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Mar 15, 2017

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DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE

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DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE

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INTRODUCTION

a payload from the Earth's surface into outer space. A launch system includes

the launch vehicle, the launch pad and other infrastructure. Usually the

payload is an artificial satellite placed into orbit, but some spaceflights are sub-

orbital while others enable spacecraft to escapeEarth orbit entirely. A launch

vehicle which carries its payload on a suborbital trajectory is often called

a sounding rocket. Launch vehicles, particularly orbital launch vehicles, have

at least two stages, but sometimes up to 4 are employed.

system which is capable of launching a launch vehicle into space more than

once. This contrasts with expendable launch systems, where each launch

vehicle is launched once and then discarded. The term reusable launch

vehicle may refer to several different levels of reuse. Some vehicle concepts

are fully reusable (that is, the vehicle launches and landswithout jettisoning

any stages). Others have one stage that is reusable in combination with other

stages that are expendable. The table and text below describe different levels

of launch vehicle reusability, from most reusable to least reusable.

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Full reusability implies that the vehicle launches, carries a payload to

orbit, and returns to Earth with the vehicle (or vehicle stages) intact and

without the assistance of any expendable stages. Single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO)

vehicle concepts fall into this category, as do the two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO)

concepts in which both the orbital vehicle and a booster vehicle fly back to

Earth for reuse (many such designs were originally proposed for the Space

Shuttle, and several others are currently under study)

another stage or stages that are partially reusable. The United States Space

Shuttles are good examples of this type of vehicle, as the orbiters are reusable,

and components of the boost stages are recovered for refurbishment and reuse.

These types of vehicles have one stage (either the booster or orbiter) that

is reused and other stages that are expendable. The Pegasus launch system, for

example, relies on a reusable atmospheric aircraft to carry an expendable

rocket launch vehicle to altitude.

are recovered for future use. An historical example of this concept is the

Advanced Launch System (ALS) examined in 1980s and 1990s space launch

studies. The proposed ALS designs would recover only the avionics and

propulsion packages from vehicles since these key pieces were the most

expensive.

not recovered. Hence the parts or the components of these vehicles have no

reusability partially or fully. Todays expendable launch vehicles such as Atlas,

Delta, and Proton have no reusable components.

2

1.1 HISTORY

In the early 1950s popular science fiction often depicted space launch

vehicles as either single-stage reusable rocket ships which could launch and

land vertically (SSTO VTVL), or single-stage reusable rocket planes which

could launch and land horizontally (SSTO HTHL).

concept potentially feasible. Before VTVL SSTO designs came the partially

reusable multi-stage NEXUS launcher by KrafftEhricke. The pioneer in the

field of VTVL SSTO, Philip Bono, worked at Douglas. Bono proposed several

launch vehicles including: ROOST, ROMBUS, Ithacus, Pegasus and SASSTO.

launch with vertical landing (HTVL) and vertical launch with horizontal

landing (VTHL). One of the few HTVL vehicles is the 1960s concept

spacecraft Hyperion SSTO, designed by Philip Bono. X-20 Dyna-Soar is an

early example of a VTHL design, while the HL-20 and X-34 are examples

from the 1990s. As of February 2010, the VTHL X-37 has completed initial

development and flown an initial classified orbital mission of over seven

months duration. Currently proposed VTHL manned space planes include the

Dream Chaser and Prometheus, both circa 2010 concept space planes proposed

to NASA under the CCDev program.

The late 1960s saw the start of the Space Shuttle design process. From an

initial multitude of ideas a two-stage reusable VTHL design was pushed

forward. That eventually ended up as a reusable orbiter with an expendable

drop tank and reusable solid rocket boosters to reduce design expenses.

3

Eventually the Shuttle was found to be expensive to maintain, even more

expensive than an expendable launch system would have been. The

cancellation of a Shuttle-Centaur rocket after the loss of Challenger also

caused a hiatus that would make it necessary for the United States military to

scramble back towards expendables to launch their payloads. Many

commercial satellite customers had switched to expendables even before that,

due to unresponsiveness to customer concerns by the Shuttle launch system.

deficiencies of the HOTOL design led to the far more promising Skylon

design, with much greater payload. From the commercial side, large satellite

constellations such as Iridium satellite constellation were proposed which also

had low cost space access demands.

The end of that decade saw the implosion of the satellite constellation market

with the bankruptcy of Iridium. In turn the nascent private launch industry

collapsed. The fall of the Soviet Union eventually had political ripples which

led to a scaling down of ballistic missile defense, including the demise of the

"Brilliant Pebbles" program.

The 21st century saw rising costs and teething problems lead to the

cancellation of both X-33 and X-34. Then the Space Shuttle Columbia

disaster and another grounding of the fleet. The Shuttle design was now over

20 years old and in need of replacement. Meanwhile the military EELV

program churned out a new generation of better expendables.

early 1970s. The first experimental Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-3) was

developed in 1980. An Augmented version of this, ASLV, was launched

4

successfully in 1992. India has made tremendous strides in launch vehicle

technology to achieve self-reliance in satellite launch vehicle programme with

the operationalisation of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and

Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV).

by its abbreviation PSLV is the first operational

launch vehicle of ISRO. PSLV is capable of

launching 1600 kg satellites in 620 km sun-

synchronous polar orbit and 1050 kg satellite in

geo-synchronous transfer orbit. In the standard

configuration, it measures 44.4 m tall, with a lift

off weight of 295 tonnes. PSLV has four stages

using solid and liquid propulsion systems alternately. Fig 1(a): PSLV

The first stage is one of the largest solid propellant boosters in the world and

carries 139 tonnes of propellant. A cluster of six strap-ons attached to the first

stage motor, four of which are ignited on the ground and two are air-lit.The

reliability rate of PSLV has been superb. There had been 22 continuously

successful flights of PSLV, till February 2013 . With its variant configurations,

PSLV has proved its multi-payload, multi-mission capability in a single launch

and its geosynchronous launch capability.

