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Ragnar Haabjoern The Eco-cell Project

Higher Degree Research Proposal Amended Version1.0 Submitted October 2008

The Eco-cell Project: The Design of an Education for Sustainability Genesis Aid.

PhD by Project

Senior Supervisor: Professor Sue Benn

By Ragnar Haabjoern Macquarie University Graduate School of the Environment

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Ragnar Haabjoern The Eco-cell Project

Table of Contents Introduction Propagation 1. Literature review
1.0 The Current Environment 2.0 Educating for Sustainability 3.0 Being Critical 4.0 Education for Sustainability Framework 5.0 Scale 6.0 Human Connections to the physical & natural World 7.0 Ethics & Values 8.0 How Natural Systems Function 9.0 Technological & Economic Realtionships to Sustainability 10.0 Motivating Environmentally Sustainable Behaviour 11.0 Pedagogical Strategies for Intergrating Sustainability 3-6 7-12 14 14 15 17 19 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 33 35-36 37 38 39 40 44 46 47 50 51-52 54 54

2. Research Methodology
2.1 Aim 2.2 Methods 2.2.1 Intellectual Rigour 2.2.2 Interviews 2.2.3 Timeline 2.3 Methodology 2.3.1 Educational Design Research 2.4 Theoretical Perspective 2.5 Epistemology

3. Close
References List of tables List of Figures

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Introduction

The focus of this proposed PhD by project research is the creation of a new model for education for sustainability. More and more scientists, climate change experts and the media are presenting dramatic and overwhelming worst case scenarios for the future of our planet, planet Earth. Some of the scenarios involve species extinction, wild and extreme weather patterns and polar melting. There is currently something wrong with how life is being conducted on planet Earth. You don’t need to be a climate change expert, or scientist with Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) to realise that there is something currently wrong with the planet’s health and well being. Tinkering with the ‘Old machine’ will just not do. “How long can people tinker with the old machine when what is needed is a new design altogether, for a new age?” (Smyth 1999) Sustainability, environmental consciousness and green thinking cannot just be models for, they have to become the norm, the way. A paradigm shift has to occur if sustainability and the virtues associated with this can come to fruition. Very successful companies throughout history have employed the technique of creating a mission statement to guide their organisation to success. Robert Allen (2002) uses the following phrase in his motivational “How to succeed in Business” seminars, “…The future you see is the future you get!”

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Boeing the aircraft manufacturer part of one of the most environmentally damaging industries, the airline industry, employed this vision tactic early in the 1950’s with the following vision statement, “To become the dominant player in commercial aircraft and bring the world into the jet age.” (Burkink, 2005) Jim Collins in the Harvard business review article, “Building your company’s vision”, (1996) states that a vision to be effective and powerful must be a “Big Hairy Audacious Goal (BHAG)”.

“A BHAG is a clear and compelling unifying focal point of effort and a catalyst for team spirit.” (Collins, 1996)

President John F. Kennedy in 1961 expressed NASA’s (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) BHAG, “…to put a man on the moon and return him home safely by the end of the decade.” (Burkink 2005)

The BHAG strategy for this research project will do exactly the opposite of what President John F. Kennedy wanted to do and that is bring the population’s focus on planet Earth itself and to the connections that need to be made on metaphysical and physical levels for a quality future for the Planet and humanity to emerge.

The BHAG for this PhD by project is to totally transform education for sustainability. To make education for sustainability a priority in all aspects of the day-to-day procedures, polices, pedagogies and philosophies of a learning

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establishment so a sustainability paradigm shift can occur. To allow this vision, this BHAG to become a reality, the research will focus on the production of an education for sustainability genesis aid, The Eco-cell. The fundamental stimulus of the Eco-cell has been born from ‘deep ecology’. Deep ecology was a term coined by the Norwegian philosopher Arne Naess in 1972. Deep ecology seeks to develop ecological wisdom through deep experience, deep questioning and deep commitment.

“It is a process in which the self remains bound by ‘special responsibilities, obligations and ethics.” (Naess, 1993, p. 34)

The framework and design for the Eco-cell will be developed from four research questions. They will also assist in giving the research direction and focal points. The Eco-cell project research questions: (i) How can deep ecology be used to assist education practioners in educating for sustainability?

(ii)

What role can Buddhist philosophy play in assisting the development of ecological values and ethics of individuals?

(iii)

How can systems theory understandings assist with the evolution of beyond compliance education for sustainability strategies?

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(iv)

How can biomimicry assist with the design of an education for sustainability framework?

The overall outcome will be a framework for instigating education for sustainability in any organisation. For the sake of controlling the size of this heuristic journey the organisation in this instance will be a secondary school in the Victorian Education System. This research is not boasting to be the ultimate in education for sustainability, but true to its purpose and design, it is a guide, a deep ecologically inspired elucidation of what should be at least considered when endeavouring to initiate education for sustainability into an institution such as a secondary school. “This is scaffolding, not an edifice.” (Crotty, 1998, p.2)

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Propagation

1.0 The Whole: The Eco-cell

(Figure 1 Capra 1996) Realisation must occur that we need to implement drastic fundamental changes to society as a whole as we know it and not just in terms of environmental education. We need to assist earth in being repaired from the damage caused by humans to their only home. The Eco-cell allows for the education for sustainability to be the work that re-connects the population back to nature on physical and metaphysical levels. It gives deep ecology, systems theory and biomimicry a platform to display what these theories can offer education and beyond.

“It is widely agreed that eduction is the most effective means that society possesses for confronting the challenges of the future. Indeed, education will shape the world of tomorrow.” (Tilbury, 2005)

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The Eco-cell is necessary, as many of the proposals for education for sustainability that are coming to fruition are environmentally based not ecologically based. There are light green solutions and dark green solutions. The Eco-cell will be a substantial sustainability artefact that will benefit the planet holistically not in a scratch the surface, piece meal fashion. It will live and breathe ‘dark green’. The production of the Eco-cell would endeavour to help assist with devising a set of objectives to consider when implementing any kind of education for sustainability initiative whether it is organisational structure or curriculum design. Why a plant cell? “The cell is only concerned with the conditions necessary for sustaining and propagating life. It also reminds us that we are inescapably a part of nature: there is much less difference between the cell of a human and that of a plant than is commonly understood.” “…from a biological standpoint, we are not the masters of nature, nor even its caretakers. We are part of nature.” (Robert, 1991 p.2)

The forest is. We are the forest.

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It makes good judgment to utilise the design of a plant cell to assist humanity on being and growing in nature in a less detrimentally impacting fashion. There is no waste in nature. The eco-cell and the assigned purposes for the research project are;

Nucleus: Self-Realisation/re-connection/religio Earth’s citizens are being separated from nature more and more by technology, by values and by thought. Education for sustainability utilising the plant cell will assist with making and reinforcing a significant connection to nature.

Cell Membrane: Deep ecology/Ecosophy Ecosophy is an evolving but consistent philosophy of being, thinking and acting in the world, which embodies ecological wisdom and harmony. (Harding 2000, p. 1) Deep ecology has been described as an environmental movement and a philosophy. A favourable quality deep ecology possesses for its use in an education model is that it allows itself to be personally moulded to each individual with some guiding principles. If followed in its entirety, the ‘Ecological Self’ created should be able to rise to absolute joy when acting with and for the environment. The flow on of this is the potential to increase such involvement in the environment that may then assist a personal evolution, an evolution to a clearer sense of identity that will then allow for greater commitment to all things ecological. This process may then lead to extending care to more humans and deepening care for non-humans (Harding, 2000, p.5).

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Recycling Centre: Self Determination/Ethics/Buddhist Philosophy

The Eco-cell will utilise the philosophy of Buddhism to assist with the understanding and development of ethics and values that are conducive to sustainability. Buddhist teachings recognize that all things are interdependent and conditional upon each other. This is similar to the manner of how an ecosystem works. The Buddhism and ecological connections will be revealed throughout the research. The Eco-cell will utilise the Four Noble Truths and the Noble eightfold path.

