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FYP Display and Presentation: Past, Present, and Future

In the summer of 1990, fresh from their trainings at Portsmouth Polytechnic (now University of Portsmouth) in the United Kingdom, Engr. Jocelyn A. Mabaylan and Dr. Edilberto L. Tadulan, then faculty members of the College of Engineering, introduced the concept of exhibiting Final Year Projects to the public. The purpose of this activity is to inspire engineers and scientist to perfect existing technologies, as well as to engage partnership with industries on research and development. On February 14, 1994, with the efforts of two other trainees from Portsmouth, Engrs. Mary Jean O. Apor and Eliseo B. Linog, Jr. organized a display that showcased various projects and laboratory equipment of the Electrical, Electronics and Communications, and Mechanical Engineering units in celebration of the Power Engineering Day. Years later, as other units of the College advanced in research capabilities, then Dean Engr. Antonio C. Sevillano, Jr. institutionalized the showcasing of student projects as an annual activity of the College of Engineering. Consequently, with the spearheading endeavors of Engrs. Maria Theresa I. Cabaraban, Maria Isabel R. Dumlao, Shierlyn S. Paclijan and Dexter S. Lo, faculty members of the then combined Chemical-Civil-Industrial Engineering Department, the course Final Year Project Study (FYPS) was integrated to the curriculum of all engineering programs. Today, the FYP Display and Presentation is a way of a peer review of the completed Final Year Project Studies of the graduating seniors of the College of Engineering. It primarily showcases, promotes and exposes the atmosphere of healthy competition among the students and of constructive interaction between students and professionals from other institutions and industries. Several others are upshots of collaborative ventures between and among the local industries, the faculty, and the students. The objectives of the researches at the College of Engineering are: to create new knowledge in the engineering disciplines and in computer science, to foster an active learning environment for students to acquire the tools for lifelong learning, and to make science and technology matter to the pressing needs of society. To date, many of the College’s FYPS have garnered recognition outside the walls of the University. Many are continuously presented in various professional technical conferences and conventions in the local, national, and international arenas. To be sustained, the College has steadily collaborated with self-same industries, institutions, and agencies that stand firm with the academe in its pursuit toward the training and development of the Christian Engineer.

XAVIER UNIVERSITY
ATENEO DE CAGAYAN
Corrales Avenue, 9000 Cagayan de Oro City Philippines
In Consotium with ATENEO DE DAVAO UNIVERSITY ATENEO DE ZAMBOANGA UNIVERSITY
Tels: Local: Fax: Email: (+63 8822) 723116 (trunk) (+63 88) 8583116 (trunk) 2037/2038 (+63-88) 72-6356 op@xu.edu.ph

OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT

Message
I always look forward to this techie event, which features your creativity, industry, and ingenuity. Our country may be poor in many things but it is certainly not poor when it comes to our resourcefulness and compassion. Hence this challenge to all of us: can we marshall our resourcefulness and compassion in the service of building our people? My hope is that your research has taught you things that are more than just technical and engineering-related. If you apply your inventiveness to get you or your future company ahead of the pack, to be number one, would that be enough? If you are a true warrior, the meaning of your life will not be found in defeating or conquering others. If you are of Xavier, your intelligence must be seasoned with kindness, your inventiveness driven by compassion for those who can only dream of the heights you have already reached. Not all get sent to the frontiers. You are one of the few who will.

Fr. Jose Ramon T. Villarin, S.J. President

Message
Greetings to our Future Engineers! This years Journal is finally out. It will not only show we apply rigor to our work, it also indicates we care about our most practical surroundings, which if neglected means greater economic, human well being, societal and natural losses: it‟s what real warriors do. Let‟s review one brush with a natural loss. We just celebrated the 1st year „remembrance‟ of the Cagayan de Oro deluge. The moment was captured on film by no less than your own committed Engineers, allied with the National Disasters Coordination Council. It helps to refresh our memory. When we trudged those knee deep waters, even of the „best‟ highway of Cagayan de Oro, the Masterson Highway, we kept thinking: “why, the rain wasn‟t really that heavy!” “where are the culverts?”, “why so much pollution, trash, the plastics block water pathways, infect us”… “how toxic..” We continue to look upon these events, as if they are remote memories. Very easy to forget when sunny days return. But they are not the „past‟. We know they will come back, in related forms: increased vulnerability, contamination of rivers, water shortage diminishing access to the poorest of our lot. These realities are etched in our heads, our hearts. It shows in our own inquiries for this journal. So we open ways to challenge our planning systems. We continue to eye with frustration the widening efforts of the Masterson Highway without any trace having implanted big culverts to carry future flood and rain waters safely through to the bay. We ask questions that are unpopular, like “why are we turning up more ore pits upstream?” How bad is this going to affect our river, health, water downstream? XU continues to challenge our innovators, our future Engineers. What could have been done? Where are we looking? Which direction? What about our water tables and aquifers? And what about future buildings, their energy requirments and their sewer systems (given we don‟t have any) in the City? What about infrastructures that protect heritage sites? Some of the questions we look towards Engineers for solutions. Are you ready? Can you really say NO to the call? If you say yes, the University will stand by you. Pledging to provide support, the best we can, for your good work!

Atty. Antoinette G. Royo Fay VP for Research and Social Outreach

XAVIER UNIVERSITY
ATENEO DE CAGAYAN
Corrales Avenue, 9000 Cagayan de Oro City Philippines
In Consotium with ATENEO DE DAVAO UNIVERSITY ATENEO DE ZAMBOANGA UNIVERSITY
Tels: Fax: Email: (+63 8822) 723116 Local 2036 (+63 88) 8583116 Local 2036 (+63-88) 72-6356 lgkwong@xu.edu.ph

ACADEMIC VICE PRESIDENT’S OFFICE

Message
On its twentieth year from the time of conception, the Final Year Project Study (FYPS) Presentation and Display of the College of Engineering and Computer Science Department becomes the window of the graduating seniors to be peer reviewed not only by the students from Xavier University but also by the students and professionals from other institutions and industries. We are proud of your accomplishments. More importantly, the recognition gained in research training has challenged you to continuously foster active learning environment. During this sesquicentennial celebration of the return of the Jesuit to the Philippines, the XU Warriors are engaged in the Frontiers through its Journal on abstracts of this year‟s projects. May you continue to be guided by the fire of Atenean Magis. Congratulations!

Dr. Lina G. Kwong Academic Vice President

Message

XU Warriors: Engaged in the Frontiers! Congratulations and more applause to the XU Warriors for coming up with this 2010 College of Engineering Final Year Projects Display and Presentation Journal. The XU Warriors has always been a consistent trailblazer in the university in research and publication! As I read the list of titles in this journal under the five themes of:  Community Development  Innovative Designs  Renewable Energy and Alternative Materials  Systems Analysis and Design  Web-based Development Indeed, the XU Warriors are in the frontiers, the arenas where we need passionate and willful commitment, to help people and Mother Earth! Keep the torches burning! “Let us not grow tired of doing good, for in due time we shall reap our harvest, if we do not give up.” I wish you all the luck, the fun and more opportunities ahead! May all our efforts bring concrete solutions especially to pressing problems in Mindanao!

Ma. Cecilia Macabuac-Ferolin, PhD Director

XAVIER UNIVERSITY
ATENEO DE CAGAYAN
Corrales Avenue, 9000 Cagayan de Oro City Philippines

In Consotium with ATENEO DE DAVAO UNIVERSITY ATENEO DE ZAMBOANGA UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
Tels: Local: Fax: Email: (+63 8822) 723116 (trunk) (+63 88) 8583116 (trunk) 1207 (Secretary)/1209 (Dean) (+63-88) 8583116 local 1209 jojo@xu.edu.ph

Message
It is my pleasure to congratulate our senior students who painstakingly crafted their final year project exemplifying the theorems they have learned for the past years. To the mentors, I also thank you for wholeheartedly giving your two hundred percent support in guiding your students. This year‟s theme “XU Warriors: Engaged in the Frontiers” is indeed very appropriate for the time‟s needs. Addressing the issues and concerns of our community is the very core of our university‟s existence. Thus these projects documented in this journal are the manifestation of our commitment to Mindanao and our nation as a whole. Lastly, I convey my heartfelt gratitude to the people who have labored to make this journal possible. May you continue to live the true Atenean Life and your tribe multiply exponentially.

Eliseo B. Linog, Jr.
Dean, College of Engineering

XAVIER UNIVERSITY
ATENEO DE CAGAYAN
Corrales Avenue, 9000 Cagayan de Oro City Philippines
In Consotium with ATENEO DE DAVAO UNIVERSITY ATENEO DE ZAMBOANGA UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
Tels: Local: Fax: (+63 8822) 723116 (trunk) (+63 88) 8583116 (trunk) 1207 (Secretary)/1216 (IE) (+63-88) 8583116 local 1209

Message
Engineering is development. Engineers, as catalysts of development, have always been continually challenged and called upon to respond to the needs of society – to provide solutions that improve the quality of life. Through this year‟s Engineering Days celebrations, with the theme, “XU Warriors: Engaged in the Frontiers”, the Xavier University College of Engineering reaffirms its commitment to leading the region in developing the engineers of the future. The activities scheduled for the festivities are geared towards encouraging involvement and interaction among students, faculty, staff, alumni and industry partners. I am proud to have worked with the student organizations who took the challenge of owning a specific event – the Alumni Homecoming, where we honor the College‟s 2nd batch of graduates in their Silver Jubilee year – in the 3-day celebration. Their wholehearted participation and proficient handling of this daunting task show that we have succeeded in training responsible and active leaders who are with us in the frontiers of change and service. Coordinating an annual event such as this was not as grueling as I imagined it to be. I owe it to the warm and supportive individuals who compose the various working committees for making this rousing success possible. It is my hope that our efforts radiate inspiration to many – of what it means to give and give till it hurts, and then give a little more. Let us all enjoy the Engineering Days 2010 and be proud of what we have worked for. Kudos!

Engr. Maria Lourdes M. Abao Overall Chair, 2010 Engineering Days

XAVIER UNIVERSITY
ATENEO DE CAGAYAN
Corrales Avenue, 9000 Cagayan de Oro City Philippines
In Consortium with ATENEO DE DAVAO UNIVERSITY ATENEO DE ZAMBOANGA UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
Tels: Local: Fax: (+63 8822) 723116 (trunk) (+63 88) 8583116 (trunk) 1207 (Secretary)/1217 (ME) (+63-88) 8583116 local 1209

Message
It is my great pleasure and distinct honor as the chairman of our Final Year Project Studies (FYPS) 2010. I would like to take this opportunity to extend my thanks to the members of the faculty and staff of the College of Engineering especially to our Dean who believed in me to spearhead this year FYPS 2010. I strongly believed that our cooperation and commitment made a difference in the success of this activity even we are given a short period of time to prepare. Every engineering graduating student has always the opportunity to harness and apply his/her acquired scientific knowledge through project display and presentation. This event will showcase all engineering graduating student projects through the college‟s project display and presentation. The theme of these year FYPS will be “XU WARRIORS: Engaged in the Frontiers “. As we all know, ENGINEERING is concerned with understanding and controlling the materials and forces of nature for the benefits of human kind. We hope that we can preserve our commitment and continue to engage in activities that are truly responsive to the needs of our institution and our society leading us to frontier. To the SENIORS for their labor and hard works, sleepless night, their MENTORS for guiding and advising our seniors, their PARENTS for the financial support and inspire them to do more and to give more for the greater glory of GOD. More power to all of us!

Ian Giovanni R. Pabillaran, PECE, MEng’g. Chairman, FYPS 2010

CONTENTS
MESSAGES 2010 BEST PROJECT FINALISTS 1. Chromium (VI) Biosorption using Gemilina (Gmelina arborea) Bark Flour Pellets 2. Bamboo Strips as Soil Reinforcement for Mechanically Stabilized Earth 3. Detection of Mercury in Water using Combined Principles of DSP and Spectroscopy 4. A Remote PC Shutdown Software using the Yahoo! Messenger Messaging System 5. Development of a HACCP-Based Food Safety Program for Darling Food Products 6. An Experimental Study on Small Scaled Wind Power Generation for Single Dwelling Lighting in Rural Communities 7. Design of an Energy Cost-Effective Air-Conditioning Unit with Direct Current Motor-Compressor and Dual Energy Source COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT 1. Design of a Gravity-Flow Water Supply System For Sitio Igpit, Jasaan, Misamis Oriental 2. Design of a Domestic Water Distribution System in Barangay Pigsag-an, CDOC 3. An Analytical Study on the Traffic Count Data As Means to Establish the Traffic Volume, Rate of Flow, Density, and Capacity of Masterson Avenue, Carmen, Cagayan De Oro City of 2010 INNOVATIVE DESIGNS 1. Door Security System 2. Temperature and pH Monitoring and Control Device for Anaerobic Digester 3. Prototype PIC16F877A Microcontroller Voting Machine 4. Portable Fast Charger for an Electric Vehicle’s Battery (Sealed Lead Acid) 5. DC Motor Controller for Single-Axis Solar Tracker Application 6. Automated Switching and Regulation of Air Conditioning Unit 7. Temperature Normalization for the Production of High Quality Silica from Rice Husk 8. Design of Overshot Water Wheel Using Golf Cart Differential Gear 9. Kites Carrier for an Airborne Power Generating Unit 10. Pilot-Scale Steering Mechanism for a Single Seater, 4-Wheeled Solar Powered Electric Vehicle 11. Design of Efficient Mechanical Drive 12. A Low–Cost House: Worth Less Than P150,000.00

RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS 1. An Experimental Study on Wind Power Generation Utilizing the Wind Produced by Exhaust Fans in Buildings to be used as an Alternative Source for Charging Emergency Lamps 2. Effective Disposal Process of Busted Fluorescent Lamps 3. An Experimental Study On Hybrid Power Generation using Solar Panels and Methane from Food Waste 4. An Experimental Study on Electrical System of a Solar Electric Vehicle 5. Bamboo-Reinforced Ferro Cement Hybrid Biogas Digester for XU Canteen 6. An Experimental Study of Coconut Husk as an Alternative Sound Absorbing Acoustic Material 7. Production of Lactic Acid from Rice Hull using Immobilized Cultures Of Lactobacillus casei in a Fibrous-Bed Bioreactor 8. Continuous Direct Solvent Extraction of Ethanol in Fermenting Packed – Bed Bioreactor with Immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae 9. An Investigative Study on Semi – Porous Concrete Pavers Impregnated with Del Monte Fly Ash as Surfacing Alternative SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN 1. A Proposed Database Model for the New Student Management System of Xavier University 2. A Clinical Management System for the XU Clinic using OpenEMR 3. A System Study on the Warehousing of Fast Cargo Logistics in Puntod, Cagayan De Oro City 4. Optimizing Warehouse Functions through Systematic Facilities Layout and Design 5. A Systems Study on the Manufacture of Seaweeds Shing-A-Ling and Noodles by CWAI WEB-BASED DEVELOPMENT 1. An Enhanced Web-Based Reservation System for XU Library 2. Drupal, Jaws, and Joomla! CMS Comparison for XCEL Website 3. Xavier University iAuction Mart 4. A Web-Based Voting System for the XU-CSG Campus Elections 5. A Web-Based Student Activity Management System for the XU SACDEV Office SPONSORS

2010 Final Year Projects Display and Presentation Committees
Chair of the 2010 Engineering Days: Maria Lourdes Abao Over-all Chair of the 2010 FYPDP: Ian Giovanni Pabillaran

Committees
Review and Competition Awards Program

Chair
Mary Jean Apor

Co-chair
Shierlyn Paclijan Edwin Ortiz

Majiah Collado Peter Daniel Akut Majiah Collado Shierlyn Paclijan Dondanon Bajarla, Jr. Jose Mag-abo II Eliseo Linog, Jr. Rhea Suzette Mocorro Estrella Gadian Rhea Suzette Mocorro Donah Marie Achas

Logistics / Physical Arrangement Ways and Means Documentation / Secretariat / Food Journal

Joel Camilo Haos

Lory-Liza Bulay-og Richel De Villa

Dexter Lo

FYP Unit Coordinators
ChE CE EcE EE IE ME CS Shierlyn Paclijan Joel Camilo Haoss Franklin Pacquiao Dondanon Bajarla, Jr. Glenn Paclijan Alfredo Buten Maria Ramila Jimenez

CHROMIUM (VI) BIOSORPTION USING GEMILINA (Gmelina arborea) BARK FLOUR PELLETS
Maria Jo Anne T. Ang, Maria Precious Paula S. Lapizar, Charmaine B. Saavedra and Mario Jose R. Sumalinog II Chemical Engineering Department E-mail: mppslapizar@gmail.com Maria Isabel R. Dumlao Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT: This study investigates the potential of Gemilina bark flour pellets in removing chromium metal by adsoprtion. Bark flour from Gemilina is extruded to pellets using citric acid as cross-linking agent and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as rheology modifier for pellet extrusion. Characteristics of pellets are determined and the pellets are evaluated for removal of the toxic heavy metal Chromium (VI) from synthetic aqueous solutions. Economic viability of a plant-scale operation is also analyzed. The experimental produces pellets with pellet dimensions of 0.570 mm in diameter and 0.312 mm in height; bulk and apparent density values of 1.002 and 1.040 g/cm3, respectively; and liquid-accessible pore volume of 1.362 cm3/g. The results indicate that Gemilina bark is a potential biosorbent. Experimental data from equilibrium adsorption experiments best fit the Linear Isotherm with a regression coefficient of 0.930. Maximum adsorption, Q is calculated from the intercept and is found to be 2.072 mg Cr(VI)/gram of pellets. With 100% maximum adsorption at initial concentrations of less than 100 mg/L of Cr(VI), the adsorbent proves to be effective in Cr(VI) removal. The linear isotherm indicates that the average adsorption capacity (mg/g) is observed to increase with increasing heavy metal concentration. Kinetic experiments indicate that the adsorption behavior follows a second order kinetic model with equilibrium adsorption of 1.568 mg Cr(VI)/g of pellets. Plantscale Economic Analysis points out that the pellets cost less than Activated Carbon and Silica. Plant Scale Operation requires a Fixed Capital Investment of Php 203,460,547.63 with Average Return of Investment of 17.9% per year and a Payback Period of 2.1 years. KEYWORDS: adsorption, heavy metals, Chromium (VI), Gemilina, biosorbent

1. INTRODUCTION Increasing awareness towards water pollution has impelled efforts toward pollution abatement. Among the different pollutants are heavy or toxic metals. The risk lies on the tendency of these metals to bioaccumulate and therefore causes various diseases and disorders. More so, stringent environmental regulations require the development of processes for the removal of toxic metals from wastewater

sources. At an unprecedented and constantly increasing rate (Mavros, et al, 1992), heavy metals are discharged from facilities such as tanneries, metal fabrication industries and food processing industries among many others. One effective purification and separation technique employed in the removal of toxic metals is adsorption. In spite of the usefulness and efficiency of alumina, silica, and activated carbon as adsorbents, their high costs restrict their utility. One alternative method using cheaper materials is biosorption This study determines the efficiency and economy of Gemilina (Gmelina arborea) bark flour pellets as well as the various parameters that influence its adsorption capabilities: pellet characteristics and sorbate initial concentration. It also aims to determine the optimum conditions for the selected parameters which would simultaneously give the highest removal of heavy metals. The paper aims to answer the following questions: 1. Do the characteristics of the Gemilina bark flour pellets indicate its ability as a potential adsorption capacity? 2. How do changes in sorbate initial concentration affect adsorption potentials? 3. What adsorption isotherm closely describes Cr (VI) removal using Gemelina bark flour pellets? 4. What is the time necessary to reach equilibrium adsorption of Cr (VI)? 5. Is the wastewater treatment plant utilizing pelletized Gemelina bark flour as adsorbent technically and economically feasible? Large amount of bark residues are generated by lumber processing mills nationwide. Bark residues are therefore one of the most abundant renewable resources that are available for conversion into high-value, environmentally sustainable biomaterials, including low-cost sorbents for treatment of water streams contaminated with persistent organic pollutants (Ratola et al, 2003) and toxic oily wastes (Haussard et al, 2003). Gemilina bark flour was obtained from Kalilangan, Bukidnon. Large-scale production through a pilot plant was not performed in this study. It is purely laboratory-based. It is only aimed at finding out the efficiency of Gemilina (Gmelina arborea) bark flour in adsorption as well as finding out how the manipulation of sorbate initial concentration affect the adsorption potentials. Only comparison with literature data and cost estimation was employed and no actual tests for economic feasibilities were done in the study.

