operat-
ticals, food additives, or components with high ing parameters are chosen. One way to determine
feed-to-solvent (F/S) extraction ratio. the optimal parameters is with the use of response
SFE is a separation process where solid or surface methodology (RSM). This method uses
liquid matter is processed with ScF in order to ob- the multiple regression model (a polynomial sec-
tain soluble compounds from mixtures. ScF offers ond-order equation), from which optimum param-
a variety of applications due to specific proper- eters are selected. This model is described as well
ties, which can be relatively easily adjusted with in the work of Wang et al. [2], where optimization
changing pressure and temperature. A fluid above with RSM for SFE of essential oils from Cyperus
critical temperature has gaslike viscosity, liquid- rotundus is described.
like density, and its diffusion magnitude of order Last but not the least, the extraction rates
is between the two fluid states. depend on the morphology of the material and the
An important factor that has to be consid- location of the solute in plant material. If the de-
ered is the mass transfer of the solute in the su- sired solute is on the surface of the material, gen-
percritical solvent. Mass transfer depends on erally extraction rates are high. However, when
the solubility of the solute in the given solvent. desired compounds are deeper in the material, it
Different compounds have different solubilities takes more time to extract them. In those cases,
at various operating conditions. In general, tem- mass transfer depends on particle shape, size, and
perature and pressure have the biggest influence the porosity of the solid material. If the structure
on the solubility of compounds in supercritical of the material is more complex and the desired
fluids. Temperature has two competing effects on compounds are deeper inside, a greater resistance
solubility. First, increasing the temperature at con- for diffusion is expected [37]. Therefore, the
stant pressure decreases the density of the solvent. preparation of a sample is very important for SFE
Thus, solubility of the solute is decreased. On the of natural matter [8, 9]. Usually, a material has to
other hand, by increasing the temperature at con- be mechanically pretreated i.e. mechanically
stant density, the vapor pressure of the solute is processed by grinding, milling, cutting, etc. to
increased. Therefore a solute is more soluble in reduce mean particle size. As mentioned in this
a supercritical fluid. Which effect will prevail is section, smaller particles provide faster extraction
dependent on the properties of the system. due to lower diffusion paths and less diffusion re-
The effect of pressure is more direct. With sistance. The importance of proper material pre-
increasing the pressure of a supercritical medium,

Maced. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 32 (2), 183226 (2013)

Application of supercritical fluid extraction for the separation of nutraceuticals and other phytochemicals from plant material 185

treatment is presented in the work of Uquiche et 2. SFE of Natural Matter:

al. [10], where kinetics of SFE of pretreated boldo Nutraceuticals
was studied.
The aim of this work is to review investiga- Nutraceuticals are substances that may be
tions of the separation of compounds from natural considered as food or part of a food and pro-
matter with SFE performed in recent years. Sev- vide medical or health benefits, including the
eral reviews have been published before. Among prevention and treatment of diseases [12]. Such
them were the reviews of Reverchon and De Mar- products may range from isolated nutrients,
co [7], Pereira and Meireles [6], and Sovova and dietary supplements and diets to genetically
Stateva [11]. Hence there is no reason for repeti- engineered designer food, herbal products,
tion. The present work is focused on extractions and processed food (such as cereals, soups, and
of nutraceuticals and other phytochemicals from beverages) [12].
plant material and the collection of investigations In some aspects, functional food is relat-
in tabular form. Sections of this paper are divided ed to nutraceuticals. Functional food provides
into bigger groups (carotenoids, flavonoids and health benefits over normal nutrition, and it is
phenolic compounds, essential oils, lipid and fatty different from medical food or dietary supple-
acids, and alkaloids and other phytochemicals). ments [12].
Compounds that belong to a certain group are list- The nutraceuticals reviewed in this work
ed in tabular form in the corresponding section. are based on their chemical nature, classified
Key words used in the present work for searching into the following groups: carotenoids, flavo-
the literature are listed in Table 1. noids and other phenolic compounds, fatty ac-
ids and lipids, essential oils, and alkaloids and
other phytochemicals.
Table 1
Keywords used for searching the literature 2.1. Carotenoids
Group Subgroup Keywords
Carotenoids are divided into two sub-
nutraceuticals, groups: carotenes and oxygenized hydrocarbons
Nutraceuticals General supercritical fluid
extraction xanthophylls. They consist of eight isoprenoid
units joined in such a manner that their arrange-
ment is reversed at the center of the molecule.
Carotenoids supercritical fluid
extraction All carotenoids may be formally derived from
the acyclic C40H56 structure [13]. Trivial names
Flavonoids supercritical fluid
are usually used for common carotenoids. The
extraction functional groups most frequently observed in
phenolic, phenols,
the group of xanthophylls are hydroxy, meth-
Phenolic oxy, oxo, carboxy, and epoxy [13].
supercritical fluid
compounds Carotenoids in food are recognized
as antioxidants and pigments [14, 15]. As
essential oils,
Essential oils supercritical fluid antioxidants, they affect human living tissues
extraction by preventing the oxidation of the molecules,
inhibiting harmful microbiological activities,
lipids, FFA, and protecting against cancer [16]. In Table
Lipids, FFA supercritical fluid
2, investigations of SFE of carotenoids from
different plant material are listed.

Maced. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 32 (2), 183226 (2013)

186 Miha Oman, Mojca kerget, eljko Knez

Table 2
Application of SFE for the extraction of carotenoids from plants

Compound(s) Plant material (Biological name) Methods/solvents Reference(s)

Microalgea (Haematococcus
Astaxanthin SFE/CO2 + ethanol [2326]
Astaxanthin Microalgea (Chlorella vulgaris) SFE/CO2 [27]
Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoids
Carotenes SFE/CO2 [28, 29]
Canthaxanthin Microalgea (Chlorella vulgaris) SFE/CO2 [27]
Fucoxanthin Microalgea (Undaria pinnatifida) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [30]
Lutein Daylily (Hemerocallis disticha) SFE/CO2 [31]
Lutein Marigold (Tagetes erecta) SFE/CO2 [3234]
Lutein Spearmint (Mentha spicata) SCCO2 [35]
Lutein Pumpkin (Curcurbita moschata) SE, SFE/CO2 [36, 37]
Lutein Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) SCCO2 + ethanol [38]
Lutein Microalgea (Chlorella vulgaris) SFE/CO2 [27, 39]
Lycopene Fungal species (Blakeslea trispora) SFE/CO2 [40]
Lycopene Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) SFE/CO2 [41]
Lycopene Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L.) SFE/CO2 + ethanol, water, canola oil [42, 43]
Lycopene Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L.) SFE/CO2 [41, 44]
Lycopene Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L.) SFE/CO2 [45, 46]
Lycopene Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L.) SE/acetone/water, SFE/CO2 [16, 4749]
Lycopene Guava (Psidium guajava) SFE/CO2 [50]
Brazilian cherry (Hymenaea
Lycopene SFE/CO2 [51]
Lycopene Pumpkin (Curcurbita moschata) SE, SFE/CO2 [36, 37]
N.D. Microalgea (Chlorococcum littorale) SFE/CO2 [52]
N.D. Dog rose (Rosa canina) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [53]
N.D. lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn) SFE/CO2 [54]
N.D. Persimmon peels (Japan) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [55]
Xanthophylls Paprika (Capsicum annuum) SFE/CO2 [56]
Zeaxanthin Daylily (Hemerocallis disticha) SFE/CO2 [31]
Zeaxanthin Microalgea (Spirulina Pacifica) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [57]
Microalgea (Nannochloropsis
Zeaxanthin SFE/CO2 [58, 59]
Zeaxanthin Microalgea (Spirulina platensis) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [60]
Microalgea (Paracoccus
Zeaxanthin SFE/CO2 + ethanol [61]
-carotene Paprika (Capsicum annuum) SFE/CO2 [56]
-carotene Red pepper (Capsicum annum L.) SFE/CO2 [62]
-carotene Palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) SFE/CO2 [63]
-carotene Fungal species (Blakeslea trispora) SFE/CO2 [40]
-carotene Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L.) SFE/CO2 [45, 46]
-carotene Microalgea (Dunaliella bardawil) SFE/CO2 [19]

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Application of supercritical fluid extraction for the separation of nutraceuticals and other phytochemicals from plant material 187

-carotene Spearmint (Mentha spicata) SFE/CO2 [35]

-carotene Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L.) SFE/CO2 [16]
-carotene Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) SFE/CO2 [64]
Brazilian cherry (Hymenaea SFE/CO2
-carotene [51]
-carotene Microalgea (Chlorella vulgaris) SFE/CO2 [27]
-carotene Microalgea (Dunaliella salina) SFE/CO2 [27]
-carotene Microalgea (Spirulina platensis) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [60]
-carotene Apricot (Prunus armeniaca) SFE/CO2 [65]
-carotene Carrot (Daucus carota) SFE/CO2 [66]
-carotene Paprika (Capsicum annuum) SFE/CO2; + DMP; + DEP; + TEOF [8]
-cryptoxanthin Microalgea (Spirulina pacifica) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [57]
-carotene Palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) SFE/R134a [67]

