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TortsandDamages

I.Concept/Definition:CulpaAquilianaQuasiDelitosTort

ThetermTortisofAngloAmericanlawcommonlawwhichisbroaderinscopethantheSpanishPhilconceptwhichislimitedto
negligencewhiletheformerincludesinternationalorcriminalacts.TortsinPhilippinelawistheblendingofcommonlawandcivillaw
system.

DefinitionQuasiDelictortortreferstoactsoromissioncausesdamagetoanother,thereisbeingfaultornegligence,isobligedtopayfor
thedamagesdone.Ifthereisnopreexistingcontractualrelationbetweentheparties,suchfaultornegligenceiscalledquasidelict
governedbyCivilCode.

Thelawholdsapersoncivillyliableforthedamagecausedbyhisfaultyornegligentactoromission.

ElementsofQuasiDelict:

1.Damagessufferedbytheplaintiff
2.Faultornegligenceofthedefendant
3.Casualconnectionbetweenthefaultornegligenceofthedefendantsactandthedamagesincurredbytheplaintiff(AndamovsIAC,
191SCRA426,96)
4.Nopreexistingcontractualrelationbetweentheparties.However,thesupremecourtheldthatevenifthereiscontractualrelation,
neverthelesstheactthatbreakthecontractmaybealsobetort,incasesofAirFrancevsCarrascaso,18SCRA155SingsonvsBPI,23
SCRA1117,63andFabreJrvsCA,259SCRA426,96)

II.Distinctions

1.a.Faultsignifiesvoluntaryactoromissioncausingdamagestotherightofanothergivingrisetoanobligationoftheactortorepairsuch
damage.

Faultisoftwo(2)kinds:
i.Substantiveandindependentfaultinthatthereisnopreexistingrelation.ThisistheonereferredtoArt.2176NCCand
sourceofanobligation.ItisalsoknownasculpaextracontractualorculpaaquilianacoveredbyArt.2176NCC.
ii.Faultasanincidentintheperformanceofanobligationexistingisknownascontractualfaultorculpacontractual
governedbyArt.117073ofNCC.

b.Negligenceconsistintheomissiontodocertainactswhichresulttothedamagetoanother.

2.AstoIntennttocausedamagetoanotherthruanactoromission:
a.Itisculpaabsencesuchintent,theactorsliabilityiscivilgovernedbytheCivilCode.
b.Itisdolopresenceofsuchintentandtheactoromissionbecomescrimeandtheactorscivilliabilityisgovernedbythe
provisionsoftheRevisedPenalCode

DistinctionsImportanceofknowingthesedistinctionsliesinfilingthepropercauseofactionagainstthetortfessor.Thesameactor
omissionwhichisfaultyornegligentcausingdamageproducescivilliabilityarisingfromacrimeundertheRevisedPenalCodeorcreatean
actionforquasidelictorculpacontractualundertheCivilCode.(AndamovsIAC,191SCRA203)

IllustrativeCase:GSISvsCA,308SCRA559,99

Facts:NFANationalFoodAuthorityownerofChevrolettruckinsuredbyGSISCMVLI.VictorUyownerofToyotaTamarawusedas
PUinsuredbyMabuhayInsandGuarranteeCMVLI.OnMay9,1979atTabonTabon,ButuanCity,thetwovehiclescollidedresultingto
deathandinjuriestopassengersoftheTamarawandtotalwreckoftheTamaraw.3caseswerefiled

(1)CivilCaseNo.2196forquasidelictfiledbyUYvsNFA&GSISrecoverdamagetoproperty.Won
(2)CivilCaseNo.2225forculpacontractualfiledbyinjuredpassengerTaervsVictorUyandMabuhay.Won.
(3)CivilCaseNo.2256forquasidelictNFAanddriverCorbeta,GSISvsVictorUyforculpacontractualandMabuhay.

(Note:nocriminalactionwasfiledalthoughitmaybedonehadanyoftheinjuredpartiesmindedto.TheactionagainsttheInsurersGSIS
andMabuhayarebasedontheinsurancecontractofCMVLIwherebypassengersinjuredhavetherighttosuedirectlytheinsurers)

3.DifferencesbetweenCrimesandCulpaAquiliana:

Crimes:

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1.Crimesaffectedthepublicinterest.
2.Penallawpunishes/correctsthecriminalact.
3.OnlyactscoveredbyPenalLawarepunished(BarredovsGarcia,73Phil607J.Bocobo,1940:TaxicliedwithCarretela)
4.Guiltprovenbeyondreasonabledoubt.
5.Reservationtofileseparatecivilaction.Noreservation,civilactionisimpliedlyinstitutedinthecriminalaction.
6.Employersliabilityissubsidiary.

CulpaAquiliana:
1.Onlyprivateconcern.
2.Repairsthedamagebyindemnification.
3.Coversallactsthatarefaultyornegligent.
4.Preponderanceofevidence.
5.Noreservationitsindependentfromcrime.(AndamovsIAC,191SCRA203)
6.Employersliabilityissolidary(FabreJr.vsCA,259SCRA426,96)

CulpaContractual
(i)Preexistingobligationbetweentheparties
(ii)Faultornegligenceisincidentaltotheperformanceoftheobligation
(iii)Defenseofhavingexerciseddiligenceofagoodfatherofafamilyisnotavailable,justlikeincriminalaction.Applieddoctrine
ofRespondentSuperior,orMasterandServantRule.

Theresultinthecriminalcase,whetheracquittal,orconvictionisirrelevantintheindependentcivilactionundertheCivilCode(JBL
Reyes:DionisiovsAlyendia,102Phil443,57,citedinMckeevsIAC,211SCRA536,92)unlessacquittalisbasedonthecourts
declarationthatthefactfromwhichthecivilactionarosedidnotexist,hencethedismissalofcriminalactioncarrieswiththeextinctionof
thecivilliability.(AndamovsIAC,191SCRA204,90J.Fernan)


III.Doctrines/PrinciplesappliedinQuasiDelictorTortcasesavailedofasdefenses:

1.Negligenceistheomissiontodosomethingwhichareasonableman,guidedbythoseconsiderationswhichordinarilyregulatethe
conductofhumanaffairs,woulddo,orthedoingofsomethingwhichaprudentandreasonablemanwouldnotdo.

Thefailuretoobservefortheprotectionoftheinterestofanotherperson,thatdegreeofcare,precaution,andvigilancewhichthe
circumstancesjustlydemand,wherebysuchpersonsuffersinjury.(MckeevsIAC,211SCRA517,92,citingBlackLawDictionary
andJudgeCooley:J.DavideJr)

2.EmergencyRuleonewhosuddenlyfindshimselfinaplacedanger,andisrequiredtoactwithouttimetoconsiderthebestmeans
thatmaybeadoptedtoavoidtheimpendingdanger,isnotguiltyofnegligence,ifhefailsnottoadoptwhatsubsequentlyandupon
reflectionmayappeartobethebettermethod,unlesstheemergencyinwhichhefindshimselfisbroughtaboutbyhisown
negligence.(GanvsCA,165SCRA378,88,citedinMcKeecase)

Case:McKeevsIAC:
Facts:TwoboyssuddenlydartedbeforeMcKeescarforcingMcKeetoswervethecartoavoidhittingtheboysandintheprocess
enteredintotheoppositelaneandcollidedwiththeoncomingcargotruckintheoppositelane.

Cases:toillustratetheexceptionexpressedinunlesstheemergencyinwhichhefindshimselfisbroughtaboutbyhisownnegligence.

RayneravsHicetas,306SCRA102,99
Facts:At2:00A.M.,Reynerawasdrivinghismotorcyclefastandbumpacargotruckheistailing.Rayneradied.

Held:TheproximatecauseoftheaccidentwashisnegligenceofRaynerawhowastravelingbehindthecargotruck.Hehadthe
responsibilityofavoidingbumpingthevehicleinfrontofhimandwhohascontrolofthesituation.Thecargotruckrearwasfullylighted.
Proximatecauseisthatcausewhich,inthenaturalandcontinuoussequence,unbrokenbyanyefficientinterveningcause,producethe
injuryandwithoutwhichtheresultwouldhavenotoccurred.

AustriavsCA,327SCRA688,2000
Facts:Austriadrivinghercarveryfastbumpedacargotruckimproperlyparkedalongtheroad.

Held:ProximatecauseofcollisionisAustriasdrivingrecklesslysuchthathehadnochancetoavoidthecollisionwhichwasofherown
making.Shehadthelastclearchancebutfailedtotakestepstoavoidhittingthecargotruckbecauseshehadnoopportunitytodoso.


