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COGENERATION

WITH REFERENCE TO

SUGAR INDUSTRY

SAMEER SINHA
VICE PRESIDENT – CORPORATE PLANNING TRIVENI ENGINEERING & INDUSTRIES LIMITED
PRESENTED AT

U. S. – INDIA
ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY COOPERATION CONFERENCE

2nd May 2006

COGENERATION

Simultaneous production of two forms of energy
– Heat – Electricity / Mechanical Energy

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POWER SCENARIO IN INDIA
Deficit of power
– Shortage of 8.3% and Peaking shortage of 12.5%

Power for all by 2012 – NEP – 1,00,000 MW additional capacity (approx.) required to meet this
objective

Power requirement in 2031-32: 6,00,000 – 8,00,000 MW 2031(expected)

Huge Requirement of Power Govt. encouraging captive power plants to export surplus power to the grid

COGEN POTENTIAL IN INDIA
Primarily applicable for industries using large quantity of process process steam
Industry Alumina Caustic Soda Cement Cotton Textiles Iron and Steel Man-made fibers (Including Nylon and PFY) ManPaper Refineries Sugar Sulphuric acid Total
Source: TERI

Potential (MW) 59 394 78 506 362 144 594 232 5131 74 7454

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SUGAR COGEN HISTORY
Traditionally all sugar factories doing cogen
– For 100% captive power and steam usage

Cogen now means: Surplus power export to the grid
- Sugar industry has highest potential of 6200 MW exportable power - Actual exportable capacity functional in sugar industry till 2005: 850 MW

Source: ISMA latest surveys

OLD TO NEW COGEN SYSTEM
A TRANSFORMATION Traditionally low temperature and pressure steam & power systems
– Inefficient generation of energy

Sugar factories move towards enhanced capacity and technological upgradation
– Using high temperature and pressure steam & power system
Same quantity of bagasse ⇒ Enhanced power generation ⇒ Export surplus power
Same qty. of bagasse Power Generation Captive Use Export Surplus Power

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Then

OLD TO NEW COGEN SYSTEM A TRANSFORMATION

– Earlier sugar industry used only upto 46 ata pressure steam and power generation systems

Now
– Few 87 ata/515ºC cogen systems commissioned ata/515º and working very efficiently in the last 4 years – 105 ata/535ºC cogen systems being ata/535º contemplated in near future
India is the Global Leader in high pressure and temperature sugar cogen
In other countries system is generally limited to 46 ata

REGULATORY ISSUES
Concerns
– – – – PPA not being honoured Plants asked to back down No preferential tariff to cogen power No mandatory purchase of cogen power

Remedies
– Regulatory commissions have been appointed
Laying down scientific policies to address tariff and other issues Forum of regulators formed – To bring in some uniformity across various states

– New thinking in power sector: Electricity Act 2003, NEP

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COGEN REGULATORY FRAMEWORK IN U.P.
SERC is functional Tariff order for five years. Tariff for each year is fixed in this period. Must Run status provided Banking & wheeling allowed PPA for 20 years 7.5% procurement from renewable energy sources mandatory for distcoms
(subject to availability)

CASE FOR TRIVENI COGEN
Replacement required for existing old & obsolete low pressure boilers Additional steam required due to expansion of sugar factory Add value to Bagasse Assists mitigation of effect of sugar downcycle Financially attractive Leads to incidental efficiency improvement in sugar factory

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TRIVENI’S COGEN BUSINESS
Cogen Plants
Deoband 22 MW Khatauli Phase-I 23 MW Khatauli Phase II 23 MW, under construction

CASE STUDY - DEOBAND
System Description One of the most technologically advanced & energy efficient cogen plants
– – – – – – – – 120 TPH, 87 ata and 515ºC boiler 515º 22 MW double extraction condensing TG Large no. of VFDs Top end DCS Generation at 11 kV and export at 132 kV to UPPCL Elaborate fuel and ash handling (dense phase ash handling) Aesthetically pleasing – use of fly-ash blocks flyESP for pollution control - Well within norms - provision to handle more stringent norms

Project cost: Rs 760 M Implementation period 11-12 months – One of the fastest 11implementations in the country

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CASE STUDY - DEOBAND
Typical cogeneration scheme

Bagasse from sugar mill

Boiler Sugar factory process

Turbine Steam Steam Steam

Power

Grid Sugar factory Condenser

HP Heater

CASE STUDY - DEOBAND
Season Operation
Steam during season
– – – – – – Generation To sugar plant Generation In-house consumption InSugar plant Export = 120 TPH @ 87 ata = 78 TPH @ 3 ata = 22.25 MW = 2.25 MW = 5.00 MW = 15.00 MW = 2.43 MT Steam = 5.39 MT Steam = 2.22 MT Bagasse

Power balance

Season Operation Parameters
– 1 MT Bagasse – 1 MW Power – 1 MW Power

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CASE STUDY - DEOBAND
Off-Season Operation
Steam during off-season off– Generation – To sugar plant = 89 TPH @ 87 ata = 0 TPH = 22.50 MW = 2.10 MW = 0.65 MW = 19.75 MW = 2.43 MT Steam = 3.95 MT Steam = 1.62 MT Bagasse

Power balance
– – – – Generation In-house consumption InSugar plant Export

Off-Season Operation Parameters Off– 1 MT Bagasse – 1 MW Power – 1 MW Power

CASE STUDY - DEOBAND
Performance Plant totally stabilized and excellent performance PLF
– PLF for 230 days of operation ~ 95%
PLF for Feb. 2006 PLF for March 2006 PLF for April 2006 > 99% 100% >98%

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CASE STUDY – DEOBAND
Viability
Payback period: ~5 years Additionally Carbon Credits benefit of approx. 80,000 CERs p.a.

CASE STUDY - DEOBAND
Impact on Sugar Factory
Move to minimize process steam consumption
– Increased bagasse saving ⇒ Extended Off-season Offoperation of cogen
Installation of efficient equipment like Continuous Vacuum Pans and extensive vapour bleeding Change in product mix Extensive automation

Move to minimize electrical consumption in sugar factory
– Maximize export to the grid
Installation of VFDs, energy efficient AC motors to run the VFDs, mill

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SELF PERPETUATING CYCLE
Energy efficiency requires cogen plant

Cogen drives further efficiency in sugar factory

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