Table 1(b): Parameters of PSLV

Lift-off weight 295tonne

1600 kg in to 620 km Polar Orbit

Pay Load

1060 kg in to Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO)

Height 44 metre

1.2.2 Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle(GSLV)-Mark I&II

5

Geosynchronous Satellite Launch

Vehicle(GSLV)-Mark I&II ,is capable of placing

INSATII class of satellites (2000 2,500 kg) into

Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). GSLV is a

three stage vehicle GSLV is 49 m tall, with 414 t lift

off weight. It has a maximum diameter of 3.4 m at the

payload fairing. First stage comprises S125 solid

booster with four liquid (L40) strap-ons. Second

stage (GS2) is liquid engine and the third stage (GS3)

is a cryo stage. The vehicle develops a lift off thrust

of 6573 kN. The first flight of GSLV took place from Fig 1(b): GSLV - II

SHAR on April 18, 2001 by launching 1540 kg GSAT-1. It was followed by six

more launches Typical Parameters of GSLV

Lift-off weight 414 tonne

Pay Load 2 2.5 tonnes in to Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit

Height 49 metre

III ,

6

The GSLV-III or Geosynchronous Satellite

Launch Vehicle Mark III , is a launch vehicle

currently under development by the Indian Space

Research Organization. GSLV Mk III is conceived

and designed to make ISRO fully self reliant in

launching heavier communication satellites of

INSAT-4 class, which weigh 4500 to 5000 kg. Fig 1(c): GSLV - III

It would also enhance the capability of the country to be a competitive

player in the multimillion dollar commercial launch market. The vehicle

envisages multi-mission launch capability for GTO, LEO, Polar and

intermediate circular orbits.

GSLV-Mk III is designed to be a three stage vehicle, with 42.4 m tall with a

lift off weight of 630 tonnes. First stage comprises two identical S200 Large

Solid Booster (LSB) with 200 tonne solid propellant, that are strapped on to

the second stage, the L110 re-startable liquid stage. The third stage is the C25

LOX/LH2 cryo stage. The large payload fairing measures 5 m in diameter and

can accommodate a payload volume of 100 cu m. Realization of GSLV Mk-III

will help ISRO to put heavier satellites into orbit.

1.3 AVATAR

concept development effort for a single-stagereusable spaceplane capable

of horizontal takeoff and landing, by India's Defense Research and

Development Organization along with Indian Space Research

Organization and other research institutions. The mission concept was for

cheapermilitary and civilian satellite spacelaunches.

1.3.1 Concept

7

The idea was to develop a hyperplane vehicle that can take off from

conventional airfields, collect air in the atmosphere on the way up, liquefy it,

separate oxygen and store it on board for subsequent flight beyond the

atmosphere.AVATAR is proposed to weigh only 25 tonnes in which 60 per cent

of mass will be liquid hydrogen fuel. The oxygen required by the vehicle for

combustion is collected from the atmosphere, thus reducing the need to carry

oxygen during launch. AVATAR is said to be capable of entering into a 100-km

orbit in a single stage and launching satellites weighing up to one tonne

conventional airstrip using turbo-ramjet engines that burn air and hydrogen.

Once at a cruising altitude, the vehicle would use scramjet propulsion to

accelerate from Mach 4 to Mach 8. During this cruising phase, an on-board

system would collect air from the atmosphere, from which liquid oxygen

would be separated and stored. The liquid oxygen collected then would be

used in the final flight phase when the rocket engine burns the collected liquid

oxygen and the carried hydrogen to attain orbit. The vehicle would be

designed to permit at least a hundred re-entries into the atmosphere. DRDO

planned to build and fly a scaled-down version of AVATAR, weighing 3 tonnes

(6,600 lb) at takeoff. The project is headed by Vikram Sarabhai Space

Centre in Thiruvananthapuram. The mini AVATAR is to be built by

a Hyderabad-based private company called CIM Technologies, project

completion data is still not finalized. The prototype will be launched using the

PSLV and will demonstrate all technologies used in AVATAR including

oxygen collection

launch missiles, land back and be loaded again for more missions. The vehicle

will be designed to permit at least a hundred re-entries into the atmosphere.

The vehicle could also act as a satellite launcher at a hundredth of the present

8

cost of launching satellites. A miniature Avatar, which is also being conceived,

would be hardly bigger than a MiG-25 or an F-16.

1.4 ACTUATOR

system. It is operated by a source of energy, usually in the form of an electric

current, hydraulic fluid pressure orpneumatic pressure, and converts that

energy into some kind of motion. An actuator is the mechanism by which a

control system acts upon an environment. The control system can be simple (a

fixed mechanical or electronic system), software-based (e.g. a printer driver,

robot control system), or a human or other agent.In engineering, actuators are

frequently used as mechanisms to introduce motion, or to clamp an object so

as to prevent motion. In electronic engineering, actuators are a subdivision

oftransducers. They are devices which transform an input signal (mainly an

electrical signal) into motion. Electrical motors, pneumatic actuators, hydraulic

pistons, relays, comb drives,piezoelectric actuators, thermal bimorphs, digital

micromirror devices and electroactive polymers are some examples of such

actuators. An actuator is that creates motion in a straight line, in contrast to the

circular motion of a conventional electric motor. Linear actuators are used in

machine tools and industrial machinery, in computer peripherals such as disk

drives and printers, in valves and dampers, and in many other places where

linear motion is required. Hydraulic or pneumatic cylinders inherently produce

linear motion. Many other mechanisms are used to generate linear motion from

a rotating motor.

1.5TYPES OF ACTUATORS

1.5.1Mechanical actuators

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Mechanical linear actuators typically operate by

conversion of rotary motion into linear motion.

Conversion is commonly made via a few simple types

of mechanism:

Screw

Some mechanical linear actuators only pull, such as hoists, chain drive and belt

drives. Others only push (such as a cam actuator). Pneumatic and hydraulic

cylinders or lead screws can be designed to generate force in both directions.

handle into linear displacement via screws and/or gears to which the knob or

handle is attached. A jackscrew or car jack is a familiar mechanical actuator.

Another family of actuators is based on the segmented spindle. Rotation of the

jack handle is converted mechanically into the linear motion of the jack head.

Mechanical actuators are also frequently used in the field of lasers and optics

to manipulate the position of linear stages, rotary stages, mirror

mounts, goniometry and other positioning instruments. For accurate and

repeatable positioning, index marks may be used on control knobs. Some

actuators include an encoder and digital position readout. These are similar to

the adjustment knobs used on micrometers except their purpose is position

adjustment rather than position measurement.

10

Hydraulic actuators or hydraulic cylinders typically

involve a hollow cylinder having a piston inserted in

it. An unbalanced pressure applied to the piston

generates force that can move an external object.