Solar Station: Communication (Ecological literacy) Nature is something else then we believe It has soul, it has freedom, It has love, it has language (Tiutchev in Perminov, 1970, p. 54)

Ecological literacy will be defined by the following, resourced from the text, ‘Ecological Literacy: educating our children for a sustainable world’ (Stone and Barlow Ed. 2005); Ecological literacy is a goal built on the recognition that: • The disorder of ecosystems reflects a prior disorder of mind, making it a central concern to those institutions that purport to improve minds. In other words, the ecological crisis is in every way a crisis of education. • The problem, as Wes Jackson once said of agriculture, is one of education, not merely in education.

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All elucidation is environmental education…by what is included or excluded we teach the young that they are part of or apart from the natural world.

The goal is not mastery of subject matter but making connections between head, hand, heart, and cultivation of the capacity to discern systems-what Gregory Bateson once called “the pattern that connects.” (Orr in Stone and Barlow Ed. 2005 p.ix)

Mini Nucleus:

(Figure 2) Powerhouse: Self-Sufficiency & Cooperation (Permaculture Design principles) Ecosystem “Lilacs out of the dead land” (The wasteland T.S. Elliot in Taylor, 1993) Zero waste Nature wastes nothing

• •

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• • • •

Uses the ultimate power source Solar energy, Harmony Balance Photosynthesis.

A design consideration that will influence throughout the Eco-cell is the cradle to cradle thinking, developed by McDonough, “What we are trying to do is balance, ecology, equity and economy.” (Rosenblatt, 1999)

The following is a list of the Permaculture design principals developed by David Holmgren (2005) that will be used alongside of McDonough’s work. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Observe and interact Catch and Store energy Obtain a yield Apply Self-regulation and accept feedback Us and value renewable resources and services Produce no waste Design from patterns to Details Integrate rather than segregate Use small and slow solutions Use and value diversity Use edges and value the marginal Creatively use and Respond to change

Storage Sac: Experiential Learning& Acclimatization (Nature experiences) We remember experiences. This section will be influenced heavily by the text Earth education: a new beginning authored by Steven van Matre (1990) and the Institute for Earth Education(IEE). In Earth Education (1990) van Matre gives us this illumination of why acclimatization is critical to the education for sustainability process. 12

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“I wanted to convey a feeling of at-homeness with the earth, a feeling similar to what you have in your own house. You know what I mean, you feel good there; you understand its moods, its smells, its nooks and crannies.” (van Matre, 1990 p. 53)

Production Centre: Ecological Self –Autopoetic, Systems theory The Eco-Cell needs to live. It needs to be ‘Life-making’. Cell Fluid: Cognition Cognition is a phenomenon that will permeate throughout the organism. Cognition is a vital part of the education for sustainability process for it integrates our mental, emotional and biological activities. Much of the cognition research inspiration will come from the text, The embodied mind: Cognitive science and human experience by Varela, Thomson and Rosch (1993). Connection and pattern will be a continual theme that will run through and bind much of this research. The aforementioned text and its connection of Buddhism and Cognition will assist with involving the science with the sacred so they can work together to create deeper understandings of subjectivity. “…we propose to build abridge between mind in science and mind in experience by articulating a dialogue between these two traditions of Western cognitive science and Buddhist meditative psychology.” (Varela etal, 1993, p.xvii)

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Literature review
1.0 The Current Environment The world is in distress. “Mankind <sic> during the last nine thousand years has conducted itself like a pioneer invading species.” (Naess, 1989, p.182) The globe is heating up, pollution is choking our atmosphere, fresh water availability is diminishing, plant and animal species are being lost and lands are being irreversibly spoilt and obliterated. “The scientific evidence is now overwhelming, climate change presents very serious global risks, and it demands an urgent global response.” (Stern, 2006) The stern report will be quoted often throughout the research as it holds with it much credibility in terms of the scientific, quantitative environmental concerns. Future generations deserve to have a great world to live in. The transition needed is in many aspects of our lives, a paradigm shift. This may all come about if environmental education for sustainable development is pursued intensely. (Fien, Trainer, 1993)

To create the Eco-cell, firstly there will be a deconstruction of the key terms and concepts associated with sustainability and the actual design components of the cell itself. The research process will also be dissected to assist in obtaining clarity with the inspiration, design and purpose. “Every act of creation is first an act of destruction.”

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(Pablo Picasso in Tomasko, 1993)

1.1 Educating for Sustainability Education for sustainability gives direction and gives purpose for an ecologically conscious citizen to emerge. Many decades have seen environmental education to be a part of some institutions, small steps have been made, but the health of the earth has exponentially declined. Educating for sustainability is a paradigm that needs to be taken on board by all of earth’s pedagogic institutions. This is an ambitious statement but it holds true to the BHAG strategy and visioning process that is being employed with the creation of the Eco cell; think big.

Sustainability in this research endeavour will be defined from its original understanding, "Meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs." (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987, p.24) Education for sustainability incorporates a vision for society that is ecologically sustainable but also socially, economically and politically sustainable. The Australian Conservation Foundation’s "Tela papers" are a series of scholarly papers devoted to the exploration of relationships between environment, economy and society. The pillars of sustainability outlined by the Tela Paper No.8 (Education for sustainability) (Fien 2000) are grounded in four interdependent systems and will add structure to the definition selected for the research to be undertaken.

The Pillars of Sustainability • Biophysical systems that provide the life support systems for all life, human and non-human;

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Economic systems that provide a continuing means of livelihood (jobs and money) for people; Social and cultural systems which provide ways for people to live together peacefully, equitably and with respect for human rights and dignity; and Political systems through which power is exercised fairly and democratically to make decision about the way social and economic systems use the biophysical environment. This research will also utilise Module 1 from UNEP’s (United Nations

Environment Programme) Education for sustainability educational resource to add structure to the definition of what education for sustainability will engage. In Module 1 R. O’Donoghue from the National Parks Board, South Africa presents an additional, somewhat more holistic view of sustainability that supports four interrelated principles of living:

(Figure 3 O’Donoghue, 2000)

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1.2 Being Critical The research involved with the development of the eco-cell will be critical social theory fuelled. At these beginning stages of this research endeavour a text that has surfaced and has provided much insight is Hattam (2004), Awakening-Struggle (towards a Buddhist Critical Social Theory). In the introduction you get a good example of what his text is endeavouring to accomplish.

“A book as dialogue invokes the idea of a pedagogical space, a place for hybridity or double consciousness, a borderland that nurtures the possibility of mutual reinvention.” (Hattam, 2004, p.v)

The outcome of this proposed research is to reinvent what education with a sustainable purpose should look like, to combat the ecologically and socially dire situation the planet is in. Immediately, Hattam (2004) is creating and opening the doors of possibility and creating an environment through text where ideas and insights can be developed through collaboration between Eastern and Western traditions of thinking and being. The introduction instigates a personal connection and the formulation of the beginnings of a heuristic journey, all of which is very heartening when combated so frequently by dogmatic set in stone doctrines. Hattam’s (2004) perspective of what the theory’s function is includes;

“Critical theory is represented as a post-Kantian hermeneutic of suspicion that is committed to struggling for a more socially just society”. (Hattam, 2004, p.v)

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The use of critical theory will provide an ethico-political snapshot of where the Eco-cell is propagating from and what is nourishing its evolution. The aptness of the text is also reinforced by its use of Buddhism and how the two, critical social theory and the religion/technology of self/science of mind can be of mutual benefit, precisely what is needed for the genesis of the eco-cell to transpire.

The other aspects of critical theory that will be embraced to manage with the development of the Eco-cell’s purpose of creating a sustainable and just society that is emancipated, equitable, and enlightened include: • That all thought is fundamentally meditated by power relations that are social in nature and historically constituted; • That facts can never be isolated from the domain of values or removed from ideological inscription; • That the relationship between concept and object, and between signifier and signified, is never stable and is often mediated by the social relations of capitalist production and consumption; • That language is central to the formation of the subjectivity, that is, both conscious and unconscious awareness; • That certain groups in any society are privileged over others, constituting an oppression that is most forceful when subordinates accept their social status as natural, necessary or inevitable; • That oppression has many faces, and concern for only one form of oppression at the expense of others can be counterproductive because of the connections between them;

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That mainstream research practices are generally implicate, albeit often unwittingly, in the reproduction of systems of class, race and gender oppression. (Kincheloe and McLaren, 1994, p. 139-40, in Crotty, 1998 p.157)

1.3 Education for Sustainability Framework The Boston-based national ‘not-for-profit’ organisation ‘Second Nature’ have created an education for sustainbilty framework outlining the following critical sustainability themes that will be utilised in directing this heuristic journey.

