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crane model

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single-pendulum-type overhead cranes, their equations of motion are rst presented

by means of its EulerLagrange equations. Subsequently, the equations of motion

are extended to double-pendulum-type overhead cranes. The two models are pre-

sented as references for examples throughout this book. Since the two models are

established under some ideal assumptions, some uncertainties associated with real

applications are discussed next. In addition, the chapter proceeds with the analysis

of oscillations for pendulum-type motions on the basis of linearized models of the

two types of overhead cranes. The analysis distills the essential properties of each.

Double-pendulum dynamics Uncertainty

2.1.1 Modeling

Figure 2.1 shows the coordinate system of an overhead crane system with its

payload. Apparently, the crane system consists of two subsystems, i.e., trolley and

payload [1]. The former is driven by a force. The latter is suspended from the trolley

by a rope.

Other symbols in Fig. 2.1 are described as the trolley mass M, the payload mass

m, the rope length L, the swing angle of the payload with respect to the vertical line

, the trolley position with respect to the origin x, and the driven force applied to the

trolley f.

Consider that the crane in Fig. 2.1 is static and the payload is in its downward

position. If the trolley moves toward the right direction by a positive driven force,

then the payload will rotate clockwise. Apparently, the payload angle is inherently

D. Qian and J. Yi, Hierarchical Sliding Mode Control

for Under-actuated Cranes, DOI 10.1007/978-3-662-48417-3_2

52 2 Crane Mathematic Model

single-pendulum-type

overhead crane system

assumptions [2] are given.

The payload is regarded as a material particle.

The rope is considered as an inflexible rod.

Compared with the payload mass, the rope mass is ignored.

The trolley moves in the x-direction.

The payload moves on the xy surface.

No friction exists in the system.

Using Lagrangian method, the Lagrangian equation with respective to the

generalized coordinate qi [3] can be obtained as

d @La @La

Ti ; 2:1

dt @ q_ i @qi

system potential energy.), qi is the generalized coordination (here, q1 and q2 indi-

cate x and , respectively), and Ti is the external force.

According to the assumption that the payload is regarded as a material particle,

the system kinetic energy in Fig. 2.1 can be depicted as

1 1

K M x_ 2 mv2 2:2

2 2

where vx x_ Lh_ cos h and vy Lh_ sin h. Note that the payload is assumed to be

a particle such that its moment of inertia is not considered in (2.2). When it is failed

2.1 Modeling of Single-Pendulum-Type Cranes 53

to assume that the payload is a particle, its moment of inertia has to be taken into

considerations.

From Fig. 2.1, the potential energy of the trolley subsystem is kept unchanged.

Owing to this fact, the system potential energy in Fig. 2.1 is only exhibited by the

potential energy of the payload subsystem, dened as

Here, g is the gravitational acceleration. From (2.2) and (2.4), La has the form

1 1

La K P M x_ 2 mv2 mgL1 cos h 2:5

2 2

@La

0 2:6

@x

@La

M x_ m_x Lh_ cos h 2:7

@ x_

::

d @La ::

M x m x Lh cos h Lh_ 2 sin h 2:8

dt @ x_

d @La @La ::

m M x mL h cos h h_ 2 sin h f 2:9

dt @ x_ @x

@La

m_x Lh_ cos hLh_ sin h

@h

Lh_ sin hLh_ cos h mgL sin h 2:10

@La

m_x Lh_ cos hL cos h Lh_ sin hLh_ sin h

@ h_ 2:11

mL_x cos h mL2 h_

54 2 Crane Mathematic Model

d @La ::

mL x cos h mL_xh_ sin h mL2 h 2:12

dt @ h_

d @La @La ::

mL x cos h mL2 h mgL sin h 0 2:13

_

dt @ h @h

From (2.9) and (2.13), the dynamic model [4] of this overhead crane system with

respect to x and can be obtained by means of the Lagrangian method.

