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State powers-

Biraoga v. Philippine Truth Commission

- Does not include other previous administration. Arroyo administration is

singled out. A member of the same class should be treated equally.
- Arbitrariness and Partiality, investigate to those connected to the previous
- It is presumed that Aquino administration is corrupt
- Re-written by adding other administration
- Due process than equal protection
Arbitrariness in general could be challenged by due process (ordinary), if the
particular act assails of unwarranted prejudice to a class the sharper weapon
to cut

Kabataan party-list v. COMELEC- deactivate registration of voters without


- Validation is an aspect registration procedure, of which the State has the right
to reasonably regulate (Procedural limitation of the right to vote

Strict scrutiny

Compelling state interest- Orderly, honest, and credible election- to avoid flying
voters, as well as dead and multiple registrants

Least restrictive means

- Art. V of the Constitution

- Not amount to amount to violation
- Doubting the outcome to election- the right of suffrage is not a natural rigt,
The state has the right to impose conditions to such right in order to have a
clean, orderly, and honest election.

Garcia vs. Drilon

- Marriage
- RA 9262
- Gender-based/ sex discriminatory
- Definition muna
- Unequal power relationship between men and women
- Women are the usual and most likely victims of violence
- Applies equally to all