1.3.1 Scale

Sustainability is about time. It is about trying to envision a future with the action of the present and making certain that that action is not an adverse one. In his work Ancient Wisdom, Modern Times, His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, enforces this stipulation to time, “All we can do is use the present well” (Lama, 1999).

The world renowned, environmental activist and scientist Dr. David Suzuki in his book, ‘Wisdom of the elders’ explains, “Time can reveal, by extrapolation, the future forms and destinies of things. Time is, in some sense, the warp and weft of the whole cosmic tapestry; and the human imagination, with its culturally sanctioned freedoms and restraints, is its weaver (Suzuki, 1997, p.142).”

Utilising the wisdom of the elders will help break the linear barrier of time shown here as a Newtonian straight train track (Fig 4.) with a beginning and an end.

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Infinite time allows people to move more freely though the past, present and future to assist with their actions of the now.

(Figure 4 Hawking 2001 p.32) Time bonds people to their past. It is also embedded deeply as a reminder to the influence it can have to the present. Stretching time can aid in visionary dreams, BHAG’s, shamanic journeys and other such rapturous, linear-time defying experiences. The circular time model gives freedom that all time is connected and can be travelled to throughout actions in a myriad of directions and possibilities. Time in this research project will be influenced by Stephen Hawking’s (2001) vision of space and time, an infinite twisting and turning connected journey.

(Figure 5 hawking 2001 p.33)

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A permaculture design principle, that highlights the native concept of circular time to assist with designing of agricultural systems that work in natural harmony with the environment, and aid with creating a permanent culture (a sustained population) is presented here as another influential design consideration for the eco cell.

(Figure 6 Holmgren, 2002)

1.3.2 Human Connections to the physical and Natural World

Deep ecology was a term coined by Arne Naess in the early 1970’s. Deep ecology seeks to develop ecological wisdom through deep experience, deep questioning and deep commitment. In the ultimate handbook on deep ecology, ‘Ecology, Community and Lifestyle, written by Naess in (1989), Naess describes deep ecology as being a process in which the self remains bound by ‘special responsibilities, obligations and ethics (Naess, 1989, p.34). Together as an interrelated system, the aforementioned principles are concerned with the connections a human can make with the environment. These underlying principles are themselves connected from an all-encompassing system, Naess calls, Ecosophy. It is an evolving but consistent philosophy of being, thinking and acting in the world, which embodies ecological wisdom and harmony (Harding, 2000, p.1). 21

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Ecosophy is a constructivist paradigm. It allows the partaker to become one with nature and see how their ‘Self’ fits in. It allows for a personalisation of the ecosophy, a development of a personal ultimate premise of norms that will help in allowing ‘Self’s’ to live wisely in the world. This ability to interact, and to design a personalised influence in the world empowers the ‘Self’ with tackling issues and to put these tools into practice. Ecosophy T is Naess’s personal model (Figure 6). It is named ‘T’ after Tvergastein, his mountain hut located in Hallingsvartet, Norway. Mountains had been a muse in all sense of the word for Naess. Mountains are a source for inspiration, a place to be active in the environment. Ecosophy T

(Figure 7, Sessions, 1985, p.12)

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This normative derivational system, an additional part of the deep ecology structure places actual application of practical consequences attached to your own personal principals and actions. (Naess 1989)

The fundamental outcome of the Ecosophy T system is that there is a universal right to self-unfolding and the correlative intrinsic value of every life form on this planet. Ecosophy ties together all life and all nature and assists with the unfolding of potentialities as a right not a privilege. Ecosophy T will be a framework used to assist in the development of the Eco-cell.

1.3.3 Ethics and Values

Daniel Henning in his (2002) text, ‘Buddhism and Deep Ecology’, describes deep ecology and deep spirituality as philosophic sisters. Throughout this research the philosophic sister, spirituality will be used from the definition supplied by His Holiness the Dalai Lama, “Spirituality I take to be concerned with those qualities of the human spirit – such as love and compassion, patience, tolerance, forgiveness, contentment, a sense of responsibility, a sense of harmony-which brings happiness to both self and others.” (Lama, 1999, p.23)

In a recent problem solving activity at a Future sustainability leadership course there was a recurring theme that surfaced, was that the general populus are insecure. Why are humans insecure? Happiness. What makes people happy? What defines quality of life?

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Buddhism as a focus aims to rid suffering and for a being to reach enlightenment, Nirvana. Happiness, pure happiness. The basic principles of Buddhism can be summed up in the three signs of Being, the Four Noble Truths, and the Noble Eightfold path or Middle Way to Nirvana. The First Noble truth: The existence of impermanence The Second Noble Truth: The Arising of Suffering because of craving The Third Noble Truth: The cessation of suffering The Fourth Noble truth: The Middle Way or the noble eightfold Path 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Right Understanding Right Thought Right Speech Right Action Right Livelihood Right Effort Right Mindfulness Right Concentration Table 1, His Holiness the Dalai Lama

Henning also lists the following as general environmental ethics/values that are commonly associated with Buddhism: • • • • • Compassion Loving kindness Effort/responsibility Equanimity Charity • • • • • Humility Gratitude/thankfulness Non-self Mindfulness Interrelatedness/interbeing (Table 2, Henning, 2002)

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The sure thing with Buddhism is the belief of impermanence. Change is inevitable. Therefore Buddhist philosophy will also assist the research as a change agent for a sustainable future.

1.3.4 How Natural Systems Function

The biological framework for the Eco-cell is supplied from the text, ‘Web of Life’, by Fritjof Capra (1997). It gives a diagram of the basic components of a plant cell, ‘the simplest living system we know’.

(Figure 8, Capra, 1997, p.158) The plant cell can be used to assist with the exploration of the workings of an autopoetic network. A plant cell’s being and doing are inseparable and it lives, and lives part of a living system (Capra 1997). The inspiration for using a plant cell structure as a design consideration comes from Biomimicry: innovation inspired by nature, Janine Benyus, (1997).

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“In short, living things have done everything we want to do, without guzzling fossil fuel, polluting the planet, or mortgaging their future. What better models could there be ?” (Benyus, 1997, p.2) Biomimicry will breathe life into this education for sustainability model. It will allow it to evolve, adapt, grow and multiply. The principles of ecology that will be an underpinning for the research have come from, The Hidden Connections: a science for sustainable living (Capra, 2002, p. 231).

(Figure 9, Capra, 2002)

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From a Critical social perspective Benyus (1997) gives a great statement to why Biomimicry can assist humans. “So our connection strengthens, our understandings develop and our decision processes are not so ‘Homo industrialis’ based so we can live sanely and sustainably on the Earth?” (Benyus, 1997).

What becomes apparent is that already through this brief heuristic journey of education for sustainability, connections are being developed between various authors and patterns and systems are emerging with concepts, such as, Deep ecology  Buddhism BuddhismSystems Theory Systems Theory Biomimicry Biomimicry  Chaos and Complexity Theory The Eco-cell's goal will be to elucidate these connections and to create an environment for them to flourish in the realm of education for sustainability.

1.3.5 Technological and Economic Relationships to Sustainability

There is a realm of reality where often morals, ethics and values, are seen not as qualities to nurture, but are seen as signs of weakness, things to get rid of if success in this realm is to be achieved. “A friend recently said that running a business with a conscience is like driving with the brakes on.” (Hawken, 1993, p.59)

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To be socially critical, today’s heroes are the ones with the pay packet, and the materialistic lifestyle to match it. This is the cause of much of the great stress that is occurring to the natural environment and stress to the individual involved.