Since liquids are nearly incompressible, a hydraulic

cylinder can provide controlled precise linear

displacement of the piston. A familiar example of a

Fig 1(e): Hydraulic Actuator

manually operated hydraulic actuator is ahydraulic car jack.

except they use compressed gas to generate force instead of a liquid. They

work similarly to a piston in which air is pumped inside a chamber and pushed

out of the other side of the chamber. One of the reasons pneumatic linear

actuators are preferred to other types is the fact that the power source is simply

an air compressor. Because air is the input source, pneumatic actuators are able

to be used in many places of mechanical activity. The downside is, most air

compressors are large, bulky, and loud. They are hard to transport to other

areas once installed. Pneumatic linear actuators are likely to leak and this

makes them less efficient than mechanical linear actuators.

application of a voltage to the material causes it to expand. Very high voltages

correspond to only tiny expansions. As a result, piezoelectric actuators can

achieve extremely fine positioning resolution, but also have a very short range

of motion. In addition, piezoelectric materials exhibit hysteresis which makes

it difficult to control their expansion in a repeatable manner.

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1.6 SELECTED ELECTRO MECHANICAL ACTUATOR

that the control knob or handle is replaced with an electric motor. Rotary

motion of the motor is converted to linear displacement. There are many

designs of modern linear actuators and every company that manufactures them

tends to have a proprietary method. The following is a generalized description

of a very simple electro-mechanical linear actuator.

1.6.1Simplified design

screw. A lead screw has a continuous helical thread machined on its

circumference running along the length (similar to the thread on a bolt).

Threaded onto the lead screw is a lead nut or ball nut with corresponding

helical threads. The nut is prevented from rotating with the lead screw

(typically the nut interlocks with a non-rotating part of the actuator body).

Therefore, when the lead screw is rotated, the nut will be driven along the

threads. The direction of motion of the nut depends on the direction of rotation

of the lead screw. By connecting linkages to the nut, the motion can be

converted to usable linear displacement. Most current actuators are built for

high speed, high force, or a compromise between the two. There are many

types of motors that can be used in a liner actuator system. These include dc

brush, dc brushless, stepper, or in some cases, even induction motors. It all

depends on the application requirements and the loads the actuator is designed

to move. In this case, accuracy and high movement resolution aren't needed,

but high force and speed are. There are many variations in the

electromechanical linear actuator system. It is critical to understand the design

requirements and application constraints to know which one would be best.

12

1.6.2 Standard vs. Compact construction

A linear actuator using standard motors will commonly have the motor

as a separate cylinder attached to the side of the actuator, either parallel with

the actuator or perpendicular to the actuator. The motor may be attached to the

end of the actuator.

Compact linear actuators use specially designed motors that try to fit the motor

and actuator into the smallest possible shape.

The inner diameter of the motor shaft can be enlarged, so that the drive

shaft can be hollow. The drive screw and nut can therefore occupy the

center of the motor, with no need for additional gearing between the motor

and the drive screw.

Similarly the motor can be made to have a very small outside diameter,

but instead the pole faces are stretched lengthwise so the motor can still

have very high torque while fitting in a small diameter space.

1.7FLIGHT FUNDAMENTALS

determine its motion. These forces can be divided into body forces and

13

aerodynamic forces. Aerodynamic forces include the lift (L) and drag (D) due

to pressure variations on the vehicles surface. Body forces include the force

due to the Earths gravity, or weight (W), and the thrust (T) produced by the

vehicles engines. These forces result from the surface of the RLV. The

components of the resulting force can be broken into lift and drag. Lift is the

component of the pressure force that acts perpendicular to the relative wind

direction and drag acts parallel to the relative wind velocity. These two force

components, which are derived from a force distribution, act on the vehicle

from the center of pressure (CP). For convention, both lift and drag can be

described with the lift coefficient (CL) and drag coefficient (CD).

The weight of the vehicle changes linearly as the mass of the vehicle

decreases during flight due to propellant mass flow. The relationship between

weight and mass is given by

W=mg (i)

Wherem is the total mass of the vehicle at any instant and g is the

acceleration due to the Earths gravity. Regardless of the vehicles orientation,

gravity always acts downward towards the Earths center through the vehicles

center of gravity (CG). During the ascent of a launch vehicle, momentum is

lost due to gravity. This effect is called gravity losses and is related to the

amount of time it takes for a vehicle to reach orbit. The following relationship

defines gravity losses as where is the change in altitude from launch to orbit,

ht is the time to orbit and V is the vertical velocity. Thrust is used to

accelerate a vehicle from rest at the Earths surface to orbital velocity in space.

Both rocket and air breathing vehicles produce thrust by accelerating

propellant out the back of the engine. In the case of rockets, the propellant is

initially at rest with respect to the vehicle. The thrust produced is the sum of

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the momentum changes of the propellant by the engine and the pressure losses

due to atmospheric back-pressure.

Regardless of size, mass or shape, has a point inside called the center of

mass (CM). The CM is the exact spot where all of the mass of that object is

perfectly balanced. You can easily find the CM of an object such as a ruler by

balancing the object on your finger. If the material used to make the ruler is of

uniform thickness and density, the CM should be at the halfway point between

one end of the stick and the other. If the ruler was made of wood and a heavy

nail was driven into one of its ends, the CM would no longer be in the middle.

The balance point would then be nearer the end with the nail. The CM is

important in rocket flight because it is around this point that an unstable rocket

tumbles. As a matter of fact, any object in flight tends to tumble. Throw a

stick, and it tumbles end over end. Throw a ball, and it spins in flight. The act

of spinning or tumbling is a way of becoming stabilized in flight.

1.7.3 MASS

The mass of a rocket can make the difference between a successful flight and

just wallowing around on the launch pad. As a basic principle of rocket flight,

it can be said that for a rocket to leave the ground, the engine must produce a

thrust that is greater than the total mass of the vehicle. It is obvious that a

rocket with a lot of unnecessary mass will not be as efficient as one that is

trimmed to just the bare essentials.

For an ideal rocket, the total mass of the vehicle should be distributed

following this general formula: of the total mass, 91 percent should be

15

propellants; 3 percent should be tanks, engines, fins, etc.; and 6 percent can be

the payload.

Payloads may be satellites, astronauts, or spacecraft that will travel to other

planets or moons. In determining the effectiveness of a rocket design,

rocketeers speak in terms of mass fraction (MF). The mass of the propellants

of the rocket divided by the total mass of the rocket gives MF.