2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1 Chromium According to Martin (2009), Chromium is used in metal alloys such as stainless steel; protective coatings on metal (electroplating); magnetic tapes; and pigments for paints, cement, paper, rubber, composition floor covering and other materials. Its soluble forms are used in wood preservatives. Chromium (VI) compounds are toxins and known human carcinogens. Breathing high levels can cause irritation to the lining of the nose; nose ulcers; runny nose; and breathing problems, such as asthma, cough, shortness of breath, or wheezing. Regulatory limits set by the FDA shows that these should not exceed 1 milligram per liter (1 ppm) in bottled water.

2.2 Potential of Gemilina Bark as an Adsorbent Material Since Gemilina is abundant in the Philippines and utilized in varied ways, it is highly recommended as a bark source. Bark is a solid waste of the timber industry, which can be used a possible adsorbent due to its high-tannin content. Bark flour is effective for removal of toxic heavy metal ions from water because of its high content of polyhydroxy polyphenolic groups that are capable of chelating heavy metal ions (Gaballah, I., and Kilbertus, G., 1998). In addition, bark contains carboxylic groups, which can bind metals by ion-exchange mechanisms (Sakai, K., 2001). However, because bark also contains significant quantities of water-soluble extractives, including soluble tannins, which can be detrimental to aquatic life, the bark needs to be treated before it is used as a sorbent material for removal of contaminants from water. To avoid release of soluble tannins from the bark into the water, Haussard et al. (2003) treated the bark with microorganisms or with copper or chromium solution and Vázquez et al. (2002) used acidified formaldehyde. Earlier studies by Chow (1972) had indicated that water soluble phenolic substances in bark can be condensed into water-insoluble polymers by high-temperature heating.

3. MATERIALS AND METHODS 3.1 Data Collection Procedures

Figure 1. Process Flow Diagram 3.2 Mode of Data Analysis 3.2.1 Characterization of Gemilina Bark Flour Pellets

Liquid-accessible pore volume Vacc is calculated by the following equation: Vacc = (Mwet – Mdry) ρwater where: Mwet = weight of the sample (g) after saturation with nanopure water o Mdry = initial weight of the sample at 30% RH, 27±1 C 3 o ρwater = density (g/cm ) of nanopure water at 26.5 C. 3.2.2 Equilibrium Adsorption Experiment (1)

ANOVA is employed to determine if there is significant difference on the effect of initial concentration values on adsorption and t-test to determine the best concentration values. 3.2.3 Adsorption Kinetic Experiment

The percent amount of metal adsorbed at equilibrium is calculated by the following equations:

(2)

(3) where Q, : the adsorption capacity Co: initial metal concentration C: final metal concentration m: mass of the adsorbent in the beaker

Linear Isotherm: Langmuir Isotherm: Freundlich Isotherm:

q = KLc q = qo 1/n q = KFc

(4) (5) (6)

where q: amount adsorbed qo: maximum amount adsorbed as c increases KL: Linear Isotherm constant c: equilibrium concentration of adsorbate in concentration Kc: Langmuir Isotherm constant 4. RESULTS 1. The characteristics of the Gemilina (Gmelina arborea) Bark Flour Pellets were determined. Table 1. Characteristics of Gemilina Bark Flour Pellets Parameter Shape Length, mm Diameter, mm 3 Bulk Density, grams/cm 3 Apparent relative density, g/cm Value Cylindrical 0.570 0.312 1.002 1.040

2. The effects of initial Cr(VI) concentration on adsorption behaviour were determined. Table 2. Percent and Average Adsorption Capacity at Varying Initial Cr(VI) Concentration Initial concentration, Co (ppm) 103.70 Average Final metal concentration, C (ppm) 1.22 Average Adsorption capacity, Q (mg/g) 4.10

Mass of adsorbent, g 1.25

% adsorption 98.83

199.20 469.29 1033.30 1177.90

1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25

38.25 289.47 487.85 687.60

80.80 38.32 52.78 41.62

6.44 7.19 21.82 19.61

Table 3. Duplicate and Average Adsorption Capacity at Different Initial Concentrations Sample ID Initial Concentration Q (I) Q (II) AVERAGE Q 0 0 0 0 0.0000 100 103.7 4.0508 4.1480 4.0508 200 199.2 7.6720 5.2040 6.4380 500 469.29 7.1928 7.1928 7.1928 1000 1033.3 22.3960 21.2400 21.8180 1100 1,177.90 19.6640 19.5600 19.6120

3. The isotherm that best describes the adsorption behaviour was determined.

Figure 2. Linear Adsorption Behavior of Cr(VI) on Gemilina Bark Flour Pellets 4. The adsorption kinetics of the Cr(VI) on the Gemilina Bark Flour Pellets were determined. Table 4. Pseudo-Zero, First and Second Order Reaction Kinetic Parameters Pseudo-Zero Order qe (mg/g) k0 (mg/g) k1 (1/min) k2 (g/mg/min) R
2

Pseudo-First Order 6.298000 0.003677 0.914000 0.141702

Pseudo-Second Order 1.568000 0.000042 0.990000 0.093012

0.111804 0.002600 0.950000 0.084700

RSME

5. CONCLUSION The physical properties of Gemilina bark flour pellets such as bulk density, apparent relative density and liquid-acessible pore volume signified its characteristics as a potential biosorbent. Among With 100% maximum adsorption at initial concentrations of less than 100 mg/L of Cr(VI), the adsorbent proved to be effective in Cr(VI) removal. The Linear Isotherm indicates that the average adsorption capacity (mg/g) was observed to increase with increasing heavy metal concentration. Kinetic experiments indicated that the adsorption behavior follows a second order kinetic model with equilibrium adsorption of 1.568 mg Cr(VI)/g of pellets.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The research team would like to thank the Chemical Engineering Department of Xavier University, especially to the team‟s adviser, Engr. Maria Isabel R. Dumlao, for the time, skills, and support given to us for the success of this paper; Engr. Shierlyn S. Paclijan, the Plant Design and Project Study Instructor, and Mrs. Enjielyn Gomez of MSU-IIT, Iligan The researchers would also like to thank their supportive parents and most of all to the Almighty Father.

REFERENCES Evanko, C.R., and D.A. Dzombak. “Remediation of metals-contaminated soil and groundwater.” GWRTAC. Available at ww.gwrtac.org (accessed 1 June 2009). Gaballah, I., and Kilbertus, G. “Recovery of heavy metal ions through decontamination of synthetic solutions and industrial effluents using barks,” J. Geochemical Exploration 62 (1998): 241-286. Haussard, M., Gaballah, I., Kanari, N., De Donato, Ph., Barrès, O., and Villieras, F. “Separation of hydrocarbons and lipid from water using treated bark,” Water Res. 37 (2003): 362-374. Mavros, P., Zouboulis, A.I. and Lazaridis, N.K. “Removal of Metal-Ions from Wastewaters - the Case of Nickel.” Environmental Technology 23,1 (1993): 83-91. Ngoh, F.E. “Heavy Metals Adsorption by Fiber Ash.” Masters thesis (2003). Chalmers U. of Technology. Oh, M. and Tshabalala, M. “Bark pellets adsorb metals,” BioResources 2,1 (2007): 66-81. Sakai, K. “Chemistry of Bark.” Wood and Cellulosic Chemistry. (2001) Edited by David N.-S. Hon, Nobuo Shirashi, Marcel Dekker, Inc.. New York. Chapter 7.

BAMBOO STRIPS AS SOIL REINFORCEMENT FOR MECHANICALLY STABILIZED EARTH
Jim Croce B. Nabua, Lou Menard M. Casero, Kerk Jay P. Montefalcon and Ariane Merk B. Suobiron Civil Engineering Department E-mail: jcnabua13@yahoo.com Gerardo P. Apor Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT: Retaining walls are regularly constructed to prevent earthen materials to assume its natural slope. At present, gravity walls and earth walls are the most commonly used retaining wall. This study focuses on the technique known as Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) in designing a retaining wall. MSE is a ground improvement technique wherein soil is reinforced to be able to carry its own weight as well as other surcharges. At present, MSE walls are reinforced with metal strips, deformed round bars, geogrids and geotextiles. This study proposes bamboo strips as alternative reinforcement. Data that are necessary are the tensile strength capacity of bamboo determined by subjecting samples to a Universal Testing Machine, unit weight and angle of friction of the cohesionless earth fill which can be determined using standards presented by the American Societies for Testing and Materials as well as published theories and literatures. A 2-m high MSE wall as well as a 10-m wall are then designed and implemented with different kinds of reinforcement for comparison. However, only internal stability is included in the paper since the determination of external stability needs a large amount of resources. It has been found out that it is possible to erect a 2-m high cohesionless soil using the MSE technique with bamboo strips as reinforcements. Furthermore, results also indicate that using bamboo strips cost lower compared to the use of conventional reinforcements such as DRB and metal strips. KEYWORDS: bamboo, Mechanically Stabilized Earth, geogrid, geotextiles, cohesionless soil

1. PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING 1.1 Introduction

Many researches were already conducted in search for construction material alternatives. The most common studies are finding substitutes for concrete aggregates, additives which may improve the service of concrete, and using less aggregates without sacrificing safety. Alternative concrete reinforcement is also being researched, substituting the usual steel reinforcement with other possible materials like lumber. This paper is somewhat similar to these previous studies. The study aims to investigate the

possible use of bamboo as soil reinforcement under the technique known as Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE). 1.2 Conceptual Background

Mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) is a ground improvement technique wherein soil is reinforced to carry its own weight (Bowles, J. E., 1997) as well as other surcharge, commonly used in road widening, bridge building, dams, sea wall and other structures. The reinforcements of MSE wall are installed to carry the tensile force cause by the vertical stresses due to self-weight and surcharge. Soil reinforcement relies much on the frictional stress based on the angle of friction generated between the soil and reinforcement (Bowles, J. E., 1997). Reinforcements of MSE wall are mainly installed for internal lateral confinement that allows the soil to mobilize more shearing resistance. MSE wall is composed of three basic components: reinforcements, earth fill, and facing unit. Existing technology on MSE wall utilizes metal strips and rods, geotextile strips and sheets and grids, and wire grids. Earth fills are usually granular material with less than 15% passing the No.200 sieve. Facing units are considered not necessary but are regularly installed to prevent erosion on the faces and for appearance purposes (Bowles, J. E., 2006). For this project, the earth fill that will be utilized is sand. Bamboo strips shall then be used for reinforcement and empty cement sacks shall be installed as facing units just to prevent erosion. According to Henry Vidal, the patentee of MSE technology, adding reinforcement to soil will increase the resistance of soil to surcharge or the force being applied vertically to the soil. Furthermore, several new theories have been derived to support the MSE concept such as the cohesion theories published by the Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussees (LCPC) and the New South Wales (NSW) Institute of Technology. Both researches resulted to a conclusion that adding reinforcement to soil will introduce cohesion in a cohesionless soil. 1.3 Statement of the Problem This study primarily aims to investigate the utilization of bamboo strips as an alternative reinforcement for MSE. Specifically, the study aims to determine the unit weight of the earth fill. It also aims to classify the earth fill according to the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) by first determining the particle size distribution of the earth fill and then identifying the specific type of soil being utilized. The study aims to test and determine the tensile strength of bamboo; to design a reinforced earth wall with bamboo strips as reinforcement; to implement the designed MSE wall; and finally to determine the cost estimate of the design. 1.4 Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study is not only to investigate the usage of bamboo but also to give a possible option which is cheap and accessible in times when a part of a road is eroded. MSE walls can serve as temporary road. The study is mainly focused on presenting an alternative for emergency response in times of disasters. 1.5 Scope and Limitations The scope of the study ranges on designing a stabilized earth with bamboo strips as reinforcement. The design will then be implemented and determined if the design utilizing bamboo reinforcement can carry its

own weight. According to the design principles, the design of an MSE is divided into two parts specifically, internal and external stability. The design will only be limited to internal stability. The wall shall then be implemented to prove that it will be possible to erect an earth wall composed of sand with the aid of bamboo reinforcements. The study will make use of sand as earth fill because the MSE concept is derived with a cohesionless soil. The soil‟s properties such as unit weight and angle of friction can also be checked from existing studies and textbooks. This study shall make use of an improvised “pull-out test” to determine sand‟s angle of friction and shall then be compared to published values. If the value from the test is not within the standard range, such value shall be neglected and published values of the frictional angle shall be utilized. Sample of bamboo strips shall be subjected to tensile strength test and will represent the tensile capacity of the bamboo during computations. It should also be understood that the MSE wall design with bamboo reinforcement is limited to last for 3 days or 72 hours to 1 week at most since bamboo decomposes easily especially when in contact with soil and expose to weather. However, the degradation rate of the bamboo strips is not part of the study. The use of sand bags will also be present to provide the facing units of the MSE set-up.

2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE In a study conducted by Marto et al, in which they used bamboo as reinforcement in order to increase the bearing capacity of soil, the bamboo poles were formed into a grid and were combined with geotextile. Bamboo grid was placed in the bottom part of a 600mm x 600mm x 1000mm soil sample while the geotextile sheets were placed on upper layers. This soil sample was used to serve as a ground soil where a footing rests. A 50mm width strip footing was used as the load for the soil bed. It was observed that reinforcing the soil with bamboo-geotextile composite has significant effect in increasing the bearing capacity of the soil. However, it was noticed that the ultimate bearing capacity decreases when the thickness of sand is beyond 75% of footing width. The bamboo-geotextile composite method which possesses both tensile and bending stiffness gave the highest reduction in the thickness of sand fill to achieve the same bearing capacity (Marto et al 2002). On the study made by Khan and Saran (2003), they used bamboo strips alone to reinforce an earth wall. They tested an earth wall reinforced with bamboo strips, and applied the earth wall with loadings, one of which is surcharge, and have observed that the bamboo reinforcement is effective in minimizing the deformation of the earth wall due to gravity (surcharge). However, the study was also done in a laboratory, thus further large scale study is needed. Geosynthetic-Reinforced Soil or so-called GRS is a structure that uses a geosynthetic material as reinforcement with a well compacted granular fill that does not use much of a facing material. It is said that GRS walls are stronger than that of MSE walls because of the capability of GRS walls to resist seismic forces that act on ground. The widely spaced reinforcement in MSE walls makes itself vulnerable to seismic condition. R. Barret and A. Ruckman had a design of negative batter GRS bridge abutment and pier which was constructed by the Colorado Department of Transportation. Negative batter would illustrate an out-leaning structure. The face of the structure is 11-foot high and the top block would extend 2.5 block widths outside the bottom block. In the implementation of the structure, there was no deformation observed. Aside from the durability of GRS, this type of technology also saves 20% of cost compared to MSE structures. (Barret, R., Ruckman, A., 2007).

3. MODE OF INVESTIGATION 3.1 Procedure Generally, the study is divided into 5 major activities: 1. Soil test following the standards presented in ASTM D 0128 in determining the unit weight of the earth fill and classifying the earth fill following the standards presented in ASTM D2487 with the aid of ASTM C136. 2. Determination of the earth fill‟s angle of friction. 3. Determination of the tensile strength capacity of the bamboo using the UTM. 4. Design stage of the MSE wall. 5. Implementation of the design. Determination of the unit weight of the earth fill followed the Water Pycnometer test described in ASTM D128. The earthen material was classified according to the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) according to ASTM D2487. Prior to that, a sieve analysis was performed following the standards presented in ASTM C136, which the soil‟s particle size distribution was plotted. The classification of the earth fill can be utilized as basis on determining the angle of friction with the aid of published standards and textbooks. Another method used in determining the angle of friction is the “pull-out test”. In this test, a bamboo strip was embedded in sand with known weight. The length of embedment was predetermined. The bamboo strip was pulled using a spring balance to obtain the pull-out force. Determination of the tensile capacity of the bamboo was aided by an independent private testing laboratory (Horver Testing Laboratory and Services). After pertinent data were determined, the design of the MSE wall was computed.

