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PHYSIGSFORMULAS

NOTATION Refationshipbetween Mass and Energyi E = m.c2


SCIENTIFIC E = gnergY ru = ITISSS c = velocityof light
Prefixesand symbolsto form decimalmultiplesand/orsubmultiples.
Power E Decimal OPTICALRELATIONSHIPS
of ten Notation Equivalent Prefix Phonic Symbol W a v e F o r m u l a :, = f L
1012 E + 12 1 000 000 000 000 tera ter'a T v = wdV€speed l, = w€lV€length
10e E + 09 1 000 000 000 giga ji'ga G /= frequency
lm
106 E + 06 1 000 000 mega meg'a M Uniformly llluminated Surface: E= T
103 E+03 1000 kilo kil'o k E = illumination
102 E+02 100 hecto hek'to h l m = l u m i n o u fsl u x A = uniformlyilluminated
area
10 E + 01 10 deka dek'a da
10' E - 01 0.1 deci des'i d
tmages andLenses: & =+
in Mirrors
102 E-02 0.01 centi sen'li c So= object size Do= object distance
103 E-03 0.001 milli mil'i m S i = i m a g es i z e D,= imagedistance
106 E - 06 0.000001 micro mi'kro p 111
10e
10'12
E - 09
E - 12
0.000000 001
0.000000 000 001
nano
pico
nan'o
pe'ko
n
p
Focal Length of Mirrors and Lenses:
=
,f focal length
T= q-E
10'1s E - 15 0.000000 000 000 001 femto fem'to t Do= objectdistance D, = imagedistance
10'18 E - 18 0.000000 000 000 000 001 atto at'to a Sneff's Law: n, sin 0, = nrsin 0,
ni= refracliveindexof ith material
KINEMATIC
FORMULAS 0, = €lrtglebetweenray and normalto surface
=
Coefficientof Friction: g =
!r = coefficientof friction
F = forceof friction
#

N = force normalto surface


AND MAGNETISM
ELECTRICITY
ElectricCurrent:I=+
ql
,", =
Velocity:
I
r'" = averagevelocity
1= cutreot / = time
4 = quantit! of charge
Coulomb's Law of Electrostatics:F=k Q,'Q'
T
tI
d = distance r = elapsedtime F = force betweentwo charge
=
2 proportionality constant " -
't
Acceferation: eav= ,'t efez = Productof charges
d = distancesepdratingcharges
a_ = dV€f€lge acceleration v; = initialvelocity
r' = finalvelocity r = elapsedtime Capacitanceof a Capacitor: C = + \

!I
C = capdcitanceof a capacitor
Newton's 2nd Law of Motion: F = m.a
V = potentialdifferencebetweenplates
F= force la= ITrdss a= acceleration
^'Y' 4 = chargeon eilherplate
Law of Universal Gravitation: F = G
tr Ohm's Law of ResistanceiE = I.R
F = force of attraction ffifffi2 = prOductof masses E = €rTrfof source 1= CUIfe[tin the circuit
5; = gravitationalconstant d = distancebetweentheircenters R = resistanceof the circuit -
Force:F= ry
Centripetal Joule'sLaw.Q-P.R.t

o
Q = heat energy 1= cufleot R = resistance I = time
F = centriDetal force
rn=n't€rsS ,=v:.!99ry r = radiusof path Faraday's Law of Electrolysisi 7n- 7olo1
I
t?z= ITI€ISS z = electrochemicalequivalent
P e n d u l u m : T = 2 n- l 1=cuffeflt r=time
ls II
1=period
Work: W = F.d
/=length g = €lcceleration
of gravity fnduced emf: Coil in a Magnetic Field: E = - N
E = inducedemf N = Dumberof lurns
#

o
o
tl'=1y9fl1 F=fOfce d = distance do =
( 3 the changein flux linkagein a givenintervalof time
ldeaf MechanicalAdvantage: IMA = do/d,
d. = distancethroughwhich appliedforc6 F acts Induced emf: Gonductor in a Magnetic Field: E = fr.l.v
d, = distanceload movesagainstforceW withoutfriction E = inducedemf B = flux densityof the magneticfield
ActualMechanicalAdvantage: AMA = WF I = lengthof conductor
v = velocityof conductoracrossmagneiicfield
MechanicalEquivalentof Heat: W = J.Q
fnstantaneousVoltagei e = {* sin 0
l1'= work / = mechanicalequivalentof heat Q = heal
e = instantaneous
voltage
E*= maximumvoltage
ENERGYRELATIONSHIPS 0 = anglebetweenthe planeof the conductingloop and the
to the magneticflux (displacement
perpendicular angle)
Kinetic Energy: K - 112m.v2
K= kineticenergy ln= ITr€tsS v = velocity
InstantaneousCurrent: i = l.* sin 0
PotentiafEnergy: V = m.9.h I = instantaneous
current
tr'= potentialenergyg= accelerationof gravity l.- = ITlaximum
current
nt = fll8SS h = verticaldistance(height) 0 = displacementangle

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TRIGONOMETRIC
IDENTITIES

opposite REDUCTIONFORMULA:

sin (-0) = -sin 0


cos (-e) = cos 0
tan (-0) = -tan 0
cot (-e) = -cot 0
adjacent sec (-e) = sec 0
csc (-0) = -csc 0
=
ooposite = 1
oilt U
nyporenuse csce PRODUCT:
^ adiacent 1
wlJo v - = sin 0 sin 0 = '/r[cos(0 - O)- cos (e + Q)]
nyporenuse seae
cos e cos Q =1/r[cos(e - 0) + cos (e + 0)]
oPposite sin0 sin 0 cos 0 = '/'[sin (e + 0) + sin (e - Q)]
tan o =
adjacent cose cos e sin Q = 1/z[sin (0 + 0) - sin (e - $)]
adiacent = cos 0
COIU =
opposlre srne THE LAW OF SINES
hypotenuse 1
sec0= sinA sinB sin C
adjacent COS€
aDc
= t =

cSCo=
^ -hvpotenuse
--:- =
1
opposite si n 0 THE LAW OF COSINES

a2=tf+C-2bccosA
PYTHAGOREANIDENTITIES:
ff=e2+C-2accosB
sin20+cos20=1 C=a2+ff-2abcosC
tan20+1=sec20
cot20+1=csc20

SUM OR DIFFERENCEOF TWO ANGLES:


GREEKALPHABET
sin (0+Q)= sirl 0 cos Q+ cos 0 sin q
sin (e-Q)= sin 0 cos Q- cos 0 sin Q Letter Name
cos (0+Q)= Gos0 cos Q- sin 0 sin Q A cl alpha
cos (0-Q)= cos 0 cos S + sin 0 sin q B B beta
f gamma
tan0+tand A 6 delta
tan (0+Q)=
1-tan0tanq E e epsilon
Z r zeta
ttne-tan0 H q eta
tan (e-Q)= @ e theta
1+tan0tand I t iota
K K kappa
D O U BL EAN G L E : A l. lambda
M tr mu
sin20=2sin0cos0 N v nu
c o s 2 0= 2 c o s 20 - 1 = 1 - 2 s i n 2 0 xi
2tan0 o o omicron
r?n zH = 1-: tenz e II E
pi
P p rho
o si gma
HALF ANGLE: T t tau
Y 1J upsi l on
s i n 2 0= 1 l z ( 1 - c o s 2 0 ) o a phi
c o s 20 = 1 l z (1+ c os 20) X x chi
e
tan - = -=-
1-cos0 sin0 Y v psi
O o omega
2 sin0 1+cos0