Basic rocket propulsion equations are based on Newton Law of Motion

For constant propellant exhaust velocity veat thruster nozzle outlet, and with

thrust force F collinear to ve, gives The Basic Equation for Force of Thrust

..(ii)

From the Law of Conservation of Momentum follows:

vm= mve[Ns]

This is the change of momentum of spacecraft. This implies the change of

momentum of the expelled propellant.

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(iii)

Orbital mechanics, also called flight mechanics, is the study of the motions of

artificial satellites and space vehicles moving under the influence of forces

such as gravity, atmospheric drag, thrust, etc. Orbital mechanics is a modern

offshoot of celestial mechanics which is the study of the motions of natural

celestial bodies such as the moon and planets. The root of orbital mechanics

can be traced back to the 17th century when mathematician Isaac Newton

(1642-1727) put forward his laws of motion and formulated his law of

universal gravitation. The engineering applications of orbital mechanics

include ascent trajectories, reentry and landing, rendezvous computations, and

lunar and interplanetary trajectories.

called orbital elements. They are Semi-Major Axis (a), Eccentricity(e),

Inclination(i), Argument of Periapsis ( ), Time of Periapsis Passage (T) ,

Longitude of Ascending Node, .

path known as an ellipse with the body being

orbited, called the primary, located at one of

two points called foci. An ellipse is defined to

be a curve with the following property: for

Fig 1(g): Major& Minor Axis

each point on an ellipse, the sum of its

distances

17

from two fixed points, called foci, is constant (see Figure 5a). The longest and

shortest lines that can be drawn through the center of an ellipse are called the

major axis and minor axis, respectively. The semi-major axis is one-half of the

major axis and represents a satellite's mean distance from its

primary. Eccentricity is the distance between the foci divided by the length of

the major axis and is a number between zero and one. An eccentricity of zero

indicates a circle.

Inclination is the angular distance between a satellite's orbital plane and the

equator of its primary (or the ecliptic plane in the case of heliocentric, or sun

centered, orbits). An inclination of zero degrees indicates an orbit about the

primary's equator in the same direction as the primary's rotation, a direction

calledprograde (or direct). An inclination of 90 degrees indicates a polar orbit.

An inclination of 180 degrees indicates a retrograde equatorial orbit.

A retrogradeorbit is one in which a satellite moves in a direction opposite to

the rotation of its primary.

periapsis, the farthest point in an orbit, is called apoapsis. Periapsis and

apoapsis are usually modified to apply to the body being orbited, such as

perihelion and aphelion for the Sun, perigee and apogee for Earth, perijove and

apojove for Jupiter, perilune and apolune for the Moon, etc. The argument of

periapsis is the angular distance between the ascending node and the point of

periapsis (see Figure 4.3). The time of periapsis passage is the time in which a

satellite moves through its point of periapsis.

Nodes are the points where an orbit crosses a plane, such as a satellite crossing

the Earth's equatorial plane. If the satellite crosses the plane going from south

to north, the node is the ascending node; if moving from north to south, it is

the descending node. The longitude of the ascending node is the node's

18

celestial longitude. Celestial longitude is analogous to longitude on Earth and

is measured in degrees counter-clockwise from zero with zero longitude being

in the direction of the vernal equinox.Geosynchronous orbits (GEO) are

circular orbits around the Earth having a period of 24 hours. A geosynchronous

orbit with an inclination of zero degrees is called a geostationary orbit. A

spacecraft in a geostationary orbit appears to hang motionless above one

position on the Earth's equator. For this reason, they are ideal for some types of

communication and meteorological satellites. A spacecraft in an inclined

geosynchronous orbit will appear to follow a regular figure-8 pattern in the sky

once every orbit. To attain geosynchronous orbit, a

Space craft is first launched into an elliptical orbit with an apogee of 35,786

Fig 1(h): Geosynchronous Orbit

km (22,236 miles) called a geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO). The orbit is

then circularized by firing the spacecraft's engine at apogee.

Polar orbits (PO) are orbits with an inclination of 90 degrees. Polar orbits are

useful for satellites that carry out mapping and/or surveillance operations

because as the planet rotates the spacecraft has access to virtually every point

on the planet's surface.

Sun synchronous orbits (SSO) are walking orbits whose orbital plane

processes with the same period as the planet's solar orbit period. In such an

orbit, a satellite crosses periapsis at about the same local time every orbit. This

19

is useful if a satellite is carrying instruments which depend on a certain angle

of solar illumination on the planet's surface.

Molniya orbits are highly eccentric Earth orbits with periods of approximately

12 hours (2 revolutions per day). The orbital inclination is chosen so the rate of

change of perigee is zero, thus both apogee and perigee can be maintained over

fixed latitudes. This condition occurs at inclinations of 63.4 degrees and 116.6

degrees.

vehicle consists of a period of powered flight

during which the vehicle is lifted above the

Earth's atmosphere and accelerated to orbital

velocity by a rocket, or launch vehicle.

Fig 1(i): Space Vehicle Orbit

the rocket's last stage at which time the vehicle begins its free flight. During

free flight the space vehicle is assumed to be subjected only to the

gravitational pull of the Earth. If the vehicle moves far from the Earth, its

trajectory may be affected by the gravitational influence of the sun, moon, or

another planet.

A space vehicle's orbit may be determined from the position and the velocity

of the vehicle at the beginning of its free flight. A vehicle's position and

velocity can be described by the variables r, v, and , where r is the vehicle's

distance from the center of the Earth, v is its velocity, and is the angle

between the position and the velocity vectors, called the zenith angle (see

Figure). If we let r1, v1, and 1 be the initial (launch) values of r, v, and , then

20

we may consider these as given quantities. If we let point P2 represent the

perigee, then equation becomes

(i)

Substituting equation, we can obtain an equation for the perigee radius Rp.

(ii)

(iii)

21

2. LITERATURE SURVEY

Benjamin Srloff, USN (2006)[1] studied and compared of the variety of the

performance of rocket and air breathing, single stage-to-orbit, re-usable launch

vehicles. Fuel consideration which includes bio-propellant and tri-propellant

combination of hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels. Methodology used to design

and manufacture of Re-usable launch vehicle.

Sippel and Klevanski (2001), [2] focused on study of two RLV in particular.

It describes one RLV in detail with the application of a heavy lift launches.

Further topics discussed on aerodynamic shape, preliminary mechanical layout

and wing structure.al results are presented including simulations and

optimizations for ascent and reentry.