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Four samples with varying cross-sectional area were subjected to the tensile strength test using UTM and results showed that a constant tensile force of 18kN is necessary to yield the bamboo samples. The lowest tensile strength value is used for the design. One critical parameter in designing an MSE is the effective length of reinforcement sufficient enough to provide frictional resistance to avoid pull-out resistance. Another factor noted is the weight of earth fill acting on the Le. The data from pull-out strength test state that the heavier the weight, the larger the necessary pull-out force needed. The bamboo that was tested has a constant length embedded within the sand. The result implied that an MSE experiencing reinforcement pull-out failure would probably fail at the upper layers of the set-up since there is less vertical pressure acting on the Le. The numerical values from the test was used in solving for the angle of friction (ϕ) however; the obtained ϕ from the raw data was relatively high compared to the published values which range from 27o-37o for sand (Budhu, M., 2000). Since the angle of friction obtained was not within the range of the published value, another way in determining ϕ was used by classifying the earth fill according to USCS presented in ASTM D2487. Based from this standard, the result indicated that the earth fill used in the study was well-graded sand. For purpose of comparison, Budhu‟s literature was used which presented the typical gradation curve of soils (Budhu, pp 43, 2007). But for a more detailed classification, ASTM D2487 was consulted. The result further showed that the soil can be classified as well-graded with a group symbol of SP.

Upon classifying the soil, the sand‟s angle of friction was determined with the aid of published literatures. Budhu published that sands angle of friction range from 27˚-37˚, but Taylor, D. et. al. presented a more specific criterion which stated that well-graded sand‟s angle of friction range from 30˚-34˚. For safety purposes in the design stage, the lowest value was used because 1-20 suggest that as the angle of friction increases, Le decreases which was not advisable since a longer Le would provide a higher resistance to reinforcement pull-out failure. A longer Le would also imply that more weight of the earth fill is acting on Le. Another soil property necessary to determine was the unit weight of the earth fill. According to the water pycnometer performed, the earth fill‟s unit weight was approximately 20.67 kN/m3 in oven dried condition. With the average tensile strength capacity, angle of friction, and the earth fill‟s unit weight known, the required MSE walls was designed. Based from the data gathered, the group designed a 2-meter high, 3meter span and 1.8-meter wide MSE wall which was erected.

5. CONCLUSION The outcome of the study indicates that it is possible to erect a 2-meter high, 3-meter of span, and 1.8meter wide earth wall composed of sand, reinforced with bamboo strips, and sand bags as facing units, and applying the principles of Mechanically Stabilized Earth. Cost estimates of the 10-meter high wall also show that using bamboo strips as an alternative reinforcement is cheaper compared to the existing use of DRB and metals strips. The cost also indicates that MSE using bamboo strips as reinforcement can be designed with closer spacing, implying that lesser earth fill is required. Therefore, for emergency purposes, it would be practical to use bamboo strips.

REFERENCES American Standard for Testing Material C – 128, Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Specific Gravity and Absorption of Fine Aggregate). ASTM International, West Conshohocken, U.S., 2008, <www.astm.org> American Standard for Testing Material C – 136, Standard Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregate. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, U.S., 2008, <www.astm.org> American Standard for Testing Material, D-2487 Standard Practice for Classification of Soil for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System). ASTM International, West Conshohocken,U.S.,2008, <www.astm.org> Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines (2004). ASEP STEEL Handbook 2004, Third Edition.ASEP: Suite 713 Future Point Plaza, Condominuim 112 Panay Avenue, Quezon City, 1100 Philippines Barrett, R.K; Ruckman, A.C. (2007). GRS – A New Era in Soil Reinforced Soil Technology. American Societies of Civil Engineers, <www.ascelibrary.com> (accessed November 23, 2009) Budhu, M. (2007). Soil Mechanics and Foundations, 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, 111 River Street, Hoboken

Bowles, J.(1997). Foundation Analysis and Design. McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.,USA Cao, Y, et.al.(2009). Evaluation of statistical strength of bamboo fiber and mechanical properties of fiber reinforced green composites. <httpwww.zndxzk.com.cnywbupfilesoft2008122220081222153551723.pdf >, (accessed November 05, 2009) Duncan, J.M.(2004). Friction Angles for Sand, Gravel and Rockfill. Kenneth L. Lee, Memorial Seminar Long Beach, California. April 28, 2004 Handy, R. L.; Spangler, M.G. (2006). Geotechnical Engineering: Soil and Foundation Principles and Practice. Blacklick, OH, USA: McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing, <http://site.ebrary.com/lib/xavieruniph/ Doc?id=10196980&ppg=603>. (accessed December 12, 2009) Ingold, T. S.(1982). Reinforced Earth.Thomas Telford Ltd, Telford House, PO Box 101, 26-34 Old Street, London Li, Xiaobo(2004). Physical, Chemical, and Mecanical Properties of Bamboo and it Utilization Potential for Fiberboard Manufacturing. Thesis(Louisiana State University. May, 2004. <httpetd.lsu.edudocsavailableetd-04022004144548unrestrictedLi_thesis.pdf >, (accessed November 05, 2009) Marto, A., et.al.(2009) Bearing Capacity of footing on Bamboo-Geotextile Composite Reinforced Soft Clay.<httpwww.fka.utm.myjgp5PgeotropikaBearing%20capacity%20OF%20footings%20on%20 bamboo.pdf>,(accessed November 05, 2009) Roy, D.; Singh, R. (2008). Mechanically Stabilized Earth Wall Failure at Two Soft and Sensitive Soil. American Societies of Civil Engineers, <www.pubs.asce.org> (accessed November 23, 2009) Saran, S. (1992). Retaining Wall with Reinforced Cohessionless Backfill. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 118, No. 12. American Societies of Civil Engineers, <www.pubs.asce.org> (accessed November 23, 2009) Scarborough, J.A. (2005). A tale of Two Walls: Case Histories of Failed MSE Walls. American Societies of Civil Engineers, <www.ascelibrary.com> (accessed November 23, 2009) Turner, J.P.; Wayne, Jensen, W. G. (2005). Landslide Stabilization Using Soil Nail and Mechanically Stabilized Earth Wall: Case Study. American Societies of Civil Engineers, <www.pubs.asce.org> (accessed November 23, 2009)

DETECTION OF MERCURY IN WATER USING COMBINED PRINCIPLES OF DSP AND SPECTROSCOPY
John Leonard S. Bernal, Alberto M. Lim Jr., Stephen P. Porsuelo, and Charles Donald L. Vicerra Electronics Engineering Department Email: j_leohero@yahoo.com Mary Jean O. Apor Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT: The experimental study of the detection of mercury in water is conducted in the light of the need for the detection of mercury contaminants in water and the further development of research method for the efficient and effective synthesis and analysis of mercury contaminants. The detection and the subsequent analysis of the light wave variations in a mercury contaminant is carried out by setting up a high pressure mercury lamp as an ultraviolet light source in direct line-of-sight with a controlled sample in a closely controlled dark environment. An ultraviolet sensory device is used to capture the relative response of mercury contaminants with a direct ultraviolet light wave. The UV sensitive photodiode, being the center of the sensory module, senses the light wave disparities due to the absorbance properties of the mercury contaminants in the sample cell. Presence of contaminants in water is determined and evaluated using the absorption spectroscopy technique and digital signal processing. A 12bit resolution analog-to-digital converter is used to digitally gather data for tabulation and analysis. The integration of all modules constitutes the research method of detecting and analyzing mercury. Frequencies relative to the absorption properties of mercury contaminants are synthesized and analyzed using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm written in Matlab software. The integration of digital signal processing and absorption spectroscopy provides means in detecting contaminants in tap water under the ultraviolet range where mercury reacts. KEYWORDS: mercury contaminant, spectroscopy, Analog-to-Digital Converter, photodiode, Fast Fourier Transform

1. INTRODUCTION Studies have found some adversary effects of heavy metals on humans, one of which is mercury (Kilic, 2000). Mercury eventually enters our water system. XU Biology Department concluded in its research that mercury uptake of Chlorella is more than 100%, indicating mercury presence. Proper sampling and testing must be done; however, the process of detection of mercury includes introducing ionizers or reagents to react on the substance which proved to be hazardous also. One probable alternative is to integrate spectroscopy and digital signal processing.

1.1 Statement of the Problem Can presence of mercury be detected using the combined principles of spectroscopy and digital signal processing? 1.2 Conceptual Framework

Figure 1. Overall System Block Diagram The overall setup will be mandated by spectroscopy technique with the integration of Digital Signal Processing and PC interfacing. The light source must have the effective energy to react with the sample. Since our element of concern is mercury, which has a wavelength of 253.652 nm, the light source to be used is the Mercury Lamp or Hg Lamp which has the spectrum band of 200 to 600 nm. The sample cell used must be non-reactive to the light source and must have very low refractive index in order to prevent contamination on the sample material. The sensor is capable of detecting the reactive spectrum, which is in the UV range, from the reaction of light and the controlled sample. The interfacing module is comprised of an Analog-to-Digital Converter, a buffer and a port. Finally, the computer will serve as a processing element for the received data and will also serve as a visual element to display for data interpretation and analysis. 1.3 Significance of the Study The study helps in minimizing the possible intake of mercury contaminated water because of the early detection of the contaminant. Moreover, this study is geared towards the elimination of the use of harmful ionizers which is a common reagent in detecting heavy metals. 1.4 Scope and Limitations This study focuses only in the detection of traces of mercury, excluding all of its compounds, in water. Particularly, the detection of mercury in clear or distilled water samples with simulated concentration of mercury is emphasized. The process of preparing the samples is no longer part of our scope.

2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND RELATED STUDIES 2.1 Related Literature

Two common types of spectroscopy are absorption and fluorescence. Absorption spectroscopy is a technique in which the power of a beam of light measured before and after interaction with a sample is compared. The only difference with the Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and this project is that this project does not use catalysts or ionizers in the detection of traces of mercury while AAS uses ionizers to excite the sample being analyzed. Fluorescence spectroscopy is primarily concerned with electronic and vibrational states. Generally, the sample being examined will have a ground electronic state (a low energy state) of interest, and an excited electronic state of higher energy. The type of material is the most important factor in considering which apparatus will be used as a sample cell in this study. Two types of materials used for spectroscopy applications are borosilicate which is commonly used in laboratory apparatuses and the fused silica which is used for detailed and specific experiments. It is from these two types of materials that the final apparatus will be used in this study as the sample cell. Fused silica is a high purity synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide. Its refractive index varies from 1.55 to 1.40 through the transmission range depending on the wavelength. Borosilicate glass has a very low thermal expansion coefficient, about one-third that of ordinary glass. Borosilicate glasses are crown glasses with dispersion and refractive indices of 1.51–1.54 across the visible range. The sensor used is an EPD-365 UV Schottky Type GaP photodiode with a sensitivity range of 245 – 400 nm with UV filter-glass window. The Hamamatsu GaP Photodiode Schottky Type G1961 is a similar sensor with spectral response range of 190 to 550nm. Both the photodiodes is a semiconductor device in which the flow of current is controlled by the intensity of light and that can therefore be used to detect light. Since the spectral response of interest is 253.652nanometer, both fit the range. However, in terms of the thermal operational range, the EPD-365 is better with range of 40 to +125°C unlike the Hamamatsu G1961 which only has a range of -10 to +60°C. The thermal tolerance is important because of the high temperature output of the light source. 2.2 Related Studies There are already many existing methods for determining heavy metals in water. Highly selective solvent extraction separation of heavy metals (Ag, Cu, Hg) has been achieved by using macrocyclic extractants (Zolotov, et al). Furthermore, stripping voltammetry using diamond microelectrodes provide an efficient tool for the rapid on-line measurement of metals such as gold, copper, silver and lead in water without addition of supporting electrolyte. Compared to the methods stated earlier, this project will employ the concept spectroscopy to eliminate the use of ionizer.

3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Design An incorporation of observational and true-experimental research design was used to investigate our study of heavy metal detection, specifically mercury in water. The research was observational in nature as it examines the overall process and development of a specific phenomenon. The reaction of the sample with the light source was observed by processing the light spectrum detected from the sensor. Also, the research was true-experimental as it involved testing and sampling processes that determined the presence of mercury in a sample by having many samples to be tested and by also controlling the concentration of mercury with respect to a certain volume of water.

3.2 Research Setting The setting of the study was a closed dark room. This was intended so as other stray light sources cannot interfere with the light source, and the sample will react only with the light source. The respective blocks of the light source, the sampling container and the sensors was enclosed in a non-reactive casing to lessen noise on the sensor and provide fidelity among its procedures. 3.3 Sampling Procedure At least 30 tests were conducted for each of the three different concentrations of mercury. Water mixture was used in detecting the presence of mercury in water. The concentrations of mercury per 2 mL of water were the following: 0 grams, 11.849 grams, 12.156 grams, and 15.947grams. The data gathered from the reactions of each concentration are voltage readings. 3.4 Data Gathering Procedure and Analysis Fused silica was used for the sample cell to gather necessary data. Sample cell was strategically located 180mm directly from light source and the volume of mercury-water mixture was in line of sight with the light source. The light sensor, EPD-365 UV Schottky GaP photodiode, was placed 90° with respect to the sample cell with a distance of 250mm from the sample cell intended so as the light source cannot interfere with the corresponding reaction of the sample. Voltage readings with respect to the light reactions of the sample were acquired using the developed Visual Basic program. The data acquired was then processed in MatLab. Based from the data gathered, the mean was computed to observe if there was a significant difference in the results.

4. DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS Table 1. Cuvette Tube Sample Cell Interaction with Light Source Test number Distilled Water w/o Mercury Content (mV) 228.9 227 230.3 231.1 235 245.7 242.9 238 237.4 242.2 241.4 240.5 Distilled Water with 11.849 grams/2mL Mercury Content (mV) 341.7 205.4 236.1 248.5 260.1 270.6 273.2 272.6 271.6 273.3 274.5 273.3 Distilled Water with 15.947 grams/2mL Mercury (mV) 333.1 331.1 329.9 331.3 330.2 328.8 337 337.5 337.8 334.1 325.8 330.6

Time duration (sec.)

Distilled Water with 12.156grams/2mL Mercury (mV) 298.5 325 330.3 330.5 317.2 321.8 327.1 331.6 319.9 330.6 235.6 325

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

8.00000000000000e-06 1.60000000000000e-05 2.40000000000000e-05 3.20000000000000e-05 4.00000000000000e-05 4.80000000000000e-05 5.60000000000000e-05 6.40000000000000e-05 7.20000000000000e-05 8.00000000000000e-05 8.80000000000000e-05 9.60000000000000e-05

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

0.000104000000000000 0.000112000000000000 0.000120000000000000 0.000128000000000000 0.000136000000000000 0.000144000000000000 0.000152000000000000 0.000160000000000000 0.000168000000000000 0.000176000000000000 0.000184000000000000 0.000192000000000000 0.000200000000000000 0.000208000000000000 0.000216000000000000 0.000224000000000000 0.000232000000000000 0.000240000000000000 0.000248000000000000 0.000256000000000000 0.000264000000000000 0.000272000000000000 0.000280000000000000 0.000288000000000000 Average

239.1 230.2 251.5 225 211.8 220 223.9 222.4 217.6 214.7 211.4 203.7 200.9 198.5 202.8 202.1 204.2 198.9 203.9 199.9 195.4 206.6 209.9 210.9 220.7139

272.9 277.5 278.9 280.5 280.7 281 285 262 263.2 273.2 278.8 283.4 287.6 288.2 286.1 285.8 286.3 284.3 285.5 287.4 289.2 290.2 290.4 289.7 276.9083

332.3 334.7 338.9 334.5 333.4 327.5 326.8 326.9 316.4 323.7 317.5 311.8 304.2 301.6 306.6 312.4 307.8 304.6 309 300.7 299.2 284.4 294.7 299.4 315.0583

330.1 326.5 330.2 330.7 330.6 330.7 330.8 330.6 330.8 330.2 330.1 329.5 330.5 319.6 327.4 327.2 324.7 323.5 321.5 322.8 325.3 325.5 329.6 330.5 329.3361

These values represent how different mercury concentration reacted with the spectroscopy method being used. A directly proportional relationship existed between the concentration and the voltage reading, the higher the concentration in the sample, the higher the voltage reading. Comparing the highest value to the lowest there was a considerable amount of difference indicating that a relative amount of mercury concentration was present. The ascending order of values indicated that the concentration was also increasing with each sample.

5. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The integration of absorption spectroscopy and digital signal processing in the system was a probable method detection of contaminants in water. Frequencies relative to the absorption properties of mercury contaminants were synthesized and analyzed using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm written in Matlab software. Moreover, the integration provided means in detecting contaminants in tap water under the ultraviolet range where mercury reacts. For the further development of the study, the proponents recommended the testing of other mercury compounds and other contaminants in water; the utilization of other analog-to-digital converters with higher resolution capacities and faster processing speeds; further research on the spectroscopy and digital signal processing concepts; and lastly, the usage of other experimental techniques.