I.PersonsLiableforQuasiDelict:CulpaAquiliana:Tort

Everypersonmust,intheexercisewithhisrightsandintheperformanceofhisduty,actwithjustice,giveeveryonehisdue,and
observehonestyandgoodfaith(Art19NCC)

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Everypersonwho,contrarytolaw,willfullyornegligentlycausesdamagestoanother,shallindemnifythelatterforthesame(Art20
NCC)andanypersonwhowillfullycauseslossorinjurytoanotherinamannerthatiscontrarytomorals,goodcustomsorpublic
policyshallcompensatethelatterforthedamage(Art21NCC)

WassmervsVelez,12SCRA648ContrarytoGoodCustoms

Facts:WandVsettheirweddingforSept4,1954.Invitationsweredistributedtorelativesandfriends.Weddingdressespurchased,
receptioncontractedetc.2daysbeforetheweddingVleftforhomeinMindanaoandneverheardagain.

Held:themerebreachofpromiseofmarryisnotanaccionablewrong,buttoformallysetaweddingandgothruritesinpreparing
andpublishingincurringexpensesispalpablyandunjustlycontrarytogoodcustomsforwhichthedefendantisanswerablein
damagesunderArt.21NCC

TortfeasororWrongdoer=Personactingwithfaultornegligencecausingdamagetoanotherisobligedtopayforthedamagesdone
(Art2176NCC)

Liabilityforonesactoffaultornegligence

Case:DrCarillovaPeople,229SCRA38694
Anesthesiologistwasconvictedfornegligenceforthedeathofachildwhodiedadayafteroperationforappendicitis.Thephysician
didnotmakeanintensivepreparationsuchasadministrationofantibiotics,gaveandoverdoseofanesthesiaandarbritary
administrationofNubian(painkiller)withoutexaminationofpatientsweightwhichcausedaheartattact.

Case:BatiquinvsCA,July5,96asurgeonleftapieceofrubberinthewomansuterusincaesarianoperation

PersonVicariouslyLiableforActsofOthers(Art2180)
Thebasisofvicariousliabilityisresponsibilityofapersonoverotherpersonsundertheirlegalauthority,controlorinfluence.
Violationorremissionofdutyarisingfromsuchrelationshipmakesthemliablefordamagescausedbyotherpersonundertheircare
orcharge.

1.Parentfather,ifdeadorincapacitated,motherareresponsiblefordamagescausedbyminorchildrenlivingintheircompany
(Art2180NCC)
2.Guardiansareliablefordamagescausedbytheminorsorincapacitatedpersonwhoareundertheirauthorityandlivein
theircompany.(ibid)

Art221.FamilyCodeprovidesthatparentsandotherpersonsexercisingparentalauthorityshallbecivillyliablefortheinjuriesand
damagescausedbytheactoromissionortheirunemancipatedchildrenlivingintheircompanyandunderparentalauthoritysubject
totheappropriatedefensesprovidedbylaw.

TheBasisofthecivilliabilitywhichisprimarydirectandsolidaryimposedbylawisthenecessaryconsequenceofparentalauthority
exerciseovertheirchildren.Thisauthorityimposedadutyuponparentstosupportthem,keepthemcompany,educateandinstruct
them,andgrandtherighttocorrectingpunishwithmoderation.Theparentsarerelievedofthisliabilityonlyuponproofthatthey
haveexercisethediligenceofagoodfatherofafamily(ExcondevsCapuno,101Phil843)topreventdamage.

Case:TamagrovsCA,209SCRA519

Facts:a10yearoldboyshotandairgunagirlresultingtoherdeath.Theboywasacquittedinthecriminalsuitforhavingacted
withoutdiscernment.Howeveracivilsuitwasfiledagainsttheboysparent.

Held:TheAngloAmericanTortPrincipleofparentalliabilityisaspecieofVicariousLiability,alsoknownasImputedLiability.

Thisliabilityismadenaturalaslogicalconsequencesofthedutiesandresponsibilitiesofparentsexercisingparentalauthoritywhich
includescontrolling,discipliningandinstructingtheirchildren.Inthisjurisdictiontheparentsliabilityisvestedbylaw(NCCand
FC)whichassumesthatwhenaminororunemancipatedchildlivingwiththeirparent,commitsatortuousact,theparentsare
presumednegligentintheperformanceoftheirdutytosupervicethechildrenundertheircustody.Apresumptionwhichmuris
tantum,notjurisesdejure,rebuttableovercomebyproofhavingexercisedandobservedallthediligenceofagoodfatherofafamily
(diligentissimipatrisfamilias).

Noteinthiscasetheboywasadoptedbutitwasthenaturalparentwhowereheldliableastheytheactualphysicalcustodyoftheboy
atthetimeoftheshooting.Theadoptionwasapprovedonlyaftertheshootingalthoughtheadoptionproceedingwasfiledbeforethe
shootingandinbetweenthetimetheadaptorwasabroad.

Case:CuadravsMonfort,35SCRA160

Facts:Grade6pupilMariaCandMariaMwereassignedbyteachertoweedthegrassintheschoolpremises.Mfoundaplastic
headbandwhichshealoudshefoundanearthwormandtossedittoChittingthelatterrighteyesresultingtolossofsaideye.

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Held:TheunderlyingbasisoftheliabilityimposedbyArt2176isthefaultornegligenceaccompanyingtheactoromissionthere
beingnowillfulnessorintenttocausedamagetherebyandinArt2180providingvicariousliabilityofparentalthoughprimarily.

Itwasnotshownthattheparentcouldhavepreventedthedamageastheirchildwasinschoolandtheyhavetherighttoexpecttheir
childtobeunderthecareandsupervisionoftheteacher.Besidetheactwasaninnocentprankandunusualamongchildrenatplay
andwhichnoparentcouldhaveanyspecialreasontoanticipatemuchlessguardagainst.Parentnotheldliable.

Wheretheminororinsanepersoncausingdamagetoothershasnoparentorguardian/theminororinsanepersonspropertyshall
answerthedamagecaused.(Art2182)

3.TeachersorHeadsofschoolofartsandtrade(nonacademic)areliablefordamagescausedbytheirpupilsandstudentsor
apprenticesremainingundercustody(Art2180NCC)

Cases:ExcondavsCapuno,201Phil843

Facts:15yearoldelementarystudentafterattendingRizalDayParadeboardedajeeponthewayhome.Hetookoverthewheeland
drivingrecklesslycausedthevehicletoturnoverresultingtodeathoftwopassengers.

Held:Uponbeingfoundguiltyofdoublehomicidewithrecklessimprudencefiledagainsthim,aseparatecivilactionwasfiled
wherebythefatherwasholdsolidarilyliablefordamagesunderArt1903norArt2180NCC.Theschoolheadwasheldnoliable
beingacademicschool.

MercandovsCA,108Phil414,1960

Facts:AstudentofLourdesCatholicSchoolinQCduringrecesscutaclassmatewithrazorblade.Parentoftheinjuredstudentsued
theculpritfordamages.

Held:ReiteratedExcondacaseschoolnotliableasitwasnotanestablishmentofartsandtrade(asidefromthefactthatitwasnot
sued).Parentwasheldtobeliable.

PalisocvsBrillantes.41SCRA548,1971
Facts:A16yearoldstudentofManilaTechnicalInstitutewaskilledinafistfightbyapersonwhowasnotboardingintheschool
andofmajorityage.

Held:Theschoolisbeingnonacademic(artsandtrade),theheadoftheschoolandteacherinchargeweresolidarilyliablewiththe
assailant.

AmadoravsCA160SCRA315,1988J.Cruz

Facts:Itwassummerof1972AlfredoAmadoraabouttograduateattheColegiodeSanJoseRecoleteswasshottodeathbyhis
classmatePablitoDaffon.AlfredowenttotheschooltosubmithisReportinPhysic.

Held:Art2180NCCappliestoallschools,academicornonacademic.Teachersareliableforactsoftheirstudentexceptwherethe
schoolistechnicalinnature(artsandtradeestablishment)inwhichcasetheheadthereofshallbeanswerable.

