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Pregnancy, foetal development and transition of foetus to neonate:

pre-lecture material.
Please read and access the following resource material prior to the resource
session. This information is assumed knowledge and will not be covered in the
resource session. You need to fully understand the following terms:

Glossary of terms:
Conception: union of a secondary oocyte and a sperm cell (also known as
Pregnancy: the presence of a developing offspring in the uterus
Trimester: three months, one of the three periods of pregnancy
Placenta: a highly vascular foetal organ that exchanges with the maternal
Zygote: combined cell produced by the union of sperm pronucleus and egg
pronucleus from fertilisation until the first cleavage
Embryo: period of prenatal development from implantation of the fertilised ovum to
the end of the eighth week
Ftus: unborn offspring from the eighth week of gestation until birth
Birth: the childbearing event
Neonate: an infant from birth to 28 days of age
Foramen ovale: opening in the septum between the right and left atria in the ftal
Ductus arteriosus: vascular channel in the ftus that joins the pulmonary artery
directly to the descending aorta
Ductus venosus: vascular channel in the ftus passing through the liver and
joining the umbilical vein with the inferior vena cava

Read the chapter text at the following link with particular attention paid to conception,
changes in the pregnant woman, foetal development, and transition from foetal to
independent circulation and respiration:

Print these questions and answer 1-35 in Chapter Assessments as you read
through the chapter text and when you have completed your reading:

After completing the scenario consider the same questions. Formulate answers
based on your current knowledge of this topic and answer the questions related to
the current scenario. For example, apply your knowledge of the transition from foetal
to independent circulation to the health examination of the Day 4 neonate.
Watch the following you tube clips to assist your knowledge of these concepts:


Ftal heart circulation:

Foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus:

Umbilical vessels and ductus venosus:

Birth :


Ball et al. (2012). Child Adolescent and Family Nursing - Custom Book for NRSG257
Child Adolescent and Family Nursing / NRPL257 Child Adolescent and Family
Nursing [Practice Leadership]. Frenchs Forest, Sydney: Pearson Australia.

Harris, P., Nagy, S & Vardaxis, N. (2010). Mosbys dictionary of medicine, nursing &
health professions (2nd ed.). Chatswood, N.S.W.: Mosby Elsevier.

Martini, F.H., Nath. J.L., & Bartholomew, E.,F. (2012). Fundamentals of anatomy &
physiology (9th ed.). San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings.

Shier, D., Butler, J., & Lewis, R. (2013). Holes human anatomy & physiology (13th
ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.