REFERENCES Mojica, Geraldine, et al. “Mercury uptake of selected microalgae isolate in Cagayan de Oro River” Zolotov, Yu.A., Malofeeva, G.I., Petrukhin, O.M., Timerbaev, A.R. “New methods for preconcentration and determination of heavy metals in natural water.” Pure & Applied Chemistry. © 1987 IUPAC. “DETECTION OF HEAVY METALS.” CSEM. 5 January 2009. <http://www.csem.ch/detailed/b_421diamond-uelec.htm> „‟Drinking Water Contaminants” US Environmental Protection Agency. <http://www.epa.gov/safewater/contaminants/index.html> Haughn, Sarah. “Toxic Yellow River Intensifies „China‟s Sorrow‟, 2008.” Circle of Blue – Water News. 8 December 2008.<http://www.circleofblue.org/waternews/world/toxic-yellow-river-intensifies-chinassorrow/> “Fused Silica (FS)” 10 February 2010. <http://www.sciner.com/Opticsland/FS.htm> “Hazard Summary-Created in April 1992; Revised in January 2000” U.S Environmental Protection Agency. 01 March 2009. <http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/hlthef/hydrochl.html> KiliÇ, Emel. “HEAVY METALS POLLUTION IN WATER.” 5 January 2009. <http://www.tip2000.com/health/waterpollution.asp>

A REMOTE PC SHUTDOWN SOFTWARE USING THE YAHOO! MESSENGER MESSAGING SYSTEM
Jason Dane S. Cutamora, Ned Enrique Niño Espina and Francis H. Suan Computer Science Department E-mail: sic_snarf16@yahoo.com Maria Ramila I. Jimenez Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT: Computer owners have the right to know if their computer is turned on even when they are away from their computers and they also have the right to control it, such as shutting it down when they are not around. The developers employs tools in developing a Java application program that can connect to Yahoo! Messenger and can also send and receive messages. The developed software runs in Java 2 Standard Edition and uses open source Application Programming Interface (API) classes to establish a valid connection with the Yahoo! Messenger server and a valid Yahoo! Messenger ID with password. The developers are successful in sending and receiving the messages using the developed Java application and are also successful in shutting down a PC remotely over the internet. The tests applied on the software show that the Yahoo! Messenger Messaging Service can be used as a medium for sending and receiving messages to and from the developed Java application over the internet by using a computer or a cellular phone. With the finished project, the developers opt to open the possibility of exploring other new uses for the API used in this project. KEYWORDS: remote PC shutdown, Yahoo! Messenger software, java application

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Statement of the Problem Being away from one‟s personal computer can be a problem because there is a possibility of unwanted access by other persons. To be able to monitor and control one‟s computer would be of great need for those who are always away from their computers but still want to have overall control over their units. With an internet connection and with Yahoo! Messenger, the researchers wanted to develop a software that can connect to Yahoo! Messenger and can send the personal computer‟s status to its owner. 1.2 Objectives The objective of this project is to shutdown a controlled computer using a set of commands and sending it through Yahoo! Messenger.

1.3 Significance of the Study The significance of the study was to make a software that will help owners in monitoring their personal computers. The developed software would be so helpful to all people e.g. the parents monitoring their children, employers monitoring their employees that use their computers at the office during non-working time and to the home owners who have some people living with them that use their computer without their knowledge.

2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Yahoo! Messenger is a free of charge, advertisement-supported instant messaging client application by the Yahoo! Company that lets users send text and voice messages with other Yahoo! Messenger users with a specific Yahoo! ID (Yahoo! Messenger Blog, 2007). The instant messaging service is free of charge and is readily available for download at the Yahoo! website. In a Windows environment, the Remote Desktop Connection lets an owner control over all his files from a remote location using another computer with internet access (Remote Desktop Connection: frequently asked questions, 2009). Another example that implements the same method is EasyCafe by TinaSoft Company. This is commonly used by internet shops but only runs through the Local Area Network (LAN). Its main purpose is to manage an internet shop‟s computers through a main server. The developed software differed from EasyCafe because it has no a time constraint; it also differed from Remote Desktop Connection where the owner has no control over the files of his remote computer.

3. METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Design In this project, the researchers designed, developed, tested and evaluated the Remote PC Shutdown Software Using the Yahoo! Messenger Messaging System. The project was built over Yahoo! Messenger‟s secure messaging scheme that uses a client application on a host computer to communicate with other computers having the same client application that uses Yahoo! ID to connect and identify users over the internet. 3.2 Requirements Definition The researchers delivered a working Java program that is capable of connecting to the Yahoo! Messenger server. The Java application needed its own unique Yahoo! ID and password associated with one specific owner's ID. The owner should have a Yahoo! account to send commands to the Java application running on the remote PC and be able to receive notifications once the Remote PC goes online. 3.3 System Design In this project, the system was composed of the developed software that can connect and receive messages from Yahoo! Messenger using a valid Yahoo! ID. These messages were used as a sort of command input system that gave the owners on the remote side control over a computer using the

Yahoo! Messenger application. 3.4 Programming/Prototyping The programming language used by the researchers in developing the software is Java version 6 with JDK 6. The researchers also utilized NetBeans as the IDE with the minimum version of 6.5.1 to build it. The OS used was Windows XP having a minimum specification of 512 MB of RAM and 128 MB of Video Memory. It also ran in a Windows Vista environment. The researchers used Yahoo! Messenger version 9 since older versions cannot connect. It was compatible with internet connection speeds 56kbps minimum – both upload and download speed.

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 4.1 System Development In making the developed software, the researchers downloaded a Yahoo! Messenger API from the web and used the classes to connect to the internet. During the installation process, the developed software checked if the configuration file exists, if none, it will make one by asking the login credentials (ID and password set for the developed software and only an ID for the owner). The configuration file was important to avoid any security breach and assures a relationship that one developed software is to one master. After it successfully filled up and made, the developed software put a shortcut to the Start-up folder (for the very function that it will run every time the PC turns on). Then logged in using the given login credentials and sent a message to the owner ID that the PC is turned on.

Figure 1. The Developed Software Message to Owner About Online Status 4.2 Testing In developing the software, prototypes were tested for bugs, errors, and fixes. For the first prototype, the researchers used a host computer running the software and another computer to send commands to the remote host computer. Because it was successful, the researchers implemented the system on other computers and conducted interviews and asked feedbacks and suggestions about the software from

selected individuals. The following tests were conducted: Connectivity/Network Testing, White-Box Testing, Black-Box Testing and Acceptance Testing. 4.3 Evaluation After the developed software was implemented, it was evaluated by thirty (30) random beta testers who used it and answered a questionnaire. The results are as follows: In the owner‟s side, in pre-implementation stage, 100% of the beta testers agreed to install the developed software on their PC. Their primary purpose ranges from controlling and monitoring the PC, their partner and their employee(s). In the implementation stage, the developed software gathered an average of 8.8 in the criteria of Ease of Use; 9 for Effectivity; 8.97 for Usefulness; 9 for User-satisfaction. In the user‟s side, also in pre-implementation stage, 77% agreed to install the developed software while the other 23% disagreed. For the 77% of those who agreed, their reasons range from the acceptance of the fact that the owner has rights of his/her PC; others because their parents are the ones who controlled the PC. In the implementation stage, 83% of the beta testers answered that the developed software is not a spyware; 93% answered that it is not a virus; 80% also thought that their rights to privacy was not violated. The developed software also gathered an average of 8.9 for Effectivity; 8.67 for Usefulness; 8.6 for User-satisfaction.

5. CONCLUSION The researchers proved that Yahoo! Messenger can be used as a medium to control a personal computer through another computer or cellular phones as controllers. The developed software created by the researchers utilized Java v6 with JDK 6. The objectives of this project were all accomplished which were mainly to shutdown a controlled computer using a set of commands and sending it through Yahoo! Messenger. Tests conducted on the developed software showed that it functions well, as expected. The evaluations of the users have shown that the developed software‟s functionality is excellent and is useful for computer owners. The researchers have also prepared an optional User Interface for a user-friendly environment. The developed software offered a useful function which a responsible computer owner must have.

6. RECOMMENDATIONS AND FUTURE WORK The project has exceeded its main objective by including some exciting features with it. Yahoo! Messenger updates their protocols from time to time; during the development process the researchers have experienced changing and editing the APIs a lot of times. Further development of this software requires researchers to improvise their own functionalities and features. A feature like print screen can be added to the developed software; since the researchers avoided the issues of hacking, adding this feature leaves the future researchers to their own risk. The developed software was created for the purpose of giving owners the control over their computers. This system has no intention of hacking or doing such acts related to it. The researchers recommend the use of this system with utmost responsibility and respect for other people‟s privacy is encouraged.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The developers would like to express our deepest gratitude to our very supportive Senior Project Adviser, Ma‟am Bambi Jimenez, for her precious time in checking our documentations, helping us by giving suggestions to our project prototype and for her unwavering patience. We would also like to thank their Senior Year Project Coordinators, Ma‟am Amor Cajilla and Ma‟am Bambi Jimenez, for continually supporting us throughout the project-making process. We would also like to thank our families for their unending love and support, both financially and emotionally. We would also like to thank our friends who believed in us that we could accomplish this task. We dedicate this Senior Year Project to our families and friends. Above all, we thank God Almighty for giving us blessings, good health and mind in accomplishing everything that we have accomplished. We believe in making this Senior Year Project for His greater glory.

REFERENCES FFIEC InfoBase (2008) Software Development Techniques <http://www.ffiec.gov/ffiecinfobase/booklets/d_a/10.html> (March 12, 2009 6:55 PM) Idra Connective Solutions (2008) Easy Net Control. <http://enc.idraconnectivesolutions.com> (March 13, 2009, 11:56 PM) InterDesigner Software Development (2009) Shutdown Manager. <http://www.shutdowntools.com>. (March 14, 2009, 12:57 AM) Larry, James (2008) Advantaged of Remote Computer Support Services. <http://www.selfgrowth.com/articles/Adavtages_Of_Remote_Computer_Support_Services.html> (February 4, 2009, 11:35 PM) Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (2009) Knowledge. <http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/knowledge,2 a(2)> (February 12, 2009, 9:34 PM) Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (2009). Consent. <http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/consent> (February 12, 2009, 9:35 PM) Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia (2008) Telnet. <http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761582865/Telnet.html> (February 5, 2009, 10:35 PM) Moir, Robert (2003) Defining Malware: FAQ. <http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/alerts/info/malware.mspx>. (February 12, 2009, 9:24 PM) NSAuditor.com (2008) RemShutdown - Shutdown or Restart Network Computers Remotely! <http://www.nsauditor.com/network_tools/remote_shutdown.html> (February 14, 2009, 12:31 AM) OnGuard Online (2008) Spyware. <http://www.onguardonline.gov/topics/spyware.aspx> (February 12. 2009, 9:27 PM) SearchSecurity.com (2008) Spyware. <http://searchsecurity.rechtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid14_gci1451800.html>. (February 12, 2009, 9:26

PM) Softplatz.com (2008) Manage PC Shutdown. <http://www.softplatz.com/Soft/Utilities/NetworkUtilities/Manage-PC-Shutdown.html>. (March 12, 2009, 11:36 PM) Sun Microsystems (2009) Java for Windows - Internet Explorer Online Installation. <http://www.java.com/en/download/ie_manual.jsp?locale=en&host=www.java.com:80&bhcp=1> (March 6, 2009, 4:43 PM) TinaSoft Company (2008) EasyCafe: The Best Internet Café Management Software in the World. <http://www.tinasoft.com/easycafe> (March 14, 2009, 10:23 AM) Windows Vista Help (2009) Remote Desktop Connection: frequently asked questions. <http://windowshelp.microsoft.com/Windows/en-us/help/f55326fa-e629-423b-abbab30f76cc61e61033.mspx#EI> (March 13, 2009, 10:52 PM) Yahoo! Help (2009) What are the system requirements to use the premium Yahoo! Voice services? <http://help.yahoo.com/l/us/yahoo/messenger/messenger8/phoneout/phoneout-01.html> (March 7, 2009, 4:50 PM) Yahoo! Messenger Blog (2007) New Build and Voice Feature. <http://www.ymessengerblog.com/blog/2007/01/26/new-build-free-voice-feature/>. (March 12, 2009, 7:15 PM)

DEVELOPMENT OF A HACCP-BASED FOOD SAFETY PROGRAM FOR DARLING FOOD PRODUCTS
Ana Maria Kristina G. Arquiza, Stifany N. Caangay, Rhodora T. Rodriguez and Kennan Rey Y. Velez Industrial Engineering Department Email: rodriguezrhodora@yahoo.com Ma. Lourdes M. Abao Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT: Food safety and quality is important in the Philippines because it addresses not only health concerns but also poverty in the country. Complying with HACCP requirements is also a strategic advantage in a competitive market. Darling Food Products is a small medium enterprise meat processing company that needs to apply aspects of a holistic HACCP-based food safety program in their food production. Data collection and documentation of the current system in DFP is divided among the proponents of the study. Internal and external factors that affect the performance of DFP‟s system are then analyzed. Afterwards, the proponents of the study appraise the company‟s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats and identify the major problem that the system encounters through analysis. The proponents then suggest several measures as possible components of a food safety program. The proposed system focuses on helping Darling Food Products to apply aspects of a holistic HACCP-based food safety program in their food production. This program includes trainings that would be conducted regarding the proper method of maintaining and calibrating the equipment, operators are encouraged to report downtimes, piping systems will be installed with a conventional electric water heater and backflow devices should also be installed to ensure that water used in the facility are those considered safe for human consumption. Complying with the prerequisites of a HACCP based system would create a significant impact on Darling Food Products in terms of opportunity increase. Implementing HACCP pre-requirements immediately would not be a wise decision in achieving future gains. Gradual working on the prerequisites for future implementation would be much more recommended, while addressing more attention on the immediate problems. KEYWORDS: HACCP, food Safety, meat processing

1. INTRODUCTION Meat processing has become a very important segment of the Philippine economy as the population grew to a base of more than 85 million consumers. The industry now contributes over P70 billion to the gross

domestic product annually, provides 60,000 direct and indirect jobs, and supports allied businesses such as packaging, canning, advertising, printing, media, retail trade, among others. The meat processing industry is an industry that has proven to be one of the catalysts in urban development that addresses poverty in Northern Mindanao. Basically, meat processing industries in the region range from small scale to medium enterprises (SMEs). According to a study by the Philippine Association of Meat Processors of the Philippines Inc. (Pampi), each Filipino consumes an average of 7 kilos of hotdogs, corned beef and other processed meat products annually. Over the years, routine food safety practices have been discovered and developed to minimize, if not eradicate, contaminants on meat items. Among these practices is HACCP, or Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points, a scientific approach that addresses concerns on food safety. Developed countries such as the United States have adopted the HACCP-based food safety system to protect their consumers from all kinds of hazards or contaminants, including bacteria. DFP wants to make sure that Filipino consumers have access to high-quality, yet affordable meat products. DFP also wants to be among the few companies that have started to apply the HACCP system in Northern Mindanao before the National Meat Inspection Service would issue regulations that would make HACCP mandatory for meat processing products. In this study, the scope is defined in two dimensions namely, the spatial which is the space and temporal or time. For the spatial scope, the system under study, which is the processing of meat products starts from the time the raw materials are delivered to the processing area until the finished products are packed and stored. The products to be considered are all the products that are processed in the production area. The justification for the chosen spatial scope is that these products utilize and share all the equipment. For the temporal scope, the study period starts from June 2009 until October 2009. The data would be obtained from the six (6) working days from Monday to Saturday. At present, Darling Food Products produces a range of quality products. Presented below in Table 1 is the list of DFP‟s major product line along with their sizes and presented in Figure 1 is the distribution of their product cost. Table 1. List of Darling Food Products’ Major Product Line and Their Sizes Product Description Bacon Beef Chorizo Chicken Tocino Chorizo de Oro Darling Ham Longaniza Pearshaped Ham Size (kg) 1 1 1 0.25, 1 1 1 1 Product Description Pork Tocino Premium Hotdog Jumbo Hotdog Skinless Chorizo Longaniza de Oro Sweet Ham Size (kg) 0.25, 1 0.25, 1 1 1 0.25 0.25

Figure 1. Distribution of Product Cost According to the operations manager, the primary objective of the production system of the company is to consistently provide consumers a range of quality products for every meal that is affordable and to ensure that the range of products is clean and safe for consumption. This is established by eliminating the risk of hazards at all stages of food production and consistently practicing good housekeeping procedures.

2. DECRIPTION OF THE PROBLEM, THE ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS AND THE PROPOSED SYSTEM 2.1 Problem Analysis Darling Food Products may experience marketplace failures, opportunity loss in terms of customers and no increase in market share due to no HACCP accreditation. In the process of determining the most probable cause of the problem, the proponents of the study decided to use a cause-and-effect diagram. The analysis segments possible causes in 6 ways, namely: Man, Machine, Methods, Materials, Management, and Information. The proponents of the study then collected data and interviewed relevant and appropriate individuals in order to verify the true causes of the problem. After the verification, the proponents decided to construct a final cause-and-effect diagram.

Figure 2. Final Cause and Effect Diagram 2.2 Alternative Solution The proponents of the study then came up with possible solutions that can help the company in complying with the prerequisite product safety program for a HACCP system. The alternative solutions were evaluated and selected by using the Kepner-Tregoe Decision Analysis. For this analysis the evaluation criteria is divided into two parts, the musts and the wants. The musts are factors that are essential for the proposed system, and the wants are factors that are not as necessary but are desired by the company. For the musts, the alternatives should not disrupt Darling Food Products‟ present production system; the alternatives should not cause any conflict with Darling Food Products and the alternatives should not cause any contradiction with HACCP requirements. For the wants, the alternatives should be cost effective and the alternative should be implemented within a month. After the analysis, the following alternatives are selected as components of a food safety program: (1) DFP should purchase new equipment; (2) DFP should implement an internal maintenance and calibration program; (3) DFP should install conventional electric water heater as well as install backflow prevention devices; (4) DFP should establish a record keeping and documentation procedures through a database system. 2.3 Proposed System The proposed system is focused on helping Darling Food Products to apply aspects of a holistic HACCPbased food safety program in their food production. Trainings would be conducted to the line leaders regarding the proper method of maintaining and calibrating the equipment and the proper method of responding to machine downtimes. The machine operators should be encouraged to report downtimes and breakdowns so as to create a sense of responsibility and awareness of the equipment they use. Darling Foods Products piping system will be installed with a conventional electric water heater to control the temperature of the tap water. Maintaining lukewarm water inside the food plant is very important to prevent bacteria from contaminating the processed meats, abiding with the HACCP requirements. Backflow devices should also be installed. This is to ensure that HACCP regulation is being implemented in the facility and that water used in the facility are those considered safe for human consumption.