“A recent profile in a business magazine of a prototypical “successful executive” described his <sic> modus operandi as taking no prisoners, having the hands-on quality of Attila the Hun, and as not suffering fools gladly but shooting them on sight.” (Hawken, 1993, p.124)

The aforementioned description sounds similar to the current set of values that are being asked to be developed in the Victorian high schools today. In these neoliberal times where entrepreneurism is a sign of ultimate success and the bottom line is apparently the only true figure of a quality of life, the new Victorian Essential Learning Standards (VELS), is hoping to assist in developing the rich country not the clever country. The VELS have less than ten percent of there outcomes specifically environmentally based. The neo-liberalist theme is being exploited also by professional development providers who are catching on to the Victorian Government’s focus on vocation and the value in indicating by the positivist quantitative not qualitative. (Figure 9)

(Figure 10, Department of Education, Edtimes, 2007)

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The quadruple bottom line approach to economics, that utilises the four pillars of sustainability has made way from some great positive developments across the globe. Companies utilising this accounting approach on most occasions are performing better than companies who just report on the single bottom line, economics. If this does not give weight to the argument of making quadruple bottom line reporting mandatory for all businesses and corporations, and to use this model for education for sustainability then what is?

“Any ecological model of commerce must not only mimic nature in recognising that waste equals food, running off current solar income, and protecting diversity, but it must also have firmly and clearly in place feedback that allows it to recalibrate constantly and quickly adjust its costs, supply and demand.” (Hawken, 1993, p.190)

1.3.6 Motivating Environmentally Sustainable Behaviour

“We must rage and struggle until new values come out of the travail”. (Bourne, 1977, p. 345 in Crotty, 1998, p.62) Caring and having empathy for the environment and for others is learned not from words but from actions, the meaningful interactions we have, the transcendental connections and experiences. This is compatible with deep ecology as it is sometimes described as being ‘Love in Action’. The environment provides the setting for ‘love in action’ to occur to assist with the development of ethical, moral and spiritual traits. The individual’s overall state of heart and mind, when that is wholesome, it follows that our actions themselves will be ethically wholesome. (Lama, 1999, p.31) Compassion and love are the source of inner and external peace; they are fundamental

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to the continued survival of our species. (Lama, 1999, p,189) This section will be fundamental for the research proposed.

In holistic massage curse, intentions play a big role. The masseur must have a mind ready to do the job of caring for their recipient of their care. The power of the intention will be pivotal in the overall outcome of the session. Therefore if teachers are themselves, seeking to end suffering, to be happy and to educate for sustainability for earth’s sake then this will have a somewhat critical mass affect on the learners involved. Is that not a perception of reality, more constructive and beneficial then a linear, materialistic, Newtonian perception of reality?

An excerpt form the Dalai Lama’s experience with children: “Meeting the young also reminds me that children constitute humanity’s most precious resource. Given that their moral outlook is largely shaped by their upbringing, it is essential we educate them responsibly.” (Lama, 1999, p.187)

The suggestions inferred by the Dalai Lama include showing children that the basic human values are important. Motivation or in Tibetan, ‘Kun long’ is a key ingredient. Kun Long: is motivation from the depths, it is what drives or inspires actions. The individual’s overall state of heart and mind, when that is wholesome, it follows that our actions themselves will be ethically wholesome. (Lama, 1999, p.31)

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1.3.7 Pedagogical Strategies for integrating sustainability. Engage, equip and enable is the fundamental underpinnings of the

Myriver program organised by Ozgreen, an environmental education non-government organisation. This rather unique environmental education experience will be used as a benchmark of how beyond compliance education for sustainability can be modelled.

The program itself is steeped with deep ecological principles. The moulding of caring and having empathy for the environment with positive action outcomes is easy to write on paper, but to make it living and breathing entity is a work of fine art. By giving the students the opportunity to use professional water testing equipment and have their results really mean something, clearly demonstrates how physical and metaphysical connections to the students’ immediate environment can occur through experience. This connection is something that cannot be replicated by just showing a video, or making a diorama for a school project.

In the realm of educational theory the process is not just haphazardly undertaken but utilises constructivist pedagogy where the participants are actively reconstructing their knowledge and then are becoming transformed physically and spiritually by experiencing this.

The stage two program which is a natural off shoot of the Myriver program is the environmental leadership program called, Youthlead. Through truthful communication it allows environmentally conscious citizens to become empowered and to trust their own hearts and paths. Another positive aspect to the program is the chance to work as a team to achieve the collective goals, which are a healthy planet

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and a quality life. Howard Gardner, an expert education practioner, and developer of the multiple intelligence theory, recently has highlighted the ‘naturalist’ intelligence in some individuals. The Youthlead program allows for these ‘naturalist’ individuals with an inner yearning to protect nature to come together and connect more deeply with like-minded individuals and themselves. Youthlead focuses on letting the individual shine, and then come up with their own way of assisting a planet in need.

The space created by the Ozgreen staff and Youth to Youth mentors (Past Youthleader’s) gives strength and support to these special people who are so willing to break free from the anthropocentrism that is so prevalent into today’s modem world. Even when confronted with such horrific environmental problems such as Climate Change and the poisoning of our fresh water supplies, they care and they act. Just like on the sporting field, if a group of individuals are brought together, given some direction, have had their special inner gifts brought to the surface, been grouped together to work collaboratively on a single mission, success can be achieved. And that is what the Youthlead program does.

The Ozgreen team using, trust exercises, visioning activities, strategic questioning, play, fun and environmental connection experiences allow a person on the Youth lead journey to have trust in themselves. Trust that they can make a difference, that they are very important in the grand scheme of life and that they are supported on this journey. The support comes through the friends they make at the program and the connections to the facilitators themselves the Ozgreen team who give so much energy, care and understanding throughout the process.

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2. Research methodology
2.1 Aim The aim of this research is to re-connect earth’s citizens back to nature. Through doing this, the goal is the eventual emergence of an ‘Ecological Self’.

To be an ecologically credible research inquiry for sustainability, it must walk the talk. “We make the road by walking.” (Horton etal)

This is why the approach for conducting the research will be ecologically based; it will be green itself. A green paradigm. Lincoln and Guba (1985), describe a paradigm is a systematic set of beliefs, together with their accompanying methods. Crotty (1998) would say, “a green epistemology.”

‘Green is dynamic and comparative, never absolute or idealistic.’ (Naess, 1989, p. 161)

The research will quite openly use Crotty’s (1998) basic elements of research from the text, the foundations of social research as a main design feature; • • • • Methods Methodology Theoretical perspective Epistemology

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Crotty (1998) also has an organic adaptability in its basic elements that permits the researcher to use their own insights and devise their own individual approach to the research process. The purpose of selecting these elements is to ensure the soundness of the research and make its outcomes convincing (Crotty, 1998, p.6).

This research is a story of an Education for sustainability journey. The artefact intended to be created through the research process is deeply inspired by biomimicry. Biomimicry will not only assist the artefacts design, but also the project itself through helping with the selection of methodological criteria. Biomimicry is also a guiding research question:

(v)

How can Biomimicry assist with the design of an education for sustainability framework?

Benyus, in her text Biomimicry (1997), brings to light the canon of nature’s laws, strategies, and principles that resonate throughout her text and that will proliferate thought this research project: • • Nature runs on sunlight. Nature uses only the energy it needs. • • • Nature fits form to function. Nature recycles everything. Nature rewards cooperation. • • • • Nature banks on diversity. Nature demands local expertise. Nature curbs excesses from within. Nature taps the power of limits.
(Table 2)

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2.2 Methods

A qualitative inquiry will be prescribed. Research cannot be just a figure; a percentage and a bar graph it. Research needs to be insightful. Quantitative research alone will not be able to handle the issues at hand with educating for sustainability.

“What you can’t measure still exists!” (Wals, 1990)

The Eco-cell project will hold true to the case study qualitative tradition of inquiry, one of five distinguished by Creswell (2005). A case study is used when trying to fulfil the following objectives:

To gain in-depth understanding replete with: o Meaning for the subject o Process Focused o Discovery rather than confirmation driven

To add strength to the research design boundary, the other case study characteristic to be acknowledged is that it is an intrinsic case study analysis, as specific to the definition prescribed by Stake (1995, p.5), as there is an intrinsic interest in the case.