Michael and James (2003) [3] give the basics of astrodynaimics. It focuses on

the laws governing space mechanics and orbits .it mention the different

environment that a space vehicle is subjected to. It also gives some details

about propulsion systems and power control.

Martin J.L Turner [4] focuses mainly on rocket propulsion systems. Liquid

and solid propellants are explained in details. The different types of propulsion

are discussed. Different types of rocket propulsion engine are also discussed.

Martin and Josef (2001) [5] proposes a new and different approach for return

to the launch site of non-SSTO reusable space transportation vehicles. The

performance gain by the advanced capturing method shows a possible increase

in delivered payload. The paper presents a detailed description of the proposed

method, giving data of numerical simulations.

Wallace and Olds , A.C (1992) [6] dramatic design and analysis time savings

of Reusable Military Launch System under WPAFB. This incorporates

parametric geometry, aerodynamics, ass properties, aero heating, and rocket

propulsion and trajectory analysis. Several analysis done for optimal vehicle

22

design which include load factor, engine type, staging mach number, fuel

selection, number of engines, allowable wing loading.

and preliminary design and synthesis of air breathing, hypersonic vehicles.

Several analyses used to determine the initial vehicle design to get the better

performance. Techniques for the simulation of the trajectory for the RLV.

Wiley and James, (1995) [8] focuses on space mission, in particular the cost

and risk involved. It contains more practical details, such as physical and

engineering data, empherical formulae and design algorithms. It also contains

contribution of the last decade by many engineers and managers

optimization. Recently developed methods of optimization such as genetic

algorithms, simulated annealing and fuzzy optimization are also discussed.

The various approximation techniques to speed up the convergence of practical

mechanical and structural optimization problems are also outlined

Beer and Russell, (2012) [10] presents the principles of kinematics and

dynamics. The basic concepts of force, momentum, impulse, acceleration,

work and energy are introduced and applied to particles and bodies.th concepts

of linear and angular momentum and also the laws of motion are discussed in

detail.

23

3. SELECTION OF MECHANISM

The final mechanism for the design was selected by a process that included

analysing several designs and eliminating them on several parameters. Some

of the parameters considered were weight, cost, ease of manufacture,

availability etc. some of the designs that were considered during the selection

process are shown here.

3.1 MECHANISM 1

electrical drives. Servomotors were used to control the movement of the arms,

and a piston acted as the actuator. The efficiency of the mechanism was much

higher than that of the previous ones.

mechanism failure is higher considering the increased number of components

being used. Also the weight of the servomotors used added to the existing

weight of the piston and the mechanism weight was increased considerably.

The mechanism was rejected.

24

3.2 MECHANISM 2

a single piston in a cylinder. Construction of the mechanism is simple. One

cylinder piston is employed for the operation of the mechanism. The piston on

being pushed upward would lift the mechanism.

a single piston in a cylinder. Construction of the mechanism is simple. One

cylinder piston is employed for the operation of the mechanism.The piston on

being pushed upward would lift the mechanism.

Inference: The placement of the piston in a horizontal direction meant that the

amount of force to be applied was increased. Also the number of links in the

mechanism is high which meant increased weight. The mechanism was

rejected.

3.3 MECHANISM 3

This mechanism included only three links and was also considerably

lighter than the previous mechanism. The piston was placed at an angle and

this also meant that lesser force only needed to be applied.

25

Fig 3(c): Mechanism 3

Inference: The unequal arm lengths made the placement of the payload

difficult. The payload could not be correctly positioned and all angles could

not be obtained. The mechanism was rejected

3.4 Mechanism 4

This mechanism is similar to the mechanism 3 the only difference is here all

the links have same length while in the above mechanism the length of the

links are different.

Interference: Equal arm length made the placement of the payload. The

payload can be correctly positioned and all angles are obtained. Construction

of the mechanism is simple and single actuator is employed. Hence the

mechanism was selected.

26

4. DESIGN

4.1 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN

Stage 2- mechanism at raised stage

Fig 4(b): Mechanism at raised stage

27

4.3 FORCE Fig

CALCULATIONS

4(c): Geometric Dimension of Mechanism

28

For the purpose of actuator selection the force that the actuator needs to apply

has to be calculated. These calculations are performed by two methods.

First

Fig 4(d): Force diagram of observe that the actions at A & E

mechanism

do no work. Denoting by y the elevation of

the platform above the base and by s the

length of DG of the cylinder and position

assembly, we write

u = o;

-W y + FDHs = 0 (i)

angular displacement of EDG as follows:

29

Y=EC sin

= asin

y = acos . ..(ii)

cosines;

S2 = a2 + m2 2 a m cos

2 s s = -2 a m (-sin)

Calculations:

1. Weight (W)

W=m*g

=1000 * 9.81

= 9810 N

W = 9.81 KN

30

2. Length of the actuator from its base position to the connected position on

the link (s)

S2 = a2 + l22 2 a l2cos

s = 2.406 m

FDH = 16592 N

4.3.2 C PROGRAM

#include<stdio.h>

#include<conio.h>

#include<math.h>

void main()

31

float Fdh,W,s,a,l2,m,d,theeta,cottheeta;

clrscr();

scanf("%f",&a);

scanf("%f",&l2);

scanf("%f",&m);

scanf("%f",&d);

theeta=d*(3.14159/180);

s=sqrt((a*a+l2*l2)-(2*a*l2*cos(theeta)));

W=m*9.81;

cottheeta=1/tan(theeta);

Fdh=(2*W*s*cottheeta)/l2;

printf("\n\n");

getch();

32

33

4.3.4 ALTERNATE METHOD

The mechanism considered of the platform and of the linkage. Its free body

Fig an

diagram includes 4(e)input

: Free body

force FDHdiagram of mechanism

exerted by the cylinder, the weight W is

equal and opposite to output force & reactions at A and E that we assumes to

be directed as shown. Since more than three unknown are involved, this

diagram will not be used. The mechanism is dismembered and free body

diagram is drawn for each of its components parts.

