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Enabling the Immersive 3D Web with COLLADA &

Rita Turkowski – June 30, 2010

The web is built on standard document formats (HTML, XML, CSS) and
standard communication protocols (HTTP, TCP/IP), gaining momentum
by the principle and power of the hyperlink (URL / URI) (1). Browsers
and servers implementing those standards have revolutionized
publishing and searching. Not only can documents be linked by other
documents, but since the data is provided in a standard open language
it also provides the ability to link to specific content inside a document,
enabling the rich navigation and search functionalities that we take for
granted today.

Two standard technologies developed by the Khronos Group (2), WebGL

and COLLADA, are opening the way for enhancing the web experience
into the third dimension (3D) of imaging. Thanks to this work, 3D
applications can now take advantage of the fundamentals of the web
while natively exploiting 3D graphics hardware acceleration. This white
paper describes both Khronos standards at an abstract level and the
evolution of an ecosystem that will enable immersive 3D Web
applications to evolve from currently disparate implementations (i.e.
“walled gardens” or “silos”) to become standard web publishing
accessible natively in a web browser.

What is WebGL?
WebGL (Web Graphics Library (3)) is a low-level JavaScript API
enabling web applications to take advantage of 3D graphics hardware
acceleration in a standard way. Currently the only way to provide
interactive display of appreciable quality 3D content in a web browser
is to create a separate application loaded as a plug-in. Plug-ins are
problematic as they require end-user installation which is not
transparent, placing a burden on the end-user, and are frequently
forbidden by companies security guidelines, impeding the general
adoption of 3D content. Consequently, this current situation fosters an
ecosystem of "walled garden" communities as opposed to a World
Wide Web experience where each user can publish, access, and search

In contrast, the WebGL standard will provide native access to the

graphics hardware by extending the HTML specifications with a new set
of objects and functions for 3D graphics.

The contribution of this new API is twofold: firstly it removes the need
for external plug-ins installation, thus widening and accelerating its
adoption, and, secondly, it allows web application developers to rely on
a standard that boasts a very large community of qualified 3D
professionals. In fact, WebGL is directly derived from the OpenGL ES
2.0 specifications to be a bare-bones yet extremely efficient and
powerful graphics API.

In this scenario, users of WebGL-enabled browsers, such as Apple

Safari, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Opera and mobile solutions by
Nokia, will benefit from the richness of newly created applications such
as 3D virtual worlds directly from the browser.

Technically speaking, WebGL is an extension to the

HTMLCanvasElement (as defined by the W3C’s WHATWG HTML 5
specification Canvas element (4)), being specified and standardized by
the Khronos Group. The HTML CanvasElement represents an element
on the page into which graphic images can be rendered using a
programmatic interface. The only interface currently standardized by
the W3C is the CanvasRenderingContext2D. The Khronos WebGL
specification describes another interface, WebGLRenderingContext,
which faithfully exposes OpenGL ES 2.0 functionalities. WebGL brings
OpenGL ES 2.0 to the web by providing a 3D drawing context to the
familiar HTML5 Canvas element through JavaScript objects that offer
the same level of functionality.

What is COLLADA?
COLLADA (5) is an intermediate language for interactive 3D
applications. It has been designed from the ground-up with well-settled
web technologies: it is essentially XML for 3D assets, using URLs for
linking content. COLLADA enables content to flow from content
creation tools to interactive applications; it is a lossless, extensible
declarative language well suited for content (persistent) serialization
and retrieval. The content can then be processed with standard tools in
its native XML encoding and adapted to any target application.

COLLADA is also being used as an interchange format, providing a

bridge between authoring applications. Because COLLADA is a royalty-
free open standard based on standard XML technology, its use as a
publishing format has been steadily growing with its adoption by
Google Earth(6) and other GIS applications, web 3D engines such as
Papervision3D(7), Google O3D(8) and asset repository systems such as
3DVIA(9) and Google 3D warehouse(10).

Motivation for WebGL

The inclusion of native 3D rendering capabilities inside web browsers,
as witnessed by the interest and participation in the Khronos Group's
WebGL(3) project, aims at simplifying the development of 3D for the
web. It does this by eliminating the need to create a 3D web plug-in
(and requiring a non-trivial end-user download with manual installation
before any 3D content can be viewed by the end-user).