Thereisreallynosubstantialdifferencedistinctionbetweentheacademicandnonacademicschoolsinsofarastortscommittedby
theirstudentsareconcerned.Thesamevigilanceisexpectedfromtheteacheroverthestudentundertheircontrolandsupervision,
whateverthenatureoftheschoolwhereheisteaching.xxxxThedistinctionnolongerobtainsatpresent.xxx

Thestudentisinthecustodyoftheschoolauthoritiesaslongasheisunderthecontrolandinfluenceoftheschoolandwithinits
premises,whetherthesemesterhasnotended,orhasendedorhasnotyetbegun.Thetermcustodysignifiesthatthestudentis
withinthecontrolandinfluenceoftheschoolauthorities.Theteacherinchargeistheonedesignatedbythedean,principal,orother
administrativesuperiortoexercisesupervisionoverthepupilsorstudentsinthespecificclassesorsectionstowhichtheyare
assigned.Itisnotnecessarythatatthetimeoftheinjury,theteacherisphysicallypresentandinapositiontopreventit.

Thus,forinjuriescausedbythestudent,theteacherandnottheparentshallbeheldresponsibleifthetortwascommittedwithinthe
premisesoftheschoolatanytimewhenitsauthoritycouldbevalidlyexercisedoverhim.

Inanyevent,theschoolmaybeheldtoanswerfortheactsofitsteacherortheheadthereofunderthegeneralprincipleofrespondent
superior,butitmayexculpateitselffromliabilitybyproofthatithadexercisedthediligenceofabonuspaterfamilias.Suchdefense
theyhadtakennecessaryprecautionstopreventtheinjurycomplainedofandthusbeexoneratedfromliabilityimposedbyArt2180.

Basisofteachersvicariousliabilityis,assuch,theyactinginLocoParentis(inplaceofparents).Howeverteachersarenotexpected
tohavethesamemeasureofresponsibilityasthatimposedonparentfortheirinfluenceoverthechildisnotequalindegree.xxx
Theparentcaninstillmorelastingdisciplinemorelastingdiscipleonthechildthantheteacherandsoshouldbeheldtoagreater
accountabilitythantheteacherortheheadforthetortcommittedbythechild.

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Astheteacherwasnotshowntohavebeennegligentnortheschoolremisedinthedischargedoftheirduties,theywereexoneratedof
liability.

(Notethecourtviewonincreasingstudentsactivismlikelycausingviolenceresultingtoinjuries,inoroutoftheschoolpremises
J.Guttierez,Jrconcurringlysaidmanystudentxxxviewsometeachersaspartofthebourgeoisandorreactionarygroupwhose
adviceonbehaviordeportmentandothernonacademicmattersisnotonlyresentedbutactivelyrejected.Itseemsmostunfairtohold
teacherliableonapresumptionjuristantumofnegligenceforactsofstudentsevenundercircumstanceswherestrictlyspeakingthere
couldbenoinlocoparentisrelationship.

TheprovisionofArt2180NCCinvolvedinthiscasehasoutliveditspurpose.Thecourtcannotmakelaw,itcanonlyapplythelaw
withitsimperfections.Howeverthecourtcansuggestthatsuchalawshouldbeamendedorrepealed.

4.Thestateisresponsiblewhenitactsthruaspecialagentbutnotwhenthedamagehasbeencausedbytheofficialtowhomthe
taskisdoneproperlypertains(i.e.functionorduty)inwhichcaseArt2176isapplied.


Asageneralrule,thestatecannotbesuedwithoutitsconsent.(principleofimmunityfromsuit)Thisconsentismanifestedin
legislativeactsenactmentoflawsmakingthestatesuableasinthisspecificprovisionoftheCivilCode,inRA7160LGCof1991
providingthatLGUandtheirofficialsarenotexemptfromliabilityfordeathorinjurytopersonordamagetoproperty(Sec24).

Thestatethestatemaynotbesuedwithoutitsconsent.(Sec3ArtXVI87Constitution)Thisisthedoctrineofimmunityfromsuit
orprincipleofnonliability(enuciatedinthe1910caseofForbesvsChucoTiaco&Crossfield,16Phil534)wasoriginallyfounded
uponanoldmaximthatTheKingcandonowrongprevailingduringthemedievalEnglandwhentheKingwasgenerallyaccepted
astheStatehimself.Withthedevelopmentofdemocraticthoughtsandinstitution,theconcepteventuallylostismoralforce,the
naturalpersonkingisnolongerthestatebutmerelyitsrepresentativewhomayberemovedbythepeople.i.e.thruimpeachment.The
modernbasisoftheprincipleisthatimmunityfromsuitisinherentinallsovereignstates.Thereasonisbasedonthelogicaland
practicalgroundthattherecanbenolegalrightasagainsttheauthoritythatmakesthelawonwhichtherightdepends.(Kawananakoa
vsPlyblank,206US349citedbyHectorS.Deleon,2002EdTextbookonthePhilConst)

Thestate(Govt)maybesuedonlywithitsconsentwhichmaybegiven
i.expresslythrudulyenactedstatutessuchastheff:
a.CANO.327amendedbyPD14445providingconditionsunderwhichthestatemaybesued
b.AdministrativeCodeof1987
c.CivilCodeArt2180stateactingthruspecialagent
d.Chartersofpubliccorpvestingthemwithpowertosueandbesued,eg.RA7610LGC
ii.Impliedlyasintheffcases:
a.WhentheGovtsuestorecovermoneyfromindividualwhohasclaimagainstit,thelattermaysetacounterclaim.
b.WhentheGovtengagesincommercialbusinessorentersintoacontract,itcanbesueduponthetheorythatithas
descendedtothelevelofprivateindividualfromwhichitcanbeimpliedthatitshasgivenitsconsenttobesuedunderthe
contractandtherebydivesteditselfofitssovereigncharacteranditsimmunityfromsuits.(NationalAirportCorpvs
Teodoro,91Phil203,ManilaHotelEmployeesAssn.VsManilaHotel,73Phil347)

ThetermStateusedinArt2180NCCreferstotheGovtoftheRepublicofthePhilippinesdefinedinSec2,1987Revised
AdministrativeCodeastheCorporateGovernmentalentitythruwhichthefunctionsofthegovtsareexercisedthroughoutthePhils,
whichincludedthevariousarmsthruwhichpoliticalauthorityismadeeffectiveinthePhilssuchastheautonomousregionsandthe
localgovtunits(province,city,municipalityandbarangay).Thetermdoesnotincludeagencyorinstrumentalityorotherentitywhich
theirenablinglawshaveinvestedwithjuridicalpersonalityseparateanddistinctfromthatoftheRepublicofthePhilippines
(FontanillavsMaliaman,194SCRA495J.Paras)

Thefunctionsofgovtisclassifiedinto(a)governmentalorconstituentinvolvingexerciseofsovereigntyandiscompulsory,(b)
proprietaryorministrantwhichisoptional(FontanillavsMaliaman)

Thestateforthegovernmentalfunctionthestatecannotbesuedwithoutitsconsent.Fortheproprietaryfunctionofthegovtmay
besuedwithoutitsconsentwhichispresumedhavebeengiveninadvance.

ThestatemaybesuedonlythruitsSpecialAgentbutnotwhenthedamagehadbeencausedbytheofficialtowhomproperlyit
pertainedtodotheactperformed(MerrittFontanillacase,194SCRA503)

SpecialAgentsareoftwokinds

a.Publicofficialswithaparticularassignedtasksbutisspeciallycommissionedtodosuchtaskforeigntohisusualassigned
governmentalfunction.
b.Privatepersonnotapublicofficial,commissionedtoperformnongovernmentalfunction.Agovtcommissioningaprivate
personforaspecialtaskisactingthruspecialagentwithinthemeaningofArt2180NCC

Thestateassumestheroleofanordinaryemployerandwillbeheldliableforthespecialagentstorts(FontanillavsMalianan,89)

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Facts:HugoGarciaisaregularemployeeofNationalIrrigationAdministration(NIA)agovtagencycreatedbyitscharterRA3601
amendedbyPD552forthepurposeofundertakingintegratedirrigationproject.Garciadrivingtheagencyofficialpickupbumpeda
bicycleriddenbyFontanillaresultingtohisdeath.ThevictimsparentfiledacivilactionagainstNIAanditsdriverGarciawhowas
foundguiltyofdrivingrecklessly.NIAwasorderedtopay,NIAappealedraisingtheissuethatasgovtagencyperforminggovt
functionisnotliableasbeingapartofthestate,cannotbesued.

Held:thestateorgovtagencyperforminggovernmentalfunctionmaybeheldliablefortortcommittedbyitsemployeeswhenitacts
thruaspecialagent.