Production workers shall fill up maintenance record forms and submit these to the assistant operations manager after every scheduled maintenance is performed. The said assistant operations manager shall then input such data into the database system; Microsoft Access may be used for such. Other data that need to be documented are cases of machine breakdown and downtimes.

3. CONCLUSION Because of the arising technological advances, people are becoming more and more concerned of the different health and safety institutions that are advocating healthy products for consumption. In line with this, consumers purchase products not only those with cheaper cost but those with good nutritional benefits and products that are safe for consumption. Complying with the prerequisites of an HACCP based system would create a significant impact on Darling Food Products in terms of opportunity increase. It is also a strategic advantage in a competitive market, but other factors such as funds allocated by management, equipment maintenance and so on should be considered. These show that implementing HACCP pre-requirements immediately would not be a wise decision in achieving future gains. Gradual working on the prerequisites for future implementation would be much more recommended, while addressing more attention on the immediate problems.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to express our deepest appreciation to our department chair, Glenn B. Paclijan, our feasibility study moderator, Shierlyn S. Paclijan, and our faculty adviser, Ma. Lourdes M. Abao, whose encouragement and support from the initial to the final level enabled us to develop an understanding of the study. Without their guidance and persistent help this dissertation would not have been possible. In addition, a thank you to the operations manager of Darling Food Products, Niño Tello Lazo, for his invaluable contribution by making the establishment available for our study.

REFERENCES Surak, J.G. and Wilson, S. (2007) The Certified HACCP Auditor Handbook. ASQ Quality Pres Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Paster, T. (2007) The HACCP Food Safety Training Manual. John Wiley & Sons Inc., New Jersey. Ibarra, P. I. (1983) Meat Processing for Small and Medium Scale Operations. UP at Los Baños, College of Agricluture, Laguna. Maynard, H. B. (1971) Industrial Engineering Handbook, 3 Edition. Mcgraw-Hill Book Company.
rd

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON SMALL SCALED WIND POWER GENERATION FOR SINGLE DWELLING LIGHTING IN RURAL COMMUNITIES
Edward Nelson O. Ty, Andre R. Balambao, Gregorick U. Sayon, Joseph R. Raakin and Aga Louie E. Abellanosa Electrical Engineering Department E-mail: ty.edward@ymail.com Gunnar Marc Shane C. Cabaraban Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT: The growing demand for electrical power is now rapidly felt by our country. As our urban and rural communities are being developed and catered with electrical power, some communities are still being deprived from the benefits of electricity due to distance and accessibility. This results in areas relying solely on candle and torches to barely light the night. Government and NGO projects that extend the grid and further distribute power are slowed down by economic and location problems resulting to many areas not having the benefits of electric power. This scenario becomes a challenge that the group should provide a solution. Creating design that is economical and suitable for the area is carefully formulated. Inspired by the availability of potential renewable energy sources, providing sustainable energy for everyone is not impossible. The study evaluated wind energy as a potent source that can provide the power needed to provide lighting to the community. Wind energy will be used to drive wind turbines that will be driving reused dynamos creating a typical power generation in small scale. These dynamos acts as generators that will charge the batteries. Batteries will then be used to power cluster type LED lights at night. The researchers gather data through a series of laboratory and field tests which proved to be sufficient enough to provide electricity for single dwelling lighting. On the whole, using reused dynamos designed in small scale wind power generation can provide a low cost and adequate sustainable lighting to rural communities as well as promoting better progress and community development. KEYWORDS: power grid, renewable energy sources, small-scaled power generation, LED lights, dynamos

1. THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING As urban communities are being developed and catered with electrical power, rural outskirts far from power distributors still have energy demands that need to be addressed. Although the demands of these rural communities are of small quantity, power providers ignore it because: the grid does not reach the

said community; secondly, their investments will take time to regain because of less consumers. The concern for light as a basic power demand of these rural communities must be entertained. Wind energy converted into electricity will be utilized to address this simple yet critical demand. 1.1 Theoretical Framework The study will utilize wind energy to drive wind turbines drives small dynamos to power the basic light needs of the rural outskirts community. The small dynamos which are found as junk materials will be reused to provide the charging current for batteries. The batteries will then be used to power lights. The economic value and the energy availability makes wind energy more suitable over solar energy. Since wind is present most of the time, having two or more batteries used alternately ensures having a charged spare while one is in operation. 1.2 Conceptual Background

Input (wind)

Wind Turbine

output (light)

Dynamo

Battery

Figure 1. Block Diagram of the Project 1.3 Statement of the Problem Electrical power grids may not reach all locations that demand electricity, relying solely on candles and torches to light the night. The lack of light degrades development resulting in a less productive and slack off progress. Thus having the need to extend the supply outside the limits and provide a long term solution to the power demands will benefit the community and promote development. 1.4 Significance of the Project This project aims to provide a sufficient and sustainable power to give lighting to rural communities having no access to electrical power grids. Extending productivity for a better community will be the greatest impact of this study as the development and efficiency regarding work done will have greater duration rather than stopping as the sun sets by. Also, replacing conventional candles and torches with electric powered lights provides a safer system against fire. Since wind energy is clean and naturally occurring, not using carbon emitting light sources will provide a greener and safer world for everyone. 1.5 Statement of Hypothesis The small scaled wind power generation will provide adequate sustainable lighting to rural communities that will give benefits toward community development. 1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study This project research requires other fields of expertise such as the dynamics of gearing system. The researchers could collaborate and join forces with the Mechanical Engineering students that could share their expertise on the gearing aspect. Assuming that they have done their part, during experiment and

testing the group could use some other means such as bicycle pedals. The only part the group will be dealing with is the generation of efficient electricity from above to the ground. The main concerns here are on how to supply sufficient light to rural areas using cluster type LEDs as loads, how to generate power, and how to control the power generated. Maintenance and turbine design are no longer included in our study.

2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND RELATED STUDIES Olinger and Goela (2008), found out that the performance characteristics of a one-kilowatt scale kite power system appropriate for sustainable development in an impoverished nation have been determined. The kite power system consists of a large kite, a tether, and a ground-based energy conversion mechanism. Governing equations describing the dynamical motion of the kite, tether, rocking arm, and power transmission mechanism were developed assuming an inflexible, straight-line tether. The governing equations were solved numerically using a Runge-Kutta scheme. According to Gairbhith, the kite-based system is an appropriate technology for extracting the wind-energy at high altitudes. The capacity factor calculated of 52% compares favorably with terrestrial wind-turbines with other potential benefits of a 74% lower embodied energy and lower cost per MWh. Another opinion (Spur: Ideas and Action for a better city) encourages expansion of small-scale wind generation in cities such as San Francisco because not only does it save money but have a longer life cycle. This same opinion was supported by an article (Micro-Generation: Small Power with a big Impact) that micro-generation can take many forms but generally are connected, but not completely reliant on the larger electrical grid so as to sell unused electricity back to the system. In this way, homeowners and operators of small generation systems are able to achieve a measure of energy independence and realize financial benefits that can help offset the costs of adding power-generating technology to residences. According to Anouk Kendall, the benefits of such systems boil down to increased efficiency, less pollution and a broadening of the province's electricity pool, which can help strengthen the entire system.

3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Description of Subjects and Equipment The proponents tested on a couple of small dynamos installed on an elevated pole or kite that can charge a battery with a minimum of 6 V using wind power. The said dynamos were small but efficient to reduce weight and improve flight. This dynamo served as a DC generator which produced power in rpm. Specifications of the dynamos had a maximum weight of 200 grams to allow the device to operate at high elevations. The length and type of the wire was determined by the potential produced by the dynamo. A protective circuit was incorporated for load protection for immediate response to voltage drop changes. 3.2 Research Design and Procedures The device was composed of a number of small working dynamos installed to charge a battery through wind power. A target of more than 1000 rpm was considered during testing. The number of dynamos that was used depended on how much wind power is available and the potential energy produced by the

dynamo. The tests focused on the amount of power generated with respect to the capacity to charge a certain battery. The device was tested on a simulated environment where abundant wind energy is present. The wire type and propeller specs was determined depending on the number of dynamo output capacity and total weight. For safety purposes, the simulation was done using a large industrial fan that was focused on a prototype micro generator to approximate power generated by each generator.

4. DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

Table 1. Corresponding Voltage Readings On Different Kinds Of Used Dynamos Test 1: VHS DYNAMO RPM VOLTS (dc) 182 0.36 304 0.59 483 0.93 580 1.14 780 1.60 828 1.60 949 1.84 1000 2.00 1370 2.60 1500 3.00 1790 3.50 1950 3.80 1998 3.90 Test2: BICYCLE DYNAMO RPM VOLTS (ac) 128 0.40 383 1.70 745 3.30 1100 5.00 1300 5.80 1650 7.40 2000 8.70 2187 9.20

The values from the VHS dynamo were acceptable producing DC voltage while the bicycle dynamo produces AC voltage. The researchers found out that dynamos from the bicycle produce larger values in terms of voltage with respect to a certain speed. These data was fed to the PAGASA Wind Survey (Appendix A) and found some relationship to be used in the Power Equation from the Wind (Appendix B).

5. SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS The researchers were able to design a sufficient generation system that can provide enough power and can be stored until its use. The small scaled wind power generation is able to supply the required single dwelling lighting in rural communities. The design adapts a conventional wind turbine operating horizontally against the wind. A study on a better design like vertical turbines and its effect on the system is recommended. Protecting the load and the generator unit at the same time performing regulation was also a concern, thus a Battery Controller Circuit study for the system will be a good study extension on the design. A combination of sources can improve the capacity of the system. A study on Small Scale Hybrid Power Generation design utilizing

multiple input sources from other alternative sources was also recommended.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The researchers acknowledges and extend their heartfelt gratitude to the following persons who have made contributions for the completion of this experimental study: to their faculty adviser, Engr. Gunnar Marc Shane C. Cabaraban, for his vital encouragement to pursue the study and supported it in any way possible; to the Electrical Engineering mentors, Engr. Gunnar Marc Shane C. Cabaraban and Engr. Ignacio B. Fabia, for sharing their time, experties and ideas; Cagayan de Oro‟s PAGASA, for sharing their wind surveys which was very significant to our study; to Engr. Jefferson R. Escarpe, for giving us helpful advices and techniques; to XU IIEE-CSC members, to our close friends and to our dear families; and most especially to God , who made all things possible.

REFERENCES Canale, M., Fagiano, L., Milanese, M. and Ippolito, M. (2007) KiteGen project: Control as key th technology for a quantum leap in wind energy generators, in Proc. 26 American Control Conf., New York, pp. 3522–3528. Drouilhet, S. et al. (1995) Optimizing Small Wind Turbine Performance in Battery Charging Applications. Washington D.C. Freris, L.L. (1990) (ed.) Wind Energy Conversion Systems. Prentice Hall, London. Gipe, P. (1995) Wind Power, James and James, London. Houska , B. and. Diehl, M. (2007) Optimal control for power gnerating kites in Proc. 9th European Control Conf., Kos, Greece, pp. 3560–3567. Twidell, J. and Weir, Tony. (2006) Renewable Energy Resources. Taylor & Francis, London and New York.

APPENDIX Appendix A DOST-PAGASA: Monthly and Annual data maximum speed and wind direction o Station: Lumbia, Misamis Oriental Latitude: 8 26‟ o CMO: Shirley V. Alamazan Longhitude: 124 37‟ Period: 2006 – Present Jan Feb wd/m ws 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Nor mal No Gust 340/0 06 320/0 08 360/0 10 360/0 12 180/0 03 360/0 03 360/0 03 360/0 03 360/0 03 360/0 02 180/0 02 180/0 02 180/0 02 180/0 02 180/0 02 180/0 02 wd/m ws 340/0 06 360/0 07 360/0 06 360/0 06

Mar wd/m ws 320/0 06 300/0 08 360/0 07 360/0 06

Apr wd/m ws No Gust 360/0 10 360/0 06 360/0 07

May wd/m ws 180/0 09 270/0 07 200/0 14 270/0 08

Jun wd/m ws 220/0 06 220/0 12 270/0 08 220/0 09

Jul wd/m ws 270/0 10 220/0 09 270/0 12 270/0 12

Aug wd/m ws 270/0 10 220/0 07 270/0 09 220/0 14

Sept wd/m ws 270/0 10 220/0 11 360/0 12 360/0 15

Oct wd/m ws 270/0 08 250/0 06 280/0 10 220/0 13

Nov wd/m ws 270/0 09 200/0 08 360/0 12 240/0 09

Dec wd/m ws 270/0 07 360/0 06 180/0 06 300/0 08

MWS – Maximum Wind Speed (meter per second) WD – Wind Direction (degrees) Appendix B The power from the wind hitting a turbine: PT = ½ CPApu0
3

(1)

where PT : total power of the wind to its rated maximum (kW) CP : an efficiency factor called „the power coeffecient‟ 2 A : cross sectional area of the wind (m ) Ƿ : wind density u0 : wind speed (m/s)

DESIGN OF AN ENERGY COST-EFFECTIVE AIR-CONDITIONING UNIT WITH DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR-COMPRESSOR AND DUAL ENERGY SOURCE
Nonito B. Amoncio Jr. and James Lowell H. Sanchez Mechanical Engineering Department Email: nitzki_a@yahoo.com Nestor G. Ipanag Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT: Air-conditioning unit is an appliance used to cool space and maintain its temperature and humidity at a certain level. This provides comfortable and workable environment for the people both in commercial and residential establishments. Air-conditioning units are equipped with electric motors that convey mechanical work to the compressor and blower. The amount of power consumed by these motors determines the partial amount of power required by the unit. Apparently, the world is in need of a program effective for power saving and development of renewable energy. In response to this, several modifications have been established and implemented for many electrical equipments and appliances including the window-type air-conditioning unit. For this project, energy saving is acquired by replacing the Alternating Current (AC) motor with Direct Current (DC) motor and by utilizing solar energy as an alternative source of power secondary to 220V utility. Air-conditioning unit operating in vaporcompression cycle with DC driven motor coupled to the compressor or blower is one way of reducing the amount of power consumption in the grid because the power generated and exploited by the solar panel can directly be utilized by the motor. The Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER), which is the rate at which the air-conditioning unit cools space divided by the power input to the unit, is compared between the typical and modified design. By interpretation of data generated in the experiment, the researchers determine the amount of power saving associated with the modified design. The amount of power saving is evaluated to justify the initial costs of investment in the Photovoltaic cells and other components. KEYWORDS: alternating Current, Direct Current, vapor-compression, Energy Efficiency Ratio, photovoltaic cells

1. THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING 1.1 Introduction Air-conditioning unit is an appliance used to cool space and maintain its temperature and humidity at a

certain level. This provides comfortable and workable environment for the people both in residential and commercial establishments. Typical air-conditioning units are equipped with electric motors that convey mechanical work to the compressor and blower necessary to keep the system running at adequate efficiency. The amount of power consumed by these motors determines the partial amount of power required by the unit. Reduction of this amount of power thus decreases the overall power consumption bill. 1.2 Statement of the Problem In response to the pressing need of a program effective both for power saving and development of renewable energy, several modifications have been established and implemented for many electrical equipments and appliances including the window-type air-conditioning unit. For this project, the researchers determines the difference in power consumption between Alternating Current and Direct Current motors, and the amount of power saving that can be generated when utilizing solar energy as an alternate source of power secondary to the 220V utility. Since solar energy is a naturally occurring phenomenon, the only problem therefore is the design of an apparatus that will extract, store, and use this energy to periodically run the air-conditioning unit. By evaluation of the amount of power savings and the costs of investment, the researchers determines the viability of the modified design. 1.3 Objectives This project aims to develop an alternative design for typical window-type air-conditioning unit that uses Direct Current motor and a combination of PV cells + battery assembly and 220V utility. Specifically, the study aims to compare energy consumption values between typical and modified window-type airconditioning design; to evaluate the variations in Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) between typical and modified window-type air-conditioning design; to reduce significant amount of energy consumption from utility grid by exploiting significant amount of solar energy as unit‟s secondary source of power; and to determine the viability and reliability of this project base on the cost of investment and amount of power savings. 1.4 Conceptual Framework Window-type air-conditioning unit used today utilizes AC motors to provide mechanical power to the compressor and the blower. One important modification employed in this project is the introduction of DC motor as replacement for AC motor. Another modification is the installation of PV cells plus battery assembly as unit‟s secondary source of power. Photovoltaic cells are capable of converting solar flux directly into electric power. Photovoltaic conversion of sunlight to electricity occurs in a thin layer of semiconductor material exposed to solar flux. 1.5 Significance of the Study Our present energy resources cannot sustain the growing demand of electricity spawned by the world‟s vast growth in population and industry. It has been a challenge for everyone to provide an energy saving program that helps cut off energy consumption from grid. Harnessing renewable energies has been an important endeavor for both the public and the private sectors as an immediate response to the growing demand of electricity. One example of renewable

energy is the solar energy that comes from sunlight. The use of this energy is highly recommended because of its environmental advantages. 1.6 Scope and Limitation This project focuses on the modification of typical window-type air-conditioning unit, from AC motor to DC motor and from 220V utility to PV cells + battery assembly and 220V utility combination. Modification of other components viable for power savings is beyond the scope of this project. Data analyses are grounded on the comparison between typical and modified design using only one air-conditioning unit. Air-conditioning units of different types and sizes or with different cooling capacities are not included in the experimentation. 1.7 Definition of Terms      Photovoltaic cell - A photovoltaic cell (PV cell) is a specialized semiconductor diode that converts visible light into direct current (DC). Alternating Current – A movement or flow of electric charge that periodically reverses direction. Utility grid – The grid is the system of distribution lines that delivers energy from power plants to homes and businesses across the country. Vapor-compression cycle - A refrigeration cycle in which a refrigerant is made to boil or vaporize, causing cooling, with subsequent compression of the vapor into a liquid. Direct Current – The unidirectional flow of electric charge.