34

Taking vertical forces only since

there is no horizontal forces acting on the platform ABC

B+C W = 0

B+C = W

C*l1 W*l3 = 0

C = (W* l3) / l1

C = 9558.46 N ..(ii)

B= W-C

B = 251.539 N..(iii)

35

Fig 4 (g) : Free body diagram of Roller B

FBC = B cot

We know that

FDH = 2* W *(cos/sin)

36

Applying first law of sines of triangles

sin/EG = sin/DG

DG = 2.406 m

FDH = (2*W*DG*cot) / l2

FDH = 16592N

3.4.5 C PROGRAM

#include<stdio.h>

#include<conio.h>

37

#include<math.h>

void main()

float Fdh,W,a,l1,m,d,theeta,cottheeta,l3,C,Fbc,D,B,l2;

clrscr();

scanf("%f",&a);

scanf("%f",&m);

scanf("%f",&l1);

scanf("%f",&d);

scanf("%f",&l3);

scanf("%f",&l2);

theeta=d*(3.14159/180);

cottheeta=1/tan(theeta);

W=(m*9.81);

38

C=(W*l3)/l1;

B=W-C;

Fbc=B*cottheeta;

D=sqrt((a*a+l2*l2)-(2*a*l2*cos(theeta)));

Fdh=(2*W*D*cottheeta)/l2;

printf("\n\n");

%f\nValue of W=%f\nValueofFdh=%f",C,B,Fbc,D,W,Fdh);

getch();

5. ANALYSIS

Computational Fluid dynamics using SolidWorks.

Computational Fluid dynamics using Fluent Gambit.

39

5.1 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS USING SOLIDWORKS

5.1.1 SOFTWARE

The software used for this analysis was SolidWorks 2011. SolidWorks is

a 3D mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) program that runs

on Microsoft Windows and is being developed by DassaultSystmsSolidWorks

Corp. SolidWorksis a Parasolid-based solid modeler, and utilizes a parametric

feature-based approach to create models and assemblies. Parameters refer to

assembly. Parameters can be either numeric parameters, such as line lengths or

circle diameters, or geometric parameters, such as tangent, parallel, concentric,

horizontal or vertical, etc. Numeric parameters can be associated with each

other through the use of relations, which allows them to capture design intent.

Design intent is how the creator of the part wants it to respond to changes and

updates.

Design 1

40

Table 5(a) : Design Parameters of Design 1

DESIGN PARAMETERS

Force applied 10,000 N

Material Ti6 Al V4

diameter of pipes 0.16 (outer diameter)

0.10 (inner diameter)

thickness of base 0.05

CALCULATIONS RESULT

Total weight- 1500 Kg

Force to be applied

Factor of safety- 8.3

F= m X g

= mass of satellite X acceleration due to gravity

= 1000 Kg X 9.81N

= 9810 N 10,000 N

Design 2

The total weight of design 1 was found to be too high and also a factor of

safety of 8.3 was not required. Therefore the structure was redesigned using

different material and analysis was carried out.

41

Fig 5(b): SolidWorks Analysis of Design 2

DESIGN PARAMETERS

Force applied 6000 N

Material Ti6 Al V4

diameter of pipes 0.125 (outer diameter)

0.10 (inner diameter)

thickness of base 0.02

CALCULATIONS

RESULT

Force to be applied

Total weight- 920 Kg

F= m X g

Factor of safety- 3.8

= mass of satellite X acceleration due to gravity

= 1000 Kg X 9.81N

= 9810 N 10,000 N

As shown above two designs were taken up and analyzed. For the analysis the

entire payload was assumed to be 1000 Kg, including the satellite and the

rockets. Design 1 showed better factor of safety than the first but was rejected.

The main reason is the usage of more material. This made the weight of the

design very much higher. 1500 Kg of the first design was reduced to 920 Kg in

the second design. This was possible with the reduction in metal and also the

diameter of the pipes. The factor of safety of the second design was reduced

3.8 but the design was more feasible because a factor of safety of 3.8 was

sufficient for the safety of the design. Design 2 was finally selected as the best

design.

42

5.2 COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS USING SOLIDWORKS

Design 1

DESIGN PARAMETERS

velocity 7000 m/s

Averaged Minimum Maximum

Goal Name Unit Value Value Value

GG Max Mach Number [ ] 2.20969418 2.2085947 2.21053311

43

1 1

GG Max Turbulent 0.0037315

Viscosity 1 [Pa*s] 0.00374265 1 0.00375100

4

GG X - Component of 1x 10 4.3295949

Normal Force 1 [N] 4.33147715 6 4.33453705

4

GG Y - Component of 1x 10

Normal Force 1 [N] -1.1266394 -1.1590324 -1.09931262

4

GG Z - Component of 1x 10

Normal Force 1 [N] -3.198E-05 -0.0021949 0.00174779

Iterations: 13441

Analysis interval: 845

Due to the high drag force obtained from the first design alterations were made

to the first design and analysis was carried out again

Design 2

44

Fig 5(d) :CFD of Design 2 using SolidWorks

DESIGN PARAMETERS

velocity 7000 m/s

Surface area 34.11 mm2

density 1.225 Kg/m3

L = wings span length

M = Mach number

5.2.1 ANALYSIS CALCULATIONS

a = velocity of sound

Wing span (L) = 10 m

v = free stream velocity

b = 2.2 m

q = dynamic pressure

S = l x b = 22 m

a = 316.032 m/s

L = lift force

CD = coefficient of drag

v = 632.064 m/s

D = drag force

45

1

q v 2

= 2

1

= 2 *0.654 * 632.062

L

CL = q s

2.2105

= 1.310522

= 0.076

2

CL b2

CD = eAR AR = s

2

0.076

= 10.22 = 0.00835

q SC D

D= = 0.00835 * 22* 1.3*105

D= 2.388 *104 N

Goal Name Unit Value Value Value

GG Min Mach Number 2 [ ] 0 0 0

GG Min Turbulent 2.96276E- 2.74097E-

Viscosity 1 [Pa*s] 07 07 3.0011E-07

4

GG X - Component of 1x 10 2.30384444 2.04155775

Normal Force 1 [N] 6 2 2.56613114

4

GG Y - Component of 1x 10 -0.69007382 -0.72106272 -0.66956407

46

Normal Force 1 [N]

GG Z - Component of 1x 104

Normal Force 1 [N] -0.05697255 -0.06799603 -0.04748165

Iterations: 9386

Analysis interval: 865

As shown above two designs were taken up and analyzed. For the analysis the

basic parameters were assumed. The RLV was assumed to be travelling at a

speed of 7000 m/s with a Mach number of 2. The main aim was to determine

the coefficient of lift and coefficient of drag and also the drag force. Once the

results were obtained by software they were also manually calculated and

compared. First the analysis for design 1 was carried out. After the analysis

was completed the forces along the axis was obtained. The value along the X

axis direction was obtained as 4.33x 104, this was taken up as the drag force.