WhileNIAisagovtagencyperforminggovernmentalfunction,howeveritissuablebecauseitscharterprovidesthatitmaybesueor
besued,thusconsentofthestateforNIAtobesuedhasalreadygiven,sothattheruleonimmunityfromsuitnormallyextendedto
govtagenciesperforminggovernmentalfunctionsisnolongeravailabletoNIA.Bywaivingthatimmunityfromsuitinitscharter,
NIAopenitselftosuits.

ThusNIAwasheldresponsibleforthenegligentactofitsemployeeGarciawhoisnotaspecialagent.(J.Padillaseparateopinionin
FontanillavsMaliamanResolutionin1991,194SCRA499)

PalafoxvsIlocosNorteProv,102Phil1186

Facts:Provincestruckonitswastotheriverforgravelandsandstobeusedintheconstructionandrepairofitsroad(agovernmental
function)runsoverapedestrianresultingtothelattersdeath.

Held:Theprovincewasnotliablebecauseitsemployeedriveratthetimeoftheaccidentwasperforminghisregulardutiesandisnot
aspecialagent.

RosetevsTheAuditorGeneral,81Phil453

Facts:AfirebrokeoutintheEmergencyControlAdministration(agovtoffice)duetothenegligenceofitsemployeeinigniting
recklesslyhiscigarettelighternearadrumofgasolineintheofficeswarehouseresultingtodestructionofbuildingsadjoiningthe
warehouse.VictimssuedtheofficersoftheEmergencyControlAdmin.

Held:AsECAoritsofficerswereshowntohaveactednotasspecialagentofthegovtinstoringgasolineinthewarehouse,theGovt
isnotresponsibleforthedamagescausedthrusuchnegligence.

RepublicvsPalacio,23SCRA899

Facts:TheIrrigationServiceUnit,anoffice/agencyundertheDeptofPublicWorksandCommunicationwassuedfortortandthe
SheriffofManilagarnishedthedepositoftheISUinthePNB,Manila.

Held:TheISUbeinganofficeinthegovtanditsfundisapublicfund.ItisbeingshownthattheISUwasguiltyoftort,howeverthe
satenotitsfundisnotliablebecausetheISUwasnotaspecialagent.UnderArt2180thestateisliableonlyfortortcausedbyits
specialagent.

GAAvsCA,167SCRA28,88

Facts:GAAchargesfeesfortheuseoftheAirportsterraceorviewingdeckwhereonegetsabetterviewofarrivinganddeparting
passengersattheairport.Thedeckhadanelevatedportion(4inches)whichcausedaviewertofallbreakinghisthighbone.Hesued
CAAforhospitalexpenses.CAAraisedthedefenseofbeingagovtagencysubjectofimmunityfromsuit.

Held:WhileCAAisagovtagencyhoweveritisperformingaproprietaryfunctionsbusinessandunderitscharteritisempowered
tosueandbesued.Thusitcannotavailtheimmunityfromsuitaccordedtogovtagenciesperformingstrictlygovernmentalfunction.
(MalongvsPNR,138SCRA63whichruledthatPNRisnotimmunefromsuitasitdoesnotexercisesovereigntybutpurely
proprietarybusinessfunction)

NIAvsIAC,214SCRA35,92

Held:DamagescausedbytheofficialsofNIAforitsnegligenceintheconstructionofthecanalwhichcauseddamagestonearby
land,NIAisliableunderArt2176NCCasNIAsofficialarenotspecialagentinperformingtheirofficialassigneddutiesand
functions.

LGUareliablefordamagesforthedeathorinjuriessufferedbyanypersonbyreasonofdefectiveconditionsofroads,streets,
bridges,publicbuildingandotherpublicworksundertheircontrolorsupervision.(Art2189)

LGUsandtheirofficialarenotexemptfromliabilityfordeathorinjurytopersonsordamagetoproperty.(Sec24,RA7160LGCof
1991)

MunicipalityofSanFernando,LaUnionvasFirme,195SCRA692,91

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Facts:MunicipalsdumptruckonwaytotheNaguilianRivertogetgravelandsandsfortherepairofroads(agovernmental
function)collidedwithapassengerjeepresultingthedeathofpassengerofthelattervehicle.Civilactionwasfiledagainstthe
Municipality.

Held:MunicipalitiesbeingagenciesoftheState,whenperforminggovernmentalfunctionsenjoysovereigntyandthusimmunefrom
suitunlessitisshownthattheyareperformingproprietaryfunction.

However,theymaybeheldliableifitcanbeshownactingthruaspecialagent.TheMunicipalitysdriverisnotaspecialagentandso
theMunicipalisnotliable,onlythedriver.

PalmavsGraciano,99Phil92

Facts:AgovernorandaMayorfiledacriminalchargewhichwasdismissedforbeinggroundless.Theyweresued

Held:Theprosecutionofacrimeisagovernmentalfunction,notacorporationaction.Inthedischargedthereof,theProvinceorCity
orMunicipalityisnotliablefortortuousactsofitsofficers.Onlythepublicofficersactingtortuously(beyondthescopeoftheir
authority)arepersonallyliablebecausethemantleofimmunityfromsuitaccordedtotheirofficeisnotavailablefortheirtortuous
acts.

RepublicvsSandoval,20SCRA124,1993

Facts:Jan22,1987knownasBlackSaturdaytheMendiolaMassacreofRallyistwhowereshotastheymarchtowardMalacaang.
HeirsofthedeadrallyistsuedtheRepublicandMilitaryOfficersandsoldiers.JudgeSandovaldismisstheirsuitinvokingStates
immunityfromsuit.

Held:Instanceswhenthesuitagainstthestate
a.whentheRepublicissuedbyname
b.whenthesuitisagainstanunincorporatedgovtagency
c.whenthesuitisagainstagovtofficerbuttheultimateliabilitywillfallonthestateandnotontheofficer
d.whenthegovtperpetratedinjusticeonthecitizen(DelosSantosvsIAC,223SCRA11)

Inthiscase,thestateisnotliableforthecivilliabilityarisingfromcriminalactsofthemilitaryforviolatingBPBlg880which
prohibitsunnecessaryfiringindispensingpublicassembly.Thedoctrineofimmunityfromsuitwillnotbeappliedtothemilitary
officerswhohaveactedbeyondthescopeoftheirauthoritybecauseinsodoingtheyaredeemedtoceasedtobeapublicofficersbuta
privatepersonliablelikeanyotherprivatepersonsfordoingwrongfulacts.

DelosSantosvsIAC,223SCRA11,93

Facts:MinofPublicworkswhilecarryingonitsprojectofconstructingroadsandcreekstookovertheportionofprivatelyowned
landwithoutoragainsttheconsentoftheownerwhosued.Immunityfromsuitwasinvoked.

Held:whenagovtthruitsagencytakesawayprivatepropertywithoutgoingtolegalprocessofexpropriationandpayingjust
compensation,asuitmaybeproperlymaintainedagainstthegovt.ThecivilactionmaybebasedunderArt32NCCandthe
constitutionalprovisionsonrightsagainstprivationofpropertywithoutdueprocessoflawandwithoutjustcompensation.

Thedoctrineofimmunityfromsuitcannotserveasaninstrumentfortheperpetrationofinjusticeonitscitizens.(J.Romero)

ResumeonStatesliabilityfortort

Thestateisliablefrothetortuousactsonlyofitsspecialagentbutnotofitspublicofficialsintheperformanceoftheirassignedusual
dutiesandfunctionswhoareliableunderArt2176NCCandnotArt2180NCC

Rationale:therecanbenolegalrightsasagainsttheauthoritythatgrantssuchrights.Thisisknownasdoctrineofimmunityfromsuit
whichisveryessenceofsovereignty.Itisexpressedintheconstitutionthatthestatecannotbesuedwithoutitsconsent(Sec3,Art
XVI).Thestatesconsentismanifestedexpresslyintheformitslegislativeenactmentsofstatues(Art2180NCC,Sec24LGCof
1991,ActNo3083relatingmoneyclaimsarisingfromcontract)andimpliedlywhenthestateentersintocontractinitsproprietaryor
privatecapacity,orwhenthesateitselfsues,opensitselftocounterclaim,orperpetrateinjusticetoitscitizen.

5.Employers:Master
a.OwnerandManagerofestablishmentorenterprisesareliablefordamagecausedbytheiremployeesintheserviceof
employmentorontheoccasionoftheirfunctions.
b.Employerofhouseholdhelperthoughnotengagedinanybusinessorindustryareliablefordamagescausedbyhelper
actingwithinthescopeoftheirassignedtasks.