2.1.1. Carotenes higher solvent flow rates, higher extraction rates

were achieved, due to an increased external mass
Palozza and Krinsky [17] reviewed caro- transfer. Extractions carried out with N2O were
tenes and the biological antioxidant properties slightly faster than with CO2 because of the higher
of -carotene. The work of Palozza and Krinsky solvent power of N2O.
[17] also describes SFE and the influence of pres- GamlieliBonshtein et al. [19] investigated
sure and temperature on carotene extraction. It SFE for the separation of transcis isomers of
was concluded in most cases that by increasing -carotene from concentrates containing several
pressure, hence increasing density, the solubil- carotenoids. They concluded that SFE can be used
ity of carotenes in CO2 generally also increases; to separate geometrical isomers of -carotene
therefore, higher extraction yields are achieved based on their different solubilities in SCCO2.
in less time at moderate temperatures. A bigger According to their investigations, it could be con-
amount of extracted carotenes means bigger an- cluded that for SFE, an excessive research of solu-
tioxidant potential. If extraction is carried out at a bility data is often required.
temperature that is too high, -carotene could be Baysal et al. [15] studied the extraction
decomposed; therefore less antioxidant potential of -carotene and lycopene from tomato wastes
is observed. with CO2. They investigated the influence of op-
The extraction of -carotene from material erating parameters (pressure, temperature, flow
that contains too much water is less effective [8]. rate, extraction time, and co-solvent addition)
The material should be dried to achieve better ex- on extraction yields. At the highest temperature,
traction efficiency. Weathers et al. [8] suggested with a pressure of 30 MPa, yield was the high-
the use of freeze-drying in order to preserve ther- est; however, lycopene could not be totally re-
molabile compounds. covered because of partial thermal degradation.
Subra et al. [18] examined the influence of In the presence of a cosolvent, the recovery of
particle size and the influence of CO2 and/or N2O extracted compounds increased, because solubil-
and their flow rates on the extraction of -carotene ity increased [15]. A similar research was done by
from freezedried carrots. Subra et al. [18] Doker et al. [20]. The modeling they performed
observed that with smaller particles, higher yields [20] show that external and internal mass-transfer
were obtained, due to grinding, which destroyed resistances are very important and control overall
the inner structures of particles. Furthermore, with extraction rates.

Maced. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 32 (2), 183226 (2013)

188 Miha Oman, Mojca kerget, eljko Knez

Pressure is one of the most important pa- They are applied as food additives and food
rameters influencing the extraction and concen- colorants for antioxidant purposes and cancer pre-
tration of carotenes. By changing the pressure, vention. Lutein, zeaxanthin, and cryptoxanthin
the solubility of carotenes in SC-CO2 is changed. are major xanthophyll carotenoids in the human
When extraction is pressure-programmed, which plasma. Besides those, there are several other im-
means that pressure automatically or manually in- portant xanthophylls, such as canthaxanthin, asta-
creases after a period of time, separate fractions xanthin, neoxanthin, and violaxanthin [71].
of compounds can be collected. Lau et al. [21] in- Lutein and zeaxanthin are both present in
vestigated the pressure-programmed extraction of the cells of the human eye [72]. Lutein not only
palm-pressed mesocarp fiber, where pressure was serves as a pigment or colorant but also prevents
subsequently increased, first from 10 MPa to 20 diseases, such as ophthalmopathy [55]. Takahashi
MPa after the initial 3 h, then from 20 MPa to 30 et al. [55] carried out the extraction of xantho-
MPa after 1 h, where it was maintained for 6 h. phylls and other carotenoids from the Japanese
-carotene (provitamin of vitamin E) and squalene persimmon with the addition of ethanol as modi-
were extracted at lower pressures (10 MPa) of fier. It was observed that a higher concentration of
SC-CO2; therefore these compounds were col- the added modifier decreases the selectivity of the
lected mainly in the early stage, while other caro- solvent for carotenoids, hence other compounds
tenes were collected in the following fractions at other than carotenoids are extracted. Like modi-
pressures above 20 MPa. Often cosolvents such fiers, mostly organic solvents are used, but veg-
as methanol, ethanol, or acetone are used to en- etable oils can modify the mobile phase as well.
hance solubility, but in some cases edible oils as Gao et al. [33] investigated the extraction of lutein
co-solvents are used for the same purpose [22]. from the marigold flower with CO2 in the pres-
In the work of Ciurlia et al. [41], an innova- ence of vegetable oils as modifier. Results showed
tive separation method is presented, where dried that the addition of edible oils to the mobile phase
tomato and roasted hazelnuts are mixed. Oil ex- results to a higher amount of lutein extracted. Oth-
tracted from hazelnut helps with the extraction er sources of lutein are listed in Table 2 along with
of carotenes, acting as an actual cosolvent. This other carotenoids extracted from plants. Wu et al.
method is interesting because it requires less addi- [73] investigated SFE of lutein from cultivated
tion of other co-solvents. Chlorella pyrenoidosa, and they observed that
Sanal et al. [65] investigated parameters this species contain an amount of lutein compara-
that might influence extraction yields besides ble to that found in the marigold flower; hence this
those previously mentioned in this section. The culture could be used as an alternative.
influence of drying procedure, sample amount, Among other xanthophylls, astaxanthin
and influence of DMP could be obtained from provides health benefits also. It contains two oxy-
their work [65]. genated groups on each ring structure, which are
In order to calculate extraction yields, ex- responsible for its enhanced antioxidant proper-
tracts were characterized with several analytical ties [74]. Astaxanthin can be obtained by SFE
methods, such as high-performance liquid chro- from pigments of H. pluvialis [24] and some other
matography (HPLC) and spectrophotometry microalgae or sea fruits [27, 7579].
in the UV/VIS region. In the literature [6870],
some other analytical methods are described. 2.2. Flavonoids and
other phenolic compounds
2.1.2. Xanthophylls
Applications of SFE for the extraction of
Xanthophylls are a group of naturally oc- flavonoids and other phenolic compounds from
curring oxygenized carotenoids produced mainly plant material are presented in Table 3.
by plants and microorganisms.

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Application of supercritical fluid extraction for the separation of nutraceuticals and other phytochemicals from plant material 189

Table 3
Application of SFE for separation of phenolic compounds from plants

Plant material
Compound(s) Methods/solvents Reference(s)
(Biological name)
Anthocyanins Raspberry (Rubus idaeus) SFE/CO2 [109]
Blueberry (Vaccinium SFE/CO2
Anthocyanins [109]
Cranberry (Vaccinium SFE/CO2
Anthocyanins [109]
Anthocyanins Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) SFE/CO2 [110]
Chamomile (Chamomilla
Apigenin SFE/CO2 + ethanol [94, 101, 102, 111]
Apigenin Olive (Olea europaea) SFE/CO2 [112]
Apigenin Strobilanthes crispus SFE/CO2 + ethanol [113]
Apigenin Marchantia convoluta SFE/CO2 + ethanol [92, 114116]
Apigenin Shiyacha (Adinandra nitida) SFE/CO2 ; methanol [117]
Apigenin Spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) SFE/CO2 [118, 119]
Artepillin C Brazilian propolis SFE/CO2 [120]
SFE; SE/CO2 + ethyl acetate;
Artepillin C Brazilian propolis [121, 122]
ethyl acetate
SFE; SE/CO2 + ethanol; ethanol,
ethyl acetate,
Artepillin C Brazilian propolis [123]
chloroform, n-hexane, water,
water + ethanol
Baikal skullcap (Scutellaria SFE/CO2 + methanol, + ethanol, +
Baicalin [98]
baicalensis) 1,2-propanediol
Blue skullcap (Scutellaria
Baicalin SFE/CO2 + ethanol, SHW [97]
Baicalin Skullcap (Scutellariae radix) SE; SFE/CO2 + methanol [124]
Baicelein Skullcap (Scutellariae radix) SE; SFE/CO2 + methanol [124]
Camellianin A Shiyacha (Adinandra nitida) SFE/CO2; methanol [117]
Macela (Achyrocline
Camellianin A SFE/CO2 + ethanol [125]
Catechin Tea (Camellia sinensis) SFE/CO2 [126]
Catechin Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) SFE/CO2 [126]
Catechin Tea (Camellia sinensis) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [127]
SE; SFE/ethanol + water; CO2, + [83, 84, 87, 92, 93, 128
Catechin Grape
ethanol 130]
Catechin Spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) SFE/CO2 [118, 119]
Catechin Olive (Olea europaea) SE; SFE/ethanol; CO2 [131]
Catechin Pine tree SFE/CO2; SFE/CO2 + ethanol [132, 133]
Catechin Berries SFE/CO2 [109]
Catechin Marigold (Calendula officinalis) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [101]

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190 Miha Oman, Mojca kerget, eljko Knez