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Correct deep questioning, gathering of data and thoughtful heuristic direction will develop an understanding of tangible and less tangible aspects of human behaviour such as values, assumptions, beliefs and philosophies. If an all encompassing engrossing effort is applied, then the outcome should be an authentic and reasonably complete representation of the deeper meanings involved with educating for sustainability.

The research questions have been selected to assist in the creation of the artefact; they will guide the research and ensure that the research is maintained as a bounded entity.

(vi)

How can deep ecology be used to assist education practioners in educating for sustainability?

(vii)

What role can Buddhist philosophy play in assisting the development of ecological values and ethics of individuals?

(viii) How can systems theory understandings assist with the evolution of beyond compliance education for sustainability strategies?

(ix)

How can biomimicry assist with the design of an education for sustainability framework?

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In the German language there is a word for analysing the inner and outer perspective of human behaviour, it is ‘verstehen’ (Patton, 2002, p.52). As Buddhism is sometimes describe as a vehicle to assist with exploring a person’s ‘inner space’, and ecology is the study of the outside world, ‘outer space’, then verstehen is a qualitative methodological tool to be fully considered as it fits with the overall research journey being mapped out.

• 2.2.1 Intellectual Rigour To maintain a high level of credibility for the research, the key strategy to be employed is, Triangulation; a strategy that has connections with gestalt theory.

Three lines are just that:   .

It is when they come together as a whole, the triangle , is when they become the strongest simple geometrical shape known.

This concept will be employed throughout the research to demonstrate strength and validity with the research presented from its various sources, • • • • • • Text Journal article Document Interview Policy Document Research method

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The next stage of the triangulation would be to show the strength from three different sources of research information. (i.e.) Interview Journal Article

Policy Document (Figure 11: Triangulation) • 2.2.2 Interviews

The interview strategy to be employed will support the qualitative paradigm selected by utilising the non-directive interviewing technique. This is in harmony with the overall essence of the research project to maintain rich and thick data as well as maintaining the emergent, organic nature of the research journey. The following interviewees are to be utilised, as authorities in their fields of endeavour: Interviewee Sue Lennox Col Lennox Dr Jeff Su Jason Alexander John Seed Dr. Kathleen Sullivan Role CEO of Ozgreen CEO of Ozgreen Business development Manager Gould Group Executive Director Earthwatch Institute Founder of the Council of All beings Nuclear Researcher Expertise Environmental Education Environmental Empowerment Environmental Education Environmental Empowerment Environmental Education Holistic Counseling Experiential learning Deep ecology Disarmament education (Table 3.)

The interview portion of the research will be dependant on acquiring ethics approval from RMIT University ethics committee.

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• 2.2.3 Timeline

This PhD project will be guided by the following time plan: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Commencement: 1 February 2007 Produce a project proposal: due June 2007 Ethics application: Jan 2008 First Review: June 2007 First Review Amendments Oct 2007 Student Conference Work in Progress presentation Nov 2007 Carry out research/Interviews: throughout 2007-2008 Draft and revise chapters: one every 2 months from Feb to Dec 2008 Chapter 1: due end of March 2008 Chapter 2: due end of May 2008 Chapter 3: due end of July 2008 Chapter 4: due end of September 2008 Conclusion: due end of October 2008 Introduction: due end of November 2008 Revisions: Jan to April 2009 Final editing and proofreading: May 2009 Submit thesis for 2nd Review: 1 June 2009

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2.3 Methodology

The Eco-cell gives a pattern and a structure to the elements, themes and components of education for sustainbilty, and through this analysis, a clearer ultimate pattern will emerge, the Eco-cell artefact itself. Capra (1997) also states that to understand a pattern fully, we must map a configuration of relationships. Therefore the elements, themes and components of the Eco-cell will be connected and will constitute a whole, a system.

The description of an ecosystem given by (Christopherson, 1997), “an ecosystem is a self-sustaining association of plants, animals, and the physical environment in which they live.”

Here the research that emerges is that through utilising parts in a configuration, creates a pattern that then emerges as an Eco-cell that allows the pattern to be an organisation. Utilising biomimicry, the organisation then can grow into a pattern of life, of sustaining life, an organism.

Case study as described by Sturman (1997) in (Keeves, 1997) is a generic term for the investigation of an individual, group, or phenomenon. For this research project the phenoenmon to be investigated will be sustainability, and how to achieve it through education.

Sturman (1997) in (Keeves, 1997) makes a point of highlighting that to be able to generalize from the outcome of partaking in the research journey, there needs

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to be a requirement fulfilled: an in-depth investigation of the interdependencies of parts and of the patterns that emerge.

The standout words used by Sturman (1997), parts and patterns are of paramount importance with the approach that is to be taken with this qualitative analysis. The term ‘part’ presents itself in another methodological underpinning of this research, Gestalt theory. “The whole is more then the sum of its parts.” (Naess, 1989, p.6) The following is an elucidation to assist with the basics of this theory that was born from concrete investigations in psychology, logic, and epistemology. There are wholes, the behaviour of which is not determined by their individual elements, but where the part-processes are themselves established by the intrinsic nature of the whole. It is the hope of Gestalt theory to determine the nature of such wholes (Wertheimer, 1924, p1). ‘A tree experienced spontaneously is always part of totality, a gestalt.’ (Naess, 1989, p.66)

The second of Sturmann’s case study terms to consider is patterns.

“From the systems point of view, the understanding of life begins with the understanding of pattern.” (Capra, 1997)

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Systems theory will play a major role in the development of this project. Capra makes a point of explaining that patterns cannot be measured or weighed; they must be mapped. The Eco-cell is used as a means and an end.

In Patton (2002) holistic has been explained utilising the following metaphor which is quite apt for the proposed research.

“The interdependence of flora, fauna, and the physical environment in ecological systems offers another metaphor for what it means to think and analyse holistically.” (Patton, 2002, p.59) As stated previously in this design proposal the artefact to be created the Eco-cell is to have organic properties, so the qualitative research should also embody this design feature and the theme of inquiry that allows for this according to Patton (2002) is, emergent design flexibility. This theme also fits well with the research question that utilises Buddhist philosophy, as a main principle associated with this eastern philosophy is that the only certain thing that exists in the universe is change itself. The characteristics of this reliable design strategy according to Patton (2002) are:

Openness to adapting inquiry as understanding deepens and /or situations change The researcher avoids getting locked into rigid designs that eliminate responsiveness Pursues new paths of discovery as they emerge.

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The other qualitative design element chosen to assist with the Eco-cell project includes the utilisation of a systems perspective and systems theory. o Important in dealing with and understanding real-word complexities, viewing things as whole entities embedded in context and still larger wholes o Some approaches to systems research lead directly to and depend heavily on qualitative inquiry

o A systems orientation can be very helpful in framing questions and, later, making sense out of qualitative data. (Patton, 2002, p.120)

From the aforementioned points elucidated by Patton (2002), connections can be made with systems and Gestalt. Furthermore there is a connection that is created with holistic thinking. “Holistic thinking is central to a systems perspective.” (Patton, 2002, p.120)

The next connection to take into research design consideration is Chaos and Complexity theory: non-linear dynamics. “The concepts of system and complexity are often closely related.” (Patton, 2002, p121)

A connector extraordinaire of the Eco-cell’s endeavour of bringing together eastern philosophy, systems theory, gestalt and biology is none other than one of the

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pioneers of quantum thinking and theory, Erwin Schroedinger. In the following prose from his book, ‘My view of the world’, he records his search for finding connection between east and west, science and mysticism and inner and outer space.