BasisofLiabilityisnotRespondentSuperior(AngloAmericandoctrinewherethenegligenceoftheemployeeisconclusively
presumedtobethenegligenceoftheemployer)butontherelationshipofPaterFamilias,(masterservant)atheorybasingtheliability

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ofthemasterultimatelyonhisownnegligenceandnotthatoftheservantasmanifestedinhisnegligenceintheselectionoftheir
employeeservant(culpaeligiendo)orinthesupervisionovertheiremployeeservants(culpainvigilando).Thisnegligenceisprima
faciepresumptionjuristantumovercomeorrebuttedbyproofthattheyhaveobservedandexercisedallthediligenceofagoodfather
ofafamily(diligantissimibonusfaterfamilias).ThetheoryisdeducedfromthelastparofArt2180NCCprovidingtheresponsibility
shallceaseuponproofofexerciseofthediligenceofagoodfatherofafamilytopreventthedamage.

ThetermManagerinArt2180isusedinthesenseofemployer,notemployee.

Case:PhilRabbitBusLinesIncvsPhilAmForwarder,Mar25,1975

Facts:AnactionfordamageswasbroughtagainstPhilAmForwardedanditsManagerBalingitfornegligentactoftheirdriver.
Balingitmovedtodismisstheactionagainsthimforthoughhewasmanager,however,hewasjustanemployeeofthecompany.

Held:BalingitisnotliablebecausehewasjustamereemployeethoughdesignatedasManager.

Therelationshipofemployeremployeeormasterservantmustfirstbeestablishedtoexistbeforetheemployer/masterwillbeheld
liable.

Case:PhilShellPetroleumCovsCA,221SCRA389

Facts:Gasstationproprietorwassuedforsellingadulteratedgaswithwater.HesettledamicablythesuitandthenPhilShellforthe
negligenceofFelicianowhowashiredinundertakinghydropressuretestintheundergroundstoragetankwhichwascrackedcausing
watertoseepintothetank.

Held:PhilShellisnotliablebecauseFelicianowasnotitsemployee.ItwasshownthatPhilShellhasnocontroloverFelicianowho
dobusinessofhisown,usedhisowntoolsandworkedonhisowntimechargingafixedlumpsumforeverypieceofwork.Feliciano
wasanindependentcontractorandnotanemployeeandthushealoneisliable.

Case:CuisonvsNorton&HarissonCo,55Phil18

Facts:OrawasemployedbydefendantcompanychargedindirectingandcontrollingtransportbusinessoftheCo.Onthedayofthe
accident,oneofthecompanystruckwasleadedwithlogswhichwerenotproperlytied.Thetieswereloosenedduringthetrip.They
stoppedtorearrangethetiesbutbeforetheycoulddosoachildpassingbesidethetruckwashitbyalogfallingfromthetruck.

Held:Orabeinganemployeeofthecompany,thelatterisresponsibleforthenegligenceintheloadingoflogswhichcausedthedeath
oftheboy.

DistinctionofemployersliabilityunderArt2180NCCandRevisedPenalCode.

CivilCode
1.Directandprimarysolidary,employerissueevenwithoutsuingtheemployee
2.Defenseofexerciseofdiligenceofagoodfatherofthefamilytoberelieveofliability
3.Employerisliableevenifnotengagedinbusiness
4.Proofofnegligenceisbymerepreponderanceofevidence

RevisedPenalCode
1.Subsidiaryarisingaftertheemployeesguilt
2.Diligenceofagoodfatherisnotadefense
3.Mustproveemployerisengagedinbusiness
4.Proofbeyondreasonabledoubtofevidence


5.OwnersofMotorvehicle(Art2184)
a.Ownerisinthemotorvehicleissolidaryliablewithhisdriver
b.Ownerisnotinthemotorvehiclewiththedriverissubsidiaryliable

Case:ChapmanvsUnderwood,27Phil374

Facts:Underwoodridinginhiscarandhisdriversuddenlyturnedtothewrongsideofthestreetandhittheplaintiff.Driverwas
negligent.Wastheownerliabletoo?

Held:Wheretheownerhadreasonableopportunitytoobservehisdriverandtodirectthelattertoceasetherefrom,becomeshimself
responsibleforsuchacts.Ontheotherhand,ifthedriver,bysuddenactofnegligenceandwithoutopportunitytopreventtheactsor
itscontinuance,theownerisnotresponsible.

CaedovsTuKheThai,26SCRA419

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Facts:YuwasridinginhisCadillacdrivenbyBernardosawacarratelaabout8metersaway.Insteadofslowingdownveeredtothe
lefttoovertakeandinsodoingthecarhitthecarratellasleftwheelandskiddedobliquelyhittingtheoncomingcarofCaedowho
despiteslackenedspeedtoavoidthecollisionwashitresultingtotheinjuriesofCaedoandhispassengers.Yusdriverwasnegligent.
WasYuliable?

Held:Thebasisofthemaster/employersliabilityincivillawisnotrespondentsuperiorbutrathertherelationshipofPaterFamilias.
Thetheoryisthatultimatelythenegligenceoftheservant,ifknowntothemasterandsusceptibleoftimelycorrection,reflectsthe
mastersnegligenceifhefailstocorrectitinordertopreventtheinjuryordamage(J.Makalintal)

TheownerofthecarYuwasnotliablebecausehedidnotseethecarretelaatadistance,however,hecouldnotanticipatedhis
driverssuddendecisiontopassthecarretela.ThetimeelementwassuchthattherewasnotreasonableopportunityforYutoassess
thedangerinvolvedandwarnthedriveraccordingly.

FormerownerofMotorVehicleareliableforthetortuousactsofthenewowner

Case:EquitableLeasingCorpvsSuyom,Sept5,2002

Facts:EquitablesoldtoLimaFusotractor.Afterthesalespricewasfullypaid,adeedofsaleexecutedbyEquitableinfavorof
LimwhohadnotregisteredthesalewiththeLTO.WhilethetractorwasdrivenbyLimsemployee,itrammedintoahousecausing
deathandinjuriesanddamages.

Held:Thiscourt(SC)hasconsistentlyheldthatregardlessofthesalesmadeofmotorvehicle,theregisteredowneristhelawful
operatorinsofarasthepublicandthirdpersonsareconcerned.Consequentlyitisdirectlyandprimaryliablefortheconsequencesof
itsoperationincontemplationofthelaw.Theownerofrecordistheemployerofthedriverwhiletheactualownerisconsideredas
merelyitsagent.

SinceEquitableremainedtheregisteredowner,itcouldnotescapeprimaryliability.

Tortsanddamages

Intro:ConceptsandDefinition

ThelawgoverningdamagesisfoundinArt2195to2235,NCC,whichreincorporatedsomeoftheSpanishCivilCodeandadoptedsomeprinciplesof
theAmericanlaw(Civilcodecommissionreport)

Damages(LatinDamnumorDemo=totakeaway)referstotheharmdoneandwhatmayberecovered.

Injuryreferstothewrongfulorunlawfulortortuousact.Damagesisthemeasureofrecoverywhileinjuryisthelegalwrongtoberedressed.

Theremaybedamagewithoutinjury(damnumabsqueinjuria)andaninjurywithoutdamages.(15AmJur388)

Cases(i)DelaRamaSteamshipvsTan,99Phil1034Govtagencyterminatedcontractofagencyunderitsrightstipulatedinthecontract,althoughthe
agentsuffereddamages.

(ii)JandavsLepanto,99Phil197,1956incompliancewiththelaw(RA529)purchaserofsharesofstockpaininpesosdespiteagreementtopayindollar
becauseatthetimethelawdeclaredstipulationasvoidtopayincurrencyotherthanpesos.

(iii)SabavsCA,189SCRA50restatedthedoctrineofQuiJureSuoUtiturNullumDamnum=onewhoexercisehisrightdoesnoinjuryandifdamage
result,itisdamnumabsqueinjuria.Thecasemadethedistinctionbetweendamageandinjury.

Injuryoflossarisesfromtheviolationiflegalrightwhiledamagesrefertomoneyorpecuniarycompensationwhichthelawimposeorawardedfortheinjury
done.


TheCivilcodesprovisionsondamagesareapplicabletoallobligationsarisingfrom(1)Law,(2)Contracts,(3)QuasiContracts,(4)Delictscrimes,
and(5)Quasidelicts=tort.(Art2195NCC)

Compensationforworkmenandotheremployeesaregovernedbyspeciallawandrulesgoverningdamageslaiddowninotherlawsshallbe
observedinsofarasarenotinconflictwiththeCivilCode.(Art2196NCC)ThismakestheCivilCodesprovisionsondamagesasthegenerallaw.