2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE September 2001: a solar-powered vapor-compression refrigeration system was developed by Michael K. Ewert and David J. Bergeron III. The design of this system will make the cost of solar-powered refrigeration systems competitive and enable the use of such systems in long-distance spaceflights, military field operations, and other situations in which electric power for conventional refrigerators and freezers is unavailable. Recently, Tropical Marine Air Conditioning, Inc. was able to release Marvair 12 VDC Air Conditioner. Marvair 12 VDC air conditioner is designed to operate directly from a 12 volt DC power supply and has a nominal cooling capacity of 5,000 BTU. The air conditioner including a small circulating pump draws a nominal 30 amp. The unit can be operated directly from batteries and can be used dockside with a suitable battery charger.

3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Design The typical design of window-type air-conditioning unit was reconstructed into a modified model capable of reducing its power consumption from the utility grid. Experimental procedures were designed to determine the total power consumption and the Energy Efficiency ratio of two units. A significant amount of energy saving with no depressing effect on the ERR suggested positive output. A break-even point that fell within the operational period implied viability of the project

3.2 Set-up Design

Figure 1. Schematic Diagram of the Modified Unit 3.3 Research Setting The experimental procedures for both typical and modified air-conditioning units were performed in one enclosed room. The pronouncement of having only one setting was necessary to obtain a minimal variation in the values of filtration, solar, transmission, and internal heat loads between the two compared units. 3.4 Data Gathering Procedures 3.4.1 Typical Unit The test was conducted in the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory. The unit was kept running for exactly one hour straight. Data were collected during start up and every 10 minutes passing. Multi tester and clamp ammeter were used to determine the power consumption of the unit. The Energy Efficiency Ratio was determined by the cooling rate and the power input. 3.4.3 PV cells + Battery assembly By actual operation of the solar panel, the value of energy that can be acquired given a specific duration of time was obtained. This value was used to obtain the length of time required to fully charge the battery. The length of time it took for the battery to run the equipment at normal condition was measured by timer. 3.4.4 Cost of Investment VS. Savings A break-even analysis was built to determine the break-even point of the modified design. 3.5 Data Analysis Procedures The data collected in the experiment were tabulated and evaluated to determine the power consumption difference between AC and DC motors, and the amount of power saving with PV cells + battery assembly. The total amount of power saving at a specified period of time and the costs of the PV cells and battery along with other auxiliaries used were associated in the Break-even analysis.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We are very grateful for the kind assistance of following people: Engr. Nestor G. Ipanag, Engr. Cyril G. Fabrea, Mr. Patricio Cabading, and all BSME 5th year students.

REFERENCES http://saveenergy.about.com/od/understandingenergy/g/EER_DEF.htm http://solar.nmsu.edu/publications/pv_direct_refrig.pdf http://www.marvairmarineairconditioningflorida.com/marvair-marine-12volt-airconditioning.html

C MMU I O NT Y D VL P N E EO ME T

DESIGN OF A GRAVITY-FLOW WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM FOR SITIO IGPIT, JASAAN, MISAMIS ORIENTAL
Peter Andrew U. Gamones, Vandolph Q. Lozano, Joel M. Sabuero and John Jefferson A. Garcia Civil Engineering Department E-mail: gpeterandrew@ymail.com Dexter S. Lo Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
Sitio Igpit is a small community situated uphill in Brgy. Luz Banzon, Jasaan, Misamis Oriental. Sitio Igpit is in need of a proper water supply distribution facility. The community utilizes the excess water of the spring reservoir in the neighboring barangay of Cabacungan, Claveria, Misamis Oriental. It is the intent of this study to design a gravity-flow water supply system with a level III service connection. Important data such as water consumption, population inventory, distances and elevations, required flow, and spring capacity were gathered. Pipeline routes were laid out based on the existing topography of the sitio. Storage tanks are made of ferrocement and designed based on the total water demand of the community. Transmission and distribution pipes are designed based on hydraulic principles. Results indicate that the spring is capable of meeting the present demands of the community. Furthermore, results also indicate that gravity flow is feasible in delivering water to the community. It is expected that adequate water supply will be served to the residents of Sitio Igpit in their respective households after the completion of this project. Countless hours will no longer be wasted by the residents by fetching water and will be used in more productive activities. KEYWORDS: spring, gravity flow, service connection, hydraulics, water supply system, water demand

DESIGN OF A DOMESTIC WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM IN BARANGAY PIGSAG-AN, CDOC
Kim Stephanie M. Acupan, Golda Mae B. Boborol, Kristian Ryan S. Cruz, John G. Lonon and Darell M. Taboada Civil Engineering Department E-mail: gold_crinkles@yahoo.com Jonathan V. Gomez Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
The community of Barangay Pigsag-an is currently suffering from water shortage. The only domestic water supply they have is delivered to the community through a single communal faucet. The residents use most of their time falling in line just to get water instead of doing more productive works. The objective of this project is to develop a design of a new domestic water distribution system that would supplement the lack of domestic water supply in the barangay. This project is in collaboration with Barangay Pigsag-an since it will also alleviate their problems regarding health and sanitation. The study includes the detailed engineering plans for the storage tank, spring boxes, tap stand and pipelines; it also includes the specifications, cost estimate, and schedule of activities of the system. The researchers conducted interviews, ocular inspections and tachymetric surveys to acquire data for the design. The water distribution system design uses a gravity flow system, designed to deliver domestic water to 1180 residents and last10 years. The spring source has an efficiency of 80.54%. With a storage tank operational capacity of 14,240 liters, the ADD of Barangay Pigsag-an will be supplied but with an estimated operational stop of 4-5 hours per day. The researchers designed a cylindrical storage tank, 3 meters in height and 2.50 meters in diameter, using ferrocement technology. Four communal faucets were designed and placed at an approximate distance of 250 meters from each other. System pressures and velocities were calculated as to follow the minimum and maximum requirements. But 2 tap stands had lower system pressures due to terrain limitations. A PE-SDR 11 pipe will be utilized for the transmission and distribution pipelines and a GI pipe schedule 20 for the tap stand. With a new domestic water distribution system design, Barangay Pigsag-an will enjoy adequate amounts of domestic water. KEYWORDS: Barangay Pigsag-an, Domestic Water Distribution System, Ferrocement Technology, Average Day Demand

AN ANALYTICAL STUDY ON THE TRAFFIC COUNT DATA AS MEANS TO ESTABLISH THE TRAFFIC VOLUME, RATE OF FLOW, DENSITY, AND CAPACITY OF MASTERSON AVENUE, CARMEN, CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY OF 2010
Jay Karl L. Gialogo, Shirlyn P. Dayyo and Dennis Fernan E. Pagapulaan Civil Engineering Department E-mail: shirlyn_17@yahoo.com Gerardo P. Apor Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
There are four major components that every rural and urban community considers in order to have a functional society. These are abundant water supply, sufficient quantity of employment, ample and cheap power generation, and accessible transportation. Cagayan de Oro is one of the cities blessed with these important elements that helped it flourish through the years. Unfortunately, as the city booms, the traffic congestion problem heightens thus slowly eliminating one major component; an accessible transportation. The objective of this research is to determine the volume and rate of flow of traffic, traffic density, traffic capacity, and new peak hour periods in Masterson Avenue, Carmen, Cagayan De Oro City and generate a traffic data to counter this traffic congestion in the city. The study covers only a partial 3.072 km lane of the Masterson Avenue, starting from the Kagay-an Bridge then going up to the intersection of the Macapagal by-pass road. There are three strategic locations as observation spots: the Vamenta Boulevard junction at the new bridge fronting West city central school; the crossing of Mocco Street and Macanhan road; and at the intersections of the Macapagal by-pass road. The study focuses only on the amount of vehicles entering and exiting the premises of the said road through those selected strategic locations and to formulate a conclusion on what causes the traffic congestion. Computations of the acquired data presents four (4) new peak hour values from the video coverage of the traffic count, an average daily volume of 16,477 vehicles and an average weekly volume of 93,384 vehicles, with a rate of traffic flow of 3,187 vehicles per hour, and traffic density of 650 vehicles per kilometer, and two of these locations are found to be congested, concluding that vehicles are exceeding the capacity of Masterson Avenue, Carmen. KEYWORDS: Cagayan de Oro City, Masterson's Avenue, Traffic Congestion, Motor vehicle registration, Traffic Count

IN V T E N O AI V DS N EI S G

DOOR SECURITY SYSTEM
Harold Andrew M. Oclarit, Marcelle T. Matuod and Carlo Martin A. Sarausa Electronics Engineering Department E-mail: celz052004@yahoo.com Lory Liza D. Bulay-og Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
Security is the degree of protection against danger, loss, and criminals. It is important nowadays to protect our valuable things from thieves. The problem of common household doors is that it uses only a door knob to lock the door from the outside making it as the only mechanism that holds the door in lock condition, leaving it vulnerable to house break-ins. This project will focus on designing electronic circuits for a door security system that controls a solenoid locking device and enables a system-to-owner communication through a call and SMS message when an unlock and lock condition of the door takes place. The system is composed of a triggering circuit, relay circuit, light sensing circuit, door lock alarm circuit, open-lock alarm circuit and forcedly-opened alarm circuit. In order to come up with the prototype, we used Multisim to simulate our designs and enable us to see the output voltages and currents of each module. It is important for us to control the voltages and currents across each module to enable the system to operate properly. Every module was properly tested to ensure that the whole system can properly work as a whole. Based on our findings, the voltage and current outputs of each module are consistent and satisfy the voltage and current inputs requirements of each module that makes up the whole system. It shows that it is possible to design a door security system that controls the solenoid lock from inside or outside the door and with system-to-owner communication capabilities through a call and SMS verification. KEYWORDS: Security, Solenoid, SMS, Triggering Circuit, Relay Circuit, Sensing, Forcedlyopen

TEMPERATURE AND PH MONITORING AND CONTROL DEVICE FOR ANAEROBIC DIGESTER
Alen B. Abamonga, Dareal Alann B. Garcia and Goldee Rheena Mae B. Verano Electronics Engineering Department Email: opilutoy@yahoo.com Lory Liza D. Bulay-og Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
This project, Temperature and pH Monitoring and Control System for Anaerobic Digester, aims to design and construct a system that will not only monitor the actual temperature and pH of the digester, but also control these parameters so that it will not go beyond or below the required temperature and pH level needed for optimum methane production. The circuit design is fairly simple, as it only needs amplifiers, comparators and relays, as well as LED indicators. The control mechanisms are water heater, pipes, and solenoid valves. After the gathering of data, the system can not only indicate the actual values of temperatures and pH, but it can also control the temperature to 35 °C and ph 7, the desired operating temperature and pH for anaerobic digesters. The system will be very significant to the people who utilize anaerobic digester for research, educational and commercial use, like agriculturists and chemical engineering students alike. It will remove the laborious work of monitoring and controlling the temperature and pH of digesters, as poor maintenance of these parameters will result to minimal methane production. It is a fairly simple device yet very beneficial. KEYWORDS: Monitor, Control, Temperature, pH, Anaerobic Digester

PROTOTYPE PIC16F877A MICROCONTROLLER VOTING MACHINE
Michael P. Angon, Louijie O. Ocampo, Rodeller S. Dullente and Terenz Scout B. Tangarorang Electronics Engineering Department Email: xsparc@gmail.com Franklin Rey A. Pacquiao Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
The casting, counting, and tabulating of a manual voting scheme are done manually, which takes a lot of time especially in the providing of results compared to an automated-electronic machine. In essence, a slow system means an inefficient system, presenting the necessity to automate and speed things up. This project aims to develop a microcontroller voting machine prototype capable of automating the casting or selection of choices through reading user inputs, and providing a tally of results. We are to achieve this by (1) developing a program enabling the PIC16F877A microcontroller to accept selections on displayed entries through the user input keys, (2) designing an algorithm intended for the handling of user selections and storing of vote tally, and (3) providing an output tally display, through the PC monitor. It provides a usable User Interface through the HyperTerminal of the PC, and accepts user inputs through the “Shift up”, “Shift Down”, “Ok” and “Back” keys, which are then handled by a voting algorithm for the adding of counts and updating of tallies on every entry. As such, the project is capable of responding to user inputs, giving an additional count to every chosen entry and updating its accumulative tally, and providing a usable Graphical User Interface for the displaying of entries during the selection process as all key selections correspond to intended changes or modifications as seen in the display. With automation, paper or any similar writing material is no longer necessary as the interface is provided electronically, and that the results can be provided at a much faster rate. Keywords: Automated, Voting, Microcontroller, Prototype, Interface, Count, Tally

PORTABLE FAST CHARGER FOR AN ELECTRIC VEHICLE’S BATTERY (SEALED LEAD ACID)
Warlito O. Macanas Jr. and Jay M. Verdadero Electronic Engineering Department E-mail: warlitomacanas@yahoo.com Ian Giovanni R. Pabillaran Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
The usage of battery as a source of electric power to drive vehicles is a breakthrough in the advancement of transportation. Driven by its integrated functionality and environmental factors, the demand for electric vehicles is significantly growing recently. Along with that, the quest for an excellent battery charging scheme is one of the concerns being raised. The project basically revolves on the three schemes of a charger namely charging, monitoring, and terminating. The researchers aim to design a charger circuit that is capable of fully charging a battery. They also aspire to design a circuit that monitors the voltage levels of the battery as charge percentage. Finally, the researchers intend to design a terminating circuit that will automatically stop the charging process when fully charged. With regard to the type of battery to be tested, the researchers will only use a 12V Sealed Lead-Acid (SLA) battery. The research design for this study is an experimental research type with a quantitative sampling procedure. The researchers have gathered data on the different parameters such as charging rate given by the capacity of the battery, charging time to fully charged, and charging current that flows to the battery. Also, the voltage level in percentage was determined through the bar LEDs display while terminating voltage was recorded by the time the charger stops charging. The proponents tested the integrated system and gathered the necessary information to evaluate the operating condition of the system to meet all the stated objectives. The project performs the three main functions of a charger: charge, monitor and terminate. In this regard, the charger does not only minimize the charging time but also promotes battery over-voltage protection that subsequently prolongs battery’s lifespan.

KEYWORDS: Portable Fast Charger, Sealed Lead Acid Battery, Charging Rate, Charging Time

DC MOTOR CONTROLLER FOR SINGLE-AXIS SOLAR TRACKER APPLICATION
Oliver Michael L. Ching, Neil Kane D. Jacalan and Jayril T. Jamin Electronics Engineering Department E-mail: jamin_ece_jayril@yahoo.com.ph Majiah S. Collado Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
This project aims to design a motor controller that enables a Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) System to follow the direction of the sun. For maximum energy production of a CSP system, maximum solar insolation must be attained by moving the heat collector of the CSP. A donated satellite dish is modified to become the heat collector of the CSP system. This project involves the use of Light Dependent Resistors (LDR) as light sensors placed at opposite ends of the dish. A certain difference of the output of the sensors is processed to trigger a Pulse Width Modulator (PWM) that will produce signal to control the DC motor. A Power MOSFET circuit is used to interface the PWM and the DC motor. An experiment, with an artificial light source, shows that the output of the sensors is approximately 3 V for a 5° angle (east to west) from the light source and the sensors. Also, an output of around 1V is produced for an angle of -1°. The motor controller is designed such that it will activate the motor once an angle difference of +5° between the light source and the sensors is detected. The motor reverses its rotation when an angle difference of -1° is measured, which means the light source lags by 1° behind the sensors in the east to west direction. The Power MOSFETs used in the design can operate to a maximum of 110A current load at 25°C, therefore a DC motor must have less than 110A for this motor control. KEYWORDS: DC Motor Control, Concentrated Solar Power, Light Sensor, Power MOSFET, Pulse Width Modulator

AUTOMATED SWITCHING AND REGULATION OF AIR CONDITIONING UNIT
Marymae P. Hermoso, Willes Niňo S. Hong, John Davis S. Motoomull and Dave Bryll N. Yaňez Electronics Engineering Department Email: willeshong@gmail.com Franklin Rey A. Pacquiao Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
The study of the researchers addresses the recommendation to manipulate the air conditioning units from the study of Husayan et. al. last school year 2008 – 09. Their study, “Centralized Switching of Office Electrical Facilities,” leaves a great challenge to directly manipulate a three phase device. Also, the proponents of this study observe the existing air conditioning unit’s adaptive limitations. Existing air conditioning units can not identify variation of room temperature over time caused by changing humidity and occupants of the room. For the said reasons, the proponents commit to create an automated switching and regulation of air conditioning units that will allow it to detect human presence and the room temperature. On the whole, this development consists of four essential modules namely temperature sensor circuit, counter sensor circuit, microcontroller (MCU) and an infrared transmitter. The temperature sensor circuit monitors the actual room temperature whether it deviates from the standard temperature setting of 24’C. The counter sensor determines human presence within the room by counting the persons entering or leaving the room. The MCU processes the inputs from the two sensors and orders the AC unit to either on/off power or increase/decrease the thermostat through the infrared transmitter. The infrared transmitter is a simple universal remote control coupled to the MCU through a simple switching circuit. This simple yet effective method addresses the challenge of directly manipulating a three phase device. The results of the project show that the temperature of the room varies over time and that the project output is able to monitor such changes and control the air conditioning unit to respond accordingly.