Hawthorn (Crataegus
Catechin SFE/CO2 + ethanol [101]
Scented mayweed (Matricaria
Catechin SFE/CO2 + ethanol [101]
Catechin Strobilanthes crispus SFE/CO2 + ethanol [113]
Olive oil residues (Olea
Cinnamic acid SFE; SE/CO2; ethanol [131]
Macela (Achyrocline
Cinnamic acid SFE/CO2, CO2 + ethanol [125]
Cinnamic acid Cherry (Prunus avium) SFE/CO2, CO2 + ethanol [134]
Rosemary (Rosmarinus
Cirsimaritin SFE/CO2 + ethanol [135]
Corilagin Barbados nut (Jatropha curcas) SFE/CO2 + methanol [136]
Coumaric acid Brazilian propolis SFE/CO2 [120]
Olive oil residues (Olea
Coumaric acid SFE; SE/CO2; ethanol [131]
Coumarins Rice (Oryza sativa) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [137]
Coumarins Dodder (Cuscuta reflexa) SFE/CO2 + methanol [138]
Wormwood (Artemisia
Coumarins SFE/CO2 [139]
Coumarins Emburana (Torresea cearensis) SFE/CO2 [140]
Sweet grass (Hierochloe SE; MAE; SFE/organic solvents;
Coumarins [141]
odorata) CO2
Coumarins Dodder (Cuscuta reflexa) SFE/CO2 + methanol [138]
Coumarins Bai Zhi (Angelica dahurica) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [142, 143]
SFE/CO2 + methanol/water, +
Daidzein Soybean (Glycine max) [96, 105, 144]
Fucocoumarin Bishops flower (Ammi majus) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [145]
Gallic acid Rice (Oryza sativa Linn.) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [137]
Gallic acid Barbados nut (Jatropha curcas) SFE/CO2 + methanol [136]
Macela (Achyrocline
Galic acid SFE/CO2 + ethanol [146]
Ellagic acid Barbados nut (Jatropha curcas) SFE/CO2 + methanol [136]
SFE/CO2 + methanol; water +
Genistein Soybean (Glycine max) [96, 105, 144]
Genistein Wild Cherry (Prunus avium) SFE/CO2 [134]
ethanol/water; SFE/CO2 + ethanol,
Genistein Grape [86, 147, 148]
+ methanol
Genistein Grape SFE/CO2; SFE/CO2 + ethanol [85, 87, 89, 128]
SE; SFE/methanol; CO2 +
Genistein Black currant (Ribes nigrum) [149]
Genistein Black currant (Ribes nigrum) SE; SFE/ethanol; CO2 [150]
Genistein Elderberry (Sambucus) SFE/CO2 [91]
Genistein Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) SFE/CO2 [151]
Glabridin Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) SFE/CO2 [152]

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Application of supercritical fluid extraction for the separation of nutraceuticals and other phytochemicals from plant material 191

Coriander (Coriandrum SFE/CO2

Isocoumarin [153]
Kaempferol Strobilanthes crispus SFE/CO2 + ethanol [113]
Kaempferol Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) SFE/CO2 [126]
Kaempferol Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) SFE/CO2 [126]
Indian gooseberry (Phyllanthus
Kaempferol SFE/CO2 + methanol; methanol [149]
emblica L.)
SE; SFE/methanol; CO2 +
Kaempferol Black currant (Ribes nigrum) [149]
Kaempferol Black currant (Ribes nigrum) SE; SFE/ethanol; CO2 [150]
Kampheride Brazilian propolis SFE/CO2 [120]
Five-flavor berry (Schisandra
Lignan SFE/CO2, SCCO2 + ethanol [154]
Five-flavor berry (Schisandra
Lignan USE; SFE/CO2, CO2 + ethanol [155]
SE; SFE/ethanol, methanol; CO2,
Lignan Forsythia species [156]
+ methanol, + ethanol
Lignan Flax (Linum usitatissimum) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [157]
LDOPA Mucuna SFE/CO2 [158]
Myricetin Crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) SE, SFE/ethanol, CO3 [159]
Myricetin Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) SFE/CO2 [126]
Myricetin Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) SFE/CO2 [126]
Myricetin Spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) SFE/CO2 [118, 119]
Naringenin Aspen (Populus tremula) PHWE [160]
Naringenin Spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) SFE/CO2 [118, 119]
Naringin Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [161]
SFE/CO2 + ethanol, + methanol,
Orientin Maypop (Passiflora incarnata) [82]
+ CHCl3
Orientin Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) SFE/CO2 [162]
Orotinin Patrinia villosa Juss. SFE/CO2 + ethanol [163]
Osthole Cnidium monnieri SFE/CO2 [164]
Pinostrobin Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) SFE/CO2 [162]
Polyphenols Cocoa SFE/CO2 + ethanol [165]
Quercetin Crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) SE, SFE/ethanol, CO2 [159]
Quercetin Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) SFE/CO2 [126]
Quercetin Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) SFE/CO2 [126]
SFE; SWE/CO2 + ethanol; SFE/
Quercetin Onion (Allium cepa) [166, 167]
Quercetin Hypericum SFE/CO2 + methanol [100]
Quercetin Grape SFE/CO2 + ethanol [84]
Macela (Achyrocline
Quercetin SFE/CO2 + ethanol [146]
Resveratol Grape SFE/CO2 + ethanol [84]
Resveratol Polygonum cuspidatum SFE/CO2 + ethanol [168]
Resveratol Hop (Humulus lupulus) SFE/CO2 [169]

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192 Miha Oman, Mojca kerget, eljko Knez

Rhamnetin Marigold (Calendula officinalis) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [101]

Hawthorn (Crataegus
Rhamnetin SFE/CO2 + ethanol [101]
Scented mayweed (Matricaria
Rhamnetin SFE/CO2 + ethanol [101]
Rutin Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) SFE/CO2 [126]
Rutin Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) SFE/CO2 [126]
Rutin Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) ASE [170]
Rutin Olive (Olea europaea) SFE/CO2 [112]
Rutin Spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) SFE/CO2 [118, 119]
Rutin Strobilanthes crispus SFE/CO2 + ethanol [113]
Passionflower (Passiflora SFE/CO2 + ethanol, + methanol,
Rutin [82]
incarnata) + CHCl3
Scutellarein SFE/CO2 + ethanol [135]
(Rosmarinus officinalis)
Stilbenes Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) SFE/CO2 [162]
SE; SFE/hexane; CO2, SC-CO2 +
Tannin Canola (Brassica napus L.) [171, 172]
Stonebreaker (Phyllanthus SE; SFE; PWHE/organic solvents;
Tannin [173, 174]
niruri) CO2; H2O
Thymoquinone Black cumin (Nigella sativa) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [175]
SFE/CO2 + ethanol, + methanol,
Vitexin Maypop (Passiflora incarnata) [82]
+ CHCl3
Vitexin Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) SFE/CO2 [162]
Blue skullcap (Scutellaria SFE; SubWE/CO2 + ethanol;
Wogonin [97]
lateriflora) water
Wogonin Skullcap (Scutellariae radix) SE; SFE/CO2 + methanol [124]
Mangosteen (Garcinia
Xanthone SFE/CO2 + ethanol [176178]
-oryzanol Rice (Oryza sativa) SFE/CO2 [179181]
Bitter melon (Momordica
N.D. SFE/CO2 + ethanol [182]
N.D. Pomelo (Citrus grandis) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [183]

Flavonoids are phenolic compounds that carried out. One of potential sources of flavonoids
serve as antioxidants and are found in plants as is grape and its by-pruducts. Several authors re-
pigments [80]. There are many flavonoid class- searched the extraction of flavonoids from grape
es; the most common are flavanes, flavones, fla- and grape by-products [8393]. Results obtained
vanones, flavonols, isoflavonoids, and anthocya- from these researches can majorly contribute to
nins. Their structure is usually characterized by grape-processing industries and wineries in terms
a C6C3C6 carbon skeleton with double bonds of giving information on how to achieve a higher
and attached oxygen functional groups [81]. One recovery of some flavonids extracted with SFE,
of the earliest studies in this field has been done by besides those obtained in grape processing. Fla-
Moraes et al. [82], where the isolation of glyco- vonoids are polar compounds, and because of
sylated flavonoids from Passiflora edulis has been this, there are only few studies on their separation

Maced. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 32 (2), 183226 (2013)

Application of supercritical fluid extraction for the separation of nutraceuticals and other phytochemicals from plant material 193

with pure CO2. Such example is the isolation of method is promising and presents an alternative
the moderately polar apigenin from chamomile, to conventional processes; however, the disad-
where the investigations showed that extraction vantage is thermal degradation of thermolabile
with SCCO2 is more rapid than other conven- compounds.
tional methods [94]. Senorans et al. [186] and Simo et al.
Because of the polarity of flavonoids, polar [187] carried out countercurrent supercritical
modifiers have to be added to SCCO2 to increase fluid extraction (CCSFE) of flavonoids from
solubility. Numerous researches were performed, orange juice. After extraction, further sepa-
where the influence of modifiers was investigated ration of flavonoids with reversed-phase liq-
[84, 90, 94107]. These studied showed that the uid chromatography (RPLC) and/or micellar
addition of a modifier generally increases the ef- electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) was
ficiency of extraction by increasing yields. How- performed in order to fractionate compounds.
ever, too much co-solvent used is not economical, CCSFE was performed in extraction column
due to the higher amount of energy required for filled with spherical steel packing. This packing
its removal. material provides a larger contact area, which
As mentioned, mainly CO2 is used for SFE, allows more efficient separations [186]. This
but other fluids could be used as well. Chiu et al. technique is promising for the separation of
[99] investigated the extraction of flavonoids from other nutraceuticals from liquid samples (e.g.
ginkgo using CO2, N2O, and Freon 1,1,1,2-tetra- extracts).
fluoroethane (R134a). Each supercritical medium SFE was applied to sample preparation
itself could not extract flavonoids from dried gink- of Rhodiola rosea, and further analysis of fla-
go leaves in this case. Successful extraction was vonoids was performed by liquid chromatogra-
achieved with the addition of ethanol as modifier phy in tandem with mass spectroscopy [188].
[99]. Flavonoids are the most often determined and
Before undertaking an individual SFE identified by chromatographic methods such as
process, often a sample preparation is required. thin layer chromatography (TLC) [189], RPLC
Antolovich et al. [95] reviewed techniques in with C8- or C18-bonded silica column packing.
the preparation of samples for the extraction of Liquid chromatography could be coupled with
phenolic compounds from fruits, then described mass spectroscopy (LCMS). Those methods
the analytical methods for the determination of are usually applied with a diode array detector
phenolic compounds present in the processed (DAD). High-performance liquid chromatogra-
material. The particle size of the material played phy (HPLC) could also be coupled with electro-
an important role. Liu et al. [108] investigated spray ionization detection (ESI), or lightscat-
the influence of the particle size of M. stigma tering detection (LSD). Another way of identi-
on extraction yields of flavonoids. When par- fying compounds is gas chromatography (GC)
ticle size is reduced, contact area is increased; coupled with mass spectroscopy (GCMS). De-
hence yields got higher. Oppositely, when the tailed identification and determination methods
particles are too small, this lowers the extrac- of various phenolic compounds are described
tion yield, due to agglomeration [108]. in the literature [135, 141, 190192]. Klejdus et
Not only SFE but also pressurized hot al. [193] investigated a new analytic approach
water extraction (PHWE) [184, 185] and ac- by using supercritical fluids, i.e. solidphase/
celerated solvent extraction (ASE) [170] could supercritical fluid extraction (SPE/SFE), which
be applied in order to ensure sustainability. Ol- provides a more efficient isolation and identifi-
lanketo et al. [185] investigated PHWE of an- cation of simple phenols and phenolic acids as
tioxidant compounds (among them were also only by using CO2. Crego et al. [194] proposed
flavonoids) from sage (Salvia officinalis). This subcritical water extraction (SubWE) of phe-