Case:YsmaelMaritimeCorpvsAvelino,151SCRA333

Held:
Theheirsofthedeceasedseamanhavethechoiceofavailingremedytorecoverdamages,workmenscompensationlawlaborcodeforworkconnected
injury,orfortortundertheCivilCodefornegligenceoftheemployer.However,oncetheypursueone,theyarenolongerfreetoavailtheother.(Cited
FlorenscavsPhilEx,136SCRA141caseofminerswhodiedinacavein.


B.KindsofDamages

Thereare6kindsofdamages,namely
1.Actualorcompensatory

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2.Moral
3.Nominal
4.Temperateormoderate
5.Liquidated
6.Exemplaryorcorrective

GeneralClassificationofdamages

1.Damagescapableofpecuniarycomputationestimablewhichmustbedulyestablishedorprovenasinactualorcompensatorydamagesandlossof
propertylostofearningcapacity.
2.Damagesincapableofpecuniaryestimationforwhichnoproofisneededandtheassessmentislefttodiscretionofthecourt.(Art2216)

Damages:

Forthesamefaultyornegligentactoromissioncausingdamagesitmayproducemultipleliabilities,namely(1)criminalliabilityand(2)civilliability
whichinturnmaybe(a)aCivilLiabilityarisingfromacrimeundertheRevisedPenalCode,or(b)Civilliabilityarisingfromculpaextracontractualorquasi
delictorculpaaquilianaundertheCivilCodeand(c)civilliabilityarisingfromculpacontractualorbreachofcontract.

Theliabilityarisingfromculpaaquilianaisentirelyseparateanddistinctthecivilliabilityarisingfromacrime.Howevertheplaintiffcannotrecover
damagestwiceforthesameactoromission.(Art2177NCC)

Theacquittalorconvictioninthecriminalcaseisentirelyirrelevantinthecivilcase,unlesstheacquittalisdeclaredthatthefactfromwhichthecivil
actionarosedidnotexistwhichextinguishedthecriminalliabilityandthecivilliability.(AndamovsIAC,191SCRA204)Theaggrievedpartyhastheoptionto
choosewhichoftheactionsthatmaybefiledbecausedoublerecoveryordamagesisprohibited.(ViratavsOchoa,81SCRA472).




Exemplaryorcorrectivedamages
Thesearedamagesimposedbywayofexampleorcorrectionforthepublicgood,inadditiontothemoral,temperate,liquidatedorcompensatory
damages(Art2229NCC).

Thisdamagescannotberecoveredasamatterofright.Thiscourtwilldecidewhetherornottheyshouldbeadjudicated,(Art2233)andany
stipulationrenouncinginadvancesuchdamagesshallbenullandvoid.(Art2234NCC).

Conditionfortheaward(Art2234NCC)
Plaintiffmustprovethatheisentitledtothefollowing:
A.CompensatoryDamages
B.MoralDamages
C.TemperateDamages
D.Defendantactedwithfraudulent,malevolent,oppressive,recklessorwantonmannerincontractsorquasicontractcase.(Art2232NCC)
E.Presenceofaggravatingcircumstanceinthecommissionofcriminaloffenseasapartofcivilliability.(Art.2230NCC).
F.Defendantactedwithgrossnegligenceinquasidelicts.

Case:GermanMarineAgenciesInc.VsNLRC,350SCRA641

Facts:
TheshipradioofficerwastakenillwhiletheshipwasinNewZealand,Despitenoticethereofbytheship'scaptain,theshipproceededwiththevoyageand
reachedthePhilin10daysandyetthesickradioofficerwasnotimmediatelytakentohospitalformedicaltreatment.

Held:
ShipownerisliableformoraldamagesforthephysicalsufferingandmentalanguishcausedtoRadioOfficer.P50,000inmoraldamagesisproper.

Asthefactofnegligenceoftheship'scaptainwasnotonlyshowntohaveexistedbutitwasdeliberatelyperpetratedbythearbitraryrefusaltocommitthe
ailingradioofficertoahospitalinNewZealandoratthenearestportresultingtohispermanentpartialdisability,theawardofexemplarydamagesfor
P50,000isadequateandreasonable.

Inthiscasetheawardingoftheexemplarydamagesistoserveacorrectionaswellasanexampleforshipownerstolookafterthewelfareoftheir
employeesfirsttothatoftheircustomerscargoowner.



Therationalebehindtheexemplarydamagesistoprovideanexampleorcorrectionforpublicgoodandnottoenrichthevictim.(PeoplevsAgustin,350
SCRA216,'01)

Atty'sfeesmayberecoveredwhenexemplarydamagesareawarded.(CocacolabottlersPhilvsRoque,305SCRA215)

Case:PCIBvsCA,350SCRA446,'01=Ford'scase

Held:
Banksareliablefortortuousactofitsofficersanemployeewithinthecourseorscopeoftheiemployment.

Inthiscase,boththedraweeandcollectionbankswerenegligentinfailingtoselectandsupervisetheiremployeesresultingtotheencashmentofthecheck
tothesyndicateinsteadoftherightfulperson.

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NominalDamages(Art2221NCC)

Theseareadjudicatedinorderthatarightoftheplaintiffwhichhasbeenviolatedorinvadedbythedefendant,maybevindicatedorrecognized,and
notforthepurposeofindemnifyingtheplaintiffsforanylosssufferedbyhim.

NominalDamagesaremerelyforthevindicationofarightthathasbeenviolated,notforindemnificationofthelossessuffered.(ventanillavs
Centeno,Jan28,61).Caseofalawyerwhowasnegligentinfilingappealtimethohewasnotliableforactualdamages.

Case:AlmedavsCarino,Jan13,2003

Facts:
CsoldalotoninstallmentstoA.Alastsoldthesametoanother,anddespiteofdemands,Arefusedtopaytheunpaidbalanceofthepurchasepriceowingto
C.

Held:
ThevendorChastherighttotheunpaidbalancetothelotsoldtoAwhoviolatedsuchrightwhenherefusedtopay.Forthis,Cisentitled,asidefromthe
paymentoftheunpaidbalance,toanominaldamages.

NominalDamagesmaybeawardedtoaplaintiffwhoserighthasbeenviolatedorinvadedbythedefendantforthepurposeofvindicatingor
recognizingthatrightandnotforindemnifyingtheplaintiffforthelosssuffered.Itsawardisthusnotforthepurposeofindemnificationforalossbutforthe
recognitionandvindicationofaright.Whengrantedbythecourts,theyaretreatednotasanequivalentofawronginflictedbutsimplyarecognitionofthe
existenceofatechnicalinjury.Aviolationoftheplaintiff'sright,evenifonlytechnical,issufficienttosupportanawardofnominaldamages.Solongasthere
sashowingofaviolationofarightoftheplaintiff,anawardofnominaldamagesisproper.


TemperateorModerateDamages(Art.2224NCC)

Thesearedamageswhicharemorethannominalbutlesscompensatorydamagewhichmayberecoveredwhenthecourtfindsthatsomepecuniary
losshasbeensufferedbuttheamountcannot,fromthenatureofthecase,beprovedwithcertainty.

Case:PhilTelegraphandTelephoneCorpvsCA,Sept.32002.

Facts:
PT&Tbreacheditscontractinfailingtoremitmoneyordersentbyplaintiffontime.HoweverthelatterfailedtoproveactualdamagesandthatPT&Twasin
badfaith.

Held:
EitherTemperateornominaldamagescouldbeawarded.

Case:AranetavsBankofAmerica,40SCRA144

Facts:
Aissuedchecksinpaymentofjewelspurchased.Thechecksweredishonoreddespiteofthesufficiencyoffundtocoverthechecks.Thebankapologizedfor
theerrorsofitsemployee.Again,similarincidentssubsequentlyoccurred.Thusasuedthebank.

Held:
WhileAmaynotbeabletoprovetheprofithewouldhavenethadthejewelrytransactionbeenpushedthru,hisclaimfortemperatedamagesisjustified.


B.Kindsofdamages:Generalclassification

2.Damagesincapableofpecuniaryestimation.Whileproofsisnotneeded,however,itisessentialthatthecomplainantmustsatisfactorilyshowthe
existenceofthefactualbasisofthedamage(Art2217)anditscasualconnectiontothedefendantswrongfulacts.(MalonzovsGalang,100Phil16Raagas
vsTraja,22SCRA836)Thesedamages,nominaldamages,temperatedamagesandexemplaryorcorrectivedamages.