KEYWORDS: Air Conditioning, Automated, Regulation, Switching, Temperature sensor, Microcontroller

TEMPERATURE NORMALIZATION FOR THE PRODUCTION OF HIGH QUALITY SILICA FROM RICE HUSK
Lezil A. Arsua and Daryl Jane Z. Galvez Electronics Engineering Department Email: lez_ars@yahoo.com Mary Jean O. Apor Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
A control circuit is designed and implemented to detect the temperature inside a furnace where rice husk are burned to produce amorphous ash. Inside temperature is maintained between 500°C - 650°C. Very high sensing temperature probes are placed inside the furnace to monitor the temperature deviations from 650°C which corresponds to a comparator reference voltage (Vref) of 25mV. When the inside temperature is above set-point, the comparator will produce logic zero output and drives a relay to disconnect the burner from the controlling circuit turning it off. When the temperature is below set-point, the circuit will supply a voltage to the load to turn it on. KEYWORDS: Normalize, Temperature, Ash

DESIGN OF OVERSHOT WATER WHEEL USING GOLF CART DIFFERENTIAL GEAR
Ramon P. Ramos, Jr. Mechanical Engineering Department Email: mhonz_23@yahoo.com Rogelio C. Golez, Jr. Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
In watching a river rolling by, it is hard to imagine the force carried by it. If you have ever been to some places in the country like Cagayan de Oro City and experience the white-water rafting, you will feel some part of the river's power as you try it. White-water rapids are created as the river that carries a huge amount of water downhill, bottlenecks through a narrow passageway. As the river being forced through the opening, its flow quickens. Harnessing this energy is using simple mechanics to convert the energy into electricity. Hydropower plants are actually based on a simple concept –the water that flows spins a turbine, in which a turbine makes a generator work. The research aims to build a water wheel connecting into differential gear. In using two water wheels increasing its efficiency it will make the differential gear and shaft turn efficiently into its direction. The researcher will help to distinguish that using in differential gear to overshot water wheel is have higher efficiency than using one wheel. KEYWORDS: overshot water wheel, differential gear, hydropower

KITES CARRIER FOR AN AIRBORNE POWER GENERATING UNIT
Roselle Victor C. Lague and Rico Angelo B. Macapondag Mechanical Engineering Department Email: rv_lague@yahoo.com Alfredo T. Buten Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
For the past years, wind power generation has been a little off because of the inconsistency of wind velocities. Wind velocity patterns its rate from the weather conditions rendering it difficult to manipulate through various techniques. However, wind energy has the potential that can supply the present global demands four times over. It has a vast potential lying up in high altitudes. Wind velocities increase exponentially as altitude increases, thus high kinetic energy can be expected up in high altitudes. In addition, wind energy is a renewable source of energy thus it is far from depletion. It can also help maintain a greener environment since it does not emit any harmful elements. The main problem of the study is how to lift a power generating unit up to high altitudes as well as to harness the vast potential of high altitude winds. A recent breakthrough called the Magenn Air Rotor System captures high-altitude winds approximately at 1000 feet and uses helium-filled balloon to provide the lift through the buoyant effect generated by helium. In this study, the researchers introduce a different lifting technique by simulating the flight of a kite and test its feasibility as means of carrying the power generating unit aloft.

KEYWORDS: Wind Energy, Magenn Air Rotor System, Kites, Power Generating Unit, High Altitude Winds

PILOT-SCALE STEERING MECHANISM FOR A SINGLE SEATER, 4-WHEELED SOLAR POWERED ELECTRIC VEHICLE
Ryan R. Magtortor and Lord Nicho B. Carcido Mechanical Engineering Department E-mail: ryan34_mags@yahoo.com Cyril G. Fabrea Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
The steady increase of atmospheric temperature brought about by the rapid increase of carbon dioxide emission and other green house gases to the atmosphere has become a global concern until present. The development of an energy efficient and environment-friendly vehicle is a way to curb the problem on global warming. The solar powered electric vehicle that makes use of green and renewable energy sources is one way of addressing the problem on global warming. However, the efficiency of this vehicle is affected robustly by the design of its steering mechanism. This project presents the design and development of a pilot-scale steering mechanism of solar powered electric vehicle. This vehicle is a collaborative project of a group of Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Communications Engineering and the Mechanical Engineering students of Xavier University. A stringent selection of the material and of sizing gear trains helps establish the optimum operating conditions of the vehicle. The results of the performance based on actual use of the steering device shows stability of the steering mechanism when induced with practical external forces. KEYWORDS: Solar Powered Electric Vehicle, Steering Mechanism, Gear Trains

DESIGN OF EFFICIENT MECHANICAL DRIVE
Oscar M. Savariz, Jr. Mechanical Engineering Department E-mail: ziravas@yahoo.com Rogelio C. Golez, Jr. Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
Vehicles are imperative to our developing world as means of transportation of various commodities as well as people. An approximate of 630 million vehicles was running as of 2001 and by the year 2025, there will be over 1 billion vehicles on the roads all over the world. Almost all of it depends on fossil fuel to be in motion. The primary objective of this study is to design a suitable mechanical drive for an electric vehicle with varying capacity of 2 or 4 persons riding on it. Furthermore, the research seeks to design efficient power transmission that is applicable for a small size gas driven golf cart available in the campus with prescribed loading capacity; calculate the different efficiencies and tabulate the different transmission efficiencies of belt, chain and gear with respect to load rating against the efficiency for various transmission drives; and to simulate the relationship between loading and efficiency of various mechanical drives using mat lab software. The output of this study may greatly help the development of electric vehicle designing and reduction of consuming petroleum products which are used in the transportation. Fuel will emit gases that produce air pollution as well as global warming. In addition, using efficient electric powered motor vehicles, allocation for fossil fuel will be deduced, henceforth, saving more money.

KEYWORDS: Mechanical Drive, Belt, Chain, Gear, Efficiency, Electric Vehicle

A LOW-COST HOUSE: WORTH LESS THAN P150,000.00
Christopher A. Mabaylan, Xenrex L. Clemente and Nestor M. Ruiz Jr. Civil Engineering Department E-mail: torj_47@yahoo.com Joel Camilo M. Haos Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
The study is being proposed to have a low cost house that is cheaper than the available low cost house that currently exists; costing is around P150,000.00 to P210,000.00 pesos. With the success of the new design, the indigent or the less fortunate homeless families could benefit greatly. The idea of the study is to develop a house plan, with an approximate floor area of 28 m2, which would cost less than the available low-cost housing units in the market today and with reasonable materials. A price of P150,000.00 was used as the lowest price for the existing lowcost-housing unit today, having a floor area of 28 m2. Selection of materials plays a great factor in this study since materials can compliment both design and cost. A single plan was used to design four houses that have different materials and the plan was common among all of the houses. The four houses were made of Concrete Hollow Blocks, Interlocking Compressed Earth Blocks, Mortar with Plastic Bottles, and Cast-In-Place Concrete Shear Wall. The study used Direct Counting and Area Method to calculate and compute for the Material Cost. For the Labor Cost, it was calculated with the rate of the work per day and its corresponding working days or man-hours per activity. And the Construction Cost is the sum of the Total Material Cost and Labor Cost per single unit. Based on the gathered Data, the most inexpensive among the four houses estimated was the one made of Cast-in-Placed Concrete Shear Wall, which had a worth of P78, 026.30. For Labor Cost, the results showed that the house made of Interlocking Compressive Earth Blocks had the lowest estimated labor cost of P24, 800.00. In the Total Construction Cost, the house with the lowest cost in construction was the house made of CastIn-Placed Concrete Shear Wall that was estimated to be P103, 676.00.

KEYWORDS: Low-cost house, Material Cost, Labor Cost, Construction Cost, Concrete Hollow Block, Interlocking Compressed Earth Block, Mortar Wall (Ferro-cement), Cast-in-place Concrete Shear Wall

R N W BE N R Y E E A L E EG ad n ATR A I LEN T E V M TR L AEI S A

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON WIND POWER GENERATION UTILIZING THE WIND PRODUCED BY EXHAUST FANS IN BUILDINGS TO BE USED AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE FOR CHARGING EMERGENCY LAMPS
Jersam L. Tagud, Kristian O. Flores and Sam P. Uayan Electrical Engineering Department Email: jersam_33@yahoo.com Dondanon A. Bajarla, Jr. Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
In this research, the proponents wish to study the possibility of harnessing the wind power produced by exhaust fans to be used as an alternative power source using micro turbines. The proponents choose to study the possibility of micro turbines because they are small in size and can be installed in small areas such as an area in front of an exhaust fan. Wind power from exhaust fans for air conditioning system might be enough to generate usable energy. These winds are being neglected and its use is not being maximized. Places with exhaust fans will benefit from this study. In addition, it paves the way in promoting green movement, which helps in minimizing the carbon emission in the city consequently causing global warming. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of getting usable power from the wind produced in exhaust ventilation systems. Another aim is to alleviate the expense in our electrical bills and to see if these micro wind power generators will be able to have a significant effect in the power consumption. The proponents conducted a series of tests on the voltage output of the micro generators at various speed by coupling it into a power motor connected to a dynamometer. The proponents also examined the wind characteristics of exhaust fans to get its power and to which area they can get a maximum power output. It is discovered that these micro turbines can produce a significant amount of usable energy that is sufficient enough to be charged in a battery.

KEYWORDS: Alternative Power Source, Micro Turbines, Exhaust Fan, Usable Power

EFFECTIVE DISPOSAL PROCESS OF BUSTED FLUORESCENT LAMPS
Radford Royce A. Ancla, Bhomar T. Bancale and Paul Januarius B. Pabualan Electrical Engineering Department Email: xan_rad_16@yahoo.com Jose S. Mag-abo II Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
Toxic substances such as lead are contained in lamps and bulbs that pose a threat to public health because of these components lamp wastes are being regulated. By implementing an effective disposal of mercury-containing fluorescent lamps, there will be a lesser impact in the health and general welfare of the people as well as the environment. The objective of the research is to design a process in disposing busted fluorescent lamps. A lamp crusher is an essential part of the disposal process. One important function of the lamp crusher is the filtration process. The filtration process of the lamp crusher is the key part of the device and is the only part made because of economic factors. Overall process started with the gathering of busted fluorescent lamps, manual cleaning, segregating, packaging and labeling, storage, record keeping and lamp crushing. Treatment techniques can be employed in busted fluorescent lamps however it will not be a part of the study. Areas in Xavier University are the chosen theoretical population of the researchers. From this population, the researchers have obtained a representative sample of busted lamps generated from each of the three sites. A safe storage area is designated to ensure that lamps are not accidentally broken or crushed before they went through the lamp crushing process. The busted fluorescent lamps from the sampling sites differ in the physical and chemical characteristics of the lamps. The lamps collected contain an average of 25 mg of mercury indicating a relatively high content of mercury. These properties are considered in order to evaluate and decide on the proper disposal of the busted lamps. KEYWORDS: Busted Fluorescent Lamps, Mercury, Lamp Crusher

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON HYBRID POWER GENERATION SYSTEM USING SOLAR PANELS AND METHANE FROM FOOD WASTE
James Edgar L. Abitago, Esther Kay S. Montañer, Rommel L. Tianzon and Joshua Leoner A. Dairo Electrical Engineering Department E-mail: james_abitago@yahoo.com Dondanon A. Bajarla Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
Power generation using renewable resources has been one of the solutions taken to meet the growing demand for energy while reducing environmental damage and improving economic standing at the same time. This study aims to provide a substantial basis of the benefits provided by a renewable power generation system. It is an adaptation of an existing hybrid system using solar panels and a diesel generator. But instead of the latter, a methane-powered generator set is used. The methane is generated specifically from food waste gathered from the Xavier University canteen. According to a previous study made in the same university, an 82.5 L biogas digester can produce 301 L or 0.361 Kg of methane gas at most from 20 Kg of food waste. The study makes use of the electrical loads installed in one of the university’s satellite canteens. Based on the calculations, given that the loads are carried from 8:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m., the monthly electrical bill for the building under study alone amounts to P 6, 494.40 and summing up to P 55, 502.28 annually. On the other hand, the installation cost and return of investment of the PV – Methane hybrid power generation system is estimated at P 510, 816 and only 14 years respectively. This system therefore minimizes the institutions electric bill and reduces greenhouse gas emissions while also improving the capacity of the local power grid. KEYWORDS: Solar panel, Methane-powered generator, Hybrid power generation system

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON ELECTRICAL SYSTEM OF A SOLAR ELECTRIC VEHICLE
Raff Shun Rhay M. Laput, Harry F. Albances, Cris Eldridge P. Valdehueza and Herry Gem C. Halasan Electrical Engineering Department Email: raff_shun_rhay@yahoo.com Ignacio B. Fabia Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
The study is conducted to modify the electrical system of an old - battery operated electric vehicle into a solar powered electric vehicle, applying photovoltaic BP Solar (Model type; BP275F). This is intended to improve the performance of the vehicle regarding range (distance of travel) and operating time. A fraction of the power output of the solar panel will be utilized to provide traction power to the motor drive, and the remaining output to charge the battery while in transit. The researchers predict that utilizing the some of its old electrical parts will greatly affect the efficiency of the system due to the increase of its deadweight which is consistent to the actual results. The basis of the results is through series of test and trials: speed of the motor prior to its installation to the vehicle, output voltage and current of the solar panel prior installation, charging capacity of solar panel, discharge capacity of the battery when vehicle is at motion, the speed of the vehicle at plane surface, maximum load that can carry, maximum distance travel at daytime, and maximum distance travel at night time. The tests and trials have shown that there are lots of considerations to improve the vehicle. First consideration is the size and type of motor to be used, its rating must be proportional to the weight of the vehicle, with or without load and the type should be applicable for high starting torque. Second is the type of electric brake to be used. Third is the photovoltaic cell must have higher efficiency. Fourth is the type of battery that has a high performance with long duty cycle. And the last is a type of regulator between the solar panel and battery that will collect the highest possible output.

KEYWORDS: Solar Powered, Electric, Distance, Time

BAMBOO-REINFORCED FERRO CEMENT HYBRID BIOGAS DIGESTER FOR XU CANTEEN
Leo R. Dahilan, Chris B. Agad, Charles A. Go, Jollibie M. Gonzaga and Grace I. Ybañez Civil Engineering Department E-mail: leodahilan@yahoo.com Joel Camilo M. Haos Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
The X.U. canteen uses cheap fuel for food production and disposed biodegradable materials to economize and be cost efficient. The researchers proposed to build a biogas digester located at the back of the previous XU canteen, at the open lot behind the SBM building. The objective of the study is to design a biogas digester. Obtaining sources from the XU canteen biodegradable waste production capacity, the researchers have hypothesized that the XU canteen requires a biogas digester having a volume of 2 m3. From the analyses conducted by the researchers, the maximum stress would occur when the digester is loaded by the soil pressure (unit weight = 18.1 KN/m3) and self weight only having a maximum stress of 246.74 KPa (compression). When the biogas digester is subjected with all loadings, including the sludge and biogas pressures, the forces cancel out. In considering the tension forces, the biogas was analyzed with only the biogas (Pgas = 4.8 KPa) and sludge (unit weight = 17.3 KN/m3) pressure where maximum material stress can be obtained. It has a tension stress of 135.71 KPa. This stress can be supported by the bamboo reinforcements having average tension strength of 164.25 MPa. As a second objective, the researchers aimed to evaluate the bamboo – Ferro cement hybrid with reinforced concrete and masonry concrete technologies. After evaluation by means of labor and cost estimates, the bamboo – Ferro cement hybrid will have a total project cost of Php 29,884.67; the reinforced concrete technology would have a total project cost of Php 39,985.12; while the masonry concrete technology would have a total project cost of Php 38,074.44. Therefore, the use of bamboo and Ferro cement had proved to be safe as a construction material for the biogas digester and had also proved to be cheap in terms of total project cost. The project can be accomplished after 50 working days. KEYWORDS: Biogas, Digester, Ferro cement, Bamboo, Sludge

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF COCONUT HUSK AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOUND ABSORBING ACOUSTIC MATERIAL
Von Bryann D. Naca, Lawrence P. Cabaluna, Meldy Grace M. Comandante and Mark Merbert D. Mondejar Electronics Engineering Department E-mail: music_migos@yahoo.com Ian Giovanni R. Pabillaran Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
Sound absorption coefficient indicates how much of the sound is absorbed in the actual material. It has been observed that a significant number of rooms use acoustic materials to control how sound will behave according to the specific conditions to be met with respect to existing standards. In researching for alternative acoustic materials, the coconut husk is one of the potential promising prospects to be used in this field being porous and rigid which most sound absorbers have as physical appearance. A study of the absorption coefficient of coconut husk is initiated in the hope of understanding the effect of this material when subjected to a single testing called interrupted noise method. Quantitative results are shown for the reverberation time, analysis of variances or the ANOVA test, and computation of absorption coefficients. First, the ANOVA test gives indication that the acoustic materials have no bearing on the duration of reverberation time as shown in the data and that the microphone and speaker distance play a major role in the acquisition of the reverberation time. Second, the calculated absorption coefficient of the coconut husk is negative at the lower frequency bands of 250 Hertz to 1000 Hertz and is absorbent at frequency bands 2000 Hertz to 4000 Hertz. Thus, the coconut husk resembles more of a reflector than of an acoustic absorber. Results show a comparison with observations of the acoustic material and the commercial mat indicating the negative coefficients for the value of the coconut husk’s absorption coefficient. A theoretical analysis, backed by observations of interrupted noise method along with ANOVA test and Norris-Eyring reverberation time equation, indicates that the coconut husk is an acoustic reflector at 250 Hertz to 1000 Hertz and an acoustic absorber at 2000 Hertz to 4000 Hertz.