Maced. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 32 (2), 183226 (2013)

194 Miha Oman, Mojca kerget, eljko Knez

nolic compounds from rosemary in combination [198] studied rosemary extraction followed
with capillary electrophoresis (CE). The water by SFC. The extracted compounds could be
used in those processes contributed to the sus- analysed withouth further sample preparation
tainability of said processes. The application of (online analysis) if analytical SFC is applied, or
SubWE is useful for the isolation of more polar even fractionationated in the case of preparative
compounds, and extraction could be achieved SFC (prep SFC) [197].
faster in a less viscous extraction medium. Generally, the solubility of a compound in
The utilization of renewable resources, a solvent has to be known in order to optimize the
e.g. waste from the forestry industry, is becom- extraction and fractionation of the solutes. The
ing more attractive. Therefore, Yesil-Celiktas et importance of solubility data could be observed
al. [133] proposed the recovery of some flavo- in the work of Nunes et al. [199], where a
noids from pine barks using SFE with CO2. study of the extraction of phenolic compounds
Flavonoids, as known, help to prevent (catechin, qurcetin-3-glycoside, coumaric acid,
diseases with their antioxidant, antiviral, resveratol) from water-alcohol mixtures (such
antimicrobial, and cancer prevention properties; as wine) was conducted. At elevated pressures,
therefore they could be used as medicines. water is poorly miscible with SCCO2; on the
Miao et al. [195] studied SFE of flavonoids other hand, ethanol is completely miscible above
from ginkgo biloba leaves with CO2 and ethanol supercritical conditions. Therefore two phases
as cosolvent, coupled with micronization, in are formed when pressurized CO2 is introduced
order to obtain smaller particles for better drug into a water-ethanol mixture. Observations of
release in the body. Nunes et al. [199] confirmed that the ethanol-
The future trend of SFE investigations is rich phase contains more phenolic compounds.
scaled up from an analytical scale to preparative This advantage could be used for the separation
or even an industrial scale. Such processes of flavonoids from alcoholic beverages, such as
have to be optimized in order to achieve cost wine.
effective operations. Therefore solvents shall SCF can be applied as an alternative
be recycled. Often organic solvents are used solution for the extraction of oils from biomass,
as modifiers of SC-CO2. In order to achieve rich with several phenolics, esters, and furan
successful recycling, evaporation of the modifier derivatives. Such extraction was investigated
is required. The evaporation step consumes a by Chumpoo and Prasassarakich [200], where
great amount of energy. If an extract is gathered supercritical ethanol in inert H2 atmosphere was
in a collective trap, filled with a co-solvent, used for the extraction of oils from biomass. This
the evaporative step could be avoided, which study provides knowledge about supercritical
presents a more economical solution [88]. ethanol extraction, where its mandatory to
Although SFE serves mainly for the use inert atmosphere to avoid combustion.
isolation of certain compounds from plant Supercritical ethanol extraction is like SubWE,
matrix, it could be used for the pretreatment an appropriate alternative to SFE, where mainly
of sample preparations for further processing. modified CO2 is used, because it can separate
Xu et al. [196] observed that SFE could break polar compounds more effectively. On the other
cell walls in order to extract lysed bee pollen hand, this method is not as economical as SFE
oils from rape bee pollen more efficiently. with CO2 because of the higher price of ethanol.
Compounds in the extract could be separated Flavonoids cover a wide range of phe-
afterward with chromatographic methods. nolic compounds, but there are other phenolic
Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is compounds in the natural matrices that affect
one of many chromatographic methods that human health. They are grouped into the fol-
were rarely used in the past, but lately it has lowing categories (besides flavonoids): simple
become more attractive. Ramirez et al. [197], phenols, benzoic acid derivates, stilbenes, tan-

Maced. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 32 (2), 183226 (2013)

Application of supercritical fluid extraction for the separation of nutraceuticals and other phytochemicals from plant material 195

nins, lignans, and lignins [201]. Some of those newer separation processes (as SFE, PHWE,
compounds were extracted by SFEe.g. phenyl microwaveassisted hydrodistillation [MAHD],
acetic acids [137]; cinnamic acids, coumarins, and solid-phase micro extraction [SPME])
isocoumarins [138143, 145, 153, 164, 174, were done [206215]. Results obtained
202], and chromones; lignans [155157]; tan- showed that conventional processes in general
nins [171, 172]; xanthones [178] and stilbenes give higher global yields. On the other hand,
[64, 84, 106, 168, 169, 189]; and betacyanins newer processes, such as SFE, provide faster
[203]. In the work of Wang et al. [204], SFE separation. The properties of a solvent in SFE
combined with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) could be manipulated by just adjusting operation
for the separation of coumarins from Angelica parameters, and a wide range of applications
dahurica is presented. First, SFE of material is possible. However, SFE is not always the
was performed, and the extract obtained was optimal solution, because the solubility of a
afterwards extracted by LLE. SFE extract was desired component in supercritical media is
diluted in petroleum ether. The prepared sample not satisfactory in that case. Even more, the
was extracted first with water, then with a 60 % depressurization step of CO2 and the renewed
methanol/water solution with LLE. Selectivity repressurization of SFE is a big disadvantage,
and separation efficiency were better than with because more energy is consumed. Carlson et
SFE alone [204]. Phenyllpropanoides, benzoic al. [216] proposed the use of reverse-osmosis
acid derivates, coumarins, and isocoumarins are membranes to avoid instantaneous expansion
very important from a pharmacological point of and to lower operating costs.
view, because they prevent diseases and have Undesired racemization, where risky
antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, enantiomers are included in the racemic mixture,
and cancer-preventive properties. Coumarins could be avoided [217]. First, the plant material
could also help in treating AIDS, among other is pretreated with SFE and then is extracted and
properties. further fractionated with SFC in chiral mode.
This procedure is appropriate for the isolation
of bioactive compounds, which could be added
2.3. Essential oils in food, which requires higher purity, or could
be used as medicine, on the other hand.
Investigations of SFE of essential oils The main application of SFE in the field
from natural matter are listed in Table 4. of essential oils is the isolation of terpenes
Essential oils are volatile and liquid (sesquiterpenes) or terpenoids from plant
aroma components present in plant materials. material. When the presence of terpenes and
Often they are poorly soluble in water and have terpenoids is not desired in the final products,
characteristic odors. Therefore, they are used in the process is called deterpenation [218220].
food flavoring and perfumery. Mostly, CO2 is applied for SFE of essential
Essential oils are mostly separated oils, but ethane could be a great alternative,
with hydrodistillation (HD), including steam because its solvent power for the extraction of
distillation (SD) [205]. Many investigations essential oils is higher, which is desired in the
and comparisons between conventional and deterpenation process [221].