“This life of yours which you are living is not merely a piece of this entire existence, but is in a certain sense the “whole”; only this whole is not so constituted that it can be surveyed in one single glance. This as we know, is what the Brahmins express in that sacred, mystic formula which is yet really so simple and so clear: ‘Tat Tvam Asi’, this is you. Or again, in such words as “I am in the east and in the west. I am below and above, I am this whole world.” (Schroedinger in Bernstein, 1968, p.178) • 2.3.1 Educational design research

The no holds barred approach comes with it a risky design approach, but through truly letting go of constrictive methodological dogma then originality and creativity will get more of an opportunity to emerge. Needless to say the aforementioned research methods will be utilised as a guide to stay on course as well as the use of a more recent addition to research design; Educational Design Research.

It is a relatively new approach to conducting research in education. It is hoped that as well as assisting with the rigor and guidance of the Eco-cell artefact creation that utilising this style of research will add trustworthiness in the academic realm to be a legitimate form of research design.

Educational Research Design can be abridged to being,

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“A series of approaches, with the intent of producing new theories, artefacts, and practices that account for potentially impact learning and teaching in naturalistic settings.” (Van den Akker, 2006) The major characteristics of this research design that will aide this particular research include the following: • Interventionist: The research aims at designing an intervention in the real world.

Iterative: The research incorporates a cyclic approach of design, evaluation and revision

Process Orientated: a black box model of input-output measurement is avoided; focus is on understanding and improving interventions.

Utility- orientated: the merit of a design is measured, in part, by its practicality for users in real contexts.

Theory-orientated: the design is based upon theoretical propositions. (Van den Akker, 2006)

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2.4 Theoretical perspective

The theoretical perspective is, as described by Crotty (1998) our particular view of the human world and social life within that world, wherein such assumptions are grounded. This research will utilise critical theory as a means to liberate. Critical theory seeks to contribute toward the development of a form of social organization that overcomes antagonistic divisions between labour and leisure, reason and passion, pleasure and productivity, and individual happiness and social responsibility.

“Liberation involves practices of freedom as an affirmation of the personal as political.” (Hattam, 2004, p.vi)

Critical theory emphasises that particular sets of meanings, because they have come into being in and out of the give-and-take of social existence, exist to serve hegemonic interests. Each set of meanings supports particular power structures, resits moves towards greater equity, and harbours oppression, manipulation and other modes of injustice and unfreedom. (Crotty, 1998, p.59-60)

The removal of Neo Liberalism the extreme, ruthless relative of capitalism is an outcome of this education for sustainability exploration. The proposed research will venture to identify where neo-liberalism is directing some government policy, many business decisions and is even infiltrating curriculum design. The abolishment of neo liberalism is a theme that imbues much of the passion and inspiration for this research undertaking. Critical theory will be utilised as a tool to contribute toward the

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transformation and supersession of capitalism and in this research’s case, neo liberalism in the interest of enabling enlightenment and emancipation for all, abiotic and biotic. (Nowlan 2001)

It is not just a heuristic journey to learn about other cases or about some general problem. (Stake, 1995, p.5)

The eco-cell cannot just be a research journey it needs to be active, a change agent.

2.5 Epistemology

Epistemology is concerned with providing a philosophical grounding deciding what kinds of knowledge are possible and how we can ensure that they are both adequate and legitimate. It is a way of looking at the world and making sense of it. (Crotty, 1998, p. 8)

“But, if epistemology means reflection on the possibility, nature, and content of numerous kinds of knowledge, then, I shall contend, it will remain a central part of philosophy.” (Hacking, 1980, p.580)

The selected Epistemology and variations will enable the creation of a reflection space and time for this heuristic journey. Constructivism will be the main theory of knowledge that will direct this research.

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Constructivism specifically is the view that all knowledge, and therefore all meaningful reality as such, is contingent upon human practices, being constructed in and out of interaction between human beings and their world, and developed and transmitted within an essentially social context. (Crotty, 1998, p.42)

“What constructionism drives home unambiguously is that there is no true or valid interpretation. There are useful interpretations, to be sure, and these stand over against interpretations that appear to serve no useful purpose.” (Crotty, 1998, p.47) Constructionism takes the object very seriously. It is open to the world. Theodore Adorno refers to the process involved as ‘exact fantasy’ (In Crotty, 1998, Adorno, 1977, p.131). So with the aim of this research of creating a green consciousness, a ‘greener’ awareness, then a eco-aware citizen’s constructed meanings of the world, their ontology will also be ecologically connected for the purpose of this research. The social world and natural world are not to be seen, then as distinct worlds existing side by side. They are one human world. We are born each of us, into an already interpreted world and it is at once natural and social. (Crotty, 1998 p.57)

If, ontology is the study of conceptions of reality and the nature of being, then the concept of reality in itself must be defined to dismiss any ambiguities. In the beginning stages of this research the discovery of Bhaskar’s meta-Reality, born from the multi-disciplinary philosophy of critical realism, creates an avenue of further investigation as it appears to support the use of critical social theory.

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“The philosophy of meta-Reality describes the way in which this very world nevertheless depends upon, that is, is ultimately sustained by and exists only in virtue of the free, loving, creative, intelligent energy and activity and activity of non-dual states of our being and phases of our activity.” (Bhaskar, 2002, p.vii)

The link highlighted by an outcome of critical social theory of emancipation and enlightenment. With the eco-connection in mind, the eco-self is developed and values that stem from this understanding will turn in to positive action in about and for the environment. This structure of reality and self is the key to combating the neoliberalist view of the world, and will ultimately allow for a paradigm shift, through business, through education, through culture. The BHAG will come to fruition.

The Eco-cell is about the development of an ecological self, but through this hopefully, there is an influence throughout society, so paradigm shift can occur.

“Understanding of trees is not something we come to individually ‘in the course of our practical life’. (Crotty, 1998, p.56) Social reality is, therefore, a function of shared meanings; it is constructed, sustained and reproduced through social life.” (Greenwood ,1994, p.85 in Crotty, 1998)

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3. Close
The research is a system itself, it is dynamic, organic and interdisciplinary. The Eco-cell needs this and more to thrive and survive. “The image of an organism puts knowledge into ‘live relationships,’ emphasizing a fecundity that spawns new disciplines.” (Klein 1985) Sustainability is a relatively new discipline that brings with it a sense of urgency attached to it, that makes it a challenging discipline to embark upon. The research conducted through the creation of the Eco-cell will show innovation and an advance in education for sustainability thinking, but what should be apparent is that it is not a haphazardly constructed ensemble of theories, but the birth of a much needed artefact for a beyond compliance education for sustainability design.

The outcome of this research journey will be the production of an education for sustainability artefact: the Eco-cell. A tool that when utilised can assist an education institution and many other types of organisations in understanding what sustainability is and what must be considered if ‘real’ change is to occur for a quality future for humanity on planet Earth.

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References
Adorno, T. W. (1973). "The actuality of Philosophy." Telos 31(Spring): 120-33. Benyus, J. M. (1997). Biomimicry: innovation Inspired by Nature. New York, HarperCollins. Bernstein, J. (1968-69). I am this whole world: Erwin Schroedinger. In Project Physics Reader 5, New York, Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Bourne, R. (1977). The Radical Will: Selected writings 1911-1918. New York, Urizen. Burkink, T. J. (2005). "What is your mission Statement?" Retrieved 1/7/07, 2007, from http://www.unk.edu/student_org/phikappaphi/addresses/burkink.html. Bhaskar, R. (2002). From science to emancipation : alienation and enlightenment. California, Thousand Oaks. Capra, F. (1997). Web of Life: A synthesis of mind and matter. London, HarperCollins. Capra, F. (2002). The hidden connections: integrating the biological, cognitive, and social dimensions of life into a science of sustainability. New York, Anchor Books. Christopherson, R. W. (1997). Geosystems: An Introduction to Physical Geography. Upper Saddle River, Prentice Hall. Collins, J. C. (1996). "Building Your Companyʼs Vision." Harvard Business Review Sep-Oct: 4. Creswell, J. W. (2005). Educational research. Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. Crotty, M. (1998). The foundations of social research: meaning and perspective in the research process. Sydney, Allen and Unwin.