WebGL benefits by harnessing the widely used standard OpenGL ES 2.0

API directly. Some background is useful here. Many graphics
programmers today leverage the OpenGL family of APIs that are
supported by a number of hardware drivers. OpenGL ES is increasingly
found on a number of devices (e.g., 3D games for the iPhone are
supported via OpenGL ES). Therefore driver support is already good,
and likely to continue to improve over time. In fact, OpenGL ES 2.0 will
work on the desktop though not natively supported by desktop drivers.
It can be implemented on top of desktop OpenGL with some care but
you need to impose the appropriate restrictions. Google explicitly
created project ANGLE (11) which implements a compliant OpenGL ES
2.0 API on top of Microsoft’s D3D9 that browsers will most commonly
use on Windows (12).

The Khronos WebGL Working Group is motivated to specify how to

bring hardware-accelerated 3D graphics to the web for a number of

• JavaScript performance has radically improved.

• JavaScript is the "defacto" programming language of the web.
• Many interesting applications are web applications.
• Cloud based application development is growing.
• New capabilities on the web should solve for the widest use case.
For example, libraries such as jQuery and Dojo provide
programmer-facing abstractions and syntactic help, so that
developers rarely need to use the underlying "raw" primitives.
Likewise, by providing a Shader-based API like OpenGL ES 2.0
within WebGL, Khronos is solving for the widest possible number
of use cases, leaving room for new libraries to do many things,
including model parsing, etc. This provides a technical
infrastructure that benefits both business models and academic
research models.

Motivation for COLLADA

The burden COLLADA set out to alleviate is that 3D environments are
difficult, expensive and time-consuming to create and manage.
Content creation represents by far the largest budget in the cost of

creating 3D applications. The more that existing content and code for
models, shading, animation, special effects, physics etc., can be
shared and syndicated, the more efficiently production pipelines can
be made available.

For instance, as virtual goods are a growing business model for the
game industry, and increasingly end-users aspire to evolve from
consumers to creators and publishers of (their own) content,
COLLADA’s popularity is growing as an asset exchange and publishing
format. Many 3D web applications that are being developed with
WebGL are leveraging this trend of content reuse and taking
advantage of COLLADA.

Taking advantage of COLLADA and WebGL

WebGL provides native low-level 3D graphics hardware acceleration for
JavaScript and is directly accessible within standard web browsers.
COLLADA provides XML-encoded content that WebGL applications can
use directly. Neither WebGL nor COLLADA specify how the web
application should use the content; both are providing complementary
technologies that a JavaScript web application can leverage, and both
are, by design, not forcing a specific visual representation. Likewise
neither enforces a specific usage of the content or graphic hardware.
This is the key for enabling innovation and remaining future-proof.

What makes COLLADA such a good fit for web-based applications is its
inherent use of web technologies. This makes it appealing to WebGL
developers. COLLADA is using web technology for its syntax (XML) and
makes direct use of resource identifiers (URI) to query server
databases. As such, COLLADA is structurally a compliant citizen in the
WWW scenario. In this particular case (web delivery), as for most other
applications (e.g., native games) an encoding specific to the
application is necessary. Conditioning can be done COLLADA-in,
COLLADA-out for web content. In this context, standard XML tools
(such as Ant and XSLT) can be used to process COLLADA .dae
documents exported by popular DCC tools to create files that can then
be easily imported into interactive applications. This explains why
COLLADA is widely used on the web today and relied upon by the
web’s 3D content repositories, e.g., Google Warehouse, 3DVIA, Daz3D
and others. Note that there is a significant trend to move computation
into the digital cloud(13), which means that some (or all) of the content
pipeline could be moved into the cloud, changing the balance of
delivery versus authoring (specifically in the case of the web).
Consequently, operators will most likely be interested in compression

and streaming technology after 3D content bandwidth usage grows

This said, there is no formal web based approach between WebGL and
COLLADA. Work needs to be done outside of implementing both
specifications to realize COLLADA content in a WebGL enabled browser.
WebGL is a low-level, immediate mode graphics API with little concept
of even higher level visual scene elements such as hierarchical
transforms, shapes, instancing, and materials etc. that are central to
COLLADA. Therefore, in order to connect these two, some sort of
transformation or glue code must be implemented, albeit a retained
mode rendering engine in its most simple form. However, this is not
something Khronos specifies or has any control over.

So while COLLADA will be a very important part of the WebGL

ecosystem as a vehicle for getting content into WebGL applications, it
is not yet clear how these two standards will work together more

COLLADA as a Khronos standard should work in synergy with WebGL in

order to bring content to WebGL applications. It would likely increase
WebGL adoption by providing a wealth of ready content and a (open
source) WebGL viewer for COLLADA, especially including robust
support for the GLSL shading language.