TheprinciplesofthegenerallawondamagesareadoptedinsofarastheyarenotinconsistentwiththeCivilCode(Art2198).

Thefundamentalprincipleoflawofdamages
isthatoneinjuredbyabreachofcontractorbythenegligentactoromissionshallhavefairandjustcompensationcommensuratewiththelosssustainedin
theconsequenceofthedefendant'sactwhichgivetotheaction.Thusactualpecuniarycompensationistheindemnityforhislossandtobeplacedasnearas
maybeinconditionwhichhewouldhaveoccupiedhadhenotsufferedtheinjurycomplainedof.Ontheotherhand,thedefendantshallnotbeliablefor
damagesmorethantheactuallosswhichhehasinflictedbyhiswrong.

Onlyproximate,notremote,damagesarerecoverable.

Whilethesamefaultyornegligentactoromissionmaygiverisetomultiplicityofsuits,howeverunderArt2177,NCC,theplaintiffcannotrecover
damagestwiceforthesameactoromission,Iftheplaintiffrecoversfromthedefendantunderthecivilcode,hecannotrecoverdamagefromthesame
defendantunderRevisedPenalCodeonthepremisethatpersoncriminallyliableisalsocivillyliable.

Case:BatangasLagunaTayabasBusCovsCA,64SCRA427

Facts:
BuscollidedwithacardrivenbyReyesresultingtodeathofReyesandinjuriestohispassengersCardena.CardenaandheirsofElizondosuedtheBus
operatorwhosedriverwasfoundnegligent.

Thedefendantbusoperatorcontendedthatitwasprematuretoproceedwiththecivilcasependingfinalresolutionofthecriminalcaseagainsttheirdriver.

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Held:
Employer'sliabilityismadeclearunderArt2180andunderArt2177isentirelyseparateanddistinctfromthecivilliabilityarisingfromnegligenceunder
RevisedPenalCode.Buttheplaintiffcannotrecoverdamagestwiceforthesameactoromission

Culpaaquilianaisanindependentsourceofobligationbetweentwopersonsnotformerlyboundbyanyjuridicaltie.(Manressa)

Itisnotrequiredthattheinjuredpartyshouldnotseekoutathirdpersoncrimirnallyliablewhoseprosecutionmustbeaconditionprecedenttothe
enforcementofthecivilright.(RakesvsAGPCo,7Phil359)Thecivilliabilityunderquasidelictiscontractedwithoutagreementorconsent,thusculpaextra
contractual,ontheprinciplethatwhereharm,lossordamagehasbeencausedtoapersonthrufaultornegligentacttheaggrievepartyisentitledtobe
indemnified.(CangcovsMRR,38Phil768)

MORALDAMAGES
4.CaseswhereMoralDamagesmayberecoveredorAwarded

a.ActsmentionedinArt309disrespecttothedeadorwrongfulinterferencewithfuneral

b.ArtsandactionsreferredinArticlesonhumanrelation21,26,to30,32to35

c.Willfulinjurytopropertycommittedmaliciouslyorfraudulently(Art2220,FranciscovsGSIS,Mar30,'63)

d.Breachesofcontractswherethedefendantactedwithfraudulentlyorinbadfaith.(Art2220)

Breachesofcontractofcarriageresultingtodeathorinjuryofpassengers(Art1764inrelationtoArt2206(3)PhilRabbitbuslinesincvsEasguerra,
117SCRA741)

Case:CalalasvsCA,332SCRA356,2000

Facts:
Calalas'jeepwasimproperlyparkedwithitsrearportionprotrudingfromtheboardshoulderoftheroad(violationofLTTC).PassengerSungawhowassited
onwoodenstoolasextendedseatalightedtogivewaytoanotherpassengeralightingfromtheinsideandintheprocesshewasbumpedbyanovertaking
truckownedbySalinas.

SungasuedCalalasbreachofcarriage
CalalassuedSalvasTort

Held:
WhilemoraldamagesarenotrecoverableinactionsforbreachofcontractforitisnotoneoftheitemsenumeratedinArt2219,NCC,however,theexception
isinthecasesofmishapresultingtothedeathorinjuryofpassengerunddderArt1764inrelationtoArt2206(3)NCCandincasesinwhichthecarrieris
guiltyoffraudorinbadfaith.

InthiscasetherulinginCalamasvsSalvasisnotbindinginthecaseofSungavsCalalas.ResJudicatadoesnotapplybecauseSungaisnotapartytothe
tortcasewhereSalvawasfoundatfaultandliabletoCalalas.Thoughtbothcaseshasthesameissueofnegligence,however,eachisdistinctandseparate
fromtheother.(Breachofcontractandtort)

Defenseofproximatecauseisnotavailableinbreachofcontractofcarriage:onlyintortcases.Neitheristhedefenseofcasofortuitouswhereitisattended
tobynegligencewhichinCalalascasewereoverloadingandparkingimprorelywhicharevioationoftleLTTC.

Moraldamagescannotbeawardintheabsenceofanyinjuryorfactualbasis.Theremustbepleadingandproofofmoralsuffering,mentalanguish,
fright,woundedfeelingsadsimilarinjury.(BrentHospitalIncvsNLRC,292SCRA304,'98PeoplevsAguilar,349SCRA292,'98)


MORALDAMAGES,Arts2217to2220,NCC

1.Moraldamagesarenotintendedtoenrichacomplainantattheexpenseofthedefendant.Theyareawardedonlytoenabletheinjuredpartytoobtain
means,diversionoramusementsthatwillservetoalleviatethemoralsufferinghehasundergonebyreasonofthedefendant'sculpableaction.(J.Paraz,
PrudenciovsAllianceTransport,Mar16'87)

2.ConceptMoraldamagesincludephysicalsuffering,mentalanguish,freight,seriousanxiety,dismirchedreputation,woundedfeelings,moralshock,social
humiliation,andsimilarinjury.

Thoughtincapableofpecuniarycomputation,itmayrecoveriftheyaretheproximateresultofthedefendant'swrongfulactoromission.(2217)

Moraldamagesarenotpunitiveinnature,butaredesignedtocompensateandalleviateinsomewaythephysicalsuffering,mentalanguish,fright,
seriousanxiety,etc.Thisissobecausemoraldamagesareinthecategoryofanawarddesignedtocompensatetheclaimantforactualinjurysuffered,notto
imposeapenaltyinthewrongdoer.(EquitableLeasingCorpvsSuyometal,Sept5,'02)

Corporationarenotentitledtomoraldamagesbecauseanartificialpersonexistingonlyinlegalcontemplationlegalfiction,havenofeelingsno
emotions,nosensesandtherefore,itcannotexperiencephysicalsufferingandmentalanguish,sorrowsandgriefoflifeallofwhichcannotbesufferedby
artificialperson.(NationalPowerCorpvsPhilBrothersOceanio,Inc,Nov21,2001)

3.Conditionstorecovermoraldamageswhilenoproofofpecuniarylossisnecessaryinordertorecoverandtheassessmentislefttothediscretionofthe
court(Art2216NCC).However,thecomplainantmustsatisfactoryshowtheff:

a.factualbasisfortheawardwhichistheinjuryorwrongdoingofthedefendant
b.theinjury,i.e.physicalsufferingetcaretheproximateresultofthedefendantswrongfulactoromission(2217)
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c.casualconnectionorrelationbetweentheactualinjuryandthewrongfulactoromissionofthedefendant.(EquitableLeasingCorpvsSuyom)

4.Caseswheremoraldamagesmayberecoveredorawarded(2219)

a.Criminaloffensesresultingtophysicalinjuries(Art33NCCandMadejaCaro,126SCRA293)
b.Quasidelictcausingphysicalinjuries
c.Adulteryandconcubinage
d.Abduction,Rape,Seductionandothermaliciousact,victimandparentareentitled
e.Illegalsearch
f.Illegalarbitrarydetentionorarrest
g.Libel,slanderorotherformofdefamation(Art33)
h.Maliciousprosecution


TortsandDamages

Obligationsandliabilitiesarisingfromhumanrelation

Thecivilcodesprovisionsdealingonhumanrelation(Chap2PreliminaryTitle)arenow,notbasedintheSpanishCivilCode,
formulatedsomebasicprinciplesthataretobeobservedfortherightfulrelationshipbetweenhumanbeingsandforthestabilityofsocial
order.Itwasdesignedtoindicatecertainnormsthatspringfromthefountainofgoodandconscience.(Report,CodeCommission,p.39)