Elliot, T. S., The Wasteland, in Taylor, D. (1993). The compost book. Hong Kong, Reed. Fien, J. (2000), Tela Paper No: 8, Melbourne, Australian Conservation Foundation Hacking, I. (1980). "Is the end in sight for epistemology?" The Journal of Philosophy 51

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77(10): 579-588.

Harding, S. (2000). "What is Deep ecology?" Resurgence 185. Hattam, R. (2004). Awakening Struggle: Towards a Buddhist Critical Social Theory. Flaxton, Queensland, PostPressed. Hawken, P. (1993). The Ecology of Commerce. New York, Collins Business. Henning, D. H. (2002). Buddhism and Deep Ecology. Bloomington, 1st Books. Klein, J. T. (1985). The interdisciplinary concept: History Theory Practice. Detroit, Wayne State University Press. Lama, D. (1999). Ancient Wisdom, Modern World: Ethics for a new millennium. New York, New York, River Head Books. Lama, D. (2007). "4 Noble Truths." Retrieved 3/4/07, 2007, from http://www.lamayeshe.com/otherteachers/hhdl/4noble_truths.shtml. Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Macy, J. (1991). Mutual Causality in Buddhism and General Systems Theory. New York, State University of New York Press. Naess, A. (1989). Ecology, community and lifestyle. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Nowlan, B. Prof. (2001). "Outline, Expansion, refocus and rearticulation: Key Points, Arguments form Herbert Marcuse, "Philosophy and Critical Theory" (1937)." Retrieved 3/8/07, 2007, from www.uwec.edu/ranowlan/frankfurt_school_notes.htm. Patton, M. Q. (Ed.). (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Robert, K.-H. (1991). "Educating A Nation: The Natural Step." In Context: A quarterly of humane sustainable culture 28(Spring). McDonough in Rosenblatt, R.,Time (1999). A Whole New World, CNN (feb ed.) Sessions, G. (1985). Deep Ecology: Living as if nature mattered. Salt Lake City, Peregrine Smith Book. Smyth, J. (1999). "Is there a future for education consistent with Agenda 21?" Canadian Journal of Environmental Education 4: 69-82.

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Stake, R. E. (1995). The art of case study research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Stern, N. (2006). "Climate Change- The international Challenge." Retrieved 3/5/07, 2007, from http://www.forestry.gov.uk/forestry/infd-6ungfp. Orr in Stone, M.K. (2005). Ecological Literacy: educating our children for a sustainable world. Berkeley, California, University of California Press. Sturman, A. (1997). Case study methods. In J. P. Keeves (Ed.), Educational research, methodology and measurement: An international handbook (2nd ed.): Oxford: Esevier Science Ltd. Suzuki, D., Knudtson, P (1997). Wisdom of the Elders. Crows Nest, Allen & Unwin. Tilbury, D., & Cooke, K. (2005). Frameworks for sustainability. A national review of environmental education and its contribution to sustainability in Australia - key findings. Canberra: Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage and Australian Research Institute in Education for Sustainability (ARIES). Tomasko, R. (1993). Rethinking the corporation: The Architecture of Change. New York, AMACOM. United Nations (1972) in United Nations (1994). Agenda 21: Programme of action for sustainable development. Agenda 21. Brazil, UNCED. van den Akker, J., K. Gravemeijer, et al. (2006). Educational Design Research. London, Routledge. van Matre, S. (1990). Earth Education. West Virginia. Varela, F. J., E. Thompson, et al. (1991). The embodied mind: cognitive science and human experience. Massachusetts, MIT Press.

Wals, A. (1990). "What you can't measure still exists." Environmental Communicator(Nov-Dec): 12. World Commission on Environment and Development. (1987). Our Common Future. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

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List of Tables
Table 1. Ethics And Values Table 2. Nature’s laws, strategies, and principles Table 3. Interviewees

List of Figures
Figure 1. Plant Cell Figure 2. Four Pillars of sustainability Figure 3. Four interrelated principles of living Figure 4. Newtonian Time Figure 5. Infinite Time and Space Figure 6. Permaculture design principle Figure 7. Ecosophy T Figure 8. Basic Components of A Plant Cell Figure 9. Principles of Ecology Figure 10. Lane Clark Professional Development Advertisement Figure 11. Triangulation

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PhD by Thesis

The Eco Cell Stage 1: Preliminary investigation
Research management aid Thesis Research Navigation Ragnar Haabjoern 9610731w

Mind Map Stage 1 The Tony Buzan’s Mind Map strategy was utilised to assist with creating a more lucid PhD thesis expedition. Early experience from the PhD proposal indicated the ease to which one can get easily mislead by tangents and emerging ideas. Having used the mind Map with the structure of Fran Peavey’s Strategic Questioning process has produced the following initial stage of inquiry. The strategy to be further employed form this initial Mind Map Stage will be to Mind Map each aspect produced. Progressing in this manner will create a portal of depth analysis whilst maintaining consistency in research and structure. This technique is Fractal inspired. “The most striking property of ‘fractal’ shapes is that their characteristic patterns are found repeatedly at descending scale, so their parts, at any scale, are similar in shape to the whole.” From Web of Life, Capra, F (1999) The consistent investigation structure utilised in the Mind Map Stage 1 is the 4 pillars of sustainability: Environmental, Economic, Social/Cultural and Political. * Will call pillars but really say that they are part of an inter-connecting web that makes Sustainability Mind Map Stage 1

The next Stage will be to apply a classification structure to the titles. I envisage utilising Ludwig Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus system. Wittgenstein’s system comprises of short statements, numbered 1, 1.1, 1.11, 1.12, etc., through to 7, intended to be such that 1.1 is a comment on or elaboration of 1, 1.11 and 1.12 comments on 1.1, and so forth. 55

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Focus
Focus Part 1: Defining Terms
Research Question Explanation of research question “How can deep ecology enhance education for sustainability?”

1. Define Deep Ecology
Who, what, where, when, how & why a) WHO Naess Rothenburg Macy Seed Rosenhek Sessions Devall Henning Fromm Damm b) WHAT Introduction Ecology, community lifestyle Reading Study Nature based philosophy Forming Self connections to the environment Ecology, Community Lifestyle Expand (Book) Ecosophy T Themes (Introduce Expand later) Values Biodiversity Action etc c) WHERE Geography How has Norway given birth to Deep Ecology? Naess-Norway- History of Norwegian Philosophy History of Norwegian Deep Ecology Mountains Expand ‘Thinking like a mountain’

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d) WHEN Rachel Carson – Brief history of environmentalism Nature connections throughout history St Francis Assisi Tao Dogen Siddartha Dee Ecology Time History Brief social critical snapshot at Deep Ecology’s birth e) HOW: How does deep ecology work? Self -reliseriv Ecological Self Ecosophy T Development of your Own Deep ecology Platform??? This can fit somewhere f) WHY? Why do we need an ecological self in the 21st century and beyond??? Biocentrism/ humans connected to nature Expand using 4 pillars (i)Environmental Biodiversity…caring far, less impact, lifestyle choice (ii)Social/Cultural Community/ Sense of & connecting to (iii)Economic What do we value? Values associated with making money, job Security? Maislow, Jason Clark flowchart Breaking the industrial growth society (iv)Political What is the platform??? Economics- Liberal system has failed Thinking about sustainability no matter what portfolio would be the optimum

2. Define Enhance
Etymology and a description of what the meaning for my research will in compass - Ami’s Quote - Email from Kathryn’s Richard about not going in and changing everything but agreeing and then making suggestions - Shambala Warrior

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3. Define sustainability 4. Define Education for Sustainability
Purpose of conducting this PhD Thesis Investigation what is it?

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Focus Part 2.

1. Unique philosophical Contribution
i. History of philosophy ii. What is a Philosopher? iii. Why I wish to have a courtship with Wisdom?