So in short - COLLADA is using web technologies (XML, URI) and is well

suited for 3D content delivery for the web, although compression and
streaming technologies such as MPEG 4 part 25(14) will most likely be
used in the near future to enhance downloading and streaming

How to get COLLADA content into the browser

As stated above, WebGL is a low-level, immediate mode graphics API
with no direct access to high-level content, while COLLADA is the

1Compression and streaming are technologies that should be used to provide a better
experience for web delivery of 3D content. Currently the gzip compression and embedding of
COLLADA documents into a swf, a kmz,or a json compressed stream provides a 10x
compression. (Note that COLLADA 1.5 already defines the .zae format in its specification in
order to provide the identical technology as part of the standard, which matches with the
current compression delivery mechanisms in use for 3D content delivery on the web). More
advanced compression technology for COLLADA is already published by MPEG-4 Part 25 and
can provide a 200x compression and better streaming capabilities (using dedicated algorithms
for compression depending on the data semantic), but the web community has not yet shown
interest in higher compression technology (as opposed to video/images/audio). Mobile network
operators will be interested in this technology only when 3D content bandwidth usage grows

content itself. Therefore, the secret sauce binding the two together is
the web and its supporting technologies.

To connect these two technologies a software interface must be

implemented by developers of web applications. The definition of this
interface is often too domain specific: this is one of the main reasons
why such a specification is not provided (or looked upon to be
standardized) by the Khronos Group.

Most probably the first wave of applications taking advantage of

COLLADA and WebGL will be based on the current model of tightly
packaged data and code. Those applications will provide 3D interactive
content embedded in a browser similar to those available today.
Typically the content in COLLADA and other formats is processed off-
line in specialized tools, and packaged into an application-specific
format. There are already many examples of such architectures such
as the recently redefined Google O3D content tool (15) (which converts
COLLADA XML into JSON (16) and other data), and popular game
engines such as Unity (17), Irrlicht (18), Ogre3D (19) and Torque (20).

As support for HTML5 and related standards grows, it is likely more and
more 3D web applications are likely to use COLLADA directly as an
input format and directly parse the COLLADA XML in the browser as
part of the application: For example, GLGE(21) and other experiments
prove that a partial COLLADA parser can be implemented in JavaScript.
As a working example of an implementation of this, Figure 1 below
(courtesy of Marco Di Benedetto and the SpiderGL(22) project)
illustrates the opportunities of WebGL used in conjunction with
COLLADA files and asynchronous XML transfers.

Figure 1: The SpiderGL library architecture:

Simplifying, content availability and import will likely play a leading
role in moving WebGL toward broad adoption.

This architecture hints at the possibilities to take advantage of a server

side COLLADA service to enable on-demand (a.k.a. dynamic) content
retrieval or creation.

Another fine example comes from the GLGE library – as an open source
library GLGE is a JavaScript library intended to simplify use of WebGL.

The aim of GLGE is to mask the involved nature of WebGL from the
web developer, who can then spend his/her time creating richer
content for the web. Figure 2 shows the COLLADA Duck with the
Seymour Plane from In February 2010, GLGE folks
showed this example (found at
supported/) when they announced COLLADA support for GLGE:

Figure 2: COLLADA GLGE Examples:

Code to prepare the WebGL scene (to render this COLLADA experiment
into) is shown here:

GLGE’s implementation of the JavaScript code for loading COLLADA documents is

shown here:

With GLGE, it is possible to declare a scene object and then import a
sub-scene from a COLLADA document. Importing a sub scene from a
COLLADA document provides maximum flexibility. It allows use of
COLLADA in more then one use-case to play to the strengths of the
COLLADA format and its versatility. For example, you can layout an
entire scene, as Paul Brunt did in his FPS (first person shooter) level,
shown in the image below, which is imported into GLGE as a single
COLLADA document (including the animations), or just import a single
object such as the duck and plane to use in a larger scene.