::

m M x mLh cos h h_ 2 sin h f 2:14

::

x cos h Lh g sin h 0 2:15

Further, the above dynamic model composed of (2.14) and (2.15) can be

transformed to the following state space model [5], formulated as

x_ 1 x2

x_ 2 f1 x b1 xu

2:16

x_ 3 x4

x_ 4 f2 x b2 xu

angular velocity of the load; u is the control input; and fi and bi (i = 1, 2) are

described as

MLx24 sin x3 mg sin x3 cos x3

f1 x

M m sin2 x3

1

b1 x

M m sin2 x3

f2 x

M m sin2 x3 L

cos x3

b2 x

M m sin2 x3 L

overhead crane system. In (2.16), four state variables can depict this dynamic

system. As far as state-variable-based control methods are concerned, the four states

can be employed and a diversity of control approached can be achieved.

2.1 Modeling of Single-Pendulum-Type Cranes 55

Note that the model (2.16) is ideal and it contains no uncertainties. Due to imperfect

modeling and effects of environment, it is impossible to avoid uncertainties and external

disturbance in real dynamical systems. In reality, overhead crane systems often are

operated under uncertainty conditions such as parameter variations, unmodeled

dynamics, skidding and slipping, etc. Considering the possible effects of these uncer-

tainties, the dynamic model of the overhead crane in Fig. 2.1 can have the form

x_ 1 x2

x_ 2 f10 x b10 xu

2:17

x_ 3 x4

x_ 4 f20 x b20 xu

and bi(x) are the nominal parts of fi0 x and bi0 x, respectively. Both fi(x) and bi(x) are

formulated in (2.16). Without loss of generality, the terms depicting modeling errors

and parameter variations, Dfi0 x and Dbi0 x are assumed to be differentiable with

respect to time t.

tainties [6]. The uncertainties are matched if and only if the uncertainties enter a

dynamical system from the control tunnel. In (2.17), the so-called matched

uncertainties mean

Dfi0 x and Dbi0 x2spanfbi xg 2:18

Dfi0 x bi xD~fi x

Dbi0 x bi xD~bi x

x_ 2 f1 x b1 x u D~b1 xu D~f1 x

2:19

x_ 4 f2 x b2 x u D~b2 xu D~f2 x

Apparently, all the uncertainties in (2.19) enter the dynamic model (2.17) by the

control tunnel, indicating that they are matched. Such an entering tunnel makes this

kind of uncertainties resistible by suitable control methods.

In the case that there are unmatched uncertainties, it is challenging to suppress

them because it is hard to formulate these kinds of uncertainties. A common

56 2 Crane Mathematic Model

uncertainties. This method will inevitably result in a threshold on the size of the

unmatched uncertainties. The unmatched uncertainties are then required to be

smaller than the threshold value so that a stability result holds locally with respect

to the size of the uncertainties. Since unmatched uncertainties are common in

control practice, it is important to suppress them to guarantee the system stability in

the presence of signicant unmatched uncertainties.

Consequently, the following dynamic model [7] with unmatched uncertainties

can be directly formulated by (2.20) without further simplication.

x_ 1 x2

x_ 2 f1 x b1 xu n1 x; u

2:20

x_ 3 x4

x_ 4 f2 x b2 xu n2 x; u

The nonlinear single-pendulum-type overhead crane model has been discussed and

it is composed of (2.14) and (2.15). Because = 0 is the sole stable equilibrium of

the overhead crane system, both of the equations can be linearized around the point.

The linearized equations can be written as

:: ::

m M x mL h f 2:21

:: ::

x L h gh 0 2:22

::

According to Newtons second law, f = (m + M) x can be obtained. Substituting

::

x f =m M into (2.21) yields

f ::

L h gh 0 2:23

Mm

transform can be employed to solve Eq. (2.23). Finally, the angular frequency

describing the oscillation of the linearized Eq. (2.23) can be formulated as

r

m g

xn 1 2:24

M L

2.1 Modeling of Single-Pendulum-Type Cranes 57

system frequency

Equation (2.24) reveals the system frequency depending on the rope length and the

mass ratio. It is of interest to investigate how the frequency changes as a function of

the system parameters. Such information can be used for physical insights of the

overhead crane system. Figure 2.2 demonstrates the function revealed in (2.24).