2. Social Critical Snapshot
NB: Will employ structure from ‘Rust Belt Kids to be academically correct A. Introduce 4 pillars of sustainability Expand 4 pillars • Environmental • Social/Cultural • Economic • Political

(i)

Environmental

(There is an underpinning environmental aspect that is fuelling this research0 it is worth expanding this) Expand 4 pillars Environmental Tipping Point Climate Change Jim Hensen /NASA data Twisted: The distorted mathematics of greenhouse denial

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(ii)

Social/Cultural Change is needed Power of the individual Education system currently Detail how it is failing across the board Get global stats on Teacher pay and funding for education Brainstormed topics to consider Climate Change and mental health Australian Psychological association fact Sheet Shutdown by individuals Overwhelm (issue to big to act on) Sophia’s Email (Snapshot of Mental health issues with Australian kids) Green Washing Marketing issues (Matt Perry Republic of everyone) (Interview Opportunity) Lifestyle Organic Green purchasing Green power NGO’s Student developments in school What is the product of Australia’s education system? What are we churning out??? Jobs?? Resilience??? Quality of life??? Industrial growth society

(iii)

Economic “No economy on a dead planet!” Greens Postcard Global Financial Crisis Industrial Growth Society -Carbon Peak oil True cost externalities Key research documents Ecology of commerce and natural capitalism AGSM new manger program: First time climate change came up as an issue.

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(iv)

Political “Garnaut Report, (History of issue in politics) Howard denial No its own portfolio Might have to take headings from Murray Darling Example Education for sustainability (political directives) Influences on curriculum’s and strategies around Australia Specifically talk about Victoria (My experience) B. Personal Research Experience: Murray-Darling Basin

Murray/Darling Basin Example of environmental disaster) (Extension of environmental pillar) (Will use the MDB as a focus for my understandings as I have not only researched but also experienced) Expand Using 4 pillars i. Environmental Scientific research - Wentworth Group - CSIRO - Wilderness Society - ACF - OzGREEN ii. Social/Cultural Jobs Population -Decline -Farmers Suicide rates -Students History of Australia iii. Economic Australia’s Food Bowl Exports iv. Political Minister of the Murray (Karlene Maywald) Possible interview Penny Wong Peter Garrett Water Allocations Government Strategy

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VISION
Introduction What is it? Explain using Strategic question, deep ecology and education Purpose of Vision (In sustainability) Kind of Introduction to why it will be utilised for the PhD Broad and then give examples Expand 4 pillars Environmental (Note: PRESENT Last) East Timor- Bare mountain story-National Park Social/Cultural I have a dream- Martin Luther King Economic Projections- Market trends Boeing story Political JFK – Space Race Then get into 3 benefits of utilising Visioning as a technique to be used in conjunction with deep ecology for enhancing education for sustainability 1. Imagination 2. Creativity/innovation 3. Goal Setting

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Vision Part A:
1. Imagaination
Power of imagination Einstein quotes: “New ways of thinking” “Imagination is more important than knowledge” Non-local intelligence – Gardner existential intelligence Quantum Psychology Check Earth Education van Matre Wisdom of the Elders Suzuki

2. Creativity/Innovation
How something new is created???? (Research) Chaos theory

3. Goal Setting
What use is there making a choice/ a decision if you have not thought about what the consequence are!!! This is what is sustainability is about ----- enough for everyone and everything forever!!! Permaculture design quote “Sins of the fathers – 7th generation) Business Schools Personal Development Introduce Spiral – Work small achieve move outwards, connect with deep ecology and action Carbon emission Targets

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Vision Part B:
VISION Another mind Map Branch/Chapter Split—Inner and Outer

(i) INNER VISIONS
What is it? a) Looking within for true self b) Looking within for answers to something c) Visioning peace to do this work (Its an important consideration) Combating Burden Overwhelm horror, Sadness, Despair How do we do a), b), c), In three settings (i) Self (ii) Group (iii) Organisation Why is it important when talking about deep ecology and education for sustainability??? In terms of (i), (ii) And (iii)

EXTERNAL VISIONS
Introduction The purpose of this research is to develop a new design for education for sustainability that will hopefully assist the planet Expand 4 pillars Environmental Social/Cultural Economic Political Talk about how education is such an important fabric of society and is largely taken for granted. What does education do?? Intro Brief

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What will education for sustainbilty utilising deep ecology do??/ Intro/Brief Ecotopia Sections ECOTOPIAS (Elucidate external vision) Distil the essence of ecotopia’s Using Expand 4 pillars Environmental Social/Cultural Economic Political External vision of what education for sustainability looks like utilising deep ecology using Boston not for profit environmental organisation themes Second nature. Scale Human connections to the physical and natural world Ethics and Values How natural systems Function a. System theory b. Principles of ecology c. Networks d. Cycles e. Solar Energy f. Partnership g. Diversity h. Dynamic balance Technological & Economic relationships to sustainability Motivating Environmental sustainable behaviour Pedagogical Strategies for integrating Sustainability

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CHANGE
So if that’s the vision of education for sustainability enhanced by deep ecology, what needs to change??? What needs to happen?? / Discuss change Jung Buddhism Chaos Theory “The ultimate change is that we are living in an anthropocentric world…” If there was more biocentrism…the earth always being thought of First!, in our thinking and actions there is a strong possibility that the environmental crisis we are in could be undone. “ It is impossible but we must try!” BE THE CHANGE----Ghandi

SENSING the World Differently
Processing our interactions with the world (existential intelligence, Deeper thinking, deep feeling) a. SIGHT Quantum physics What do you see?

A commodity? A life support system? A habitat ? A poem *Use Wisdom of the elders ‘Real Seeing’ CC b. DEEP LISTENING Dadiri – Indigenous listening to the land Pauline Oliveros Strategic Questioning/Deep listening/ Being fully present/ Being Compassionate listening with your heart Psychiatric training? Listening to a patient Presence

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c. FEELING THE WORLD Emotional Intelligence “Empathy with nature to assist with transformation to eco-direct action warrior!” Why is this important? Cite examples from Naess, Spinoza and Macy. d. Behaviour Change Sensing the world differently can have transformative aspects – behaviour change This behaviour change will be long lasting SUSTAINGE (* Doug Mackenzie-Mohr) Transformative education (Scale)

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ACTION
What deep ecologically inspired actions will enhance education for sustainability? In the Introduction briefly comment on the Five Areas: Explain why they have been selected and there connection with Deep Ecology (Connect this also with the Deep ecology platform, Ecosophy??? Introduction 1. FRILUFTSLIV

Free air life Active Appreciate Nature Quiet Time (Resting the mind for clearer thought) Deep Ecology and Buddhism Sense of place

2.

RELIGIO (To Connect)

The work that reconnects Introduce deep Ecology Connections Detail my experience Detail benefits Platform (Macy) How to do it? How it can benefit four pillars of sustainability. How it can enhance education for sustainability. 3. CREATIVITY

A section to detail Biomimicry: Innovation inspired by Nature, Cradle to Cradle: Design philosophy of McDonough The Power of Art - Howard Gardner’s Project Zero work - My Experience – National Gathering - Benefits – 4 Pillars of Sustainability - How it can help Education for sustainability - Connect value of art to deep ecology

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4.

PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT (Self Work)

School version of ‘The work that reconnects’ Connect with Australian Psychological association What is currently happening in Schools? Fitzroy High Pastoral care team, Stuart Stuart Chaplain of Chaffey Secondary College Connect Personal Development with deep ecology Then detail Personal Development/Deep Ecology/ EFS How this can benefit 4 Pillars of sustainability

5.

ECO-LITERACY

What is it? Who are the major players? Capra, World Examples, Australia examples Why? -General - Connect with deep Ecology - Connect with deep Ecology and Education for sustainability - Connect with Sustainability Pillars (How it can benefit and address issues concerning 4 Pillars)

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CONCLUSION
• Structure using Strategic question (Focus- what has the PhD produced?) (Vision – BHAG) (Change – The actual Eco-cell) (Action – Create online curriculum tool and Professional development sessions with it!) Return to The research question How can deep ecology enhance education for sustainability? Summarise Would Naess be proud with this ECOSOPHY??? Use the 4 pillars to show if the Summary was put into practice what benefits this would have for 4 pillars. Re-visit Strategic Question ACTION What am I prepared to do?? What is the Next Step?? Post Doctoral Work Professional Development Training and Online Curriculum Tool- The Eco_cell

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