Bringing COLLADA to WebGL through URL
It is possible to bring any COLLADA asset - from geometry to effects -
into a WebGL enabled browser. One common example of COLLADA
content needing to be purposed into WebGL is shaders. COLLADA
documents include coexisting shader programs for several target
platforms (HLSL, Cg, GLSL,…). A WebGL application would want to look
at the GLES2 profile, which provides the shader program in the GLSL-
ES language used by WebGL, as well as all the input variables of the
shader directly available in XML. This encapsulation provides a
standard mechanism to deliver information about the embedded
shader without having to parse the shader itself. Tools such as ATI
Rendermonkey(23) and Imagination Technology PVRShaman(24)
already have support for creating shaders for GLSL-ES and
export/import in the COLLADA format. Such tools will be useful to
create/test/tweak WebGL shaders. The web application can simply
retrieve the shader text from the GLES profile inside the COLLADA XML
document once it is created using desktop tools.

Another example on how COLLADA and WebGL work together is the

mechanism used to bring images into WebGL to be used as textures.
WebGL is relying on the browser to provide the image bits from a URL.
COLLADA specifies the image as an URL that can be passed directly to
the browser. COLLADA also specifies all the additional parameters to
create a texture (such as sampler and surface parameters), directly in
XML form. It is up to the web application’s COLLADA loader to parse all
the information and set up the WebGL state appropriately before
rendering the geometry. The application would browse the COLLADA
‘material’ information to extract the sampler and surface parameters
and the URL of the image before invoking the browser image loading
capabilities. I.e., the application provides all these parameters to

WebGL and COLLADA enabling the 3D Web

The hyperlink mechanism allows documents to link to other
documents, providing the fundamentals of a rich semantic navigation
system. The content of a 3D interactive web won’t be integrated as
native web technology until this same hyperlink philosophy is built into
the document viewers (i.e. directly into 3D engines built for the web)
as well.

Soon web applications will be taking advantage of the client/server

architectures and web technologies for dynamic content and partial
refresh (see Ajax(25) as a good example). With such applications it will

be possible to click on a link and be launched immediately into a 3D
immersive environment in the browser, or click an element of a 3D
content and navigate to another 2D or 3D document, truly enabling 3D
content in the web. It is a worthwhile investigation to revisit the classic
WWW client / server schematic to see where COLLADA and WebGL fit
in. The architecture of WebGL and COLLADA can best be described
through the following web architecture diagram.

Figure 3: COLLADA and WebGL integration from a client/server


The most exciting usage model for WebGL and COLLADA is leveraging
the client/server architecture of the web and the technologies that are
in use in current web applications. COLLADA content can be created
dynamically by the server, providing the web application with content
that is adapted to the target device. Textures can be created
dynamically as well. For example a texture can be created dynamically
to represent real-time data. Even the JavaScript or the GLSL-ES code
can be generated dynamically by very sophisticated implementations.
Evidence of such infrastructures are already in development, such as

Even with simpler implementations, using standard XML HTTP
requests, the web application can query the server to provide the
subset of the COLLADA document that is of interest to the application,
or select which level of detail or material complexity to use on the
target device. Since the workload of a 3D application is directly
impacted by the complexity of the data itself, it is important for a web
application to be able to adapt the content to the platform it is running
on. Even as WebGL provides a standard API on all platforms, the form
factor, CPU and GPU performances will have a direct impact on the
user experience. Combining COLLADA for standard content description
and a WebGL standard graphic API, along with the power of current
web technology, will enable web applications to provide the best
possible user experience adapted to the device characteristics. For
example, the web application can decide to query for a model with
fewer polygons on a slower embedded device with a small screen, and
a very detailed model on a powerful workstation with a high-resolution

As an example of what WebGL and COLLADA can offer in the near

future when integrated in a web application, every major browser
(client) now supports the ability to link to a content repository.
Developers can write a few lines of JavaScript into their html markup,
include the URL to the server (aka: content repository) they need
content from, and your browser will display the content. A good
working example of such a web application today is Typekit(27). With a
simple line of JavaScript, Typekit remotely serves fonts from Typekit’s
online font foundry to client-based applications running directly in
browsers. The more that web developers bring this sort of desired
content direct to the user's browser in real time, the less there will be a
need for specialized solutions or the use of canned images to display
content (such as fancy fonts) in a web application.

Value of the Khronos Group Conformance Effort

An important service provided by Khronos that adds lasting value to
organizations adopting Khronos specifications is conformance testing.
The purpose of conformance testing is to determine to what extent a
single implementation of a particular standard conforms to the
individual requirements of that standard. Conformance testing already
exists for many Khronos specifications. Information about Khronos
technology implementation & adoption/conformance testing as well as
a list of specifications for which conformance testing is available can
be found on the Khronos web site at

As of the Summer of 2010, the COLLADA conformance suite is also

available and can be found at The
WebGL Working Group has started an effort to develop test suites. For

WebGL 1.0 test cases, of particular interest are tests that exercise use
of shaders. It is the author’s opinion that a joint COLLADA/WebGL
working group effort could support the development of a sample
implementation of a COLLADA based WebGL reader that is made
publicly available. Thus, COLLADA content would need to be verified to
work within a WebGL standardized viewer and a set of COLLADA tests
created to test this new WebGL implementation.