KEYWORDS: Acoustic Material, Sound Absorption Coefficient, Coconut Husk, Sound Absorber, Reverberation Time

PRODUCTION OF LACTIC ACID FROM RICE HULL USING IMMOBILIZED CULTURES OF Lactobacillus casei IN A FIBROUS-BED BIOREACTOR
Criselda Marie V. Chan, Christine Marianne Jucel F. Ramos, Sheila Mae V. Tee and Julio P. Villar Chemical Engineering Department E-mail: polliyuki@yahoo.com Shierlyn S. Paclijan Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
The search for cheaper alternatives in producing biodegradable plastic for more environmentfriendly uses instigated this study. One of the materials in manufacturing this biodegradable plastic is lactic acid. This study aims to design a feasible plant for the production of lactic acid from rice hull, which is considered a waste in most agricultural countries, for food and bioplasticmanufacturing use. The design of the plant is based on the laboratory-scale production of lactic acid through acid hydrolysis, pasteurization, and fermentation with the use of Lactobacillus casei. The data obtained from this scale of production are used to determine how much raw material is going to be used and how much lactic acid is going to be produced. The kinetics of the fibrous-bed bioreactor where the fermentation took place is not investigated. The glucose content and total suspended solid (TSS) of the acid wort, which is the result of the acid hydrolysis process, decreased after the pasteurization process, while the total dissolved solids (TDS) increased. The fermentation process at a controlled temperature of 37° Celsius and pH of 4.5 - 5.5 produced lactic acid with an increasing concentration of 0.008 g/L with respect to time. The designed plant for the production of lactic acid has an annual capacity of 1,212,000 kg and has a payback period of one (1) year. KEYWORDS: Fibrous bed bioreactor, Lactic acid, Lactobacillus casei

CONTINUOUS DIRECT SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF ETHANOL IN FERMENTING PACKED – BED BIOREACTOR WITH IMMOBILIZED Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Niño Mirlo V. Abcede, Stiffi G. Arda and Charmine A. Capagngan Chemical Engineering Department E-mail: olrim61@yahoo.com Melba T. Mendoza Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
The demand for renewable energy source is fast increasing and among the alternative sources known, ethanol offers the most potential. The principal goal of this study is to design a process that will improve the production of ethanol by continuous extractive fermentation using blackstrap molasses as the substrate and employing immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a packed-bed bioreactor. The fermentation process included the collection and interpretation of data that with and without the addition of the extraction solvent, Oleyl alcohol. The effects of process parameters, temperature and pH, including the concentrations of substrate and product were studied. During the fermentation process, the pH and temperature did not exceed the required range for yeast survival which are 4.15 – 5.0 and 250C – 350C, respectively. The results showed an improvement in the ethanol yield because of the removal of the effect of end product inhibition caused by the presence of ethanol in the broth. A comparison of data in terms of production efficiency of continuous extractive fermentation to that of batch fermentation reported in previous studies shows a significant increase in production rate. The profitability analysis shows that it is not feasible to put up the proposed ethanol plant based on its negative rate of return and net present worth value. The cost of producing ethanol is too high compared to the total revenue. KEYWORDS: Ethanol, Extractive Fermentation, Molasses, Immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Oleyl alcohol

AN INVESTIGATIVE STUDY ON SEMI – POROUS CONCRETE PAVERS IMPREGNATED WITH DEL MONTE FLY ASH AS SURFACING ALTERNATIVE
Benjamin M. Baranda Jr., John Alexander S. Belderol, Michael G. Corre, Jaime K. Pinotes, Jamel S. Hadji Salic Civil Engineering Department E-mail: corrs7244@yahoo.com Peter Daniel S. Akut Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
The study’s objectives are to determine the selected paver samples’ compressive strength, infiltration and water retention capacity, and cost in comparison with conventional concrete pavement. The cement content of an octagonal paver was replaced by various proportions of fly ash, and by means of the standard ASTM compression test, the optimum proportion of fly ash with respect to concrete was calculated. The water holding capacity of each paver sample was tested by a method that applies water retention using metal pans. A trial section with an opening 1 inch in diameter was then tested for compressive strength and for water retention. Finally, comparison of the modified paver’s strength, water-retention, and cost with conventional concrete pavement was performed, in accordance with the standards set by the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH). The samples impregnated with 40 percent fly ash content yielded an ultimate strength of 3.309 ksi, greater than the 2.294 ksi strength displayed by an ordinary fly ash paver under similar loading conditions, and well within the allowable 3 ksi standard strength required by the DPWH. A volumetric capacity of 1,064 mL per 1 square foot (0.0929 square meters) was recorded, with an infiltration capacity of 26.162 mL /s (9.232 cfs) and an average paver absorption capacity of 5.33%. Results from the study indicate that concrete pavers impregnated with fly ash equal to forty percent of the cement component has better strength and infiltration characteristics and is more cost-efficient than an ordinary concrete pavement of similar dimensions.

KEYWORDS: fly ash, concrete pavers, water retention, volumetric capacity, infiltration capacity

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A PROPOSED DATABASE MODEL FOR THE NEW STUDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF XAVIER UNIVERSITY
Quintin Glen A. de los Reyes, Nehmer Lou T. Gomez and Cris Lu Q. Salem Computer Science Department E-mail: boting_231@yahoo.com Francis Lee B. Mondia Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
The massive technological developments in information management have led database systems to evolve to its utmost efficiency and potential. From a simple data warehouse to a dynamic and object-oriented data processing that became the core foundation of almost all companies, schools and other institutions that made it possible to store, retrieve and manipulate large data. The researchers decided to conduct a study on how to enhance the database of the existing Enrollment Information System (EIS) of Xavier University because the current database system was not normalized to its third normal form. Also it contained problems such as data redundancy, performance issues and anomalies that would lead to data inconsistencies and losses. The design of the new Student Management System was composed of two database systems, the existing EIS and the School Interoperability Framework (SIF) was combined to make a new model. The design of a new database model from the analyzed data based on industry standards and proven data models was created using an Entity-Relationship diagram. The Entity-Relationship diagram was used to check if the model has minimal redundancy and if capable of supporting user transactions. The output created from E-R model was a complete and accurate representation of the data requirements of the Student Management System of Xavier University. The E-R model was supported by documentation, including a data dictionary based on the SIF Specification and E-R diagrams. The researchers generated a table of relations to map out the relationships and determine what field connects them to each other. The data normalization was generated to check the structure of each table and ensure that it was able to support transactions. The new Student Management System was tested and evaluated by the researchers and the conclusion is that experiencing this project leads to significant improvements to the system performance, security and correctness of the new Student Management System of Xavier University. KEYWORDS: EIS, SIF, object-oriented, database, data processing, E-R diagram

A CLINICAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR THE XU CLINIC USING OPENEMR
Ralph Regor B. Canonigo, Izzy An Mariz P. Gamolo and Ted Allen O. Go Computer Science Department E-mail: larph1824@gmail.com

Maria Ramila I. Jimenez Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
Data processes for medical records have greatly evolved these days, with this even small scale clinic offices must cope with the fast changing approach. Clinical management systems are especially designed for general clinics. This system lets them have high efficiency management tools, computerized and systematic patients’ records and details of drug/s information/prescriptions. Clinical Management Systems are widely used and needed nowadays, and this is what this project is all about, customizing an existing online system that is capable of automating the traditional way of storing and retrieving clinical data transactions. The main objective of this project is to customize, test and evaluate an online system for the Xavier University Clinic that is convenient to use and will provide relevant information across the clinic for its administration and management. This system also promotes saving of time, money, effort and more importantly it is reliable and provides dependable support to prevent possible loss of data by providing a duplicate copy of the files and records of the clinical staff and patients in the clinics. The duplicated copies of files and records are stored in a database. The methodology uses OpenEMR that is a free medical practice management, electronic medical records, prescription writing, and medical billing application. It is based solely in PHP and HTML. It has a built-in database that contains all information that is stored in the CMS. The researchers believe that they have successfully customized the system to fit the needs of the XU clinic. The front end design of the system was changed to make it readable and user friendly. User fields were also changed and added to match the forms provided by the XU clinic.

KEYWORDS: Clinic, OpenEMR, CMS, clinical management system

A SYSTEM STUDY ON THE WAREHOUSING OF FAST CARGO LOGISTICS IN PUNTOD, CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY
Apryl Rose O. Aleman, Rolando O. Navarro, Daryl L. Segundo, Ross Michael E. Wayan Industrial Engineering Department E-mail: apol.aleman@gmail.com Glenn B. Paclijan Faculty adviser

ABSTRACT
The purpose of the study is to determine the violations of Fast Cargo Logistics Incorporated in Puntod. As stated by the management, the warehouse does not meet to the basic warehouse standards. Further data gathering, observations, and analysis provided more evidence that confirm the statement of the management. SWOT analysis was used to identify the strength, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the warehouse. This is to identify problems to be solved, decisions to be made, individuals to be included, and future plans to be analyzed for potential problems and opportunities. The study also used WOT-SURG analysis, where all problems in the warehouse were identified first. With the analysis made, it determined the main problem that has great impact to the situation of the warehouse. This led to the formulation of the problem statement which states that the warehouse is violating 80% of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Standards (OSHA). OSHA and other warehouse standards have been made to minimize or eliminate the problem which the fast cargo is experiencing right now. This will not benefit only with the employees but as well as the consumers and the credibility of the company maintaining its mission and vision. KEYWORDS: Warehousing, OSHA

OPTIMIZING WAREHOUSE FUNCTIONS THROUGH SYSTEMATIC FACILITIES LAYOUT AND DESIGN
Jennifer Yla B. Corpuz, Iolo S. Oceña, Wendy Chim N. Limotan and Bertty Q. Labaco Industrial Engineering Department E-mail: jhaycee28@gmail.com Glenn B. Paclijan Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
The Functions of warehousing is most essential in any industrial establishment. In Nestle Philippines Inc., CDO Factory, good warehousing is currently coping with increasing market demand. Hindrances in the timely distribution and continuous movement of goods of raw and packaging materials are set forth by large numbers of short movements. The researchers set forth on the study of optimizing the warehouse layout in order to achieve maximum efficiency, space utilization, and identify and be able to eliminate possible sources of wastes. A systematic facilities planning and design will be used as a tool in the study based on receiving of raw and packaging materials, level of inventory, production requirements, daily stock availability, and finally, dispatch of finished goods. With respect to the findings of the study, the researcher has arrived to a proposed alternative solution of procuring a Pallet Flow Rack in accordance of having a limited stock-keeping unit, to have a Contingency Plan/Method during Breakdown of Equipment in solution towards having a limited availability of mechanical equipment and proposed a Re-lay out of the warehouse to deal with the unnecessary procedures/steps being practiced during stripping of the materials, mode of transportation with regard to the distance travelled and the proper designation of materials to their respective bins to be able to discourage delays in locating materials and found defects.

KEYWORDS: Warehousing, Facilities Planning, Facilities Design

A SYSTEMS STUDY ON THE MANUFACTURE OF SEAWEEDS SHING-A-LING AND NOODLES BY CWAI
Yusof Carlo P. Calacat, Chris Jingle M. Digamo, Jaren May M. Gumiran and Alan Sam B. Sancho Industrial Engineering Department E-mail: jgumiran@gmail.com Glenn B. Paclijan Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
The term “systems study” is reserved for the study of systems that include the human element and behavioral relationships between the system's human element and its physical and mechanical components. In CWAI, the primary objective of the manufacturing system is to consistently meet the allocated capacity of manufacturing 5 batches per 8 hour operation given that the products are of the standard quality and quantity by imposing an efficient and effective system. The team set way to study the company’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to facilitate in recognizing the weak possible problem and propose a new and improved system problem solving tools, such as Ishikawa diagram and Pareto diagram were used in identifying the said root problem. Time and motion study was used to reduce the number of motions in performing a task in order to increase productivity. A 5S practice was also applied to incur a systematized and organized flow, disciplined workers and total organization cleanliness and standardization in the production system. In terms of manning, the proponents recommended proper scheduling and shifting, motivation of workers and an on-call reliever to patch out absent worker. For minimizing cycle time, a recommendation of hiring an additional worker to assist in the kneading, rolling and shredding procedures, improvement of work environment through proper ventilation, illumination and noise levels, provision of GMP kits to workers to satisfy the lack of comfortable work environment and motivation of workers to inspire them to work efficiently. For the lessening of the start-up time, the proponents recommended the 5S practice that would help them have an organized and systematized work environment. And for machine not utilized, the proponents recommended to utilize their present gas stove by using both burners that could help lessen the cooking time.

KEYWORDS: System Study, Time and Motion Study, GMP, Problem Solving Tools

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AN ENHANCED WEB-BASED RESERVATION SYSTEM FOR XU LIBRARY
Emerico A. Legaspi and Christine Rose C. Mabayo Computer Science Department E-mail: acolyten@yahoo.com Harriet B. Fernandez Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
Reservation for the AV rooms is a very important scenario in Xavier University because normally, there are a great number of AV room users. The reservation system helps in recording an arrangement by which accommodation is secured in advance. This project is about making an enhanced version of the system of the AV Office. There is already an existing online reservation system during the second semester of the previous school year, 2008-2009 but has not yet been implemented. It lacked the ability to get the authorization or approval of the respective chairpersons and deans of the colleges. Creating a solution to this problem would make the system more complete. Thus, the suggested way of solving the problem is by giving the option to the users to send an “email chain” to the people responsible. In this case, a reservation system that eliminates this particular problem arising from the existing system was created. The main thrust of the project is to design, develop, test and implement an enhanced web-based reservation system for the XU AV Office. The project would help users in reserving an AV room and its utilities in a faster and efficient way. This new web-based reservation system for the XU AV office provides the important features that the existing system does not have. According to the results on System Environment, GUI appearance, and Ease of Use, the total average is 9. Based on the results, each evaluator’s rating explains the performance of the system. KEYWORDS: Enhanced Web-based Reservation System for XU AV Office, AVR Reservation System, Online AVR Reservation System

DRUPAL, JAWS, AND JOOMLA! CMS COMPARISON FOR XCEL WEBSITE
Aizel S. Abragan and Joyce P. Arendain Computer Science Department E-mail: arendainjoyce@yahoo.com Rhea Suzette B. Mocorro Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
Internet is the biggest advancement of today’s world. Websites are very efficient for advertising and entertainment in the business industry with the help of a Content Management System (CMS) to be used in making websites. The researchers compared the top three CMS (Drupal, Jaws, and Joomla!) with the generation of the XCEL website as the sample. The main objective of this project is to compare Drupal, Jaws and Joomla! in terms of interface, ease of use and functionality specifications. Part of it is to design, develop, test, conduct, and implement the XCEL website with the chosen CMS through some survey results in terms of the criteria specifications. The researchers surveyed at least ten percent (fifty) of the estimated total number of computer science students (five hundred). After conducting the survey, the XCEL website that was created from Joomla! was ahead in everything. Having the said results, the chosen CMS was then hosted. Among the three CMS, Joomla! has been found to be the best CMS to use.

KEYWORDS: Drupal, Jaws, Joomla!, XCEL Website, CMS, Content Management System

XAVIER UNIVERSITY iAUCTION MART
Richelle Anne J. Demerre, James Michael D. Jandayan and Dominique M. Valdez Computer Science Department E-mail: james103189@yahoo.com Rhea Suzette B. Mocorro Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
Xavier University iAuction Mart (XUiAM) is an auction, buy and sell online system intended for the Xavier University community. Students and faculty of the University will undergo a process of authentication to ensure restriction in XUiAM. XUiAM seeks out ways to make the buying and selling of students’ materials fast and easy through a comprehensive collection of items from XU students to be sold. XUiAM has feedback features for every successful transaction, seller can rate the buyer as buyer, and the buyer can rate the seller as seller. Users can choose to receive notifications to their e-mail address for each auction they set up, participated, sold and bought. Users can also review the open auctions, closed auctions, suspended auctions that they have set up, and their sold items, the details of the winners of their auctioned item, the items that they bid on, and the auctions they won. The purpose of XUiAM is to enable the XU community to buy and sell online. Users that will participate will be able to touch e-commerce and eventually have the possibility to become businessmen. Since we are in the age where e-commerce is the mainstream of almost all of the successful businesses, the website has a great potential to become the official e-commerce site of the university since it implements the buying and selling of goods online. XUiAM is a system that serves every entrepreneur in the university to be visible and active in their businesses. Making use of the internet technology will be a great tool for a centralized, reliable and effective place for buying and selling. This system would cater and manage all kinds of enterprises within the university. KEYWORDS: auction, students, e-commerce, enterprise, XUiAM

A WEB-BASED VOTING SYSTEM FOR THE XU-CSG CAMPUS ELECTIONS
Ronel Vincent Cabrera and Ernst Niall Malifer Computer Science Department E-mail: emalcdo@gmail.com Shayryl Mae Ramos Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
The advent of the automated system for the National 2010 Election brings opportunity of implementing an automated method for the Xavier University – Central Student Government (XU-CSG) campus wide election. With the said event, the group was challenged to create a voting system for the said election, where, the Department of Computer Science recommended further to use and modify Limesurvey, an Open Source Surveying System, to build the voting system. The process of modifying the system includes adjusting the structure to adapt the needs of the XU-CSG Electoral Commission. As what the XU-CSG Electoral Commission required, it is within the scope of modifying the system. Modifying also includes altering the design and the interface of the system to look like a ballot. After these procedures, the group demonstrated it to the committees for approval and acceptance. They further tested it by executing mock elections to stress and evaluate the performance of the system. And also as part of the testing, the group included survey questions relating to the system; these questions included acceptance questions and feedback questions were also added for respondents answer. According to responses of the questions, the committees and most of the sample voters approved since the said system is easier, more reliable and faster compared to the manual way of voting. The group was able to design and implement the voting system effectively. The results of the testing and evaluation suggest that the system is viable to be used for the incoming XU-CSG campus wide election. KEYWORDS: Voting System XU-CSG, Automated Election, Limesurvey Voting System

A WEB-BASED STUDENT ACTIVITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR THE XU SACDEV OFFICE
Elmario A. Daumar, Jr., Johnson C. Lao, Jr. and Jesna Fe C. Toledo Computer Science Department E-mail: jzun2x_daumar@yahoo.com.ph

Harriet B. Fernandez Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
Project management is the discipline of defining and achieving targets for an organization while optimizing the use of resources (time, money, people, equipment, space, etc.). The goal of this project is to create a web-based Student Activity Management System for the Students’ Activity Development (SACDEV) office. This system utilizes the dotProject as its backbone. Only those components that are missing from the existing dotProject modules which are necessary for the system has been modified by the group. Those were then integrated into the final Student Activity Management System. The group was successful at creating and testing the system however the client opted not to push through with the implementation for its complexity as it includes detailed project management processes that are relatively new to what is currently being done in the office. Policy changes and Project Management Seminars are among the recommendations of the group for the system to be implemented. KEYWORDS: project management, dotProject, student activity management