TheseprovisionsprovideforspecieofSpecialTorts

A.Thecatchallprovisions

1.Abuseofrightseverypersonmust,intheexerciseofhisrightsandintheperformanceofhisduties,actwithjustice,giveeveryonehis
due,andobservehonestyandgoodfaith.(Art19)Theelementsaretheff:
i.Theremustbealegalrightorduty
ii.Exerciseofsuchrightordutyinbadfaith
iii.Prejudicesorcausesdamagetoanother

2.SanctionPenaltyeverypersonwho,contrarytolaw,willfullyornegligentlycausesdamagestoanother,shallindemnifythelatterfor
thesame(Art20)

ThisreiteratedinArt2176and2194dealingonquasidelictsholdingthatpersonareliablefordamagescausedbytheirfaultornegligence.
(Prof.Jarencioopinedthatthisprovisionreferstowillfulornegligentactscontrarytolawnotconstitutingquasidelictordelict)

3.ContraBonusMoresanypersonwhowillfullycauseslossesorinjurytoanotherinamannerthatiscontrarytomorals,goodcustomsor
publicpolicyshallcompensatethelatterfordamage(Art21)

Case:QuisimbingvsIcao,34SCRA132
Held:underArt21,foramarriedmantoforceawomannothiswifetoyieldtohislustconstitutesaclearviolationoftherightsofhisvictim
thatentitleshertoclaimforcompensationforthedamagecaused.Mansactiscontrarytomoral,goodcustomsorpublicpolicy.

Case:PeetalvsPe,5SCRA200
Defendantismarriedseparatedandcorrelativeoftheplaintiffunmarriedwoman,24yearsofage.Defendantfrequentlyvisitedthegirls
houseonthepretextofteachingherhowtopraytherosary.Theyfellinloveandhadclandestinetrustuntiltheydisappeared.

Held:Noconclusioncanbedrawnfromthefactthatdefendant,notonlydeliberately,butthruacleverstrategy,succeededinwinningthe
affectionandlovetothewomantotheextentofhavingillicitrelationswithher.Thewrongcausedtoherandherfamilyiscontrarytomorals
etcascontemplatedinArt21.

Case:WassmervsVelez,12Scra648

Facts:W&Vappliedforalicensetocontractofmarriage.Theweddingwasset,invitationswereprintedanddistributedtorelatives,friends.
Weddingdressespurchased(bridal,flowergirlsmaidofhonor,etc),receptionandotheramenitiesreserved.Butbeforethewedding,theboy
leftforMindanaoandneverreturned.

Held:Themerebreachofpromisetomarryisnotanactionablewrong.Buttoformallysetaweddingandgothruallthosepreparationand
expensesandpublicityonlytowalkoutiscontrarytogoodcustomforwhichdefendantisheldanswerablefordamagesunderArt21.


B.Unjustenrichment

1.EveryPersonthruanactorperformancebyanotheroranyothermeans,acquiresorcomesintopossessionofsomethingatthe
expenseofthelatterwithoutjustorlegalgroundshallreturnthesametohim(Art22)

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Prof.JarencionIllustration

Acommunitywasraisedbylawlesselementsandtookpersonalbelongingsofthehelplessresidents.WhentheGovtforcescame
drivingthelawlesselementsandrestoringpeaceandorder,theownerofthehouseoccupiedbythelawlesselementfoundseveralpersonal
belongingsofotherleftbythefleeingoutlaws.Thepersonowningthosepersonalbelongingtakenbytheoutlawshavetherighttorecover
themfromthefinderunderArt22.

2.Evenwhenanactoreventcausingdamagetoanotherspropertywasnotduetothefaultornegligentofthedefendant,thelatter
shallbeliableforindemnityifthrutheactoreventhewasbenefited(Art23)

IllustrationgivenbytheCodeCommission

WithoutAsknowledge,aflooddrivehiscattletothecultivatedhighlandofB.AscattleweresavedbutBscropweredestroyed
becausetheywereeatenbythecattle.WhileAwasnotatfaulthoweverhewasbenefitedwhenhiscattleweresavedfromthefloodaside
frombeingwellfed.ItisbuttrightandequitablethatAshouldindemnifyBforthelossofhiscrop.OtherwisetheinjuredpartyBwouldbe
unjustlyenrichedattheexpenseofthepartywhoreceivedthebenefit.

SeeArts2142and2143

C.Violationofdignity,personality,privacyandpeaceofmindofneighborsandotherpersons(Art26)

Everypersonshallrespectthedignity,personality,privacyandpeaceofmindofhisneighborsandotherpersons.Thefollowingandsimilar
acts,thoughtheymaynotconstituteacriminaloffense,shallproduceacauseofactionfordamages,preventionandotherrelief:

(1)Pryingintotheprivacyofanother'sresidence:

(2)Meddlingwithordisturbingtheprivatelifeorfamilyrelationsofanother


(3)Intriguingtocauseanothertobealienatedfromhisfriends


(4)Vexingorhumiliatinganotheronaccountofhisreligiousbeliefs,lowlystationinlife,placeofbirth,physicaldefect,orotherpersonal
condition.


D.Derelictionofofficialdutybypublicofficial(Art27)

Anypersonsufferingmaterialormorallossbecauseapublicservantoremployeerefusesorneglects,withoutjustcause,toperform
hisofficialdutymayfileanactionfordamagesandotherreliefagainsthelatter,withoutprejudicetoanydisciplinaryadministrativeaction
thatmaybetaken.

Thisprovisionwasdesignedtoredresscomplaintsofthepeoplethatindealingwithpublicofficialsandemployeesthattheyarenot
properlyattendedtowhilethosewhoarerichinfluentialandpowerfularegivenpromptandevenservileattention.Worstissomepublic
officials/employeetookadvantageoftheirposition,expectlyordemandbribefortheperformanceoftheirdutywhichloweredthemoralsof
publicserviceandseriouslyunderminedpublicconfidenceofthegovt.

Case:ZuluetavsNicolas,102Phil844

Facts:ZfiledacomplaintagainsttheGovernorofRizalforlibel.AfterinvestigationtheFiscalabsolvedtheGovernoronthegroundthat
therewasnoprimafacieevidenceforfilingthelibelcomplaint.

ZthenfiledacivilactionagainstunderArt27NCC

Held:ThefiscalofabsolvingtheGovernoruponfindingnosufficientevidencetoestablishaprimafaciecaseisnotrefusalwithoutjust
causetoperformhisofficialdutytofilethecomplaintforlibel.Thefiscalisvestedwithauthorityanddiscretiontodeterminewhetherornot
thereissufficientevidencetojustifythefilingofanaction,andhavingcontroloftheprosecutionofacriminalcase,thefiscalcannotbe
subjectedtodirectionfromtheoffendedparty.Actiondismissed.

E.Unfaircompetitioninagricultural,commercialorindustrialenterprisesorinlaborthroughtheuseofforce,intimidation,deceit,
machinationoranyotherunjust,oppressiveorhighhandedmethodshallgiverisetoarightofactionbythepersonwhotherebysuffers
damage.(Art28)

F.Acquittalincriminalcaseonthegroundthatguilthasnotbeenprovedbeyondreasonabledoubt.Acivilactionfordamagesforthesame
actoromissionmaybeinstitutedandsuchactionrequiresonlypreponderanceofevidence.(Art29)

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TherationaleforthisisprovidedinArt2177NCCwhichstatestheresponsibilityforfaultornegligenceisentirelyseparateand
distinctfromthecivilliabilityarisingfromnegligenceundertheRevisedPenalCodebuttheplaintiffcannotrecovertwiceforthesameact
oromission.

However,iftheacquittalisbasedonproofthattheaccuseddidnotcommitacrime,orthatnocrimewascommitted,orbecauseheis
justifiedorexemptfromcriminalliability,nocivilactionmaybeinstitutedbecausetheacquittalonthosegroundconstitutesresadjudicate.

Case:PNBvsCapiton,98Phil286

Held:AcquittalofanaccusedinEstafacaseonthegroundthathisguilthasnotbeensatisfactorilyestablishedisequivalenttooneon
reasonabledoubtanddoesnotprecludefilingofcivilactionforthesameactoromissionunderArt29NCC.

Howevertoprotectthepersonfromharassment,thelawauthorizesdefendanttofileamotionincourtrequiringtheplaintifftofilea
bondtoanswerfordamagesincasecomplaintshouldbefoundmalicious.

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