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Flow meter Measurement Apparatus and a basic hydraulic bench or any water
supply has been designed to operate together in this experiment. This is to show that
flow measurement of incompressible fluid can be determined by using various types
of method. This apparatus also will allow us to compare the different between types of
flow meter that is venture meter, orifice meter and rotameter. Besides that, this
apparatus will be able to demonstrate the flow measurement comparison by using
three different basic types of flow meter. In this experiment the fluid in motion is flow
through different types of flow path. Different path gives out different pressure,
velocity and types of flow.

1.1 Objectives of The Experiment

There are two objectives for this experiment which are:

i To obtain the flow rate measurement by utilizing three basic types of

flow measuring techniques: rotameter, venture meter and orifice meter.
ii To compare the measurement of different techniques

1.2 Experiment Variables

i Manipulated variable(s)

There are two manipulated variables which are types of flow meters
and the value of Vs2/2g.

ii Dependent Variable (s)

There are two dependent variables which are the flow rates of the
flow meters. Next, the coefficient losses when fluid flows through 90
degree elbow.

iii Constant Variable(s)

The constant variable is the volume of water in the sump tank.

1.3 Experiment Hypothesis(es)

Based on the above variables there are two hypothesis for this experiment:

i The greater the flow rates of rotameter, the greater the flow rates of
venturi and orifice rotameter.
ii The differential piezometer head, H increasing as the Vs2 / 2g

1 Result

Table 2.1: The operation and characteristic of three different basic types of flowmeter
Manometer Reading (mm) Ro Vol. Time Flowrat F
ta (L) (min) e, c
me Q(L/mi th
ter n) E
(L/ (L
165 241 127 227 235 236 156 95 218 206 10 8 0.3833 20.8714

158 160 124 147 153 155 140 98 120 110 9 8 0.6167 12.9723

145 143 120 133 138 140 139 101 114 108 8 8 1.3500 5.9259

144 140 122 134 136 139 138 104 115 110 7 8 1.8667 4.2856

142 134 124 132 135 136 137 109 118 114 6 8 2.6833 2.9814

Table 2.2: The loss coefficient when fluid flows through a 90 degree elbow
Volume Time Time Flowrate, Q Differential V (m/s) VS / 2g
(L) (sec) (min) (L/min) Piezometer Head, x10 (mm)
H x10-6
Elbow (hi hj)
mm m
8 23 0.3833 20.8714 12 0.012 52.1740 13.8740
8 37 0.6167 12.9723 10 0.010 27.0270 3.7230
8 81 1.3500 5.9259 6 0.006 7.4074 0.2797
8 112 1.8667 4.2856 5 0.005 4.4643 0.1016
8 161 2.6833 2.9814 4 0.004 2.4845 0.0315

Table 2.1 shows the operation and characteristics of three different basic types
of flow meter. The volume of the water is constant at 8L and the time taken is
different for each experiment. This result is used to find the actual flow rate. The
manometer reading is also recorded to find the flow rate of the venturi and orifice.
The flow rates for all basic types of flow meter is
Table 2.2 shows the loss coefficient when the fluid flows through a 90 degree
elbow. The differential piezometer head, H

2 Discussion

Figure 2.1 shows the comparison of flow rates between the three different basic types
of flow meter which is rotameter, venturi and orifice meter. We obtained the flow
rates of venturi and orifice by calculate using the Bernoulli Equation and used the
flow rates of the rotameter as the parameter. Next, we determined the actual flow rates
of water at constant volume with different time taken for the water to reach 8L for
each experiment. The SI unit is m3/s (cubic metres per second). The graph shows that
the higher the flow rates of rotameter, the higher the flow rates of all flow meters.
There are a few of differences between rotameter, venture and orifice. Firstly,
venture is use to measure flow rates of all incompressible flow. Next, pressure
differences between the inlet and throat of the venturi meter is noting to measure the
flow velocity. The flow of the fluid in venturi meter also decelerated to its original
For the orifice, it is generally used to measure the flow rate of liquid. It used pitot
tube or the trajectory method to discharge flow or to measure the velocity. Also, the
entire potential energy of the fluid of the orifice is converted into the kinetic energy.
Lastly, the rotameter is used to measure fluid flow in which a float rises in a tapered
vertical tube. Moreover, the flow rates is measured directly from calibrated scale and
reading is taken from ending point of cap of the float. Also, it use only the inherent
properties of fluid along with gravity and no external power is used.

Figure 2.2 shows a graph for the differential piezometer head, H (mm) versus
Vs2/2g (mm). Based on the graph, we can determine the loss coefficient of fluid flow
passes through the 90 degree elbow. The loss coefficient can be obtained directly
from the slope of the graph. The differential piezometer head, H is increasing as the
Vs2/2g increasing. We can conclude that the piezometer head is directly proportional
to Vs2/2g.


12 f(x) = 0.5x + 5.63

R = 0.76


Differential Piezometer Head (mm)


0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

V2/2g10-6 (mm)

Figure 2.2: Graph of Differential Piezometer Head, H (mm) versus Vs2 / 2g (mm)

Formula to Calculate Actual Flow Rate, Q

Flow rate, Q(L/min) = Volume(L)


Formula to Calculate Area of The Cross Section,A(Area of A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H)

A1 = D12
A = Area of the cross section A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H (m2)
D = Diameter of the cross section A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H(m)