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196 Miha Oman, Mojca kerget, eljko Knez

Table 4
Application of SFE for the separation of phenolic compounds from plants

Compounds Plant material ( Biological name) Method/solvent Reference(s)

1,8-Cineole Swamp mallet (Eucalyptus spathulata) HD; SFE/CO2 [222]
1,8-Cineole Coolabah (Eucalyptus microtheca) HD; SFE/CO2 [222]
1,8-Cineole French lavender SFE/CO2 [217]
(Lavandula x intermedia Grosso)
1,8-Cineole Lavandin abrial SFE/CO2 [217]
(Lavandula x intermedia Abrial)
1,8-Cineole Lavandin Puper SFE/CO2 [217]
(Lavandula x intermedia Super)
1,8-Cineole Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) HD; SFE/CO2 [223226]
1,8-Cineole French lavender (Lavandula stoechas) HD; SubWE/H2O [209]
1,8-Cineole Khoa (Satureja boliviana) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [146]
1,8-Cineole Cotton lavender HD; SFE/CO2 [227]
(Santolina chamaecyparissus)
1,8-Cineole Sweet bay (Laurus nobilis L.) SFE/CO2 [228, 229]
1,8-Cineole Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi) SFE/CO2 [230]
1,8-Cineole Clove basil (Ocimum gratissimum) SFE/CO2 [231]
1,8-Cineole Argyle apple (Eucalyptus cinerea) HD; SFE/CO2 [232]
1,8-Cineole Sweet gale (Myrica gale L.) SFE/CO2 [233]
1,8-Cineole French lavender (Lavandula stoechas) SFE/CO2 [220]
1,8-Cineole Peppermint (Mentha piperita) SFE/CO2 [234]
4-Nonanone (Capillipedium parviflorum) HD; SFE/CO2 [235]
4-Nonanol (Capillipedium parviflorum) HD; SFE/CO2 [235]
4-Terpineol Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) MAE; SFE/CO2 [202]
4-Undecanone (Capillipedium parviflorum) HD; SFE/CO2 [235]
4-Undecanol (Capillipedium parviflorum) HD; SFE/CO2 [235]
Artemisinin Sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua) SFE/CO2+ ethanol [236]
Bicyclogermacrene Peruvian pepper (Schinus molle) SFE/CO2 [237]
Boldine Boldo (Peumus boldus) PHWE; SFE/CO2 [208]
Cadinol Marigold (Calendula officinalis) SFE/CO2 [238]
Camphor Lavandin abrial SFE/CO2 [217]
(Lavandula x intermedia Abrial)
Camphor Sage (Salvia officinalis) SFE/CO2 [223]
Camphor Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) HD; SFE/CO2 [223226]
Camphor French lavender (Lavandula stoechas) HD; SubWE/H2O [209]
Camphor Cotton lavender HD; SFE/CO2 [227]
(Santolina chamaecyparissus)
Camphor (Thymus lotocephalus G. Lopez & R. Morales) SFE/CO2 [239]
Camphor Borage (Borago officinalis) HD; SFE/CO2 + [240]
Camphor French lavender (Lavandula stoechas) SFE/CO2 [220]

Maced. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 32 (2), 183226 (2013)

Application of supercritical fluid extraction for the separation of nutraceuticals and other phytochemicals from plant material 197

Camphor Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) SFE/CO2 [241, 242]

Camphor Lavender (Lavandula viridis) HD; SFE/CO2 [243]
Carnosic acid Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [197, 212, 225,
Carnosic acid Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) SubWE [184, 194]
Carnosic acid Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) SFE/CO2 [251253]
Carnosic acid Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) SFE; PLE/CO2; H2O, [254]
Carnosol Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [197, 212, 225,
Carnosol Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) SubWE [184, 194]
Carnosol Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) SFE/CO2 [251253]
Carnosol Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) SFE; PLE/CO2; water, [254]
Carvacrol Oregano (Origanum vulgare) SFE/CO2 [218, 255, 256]
Carvacrol Summer savory (Satureja hortensis) HD, SFE/CO2 + [257]
Carvacrol Winter savory (Satureja montana) HD; SFE/CO2 [258]
Carvacrol Lippia origanoides SFE/CO2 [214]
Carvacrol Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) MAE; SFE/CO2 [202]
Carvone Indian dill (Anethum sowa) HD; SFE/CO2 [259]
Carvone Spearmint (Mentha spicata) SE; SFE/hexane, DCM, [260]
ethanol; CO2
Caryophyllene Curry plant (Helichrysum italicum) HD; SFE/CO2 [261]
Caryophyllene Khoa (Satureja boliviana) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [262]
Caryophyllene Oregano (Origanum vulgare) SFE/CO2 [218, 255, 256]
Caryophyllene Oregano (Origanum vulgare) SubWE [263]
Caryophyllene Peruvian pepper (Schinus molle) SFE/CO2 [237]
Caryophyllene Indian gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica L.) SFE/CO2 [149]
Caryophyllene Madeira mahogany (Persea indica) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [264]
Caryophyllene Honeyherb (Lippia dulcis) HD; SFE/CO2 [265]
Caryophyllene Sri Lanka cinnamon SFE/CO2 [266]
(Cinnamomum zeylanicum)
Cedrene Dragonhead (Dracocophalum tanguticum) SFE/CO2 [267]
Chrysanthenol Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [268]
Cinnamonaldehyde Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) HD; SFE/CO2 [269, 270]
Cinnamonaldehyde Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi) SFE/CO2 [230]
Cinnamonaldehyde Sri Lanka cinnamon SFE/CO2 [266]
(Cinnamomum zeylanicum)
Citral Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citrates) SD; SFE/CO2 [271]
Citronellol Carqueja (Baccharis genistelloides) SFE/CO2 [272]
Copaene Saigon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi) SFE/CO2 [230]
Copaene Honeyherb (Lippia dulcis) HD; SFE/CO2 [265]
Curcumene Curry plant (Helichrysum italicum) HD; SFE/CO2 [261]

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198 Miha Oman, Mojca kerget, eljko Knez

Cycloartenol Carrot (Daucus carota) SFE/CO2 [273]

Dihydrocarvone Indian dill (Anethum sowa) HD; SFE/CO2 [259]
Dillapiole Indian dill (Anethum sowa) HD; SFE/CO2 [259]
Dillapiole (Diplotaenia cachrydifolia) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [274]
E-ocimenone Marigold (Tagetes minuta) SFE/CO2 [223]
Epoxyocimene Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [268]
Eugenol Clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) HD; SFE/CO2 [275]
Eugenol Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) SFE/CO2 [255, 276]
Eugenol Clove basil (Ocimum gratissimum) SFE/CO2 [231]
Eugenol Sri Lanka cinnamon SFE/CO2 [266]
(Cinnamomum zeylanicum)
Eugenol Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) SFE/CO2 [277]
Eugenyl acetate Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) SFE/CO2 [255, 276]
E--ocimene Southern cone marigold (Tagetes minuta) SFE/CO2 [223]
Farnesene Annual herbs (Nepeta persica) SFE/CO2 + methanol; [278]
Fenchon French lavender (Lavandula stoechas) HD; SubWE/H2O [209]
Fenchon Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) SFE/CO2 [241, 242]
Geranial Moldavian dragonhead SFE/CO2 [210]
(Dracocophalum moldavica L.)
Geraniol Moldavian dragonhead SFE/CO2 [210]
(Dracocophalum moldavica L.)
Geraniol Scented geranium HD; SFE/CO2 [279]
(Pelargonium graveolens)
Germacrone Dragonhead (Dracocophalum tanguticum) SFE/CO2 [267]
Hentriacontano Abajeru (Chrysobalanus Icaco) SE; SFE/ethanol; CO2 [280]
Hernandulcin Honeyherb (Lippia dulcis) HD; SFE/CO2 [265]
Incensole Boswellia (Boswellia carterii) HD; SFE/CO2 [281]
Incensole acetate Boswellia (Boswellia carterii) HD; SFE/CO2 [281]
Isomenthyl acetate Peppermint (Metha piperita) SFE/CO2 [223]
Khusimol Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizaniodes) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [282]
Limonene (Diplotaenia cachrydifolia) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [274, 283]
Limonene Peruvian pepper (Schinus molle) SFE/CO2 [237]
Limonene Oregano (Origanum vulgare) SFE/CO2 [218, 255, 256]
Limonene Lemon (Citrus limon) SFE/CO2 [219]
Limonene Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citrates) HD; SFE/CO2 [271]
Limonene Indian dill (Anethum sowa) HD; SFE/CO2 [259]
Limonene Red clover (Trifolium pratense) SFE/CO2 [255, 284]
Limonene Carqueja (Baccharis genistelloides) SFE/CO2 [272]
Linalool Lavandin super SFE/CO2 [217]
(Lavandula x intermedia Super)
Linalool Levandin grosso SFE/CO2 [217]
(Lavandula x intermedia Grosso)
Linalool Lavandin abrial SFE/CO2 [217]
(Lavandula x intermedia Abrial)

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Application of supercritical fluid extraction for the separation of nutraceuticals and other phytochemicals from plant material 199

Linalool French lavender (Lavandula stoechas) SFE/CO2 [209]

Linalool Sweet bay (Laurus nobilis L.) SFE/CO2 [228, 229]
Linalool (Thymus lotocephalus G. Lopez & R. Morales) SFE/CO2 [239]
Linalool Carqueja (Baccharis genistelloides) SFE/CO2 [272]
Linalool French lavender (Lavandula stoechas) SFE/CO2 [220]
Linalool Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) SFE/CO2 [241, 242]
Linalyl acetate Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) SFE/CO2 [241, 242]
Menthol Peppermint (Metha piperita) SFE/CO2 [223]
Menthol Peppermint (Mentha piperita) SFE/CO2 [189, 234, 285]
Menthone Peppermint (Mentha piperita) SFE/CO2 [189, 234, 285]
Myrcene Common juniper SFE/CO2 [286]
(Juniperus communis L.)
Myrcene Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) HD; SFE/CO2 [223226]
Myrcene Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citrates) HD; SFE/CO2 [271]
Myrcene Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora) SFE/CO2 [51]
Myrtenol French lavender (Lavandula stoechas) HD; SubWE/H2O [209]
Myrtenol Lavender (Lavandula viridis) HD; SFE/CO2 [243]
N.D. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) SFE/CO2 [287, 288]
N.D. Orange SFE/CO2; ethane [221]
N.D. Abise (Pimpinella anisum) HD; SFE/CO2 [289]
N.D. Silver vine (Actinida polygama) SFE/CO2 [290]
Nanocosane Abajeru (Chrysobalanus icaco) SE; SFE/ethanol; CO2 [280]
Nepetalactone Annual herbs (Nepeta persica) HD; SFE/CO2 + [278]
Nerol Moldavian dragonhead SFE/CO2 [210]
(Dracocophalum moldavica L.)
Ocimene Oregano (Origanum vulgare) SFE/CO2 [218, 255, 256]
Ocimene Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) HD; SFE/CO2 [223226]
Ocimene Sweet bay (Laurus nobilis L.) SFE/CO2 [228, 229]
Ocimene Carqueja (Baccharis genistelloides) SFE/CO2 [272]
Ocimene Corn parsley (Ridolfia segetum ) SFE/CO2 [291]
Octanol acetate Boswellia (Boswellia carterii) HD; SFE/CO2 [281]
P-Cymene Lippia origanoides SFE/CO2 [214]
P-Cymene Khoa (Satureja boliviana) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [262]
P-Cymene Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) MAE; SFE/CO2 [202]
Phyllocladene Boswellia (Boswellia carterii) HD; SFE/CO2 [281]
Rosmanol Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [197, 212, 225,
Rosmanol Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) SubWE/H2O [184, 194]
Rosmanol Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) SFE/CO2 [251, 253]
Rosmanol Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) SFE; PLE/CO2; water, [254]
Rosmarinic acid Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [197, 212, 225,