Khronos acts as the governing body to support the creation, evaluation

and reference of implementations that are compliant with their publicly
published specifications. It is important to vet applications against the
conformance test suite for each API or format published by Khronos.
Likewise, vendors should want to be adopters for the benefit of their
customers and users. Users should demand that applications pass the
test suite at the highest conformance level available (that makes sense
for the application). The health of the ecosystem is assured by
adoption with conformance, not by unproven implementations that
may lead to market fragmentation and implementation chaos.

There are two ways in which an individual or company can make use of
the Khronos developed technologies:

1. Implementers - for no cost or license fees you may:

• Create and deliver a product using the publicly released

specifications and technologies

• But you may not claim that it is "compliant" unless they enter
and pass conformance testing

• And if the product is a software or hardware engine, you may not

advertise it using the Khronos API technology logos or

2. Adoption/Conformance Testing - for a fee and under legal

agreement, you may:

• Download and run the conformance tests and if the

implementation passes, you may

o Advertise and promote the product as being "compliant"

using the technology logos and trademarks under a
royalty-free license

o Gain Access to:

 The Conformance Tests source code

 Any sample implementations

 The Adopters technical Mailing list; a private priority
channel for 2-way interaction with Khronos Member
developers who can offer feedback and modifications
to the specification, as well as feedback on
conformance tests

o Use the technology logo in printed marketing or packaging

materials of the product

o Use the technology logo in the actual software application

startup screens

o Receive a company listing on the Adopting Members with

Conformant Products pages

• Adopter's applications may be promoted on the Khronos web site

and other activities.

Outside the scope of the Khronos Group

WebGL is defined to be as a close to the hardware as possible. The
WebGL specification is purposely lean so it can run on many different
types of devices, many with limited resources. COLLADA provides a
standard language to describe 3D assets but steers clear of a specific
run-time policies or scene-graph specification. As such, definition and
implementation of how the application will use the content, (or what
subset of content will be used), and how the WebGL API will be used to
display the content is left to the WebGL/COLLADA developer. Khronos’
goal is to provide the technology to the developer but chooses to stay
out of the business of specifying a run-time or scene-graph
implementation for the web.

Another important piece missing from the ecosystem are the tools
necessary to develop such applications. Since WebGL and COLLADA
are based on existing standards, many existing tools such as GLSL-ES
shader creation, XML editors and modelers can already be used to
create content. One can imagine HTML editors or publishing tools to
enable 3D interactive content by incorporating WebGL and COLLADA
content. One can also imagine evolution of user content web
applications such as wikis to be able to incorporate live editing of 3D
content inside a browser, demonstrated by already existing
experiments such as Shader Toy (28) that enable on line live editing of
GLSL-ES WebGL shaders.

As browsers incorporate the implementations of WebGL and web
applications take advantage of WebGL and COLLADA, it will be possible

to click on a link inside your browser and be launched immediately into
a 3D immersive environment. At that point, applications such as virtual
worlds will spill into the mainstream, and transform many sectors such
as social media gaming, e-commerce (e.g., social shopping), geospatial
applications and on-line education. When it’s implemented, it will allow
the kinds of 3D graphics you see in Second Life (29) or 1 st person
shooter (FPS) games to be available directly in the browser.

Note that the smart folks at Khronos are priming WebGL for mobile
rendering and interaction by specifying WebGL as a JavaScript binding
to OpenGL ES 2.0. This is telling in that the future of 3D, like most
applications for the web, is being driven by embedded devices very
quickly. The content of a 3D interactive web won’t be limited to
specialized applications, but will embody the same features such as
search, publishing and navigation (through 3D interactive content) that
we’ve come to expect. HTML pages can be integrated into 3D content,
and/or 3D content can link to other HTML content. 3D content will be
generated dynamically just like text and images are already generated
with web technologies.

COLLADA is a natural fit for working with 3D content on the web, and
WebGL provides the native access to the graphics hardware
acceleration. This year at GDC, we were pleased to see the early fruits
of the Khronos WebGL WG, deploying COLLADA based content to show
the value of their API in browser based applications (without the need
for any plug-ins). As 3D technology without useful content holds no
interest, and content without a standard accelerated multi-platform
outlet likely has limited life, it is exciting to see the highly synergistic
efforts of these two working groups come together in a way that
greatly benefits content creators, 3D developers and their web end-
user communities.