The MATLAB programs of the example are given in Appendix A.

From Fig. 2.2, the frequency changes very little with respect to the mass ratio

when the rope length is more than 4 m. On the other hand, the frequency value has a

strong dependence on the mass ratio when the rope length is short.

2.1.4.1 Modeling

The crane is moved by a driven force F, applied to the trolley. This system consists

of three subsystems, i.e., trolley, hook, and payload. That is, there exist three

variables to describe the crane system. Each subsystem possesses one variable,

described by trolley position with respect to the origin, x (m), hook angle with

respect to the vertical line 1 (rad), and payload angle with respect to the vertical

line 2 (rad).

Other symbols in Fig. 2.3 are explained as trolley mass m0 (kg), hook mass m1

(kg), payload mass m2 (kg), cable length between trolley and hook l1 (m), and cable

length between hook and payload l2 (m).

Consider the following ideal assumptions like no friction, massless cables,

mass-point hook, and mass-point payload. To obtain the dynamic model of this

crane system, the Lagrangian method is also adopted. The following Lagrangian

equation with respect to the generalized coordinate qi can be obtained as

58 2 Crane Mathematic Model

double-pendulum-type

overhead crane system

d @Lad @Lad

Ti 2:25

dt @ q_ i @qi

denotes the system potential energy.), qi is the generalized coordination (here, q1,

q2, and q3 indicates x, 1, and 2, respectively), and Ti is the external force.

According to the aforementioned assumptions that the payload and hook are

regarded as mass-points, the system kinetic energy in Fig. 2.3 can be written as

1 1 1

Kd m0 x_ 2 m1 v21 m2 v22 2:26

2 2 2

here, the vectors v1 and v2 denote the hook and payload velocities, respectively.

They are dened as

2:27

v22 v2x2 v2y2 ;

and vy2 l1 h_ 1 sin h1 l2 h_ 2 sin h2 .

From Fig. 2.3, the potential energy of the trolley subsystem is kept unchanged.

Owing to this fact, the system potential energy in Fig. 2.3 is only exhibited by the

potential energies of the hook and payload subsystems, dened as

2.1 Modeling of Single-Pendulum-Type Cranes 59

Lad Kd Pd

1 1 1

m0 x_ 2 m1 v21 m2 v22 2:29

2 2 2

m1 gl1 1 cos h1 m2 gl1 1 cos h1 l2 1 cos h2

@Lad

0 2:30

@x

@Lad

m0 m1 m2 _x m1 m2 l1 h_ 1 cos h1 m2 l2 h_ 2 cos h2 2:31

@ x_

d @Lad @Lad

m0 m1 m2 x m1 m2 l1 h1 cos h1

dt @ x_ @x

2:32

m1 m2 l1 h_ 2 sin h1 m2 l2 h2 cos h2

1

m2 l2 h_ 22 sin h2

d @Lad @Lad

m0 m1 m2 x m1 m2 l1 h1 cos h1

dt @ x_ @x

m1 m2 l1 h_ 2 sin h1 m2 l2 h2 cos h2

1 2:33

m2 l2 h_ 22 sin h2

=F

@Lad

m1 m2 l1 x_ h_ 1 sin h1

@h1 2:34

m2 l1 l2 h_ 1 h_ 2 sinh1 h2 m1 m2 gl1 sin h1

@Lad

m1 m2 l1 x_ cos h1 l21 h_ 1 m2 l1 l2 h_ 2 cosh1 h2 2:35

_

@ h1

60 2 Crane Mathematic Model

::