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200 Miha Oman, Mojca kerget, eljko Knez

Rosmarinic acid Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) SubWE/H2O [184, 194]

Rosmarinic acid Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) SFE/CO2 [251, 253]
Rosmarinic acid Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) SFE; PLE/CO2; water, [254]
Sabinene Common juniper (Juniperus communis L.) SFE [286]
Sabinene Sweet bay (Laurus nobilis L.) SFE/CO2 [228, 229]
Sabinene Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis). SFE/CO2 + methanol [292]
Sabinene Seseli (Seseli bocconi) SFE/CO2 [293]
Sabinene Carrot (Daucus carota) SFE/CO2 [273]
Sabinene Coral ginger (Zingber corallinum) HD; SFE/CO2 [294]
Salinene Curry plant (Helichrysum italicum) HD; SFE/CO2 [261]
Santalol Indian sandalwood (Santal album) HD; SFE/CO2 [281]
Scopoletin Sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [236]
Sesquiterpenes Sweetleaf (Stevia rebaudiana) SFE/CO2 [295]
Terpinen-4-ol Coral ginger (Zingber corallinum) HD; SFE/CO2 [294]
Thymol Oregano (Origanum vulgare) SFE/CO2 [218, 255, 256]
Thymol Oregano (Origanum vulgare) SubWE/H2O [263]
Thymol Summer savory (Satureja hortensis) HD, SFE/CO2 + [257]
Thymol Khoa (Satureja boliviana) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [262]
Thymol Winter savory (Satureja montana) SFE/CO2, HD [258]
Thymoquinone Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) MAE; SFE/CO2 [202]
Valerenic acid Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) HD; SFE/CO2 [223226]
Valerenic acid Cotton lavender HD; SFE/CO2 [227]
(Santolina chamaecyparissus)
Valerenic acid Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) SFE/CO2 [296, 297]
Verbenone Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [164, 205, 225,
Verbenone Lavender (Lavandula viridis) HD; SFE/CO2 [243]
-bergamotol Indian sandalwood (Santal album) HD; SFE/CO2 [281]
-cyperone Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora) SFE/CO2 [51]
-cyperone Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) SFE/CO2 [277]
-calacorene (Diplotaenia cachrydifolia) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [274]
-humulene Carrot (Daucus carota) SFE/CO2 [273]
-pinnene Borage (Borago officinalis) HD; SFE/CO2 + [240]
-pinnene Swamp mallet (Eucalyptus spathulata) HD; SFE/CO2 [222]
-pinnene Coolabah (Eucalyptus microtheca) HD; SFE/CO2 [222]
-pinnene Oregano (Origanum vulgare) SFE/CO2 [218, 255, 256]
-pinnene Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [225, 244]
-pinnene Cnidium monnieri SFE/CO2 [164]
-pinnene Common juniper (Juniperus communis L.) SFE/CO2 [286]
-pinnene Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) HD; SFE/CO2 [223226]
-pinnene Sweet bay (Laurus nobilis L.) SFE/CO2 [228, 229]

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Application of supercritical fluid extraction for the separation of nutraceuticals and other phytochemicals from plant material 201

-pinnene Red clover (Trifolium pratense) SFE/CO2 [255, 284]

-pinnene Carrot (Daucus carota) SFE/CO2 [273]
-pinnene Sweet gale (Myrica gale L) SFE/CO2 [233]
-selinene Guava (Psidium guajava) SFE/CO2 + ethanol, + [298]
-thujene Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) MAE; SFE/CO2 [202]
-thujone Sage (Salvia officinalis) SFE/CO2 [223]
-ylangene Five-flavor berry (Schisandra chinensis) SFE; HD; SFE/CO2 [215]
-cadinene Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi) SFE/CO2 [230]
-cadinene Marigold (Calendula officinalis) SFE/CO2 [238]
-caryophyllene Carrot (Daucus carota) SFE/CO2 [273]
-caryophyllene Spearmint (Mentha spicata) SE; SFE/hexane, DCM, [260]
ethanol; CO2
-caryophyllene Guava (Psidium guajava) SFE/CO2 + ethanol, + [298]
-selinene Guava (Psidium guajava) SFE/CO2 + ethanol, + [298]
-selinene Clove basil (Ocimum gratissimum) SFE/CO2 [231]
-terpinene Oregano (Origanum vulgare) HD; SFE/CO2 [218]
-terpinene Oregano (Origanum vulgare) SubWE/H2O [263]
-terpinene Cotton lavender (Santolina chamaecyparissus) HD; SFE/CO2 [227]
-terpinene Winter savory (Satureja montana) HD; SFE/CO2 [258]
-terpinene Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis) HD, SFE/CO2+ [257]
-terpinene Black cumin (Bunium persicum) HD; SFE/CO2 [299]
-cadinene Madeira mahogany (Persea indica) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [264]
-cadinene Honeyherb (Lippia dulcis) HD; SFE/CO2 [265]
-cadinol Dragonhead (Dracocophalum tanguticum) SFE/CO2 [267]

2.4. Extraction of lipids and fatty acids humans. Major fatty acids produced in plants
are palmitic acid (16:0), oleic acid (18:1 -9),
In Table 5, examples of SFE application linoleic acid (18:2 -6), and -linolenic acid
for the separation of lipids and fatty acids from (18:3 -3) [12]. Among fatty acids are essen-
plant material are listed. tial fatty acids (-6 and -3), which are very
There are several fatty acids or their de- important for human health as antioxidants and
rivates that are interesting for investigation because they dissolve vitamins that do not dis-
because of their functional potential. Precur- solve in water. Those fatty acids in most cases
sors of conjugated linoleic acid, linoleic acid, have to be provided to the body through nutri-
and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) are in- tion because the body cannot produce them.
tensively produced in plants. Plants primarily Besides fatty acids, there are two other
produce fatty acids in order to become triglyc- types of lipids in food products: first are
erides, which serve as stored energy (oils) as structured lipids and the others are diglycerides.
well as components of the cell membrane, i.e., Structured lipids are triglycerides that have
glycerophospholipids and glyceroglycolipids, undergone hydrolysis and esterification, which
which have roles similar to phospholipids in resulted in triglycerides with a new combination

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202 Miha Oman, Mojca kerget, eljko Knez

of fatty acids. Diglycerides have been used where temperature was changed and pressure
as emulsifying agents in manufactured food was kept constant. At the highest pressure at
products [12]. constant temperature, recovery of squalene was
Phospholipids compose the main part the highest, while it was the lowest at the high-
of the cell membranes and are composed of est temperature at constant pressure [304].
diglycerides and a phosphate group, on which Materials that contain a lot of oil extractables
another organic compound is attached, such as can be pretreated with SCCO2 [305]. Fatty acids
choline [300], serine, and ethanolamine. and triglycerides dissolve CO2 well under pressure.
Lipids are mainly isolated with organic Meyer et al. [305] performed a CO2 pretreatment
solvents, and most of them pollute the final of sunflower and St. Johns wort. The material
product. To avoid further processing in order was exposed to compressed and heated CO2 in a
to separate organic solvents, supercritical fluid magnetic suspension balance (MSB). Absorbed
extraction could be used. CO2 caused expansion of extractables in cells;
Separation is relatively easy to achieve during the fast decompression and desorption,
because of the nonpolar nature of lipids. the material was pulverized, and as consequence
Several works have been published where the the materials contact area became bigger, and
performance of conventional solvent extraction thus faster separation was achievable. In the case
(SE) was compared to that of SFE. Even though when a material does not contain many lipid
SE generally gives higher yields than SFE, the extractables, this phenomenon did not occure
use of organic solvents does not provide the [305].
desired selectivity; hence, other compounds SFE can be applied for the isolation of
besides fatty acids are extracted [301]. In order tocopherols and phytosterols from residues of
to have a faster and more selective extraction, vegetable-oil processing, which are deodorized
SFE is the alternative to use. i.e. offensive odor is removed. Such residues
The most common use of SFE is in the could be obtained after the removal of oil from
removal of oils (edible) from plant seeds and sunflower [1], soybean [306309], olive [310],
kernels. Oil-and-fat-processing industries en- corn, canola, etc.
counter oil acidification due to the hydrolysis of The use of SCCO2 for the extraction
the fatty acid chains and lipid oxidation, which of essential fatty acids from plant materials
is caused by an enzyme, heat, or moisture. In has become very attractive. Such case is the
order to avoid hydrolysis, chemical and physi- isolation of 3 and other PUFA from plant
cal deacidification methods have been used in materials rich in oils, such as flaxseed [311]
the industry. Some processes of deacidification or canola seed [312]. Other examples could be
could be performed by SFE [179, 302, 303]. seen in Table 5, where applications of SFE for
When oils are removed from a solid material, the isolation of fatty acids and other lipids from
extraction is usually semicontinuous. Alterna- plant material are listed.
tively, if bare oils are extracted and fractioned, Not only SCCO2 could be used as a
the process is performed continuously in coun- solvent for the extraction of oils and fats, but
tercurrent mode. Such a process was performed subcritical propane and supercritical sulphur
by AlDarmaki et al. [304] when they extracted hexafluoride (SF6) could also be used as
squalene from a palm oil fattyacid distillate. solvents in extraction processes. Ilic et al. [313]
In the first set of experiments [304], pressure measured the phase behavior of sunflower and
was changed and temperature remained con- soybean oils in propane and SF6.
stant. Afterward, a set of experiments followed,