Using formulas and equations the coefficient of lift and drag and the drag force

were calculated manually. The drag force obtained through the software and

manually were found to match with slight variations. Also the design 2 was

found to be a better design due to the reduced drag.

47

5.3COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS USING FLUENT GAMBIT

SOFTWARE

5.3.1 FLUENT

dynamics (CFD). This includes flows in two-and three-dimensional

geometries, and under a variety of conditions: compressible and

incompressible; inviscid, laminar and turbulent; Newtonian and non-

Newtonian. The analysis can be steady-state or transient.The FLUENT

package consists of several programs: "FLUENT", the solver; "prePDF", a

preprocessor for modeling combustion; "GAMBIT", a preprocessor for

modeling geometries and generating meshes; "TGrid", creating volume

meshes from boundary meshes; several filters to import meshes from other

CAD packages.

5.3.2 GAMBIT

and mesh models for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and other scientific

applications. The GAMBIT GUI makes the basic steps of building, meshing,

and assigning zone types to a model simple and intuitive, yet it is versatile

enough to accommodate a wide range of modeling applications. Before any

numerical solution can be computed, the physical domain must be filled with a

computational grid. The two major categories of grid construction are

structured grids and unstructured grids. Structured grids are easier to handle

computationally because their connectivity information is stored block to

48

block. Unstructured grids are more difficult to handle computationally because

their connectivity is stored for each node. Unstructured grids, however, tend to

be easier to construct and do not waste memory in far field cell resolution.

Unstructured solvers often result in simpler computer codes too, which means

they are easier to maintain and modify.

5.3.3DESIGN PROCESS

1. The solid body of the Launch vehicle was created using SolidWorks

software using the basic options available. The completed part was

saved and converted as an IGS file.

2. This file was then imported to gambit and then the design was modified

to work in gambit.

3. The body was then placed in an indefinite cube. This cube was taken as

the boundary and the body along with the boundary surface was split.

4. Then meshing process was carried out. This is a process in which the

body is split into many number of small portions.

5. After the meshing was completed the boundary conditions were applied.

a. Inlet pressure

b. Outlet pressure

c. Wall symmetry

6. This model was then imported to Fluent for the flow analysis.

7. Then the models, material properties and boundaries were specified and

iteration was started.

8. The number of iterations was given as 1000 and the flow simulation was

obtained.

49

5.3.4MESHING OF SOLID MODEL OF RLV

5.3.5SIMULATION CONTOURS FOR DIFFERENT PARAMETERS

RESULT

50 density ()=1.225kg/m3

velocity (v)=700m/s

Drift coefficient

Cd = 2 X Pd/(v2)

= 2 X (4.62 X 104) /(1.225 X 7002)

Cd = 0.1539

density ()=1.225kg/m3

Lift coefficient velocity (v)=700m/s

Cl =0.05

Coefficient of Drag 0.00835 0.1539

Coefficient of Lift 0.076 0.05

Computational fluid dynamics for both design were carried out using both

softwares. The results obtained through both softwares were compared. There

was slight variation in the values of coefficient of drag but the values of

coefficient of lift were found to match almost perfectly. The coefficient of lift

and drag for an RLV is in the range of 0.005 0.01 and 0.001 0.5

respectively, and the values were also found to be within the specified range.

Design 2 was found to be a better design considering the lesser amount of drag

force generated.

51

6. OPTIMIZATION

Optimization is the act of obtaining the best result under given circumstances.

In design,construction, and maintenance of any engineering system, engineers

have to take manytechnological and managerial decisions at several stages.

The ultimate goal of all suchdecisions is either to minimize the effort required

or to maximize the desired benefit.Since the effort required or the benefit

desired in any practical situation can be expressedas a function of certain

decision variables, optimization can be defined as the processof finding the

conditions that give the maximum or minimum value of a function.Modern

Methods of Optimization. The modern optimization methods, also some-times

called nontraditional optimization methods, have emerged as powerful and

popular methods for solving complex engineering optimization problems in

recent years. These methods include genetic algorithms, simulated annealing,

particle swarm optimization, ant colony optimization, neural network-based

optimization, and fuzzy optimization. The genetic algorithms are computerized

search and optimization algorithmsbased on the mechanics of natural genetics

and natural selection.

52

6.1 STATEMENT OF AN OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM

follows.Some optimization problems do not involve any constraints and

can be stated as,

gj (X) 0, j = 1, 2, . . . ,m

lj (X) = 0, j = 1, 2, . . . , p

the objective function , and gj (X) and lj (X) are known as inequality and

equality constraints,respectively. The number of variables n and the number of

constraints m and/or pneed not be related in any way.

Some optimization problems do not involve any constraints andcan be stated

as

53

Figure 1.4 shows a hypothetical two-dimensional design space where the

infeasibleregion is indicated by hatched lines. A design point that lies on one or

more than oneconstraint surface is called a bound point, and the associated

constraint is called anactive constraint. Design points that do not lie on any

constraint surface are known asfree points. Depending on whether a particular

design point belongs to the acceptableor unacceptable region, it can be

identified as one of the following four types:

1. Free and acceptable point

2. Free and unacceptable point

3. Bound and acceptable point

4. Bound and unacceptable point

All four types of points are shown in the following figure.

designs and forselecting the best one. The criterion with respect to which the

54

design is optimized,when expressed as a function of the design variables, is

known as the criterion or meritor objective function . The choice of objective

function is governed by the nature ofproblem. The objective function for

minimization is generally taken as weight in aircraftand aerospace structural

design problems. In civil engineering structural designs, theobjective is usually

taken as the minimization of cost. The maximization of mechanicalefficiency

is the obvious choice of an objective in mechanical engineering systemsdesign.

Thus the choice of the objective function appears to be straightforward in

mostdesign problems.

P = 6000kgf for minimum cost. The column is made up of a material that has a

yield stress (y) of 928 Kgf/cm2, modulus of elasticity (E) of 1.068 x 10 6

Kgf / cm2 and density () of 0.004428 Kgf / cm3. The length of column is 200

cm. The stress induced in the column should be less than the buckling stress as

well as the yield stress. The mean diameter of the column is restricted to lie

between 2 to 14 cm, and column with thicknesses outside the range 0.2 to 0.8

cm are not available in the market. The cost of the column includes material

and construction costs and can be taken as 5W+2d, where W is the weight in

kilograms force and d is the mean diameter of the column in centimeters.