d @Lad

m1 m2 l1 x cos h1 l1 x_ h_ 1 cos h1 l21 h1

dt @ h_ 1

2:36

m2 l1 l2 h2 cosh1 h2 m2 l1 l2 h_ 1 h_ 2 sinh1 h2

m2 l1 l2 h_ 2 sinh1 h2

2

d @Lad @Lad

m1 m2 l1x cos h1 m1 m2 l21 h1

dt @ h_ 1 @h1

m2 l1 l2 h2 cosh1 h2 m2 l1 l2 h_ 2 sinh1 h2

2 2:37

m1 m2 gl1 sin h1

=0

@Lad

m2 l1 x_ h_ 2 sin h2 m2 l1 l2 h_ 1 h_ 2 sinh1 h2 m2 gl2 sin h2 2:38

@h2

@Lad

m2 l1 x_ cos h1 m2 l22 h_ 2 m2 l1 l2 h_ 1 cosh1 h2 2:39

@ h_ 2

d @L

m2 l2x cos h2 m2 l2 x_ h_ 2 cos h2 m2 l22 h2 m2 l1 l2 h1 cosh1 h2

dt @ h_ 2

m2 l1 l2 h_ 21 sinh1 h2 m2 l1 l2 h_ 1 h_ 2 sinh1 h2

2:40

d @Lad @Lad

m2 l2x cos h2 m2 l22 h2 m2 l1 l2 h1 cosh1 h2

dt @ h_ 2 @h2

2:41

m2 l1 l2 h_ 21 sinh1 h2 m2 gl2 sin h2

=0

2.1 Modeling of Single-Pendulum-Type Cranes 61

From (2.33), (2.37), and (2.41), the dynamic model of the double-pendulum-type

overhead crane system with respect to x, 1, and 2 [8] can be obtained by means of

the Lagrangian method.

m0 m1 m2 x m1 m2 l1 h1 cos h1 m2 l2 h2 cos h2

2:42

m1 m2 l1 h_ 21 sin h1 m2 l2 h_ 22 sin h2 F

m2 l1 l2 h_ 2 sinh1 h2 m1 m2 gl1 sin h1 0

2

2:44

m2 l1 l2 h_ 2 sinh1 h2 m2 gl2 sin h2 = 0

1

Rearrange (2.42), (2.43), and (2.44) in the form of a matrix. The three equations

can be rewritten as

::

Mq q Cq; q_ q_ Gq s 2:45

F; 0; 0T is a vector of the generalized force, g is the gravitational acceleration, M

_ q_ is a vector of Coriolis and centripetal torques,

(q) is a 3 3 inertia matrix, Cq; q

and G(q) is a vector of the gravitational term. Mq; Cq; q _ and G(q) are dened

as

2 3

m0 m1 m2 m1 m2 l1 cos h1 m2 l2 cos h2

Mq 4 m1 m2 l1 cos h1 m1 m2 l21 m2 l1 l2 cosh1 h2 5

m2 l2 cos h2 m2 l1 l2 cosh1 h2 m2 l22

2 3

0 m1 m2 l1 h_ 1 sin h1 m2 l2 h_ 2 sin h2

Cq; q_ 4 0 0 m2 l1 l2 h_ 2 sinh1 h2 5

0 m2 l1 l2 h_ 1 sinh1 h2 0

Further, (2.45) can be transformed to its state space expression. The expression

[9, 10] has the form

62 2 Crane Mathematic Model

x_ 1 x2

x_ 2 f1 x b1 xu

x_ 3 x4

2:46

x_ 4 f2 x b2 xu

x_ 5 x6

x_ 6 f3 x b3 xu

In (2.46), the vector x is dened by [x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, x6]T; x1 = x; x3 = 1; x5 = 2;

x2 is the trolley velocity; x4 is the angular velocity of the hook; x6 is the angular

velocity of the payload; u = F is the control input; and fi(x) and bi(x) (i = 1, 2, 3) are

nonlinear functions of the vector x, formulated by fi (x) = i/ and bi(x) = i/.