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Application of supercritical fluid extraction for the separation of nutraceuticals and other phytochemicals from plant material 203

Table 5
Application of SFE for the separation of lipid compounds from natural matter

Compound(s) Plant material (Biological name) Methods/solvents Reference(s)

Campesterol Carrot (Daucus carota) SFE/CO2 [273]
Campesterol Red globe grape SFE/CO2 + ethanol [314]
Campesterol Victoria globe grape SFE/CO2 + ethanol [314]
Cycloartenol Carrot (Daucus carota) SFE/CO2 [273]
SE; SFE/n-hexane, DCM;
Ergosterol Shitake (Lentinula edodes) [315]
Erucic acid Canola (Brassica napus) SFE/CO2 [307, 316]
Eicosenoic acid Canola (Brassica napus) SFE/CO2 [307, 316]
Fatty acid (unsaturated) Cuphea (Cuphea lanceolata) SFE/CO2 [317]
Fatty acid (unsaturated) Passion fruit (Passiflora) SFE/CO2 [318]
Seabuckthorn (Hippophae SFE/CO2
Fatty acid (unsaturated) [196, 319]
Sikkim microula (Microula SFE/CO2
Fatty acid (unsaturated) [320]
Fatty acid (unsaturated) White pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) SE; MAE; AEE; SFE/CO2 [321]
Fatty acid (unsaturated) Rice (Oryza sativa) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [137]
Fatty acid (unsaturated) African oil palm (Elaais guinensis) SFE/CO2 [322]
Hexadecanal Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) SFE/CO2 [64]
Linoleic acid Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) SFE/CO2 [323]
Linoleic acid Canola (Brassica napus) SFE; SE/CO2; n-hexane [171, 324]
Linoleic acid Canola (Brassica napus) SFE/CO2 [307, 316]
Linoleic acid Canola (Brassica napus) SFE/CO2; propane [325]
Linoleic acid Canola (Brassica napus) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [326]
Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo
Linoleic acid SFE/CO2 [327]
var. cantalupensis)
Linoleic acid Cork oak (Quercus suber) SE; SFE/n-hexane; CO2 [328]
Linoleic acid Gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides) SFE/CO2 [329]
Linoleic acid Holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia) SFE/CO2 [330]
Linoleic acid Holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia) SE; SFE/n-hexane; CO2 [328]
Linoleic acid Borage (Borago officinalis) SFE/CO2 + methanol [240]
Linoleic acid Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) SFE/CO2 [331, 332]
Linoleic acid Agaricus brasiliensis SFE/CO2 + ethanol [333]
Linoleic acid Olive (Olea europaea) SFE/CO2 [112]
Linoleic acid Pea (Pisum sativum) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [326]
Linoleic acid Rosehip (Rosa canina) SFE/CO2 [78]
Linoleic acid Siam pumpkin (Cucurbita ficifolia) SFE; SE/CO2 [334]
Linoleic acid Soybean (Glycine max) SFE/CO2 [307, 335]
Linoleic acid Soybean (Glycine max) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [326]
SFE/CO2 + ethanol; +
Linoleic acid Tea (Camellia sinensis) [336]

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204 Miha Oman, Mojca kerget, eljko Knez

SE; HD; SFE/ethanol,

Linoleic acid Peach kernel (Prunus persica) water, DCM; [337]
CO2, + ethanol
SE; SFE/n-hexane, DCM;
Linoleic acid Shitake (Lentinula edodes) [315]
Linoleic acid Peach kernel (Prunus persica) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [338]
Linoleic acid Prickly pear (Opuntia dillenii) SFE/CO2 [318]
Linoleic acid Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) SFE/CO2; propane [339]
Linoleic acid Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [326]
Linoleic acid Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) SFE/CO2 [1]
Linoleic acid Vipers bugloss (Echium amoenum) SFE/CO2 [340]
SFE/CO2 + ethanol; +
Linoleic acid Tea (Camellia sinensis) [336]
Linolenic acid Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) SFE/CO2 [323]
Linolenic acid Canola (Brassica napus) SFE; SE/CO2; n-hexane [171, 324]
Linolenic acid Canola (Brassica napus) SFE/CO2 [307, 316]
Linolenic acid Canola (Brassica napus) SFE/CO2; propane [325]
Linolenic acid Canola (Brassica napus) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [326]
Linolenic acid Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn) SFE/CO2 [54]
Linolenic acid Olive (olea europaea) SFE/CO2 [112]
Linolenic acid Pea (Pisum sativum) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [326]
Linolenic acid Prickly pear (Opuntia dillenii) SFE/CO2 [318]
Linolenic acid Rosehip (Rosa canina) SFE/CO2 [78]
Linolenic acid Soybean (Glycine max) SFE/CO2 [307, 335]
Linolenic acid Soybean (Glycine max) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [326]
SFE/CO2 + ethanol; +
Linolenic acid Tea (Camellia sinensis) [336]
Linolenic acid Carrot (Daucus carota) SFE/CO2 [273]
SFE/CO2 + ethanol; +
Linolenic acid Tea (Camellia sinensis) [336]
N.D. Almond (Prunus dulcis) SFE/CO2 [341]
N.D. Apricot (Prunus armeniaca) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [342]
N.D. Guava (Psidium guajava) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [343]
N.D. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) SFE/CO2 [344]
N.D. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) SFE/CO2 [206]
N.D. Sesame (Sesamun indicum) SFE/propane, CO2 [345]
N.D. Sorghum (Sorghum) SE; SFE/n-hexane; CO2 [346]
N.D. Yelleowhorn (Xanthoceras sorbifolia) SFE/CO2 [347]
Oleic acid Canola (Brassica napus) SFE; SE/CO2; n-hexane [171, 324]
Oleic acid Canola (Brassica napus) SFE/CO2 [307, 316]
Oleic acid Canola (Brassica napus) SFE/CO2; propane [325]
Oleic acid Canola (Brassica napus) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [326]
Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo
Oleic acid SFE/CO2 [327]
var. cantalupensis)
Oleic acid Cork oak (Quercus suber) SE; SFE/n-hexane; CO2 [328]

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Application of supercritical fluid extraction for the separation of nutraceuticals and other phytochemicals from plant material 205

Oleic acid Holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia) SE; SFE/n-hexane; CO2 [328]
Oleic acid Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) SFE/CO2 [331, 332]
Oleic acid Pea (Pisum sativum) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [326]
SE; HD; SFE/ethanol,
Oleic acid Peach kernel (Prunus persica) water, DCM; CO2, + [337]
Oleic acid Peach kernel (Prunus persica) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [338]
Oleic acid Siam pumpkin (Cucurbita ficifolia) SFE; SE/CO2 [334]
Oleic acid Soybean (Glycine max) SFE/CO2 [307, 335]
Oleic acid Soybean (Glycine max) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [326]
Oleic acid Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) SFE/CO2; propane [339]
Oleic acid Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [326]
Oleic acid Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) SFE/CO2 [1]
SFE/CO2 + ethanol; +
Oleic acid Tea (Camellia sinensis) [336]
Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo
Palmitic acid SFE/CO2 [327]
var. cantalupensis)
Palmitic acid Borage (Borago officinalis) SFE/CO2 + methanol [240]
Palmitic acid Agaricus brasiliensis SFE/CO2 + ethanol [333]
Palmitic acid Gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides) SFE/CO2 [329]
Palmitic acid Holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia) SFE/CO2 [330]
Palmitic acid Prickly pear (Opuntia dillenii) SFE/CO2 [348]
Palmitic acid Rosehip (Rosa canina) SFE/CO2 [78]
Palmitic acid Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) SFE/CO2; propane [339]
Palmitic acid Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [326]
Palmitic acid Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) SFE/CO2 [1]
Palmitic acid Siam pumpkin (Cucurbita ficifolia) SFE; SFE/CO2 [334]
SFE/CO2 + ethanol; +
Palmitic acid Tea (Camellia sinensis) [336]
Palmitic acid Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) SFE/CO2 [323]
SE; SFE/n-hexane, DCM;
Palmitic acid Shitake (Lentinula edodes) [315]
SE; SFE/n-hexane, DCM;
Phytosterol Polygala (Polygala cyparissias) [349]
Phytosterol African oil palm (Elaais guinensis) SFE/CO2 [322]
Phytosterol Pumkin (Cucurbita pepo) SFE/CO2 [350]
Phytosterol esters Soybean (Glycine max) SFE/CO2 [306, 309, 335]
PUFA Canola (Brassica napus) SFE/CO2 [312]
PUFA Common walnut (Juglans regia) SFE/CO2 [351]
PUFA Grape SFE/CO2; propane [352]
Microalgae (Schizochytrium
PUFA SFE/CO2 + ethanol [353]
PUFA Vipers bugloss (Echium amoenum) SFE/CO2 [340]
PUFA Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) SE; SFE/CO2 [354, 355]
Spilanthol Jambu (Spilanthes acmella) SFE/CO2 [356]