The design variables are the mean diameter (d) and tube thickness (t) :

X = x1 = d

( )()

x2 t ..(i)

55

f ( x )=5 W +2 d

5 ldt +2 d

f (x)

= 13.9 x1x2 +2d .(ii)

P 6000

Induced stress (i) = dt = x 1 x 2 .(iii)

2

Eulerbuckingload EI 1

= 2

Buckling stress (b) = crosssectionalarea l dt (iv)

= 64 (d04 di4 )

2 2

= 64 (d0 + di ) (d0+ di) (d0 di)

= 64 [(d+t)2 +(d-t)2 ]. [ (d+t)+(d-t) ]. [(d+t)

- (d-t)]

= 8 dt (d2 +t2 )

= 8 x1 x2( x12+ x22) .(v)

56

6000

928 0

g1(X) = x1 x2 .(vi)

g2(X) = 0 (vii)

x1 x2 8200 2

2 d 14

0.2 t 0.8

g3 ( x )=x 1 +2.0 0 (viii)

Since there are only two design variables the problem can be solved

graphically. First the constraint surfaces are to be plotted in a two dimensional

design space where the two axes represent the two design variables x1 and x2.

6000

g1(X) = x 1 x 2 928 0

x1x2 2.058

that is, Thus the curve x1x2 = 0.103 represents the constraint surface g 1(X) = 0.

This curve can be plotted by finding several points on the curve. The points on

57

the curve can be formed by giving a series of values to x1 and finding the

corresponding values of x2 that satisfy the relation x1x2 = 2.058:

X2 1.029 0.515 0.343 0.26 0.206 0.172 0.147

Similarly, the second constraint g2(X) 0 can be expressed as x1x2 (x12 + x22)

57.98 and lying on the constraint surface g2(X) =0 can be obtained as follows

X2 2.64 0.864 0.266 0.113 0.0576 0.0336 0.0.0212

Next, the contours of the objective functions are to be plotted before finding

the optimum point. For this, we plot the curves given by

can be plotted with the help of the following points:

X1 14.74 10.46 8.10 6.61 5.59 4.84 4.26 3.81

X1 11.7 8.36 6.48 5.29 4.46 3.86 3.41 3.04

X1 14.1 10 7.75 6.32 5.34 4.62 4.08 3.64

58

X2 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

X1 11.8 8.38 6.5 5.3 4.48 3.90 3.42 3.05

X1 5.89 4.18 3.24 2.71 2.23 1.93 1.70 1.52

These contours are shown in figure and it can be seen that the objective

function cannot be reduced below a value of 40.07 (corresponding to point B)

without violating some of the constraints. Thus the optimum solution is given

by point B with d* = x1* = 5.3 cm and t* = x2*= 0.4 cm with fmin = 40.07.

59

Fig 6(b): Graphical Optimization of the design

60

7. CONCLUSION

Launch vehicles are an integral part of space research. A lot of money and

effort is being spent to make their use as much as reusable as possible. The

main aim of our design has been to make the production of these RLVs more

cost efficient. We hope to achieve this either by use of different material or in

the simplicity of the design. A complete literature survey on all topics related

to this particular field was completed before the design phase was started.

Many mechanisms were considered and eliminated on several parameters such

as ease of construction, simplicity, cost etc. and finally the current design was

finalized. To support of design all possible analysis have been carried out to

make the design foolproof and reliable. The high factor of safety shows the

reliability of the model. Aerodynamics has also been considered as the CFD

analysis have been carried out and drag has been minimized considerably by

modifying the design. Special attention has also been given to actuator and

material selection. These selections have supported by relevant calculations to

determine the force required to lift the entire mechanism. The design has also

been optimized as possible and we hope it will be advantages economically

and mechanically.

61

REFERENCE

[1]

1. A comparative analysis of single stage to orbit rocket and air-

breathing vehicles, THESIS Benjamin Srloff, BS; Ensign, USN (2006)

2. [2]

Progress in the Design of a Reusable Launch Vehicle Stage Martin

Sippel, Josef Klevanski, Holger Burckhardt Space Launcher Systems

Analysis (SART), DLR, Cologne, Germany

3. [3]

Space Vehicle Design, Second Edition, Michael D. Griffin, Oak

Hill, Virginia, James R. French, Las Cruces, New Mexico EDUCATION

4. [4]

Rocket and spacecraft propulsion (principles, practices and new

developments) Martin J.L Turner.

5. [5]

Innovative Method for Return to the Launch Site of Reusable

Winged Stages Martin Sippel, Josef Klevanski, Jens Kauffmann

Space Launcher Systems Analysis (SART), DLR, Cologne, Germany

6. [6] A study of arts: a dual-fuel reusable launch vehicle with launch

assist,Jon Wallace ,John Olds ,A.C. Charania, Space Works

Engineering, Inc. (SEI)

7. [7]

Collaborative Design Environment for Space Launch Vehicle Design

and Optimization, Mark D. Stevenson, Alicia R. Hartong, Jeffrey V.

Zweber, Amarshi A. Bhungalia, Ramana V. Grandhi

8. [8] Space Mission Analysis and Design, Wiley J. Larsson and James R.

Wertz, 1995

9. [9] Engineering Optimization, SingresuRao

10. [10]

Vector mechanics for engineers, Ferdinand Beer and Russell

Johnston

11. Reusable military launch systems (RMLS), Gregory E. Moster

12. NASA, An Operational Assessment of Concepts and

Technologies for Highly Reusable Space Transportation Executive

Summary NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, November, 1998.

13. Irving H. Shames Engineering mechanics, statics and dynamics.

14. John D. Anderson Jr Introduction to Flight.

15. Hanno Essen Space mechanics, 1998 October (rev Dec 98).

62

16. Materials Development for Future Reusable Launch Vehicles

Dr. M R Suresh Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, ISRO,

Thiruvananthapuram,India

17. Structures and materials technologies for extreme

environmentsApplied to reusable launch vehicles, Stephen J. Scotti,

Christopher Clay, Marc Rezin.

16. www.indiandefence.com

17. www.nasa.gov

18. www.isro.org

19. www.spaceandtech.com

20. www.braeunig.us

21. www.howstuffworks.com

22. www.drdo.org

63

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