Here i, i, and are determined by

D = m1 m2 m2 l21 l22 m0 m1 m2 m1 m2 cos2 x3

m22 l21 l22 m1 m2 cos2 x5 m0 m1 m2 cos2 x3 x5

2m1 m2 cosx3 cosx5 cosx3 x5

C1 m1 m2 m2 l21 l22 m22 l21 l22 cos2 x3 x5 m1 m2 l1 x24 sinx3

m2 l2 x26 sinx5 m1 m2 m2 l1 l22 cosx3

m22 l1 l22 cosx5 cosx3 x5 m2 l1 l2 x26 sinx3 x5

m1 m2 gl1 sinx3 m1 m2 m2 l21 l2 cosx5

m2 l21 l2 cosx3 cosx3 x5 m2 l1 l2 x24 sinx3 x5 m2 gl2 sinx5

C2 m22 l1 l22 cosx5 cosx3 x5 m1 m2 m2 l1 l22 cosx3 m1 m2 l1 x24 sinx3

m2 l2 x26 sinx5 m22 l22 cos2 x5 m0 m1 m2 m2 l22 m2 l1 l2 x26 sinx3 x5

m1 m2 gl1 sinx3 m0 m1 m2 m2 l1 l2 cosx3 x5

m1 m2 m2 l1 l2 cosx3 cosx5 m2 l1 l2 x24 sinx3 x5 m2 gl2 sinx5

m2 l2 x26 sinx5 m0 m1 m2 m2 l1 l2 cosx3 x5

m1 m2 m2 l1 l2 cosx3 cosx5 m2 l1 l2 x26 sinx3 x5 m1 m2 gl1 sinx3

h i

m1 m2 2 l21 cos2 x3 m0 m1 m2 m1 m2 l21

m2 l1 l2 x24 sinx3 x5 m2 gl2 sinx5

2.1 Modeling of Single-Pendulum-Type Cranes 63

Note that the model (2.45) has two important assumptions that are mass-point

hook and payload. Usually, the mass-point assumption can be satised for the hook

subsystem. However, the mass-point assumption for the payload subsystem can be

satised under some operating conditions. Concerning these extreme operating

conditions, the moment of inertia of the payload subsystem cannot be ignored and it

has to be taken into consideration.

double-pendulum-type overhead cranes. Considering the system uncertainties, the

uncertain equations can be derived from (2.46). The analysis is very similar to the

process in Sect. 2.1.2. Briefly, the uncertain model of the double-pendulum-type

overhead crane in Fig. 2.1 can be described as

x_ 1 x2

x_ 2 f1 x b1 xu n1 x; u

x_ 3 x4

2:47

x_ 4 f2 x b2 xu n2 x; u

x_ 5 x6

x_ 6 f3 x b3 xu n3 x; u

bi xDni x; u where i = 1, 2, 3. Otherwise, the three uncertain terms are unmatched

because they cannot enter the crane model by the control channel. Note that the

three uncertain terms have to be treated as a whole. The uncertainties are still

unmatched, if only a part of the three terms can enter the crane model by the control

channel.

Because 1 = 2 = 0 is the sole stable equilibrium of the double-pendulum-type

crane system, (2.13) can be linearized around 1 = 0 and 2 = 0. The linearized

crane model can be written as

64 2 Crane Mathematic Model

q:: Kq 0

M 2:48

In the linearized model (2.48), the matrixes M

2 3

m0 m1 m2 m1 m2 l1 m2 l2

4 m1 m2 l1

M m1 m2 l21 m2 l1 l2 5

m2 l2 m2 l1 l2 m2 l22

2 3

0 0 0

K 4 0 m1 m2 gl1 0 5

0 0 m2 gl2

can be obtained by the nonzero eigenvalues of the matrixM K. Their expressions

[11] are determined as

r

g p

x1 a b 2:49

2

r

g p

x2 a b 2:50

2

m1 m2 1 1

a

m1 l1 l2

2 2

m1 m2 1 1 m1 m2 1

b 4

m1 l1 l2 m1 l1 l2

From (2.49) and (2.50), the two natural frequencies not only depend on the

length of the cables but also depend on the masses of payload and hook. It is

interesting to investigate how the frequencies change as a function of the system

physical parameters.

To simplify this problem, R = m2/m1 is dened as the payload-to-hook mass

ratio, the cable length between hook and payload l2 is considered as a variable when

the total length l determined by l1 plus l2 is held constant at 6 m. Figure 2.4

illustrates the two oscillation frequencies as a function of R and l2.