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206 Miha Oman, Mojca kerget, eljko Knez

Squalene African oil palm (Elaais guinensis) SFE/CO2 [322]

Squalene Canola (Brassica napus) SFE/CO2 [307]
Squalene Olive (olea europaea) SFE/CO2 [310]
Squalene Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn) SFE/CO2 [54]
Purple amaranthus (Amaranthus SFE/CO2
Squalene [357]
Stearic acid Rosehip (Rosa canina) SFE/CO2 [78]
SFE/CO2 + ethanol; +
Stearic acid Tea (Camellia sinensis) [336]
SFE/CO2 + ethanol; +
Stearic acid Tea (Camellia sinensis) [336]
Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo
Stearic acid SFE/CO2 [327]
var. cantalupensis)
Sterols Canola (Brassica napus) SFE/CO2 [307]
Sterols Rice (Oryza sativa) SFE/CO2 [179181, 358]
Stigmasterol Red globe grape SFE/CO2 + ethanol [314]
Stigmasterol Victoria globe grape SFE/CO2 + ethanol [314]
Stigmasterol Carrot (Daucus carota) SFE/CO2 [273]
Stigmasterol Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn) SFE/CO2 [54]
Tocopherols Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoids ) SFE/CO2 [28]
Tocopherols Common walnut (Juglans regia) SFE/CO2 [351]
Tocopherols Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) SFE/CO2 [331, 332]
Tocopherols Olive (olea europaea) SFE/CO2 [112]
Tocopherols Canola (Brassica napus) SFE/CO2 [307]
Tocopherols Gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides) SFE/CO2 [329]
Tocopherols Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) SFE/CO2 [64]
Tocopherols Rice (Oryza sativa.) SFE/CO2 [179181, 358]
Tocopherols Soybean (Glycine max) SFE/CO2 [307, 335]
Tocopherols Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) SFE/CO2 [1]
Tocopherols Red globe grape SFE/CO2 + ethanol [314]
Tocopherols Victoria globe grape SFE/CO2 + ethanol [314]
Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides
Tocopherols SFE/CO2 + methanol [29]
Tocotriols Rice (Oryza sativa) SFE/CO2 [179181, 358]
Triglycerides Agarwood (Aquilaria crassna) SFE/CO2 [359]
Triglycerides Cork oak (Quercus suber) SE; SFE/nhexane; CO2 [328]
Triglycerides Crude palm oil SFE/CO2 [360]
Triglycerides Holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia) SE; SFE/nhexane; CO2 [328]
Triglycerides Barbados nut (Jatropha curcas) SFE/CO2 [361]
Triglycerides Jelly fig (Ficus awkeotsang M.) SFE/CO2 [362]
SE; SFE/nhexane, DCM;
Triterpenes Polygala (Polygala cyparissias) [349]
Tasmanian blue gum (Eucalyptus
Triterpenes SFE/CO2 [363]

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Application of supercritical fluid extraction for the separation of nutraceuticals and other phytochemicals from plant material 207

Tasmanian blue gum (Eucalyptus

Triterpenoid SFE/CO2 + ethanol [364]
Vitamin E Grape* PLE [365]
Vitamin E Soybean (Glycine max) SFE/CO2 [308, 335]
-linolenic acid Chia (Salvia hispanica) SFE/CO2 [366, 367]
-linolenic acid Jelly fig (Ficus awkeotsang M.) SFE/CO2 [362]
-linolenic acid Flax (Linum usitatissimum) SFE/CO2 [311]
-tocopherol African oil palm (Elaais guinensis) SFE/CO2 [322]
-tocopherol Almond (Prunus dulcis) SFE/CO2 [368]
-tocopherol Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) SFE/CO2; propane [339]
-tocopherol Red pepper (Capsicum annum L.) SFE/CO2 [62]
-sitosterol Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) SFE/CO2 [331, 332]
-sitosterol Laquat (Eribotrya japonica) SFE/CO2 [369]
-sitosterol Black alder (Alnus glutinosa) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [370]
-sitosterol Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn) SFE/CO2 [54]
-sitosterol Carrot (Daucus carota) SFE/CO2 [273]
-sitosterol Red globe grape SFE/CO2 + ethanol [314]
-sitosterol Victoria globe grape SFE/CO2 + ethanol [314]
-linolenic acid Vipers bugloss (Echium amoenum) SFE/CO2 [340]
-linolenic acid Borage (Borago officinalis) SFE/CO2 + methanol [240]
-linolenic acid Chia (Salvia hispanica) SFE/CO2 [366, 367]
-linolenic acid Flax (Linum usitatissimum) SFE/CO2 [311]
-linolenic acid Rice (Oryza sativa) SFE/CO2 + ethanol [137]
-linolenic acid Cyanobacteria (Arthrospira maxima) SFE/CO2 [27]
-oryzanol Rice (Oryza sativa) SFE/CO2 [179181, 358]

2.5. Alkaloids and other bioactive (relieve pain), and anti-inflammatory properties.
phytochemicals The extract was further fractionated with SFC
in order to achieve a better separation.
In previous sections, nutraceuticals were As mentioned before, SFE could serve
discussed. Nutraceuticals improve food prop- for a sample preparation. Pretreated samples
erties (flavor and taste essential oils, color are suitable for further preparation or analysis
carotenoids), and others act in preventing and [372, 373].
treating diseases (antioxidants carotenoids, Alkaloids can be separated with SFE as
phenolic compounds, essential oils etc.). Be- well. The most common application of SFE for
sides nutraceuticals, some other phytochemi- the isolation of alkaloids is the removal of caffeine
cals could also be extracted from plants. Even from coffee beans and tea leaves [374379].
though a lot of nutraceuticals extracted with The process is called decaffeination and is one
SFE act as antioxidants, they also provide other of the first SFE processes that were developed at
health-beneficial properties anti-inflammato- an industrial scale. The product is decaffeinated
ry, antimicrobial, cancer prevention, etc. coffee and tea [378]. There are also some other
GarciaRisco et al. [371] studied SFE alkaloids with healthbeneficial properties,
of thymol, which poses antioxidant, analgesic such as boldine [208], sinomenine [380], indole

Maced. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 32 (2), 183226 (2013)

208 Miha Oman, Mojca kerget, eljko Knez

[381, 382], purine [383], tetrahydropalmatine collected should be under pressure to reduce
[384], nicotine [385], isoquinolines [386], etc. the amount of energy required for renewed
[387] investigated safranol extraction with pressurization. Further investigations of the
supercritical CO2. Safranol exhibits antioxidant SFE process should include the application of
properties, acts against cancer cells, and serves SFE for industrial purposes, meaning coupling
as an antidepressant. with other separation processes such as SFC
SFE of bioactive compounds from and micronization processes, in order to purify
plant materials was also used for the recovery and concentrate and to obtain smaller particles,
of evodiamine and rutacarpine from the which could be used effectively in the food or
Evodia rutacarpa [388] fruit, hyperforin and pharmaceutical industry.
adhyperforin from Hypericum perforatum L. Even though many investigations were
[389], and solanosol from tobacco leaves [390]. done in this field, many possibilities of SFE
application from plant material could be
discovered in the future.
Acknowledgments. This work was sponsored by
In the present work, recent investigations the Slovenian Research Agency (ARRS), Program No.
of SFE and its applications are presented. P20046.
Most of the researches were performed on a
laboratory scale. These researches give insight
into important properties of SFE processes and Abbreviations
provide the data required for a potential scale
SFE Supercritical fluid extraction
up to a preparative or even industrial scale.
RSM Response surface methodology
This paper not only shows properties of SFE
DMP 2,2-dimethoxypropane
processes but also describes the possibilities HPLC High-performance liquid
of SFE application for the separation of chromatography
nutraceuticals and other bioactive compounds PHWE Pressurized hot-water extraction
at an industrial scale. SFE is appropriate for ASE Accelerated solvent extraction
the separation of high value-added products CC-SFE Countercurrent supercritical
because of its high investment cost. But ob fluid extraction
tained extracts are free from organic solvents, RP-LC Reversed-phase liquid
contributing to sustainability. The future trend extraction
of SFE shall go in the direction of not only the C8 Silica columns with 8-carbon
extraction of certain compounds but also the chains on the surface
purification and concentration of compounds. C18 Silica columns with 18-carbon
Therefore, other separation processes could chains on the surface
be coupled with SFE. Among them is SFC, TLC Thin layer chromatography
where the purification of several compounds DAD Diode array detector
is possible. To implement SFE in the industry, MS Mass spectroscopy
optimization studies are required in order to ESI Electrospray ionization detector
reduce operating costs. Hence, proper operating ELSD Evaporative light-scattering
parameters should be selected using different detector
optimization methods, such as response surface GC-MS Gas chromatography coupled
methodology. To reduce operating costs even with mass spectroscopy
more, the recirculation of solvent should be SubWE Subcritical water extraction
applied. Vessels where the extract would be SE Solvent extraction or Soxhlet

Maced. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 32 (2), 183226 (2013)

Application of supercritical fluid extraction for the separation of nutraceuticals and other phytochemicals from plant material 209

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