In Fig. 2.4, 1 changes very little for a constant l1 + l2. It corresponds closely to

the frequency of a single pendulum with the length of l1 + l2. On the other hand, the

value of 1 is maximized for a constant l1 + l2 when the two cable lengths are equal

to l1 l

2 ; but it can be dramatically changed by the hoisting operation [12].

2

2.1 Modeling of Single-Pendulum-Type Cranes 65

l2; the value of 2 varies substantially more than the value of 1, the contribution of

2 to problematic swing amplitude is particularly large for a constant l1 + l2 when

the two cable lengths are approximately equal.

Concerning the mass ratio, R has a relatively small effect on 1, but the

high-frequency 2 becomes more important to the double-pendulum motions for

low payload-to-hook mass ratios. In brief, low payload-to-hook mass ratios and

equal cable lengths are more representative to depict the double-pendulum motions

of the crane for the point-to-point transport control with a constant l1 + l2.

Appendices

l=0.1:0.1:10; % Rope length from 0.1 to 10, every each 0.1

[K,L]=meshgrid(k,l); % K and L arrays for 3-D plots.

w=sqrt((1+K)*9.8./L); % Array of angular frequency

surf(K,L,w) % 3-D colored surface.

66 2 Crane Mathematic Model

l2=0.1:0.1:6; %cable length between hook and payload

l1=6-l2; %l1 plus l2 is held constant at 6m

g=9.8; % gravitational acceleration

[R,L2]=meshgrid(r,l2); % R and L2 arrays for 3-D plots

p=sqrt((1+R).^2.*(1./(6-L2)+1./L2).^2-4.*((1+R)./(L2.*(6-L2))));

w1=sqrt(g/2).*sqrt((1+R).*(1./(6-L2)+1./L2)-p); % Array of w1

w2=sqrt(g/2).*sqrt((1+R).*(1./(6-L2)+1./L2)+p); % Array of w2

surf(R,L2,w1) %3-D colored surface

hold; % Another surface

surf(R,L2,w2) %3-D colored surface

References

1. Abdel-Rahman EM, Nayfeh AH, Masoud ZN (2003) Dynamics and control of cranes: a

review. J Vib Control 9(7):863908

2. Lee HH (1998) Modeling and control of a three-dimensional overhead crane. J Dyn Syst Meas

Control Trans ASME 120(4):471476

3. Spong MW, Hutchinson S, Vidyasagar M (2006) Robot modeling and control. Wiley, New

York

4. Oguamanam D, Hansen JS, Heppler G (2001) Dynamics of a three-dimensional overhead

crane system. J Sound Vib 242(3):411426

5. Liu D, Yi J, Zhao D, Wang W (2005) Adaptive sliding mode fuzzy control for a

two-dimensional overhead crane. Mechatronics 15(5):505522

6. Cheng C, Chen CY (1996) Controller design for an overhead crane system with uncretainty.

Control Eng Pract 4(5):645653

7. Park MS, Chwa D, Hong SK (2008) Antisway tracking control of overhead cranes with

system uncertainty and actuator nonlinearity using an adaptive fuzzy sliding-mode control.

IEEE Trans Ind Electron 55(11):39723984

8. Tuan LA, Lee SG (2013) Sliding mode controls of double-pendulum crane systems. J Mech

Sci Technol 27(6):18631873

9. Liu D, Guo W, Yi J (2008) Dynamics and GA-based stable control for a class of underactuated

mechanical systems. Int J Control Autom Syst 6(1):3543

10. OConnor W, Habibi H (2013) Gantry crane control of a double-pendulum, distributed-mass

load using mechanical wave concepts. Mech Sci 4:251261

11. Vaughan J, Kim D, Singhose W (2010) Control of tower cranes with double-pendulum

payload dynamics. IEEE Trans Control Syst Technol 18(6):13451358

12. Singhose W, Kim D, Kenison M (2008) Input shaping control of double-pendulum bridge

crane oscillations. J Dyn Syst Meas Control Trans ASME 130(3): doi:10.1115/1.2907363

http://www.springer.com/978-3-662-48415-9

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