Many WebGL supporting initiatives are under way (and more coming
along every month) such as Paul Brunt’s GLGE(21), SpiderGL(22),
Rightware’s Kanzi(30), Ambiera’s CopperLicht(31), the Seneca College
Canvas3D - C3DL project(32) and the Sirikata project at Stanford
University(26). From these efforts and those as yet unforeseen, new
and compelling content will be developed. This very content is often
required to be archived for future revisions or used by applications
such as computer games, in whose context will be possibly modified by
developers as well as end-users, and re-purposed in game play. This is
where COLLADA comes into play. The powerful combination of
COLLADA and WebGL will help realize the potential of 3D from the
emerging HTML5 standards.

The author wishes to thank Rémi Arnaud, Mark Barnes (Khronos

COLLADA Working Group), Vladimir Vukicevic, Arun Ranganathan and

Vangelis Kokkevis (Khronos WebGL Working Group) for their input and
reviews. A special thanks to Marco Di Benedetto of SpiderGL and and
Paul Brunt of GLGE for their WebGL examples.

About the Author

Rita Turkowski has been the Khronos COLLADA Marketing Working
Group Chair since 2007 and was previously the Executive Director of
the Web3D Consortium. She can be reached at

Background and references

A great place to get started with WebGL is this Mozilla Developer
Center site dedicated to teaching WebGL -,, and Planet WebGL -

A great place to get started with COLLADA is the COLLADA Sailing the
Gulf of 3D Digital Content Creation book: and the
COLLADA wiki/forum

A great place to get started with OpenGL ES is

Regarding HTML5: This is the next major revision of the core language
used to write code for web pages. It aims to reduce the need for
(mostly proprietary) rich Internet application (RIA) technologies such as
Adobe Flash, Microsoft Silverlight, and Sun JavaFX. HTML5 parts are
expected to be ready for implementation in the next two years. Find
the HTML 5 canvas element specifications here:
1. - standardized by the URL.

2. - home of the Khronos Group . [Online]

3. - WebGL is a cross-platform, royalty-free

web standard for a low-level 3D graphics API based on OpenGL ES 2.0,
exposed through the HTML5 Canvas element as Document Object
Model interfaces. [Online]

4. - Html Canvas Element.


5. COLLADA™ defines an XML-based

schema to make it easy to transport 3D assets between applications -

enabling diverse 3D authoring and content processing tools be
combined into a production pipeline. . [Online]

6. - Google Earth lets you fly anywhere on

Earth to view satellite imagery, maps, terrain, 3D buildings, from
galaxies in outer space to the canyons of the ocean. . [Online]

7. - Papervision3D (PV3D) is a popular

open source 3D engine for Flash. It enables to create advanced three-
dimensional objects displayed real time right in the web browser.

8. - Google O3D home page. [Online]

9. - 3DVIA allows you to find, upload & create

your 3D models and content online. [Online]
10. - The Google 3D
Warehouse is a free, online repository where you can find, share, store,
and collaborate on 3D models. . [Online]

WebGL-Based-on-DirectX-137892.shtml [Online]

12. D3D9

home page [Online]

13. - Cloud computing is

Internet-based computing, whereby shared resources, software and
information are provided to computers and other devices on-demand,
like a public utility. [Online]

14. - A graphics

compression framework for XML-based scene graph formats. [Online]

15. -
O3D COLLADA Converter with content created using Google SketchUp,
Autodesk 3ds Max, and Autodesk Maya. [Online]

16. - JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) is a

lightweight data-interchange format. It is easy for humans to read and
write. It is easy for machines to parse and generate. It is based on a
subset of the JavaScript Programming Language. [Online]

17. - Unity is a multiplatform game development
tool, designed from the start to ease creation for web and mobile
gaming. [Online]

18. - The Irrlicht Engine is an open

source high performance real time 3D engine written and usable in C+
+ and also available for .NET languages. [Online]

19. - OGRE (Object-Oriented Graphics

Rendering Engine) is a scene-oriented, flexible 3D engine written in C+
+ designed to make it easier and more intuitive for developers to
produce applications utilizing hardware-accelerated 3D . [Online]

20. - Torque 3D is

architected from the ground up for maximum flexibility and
performance across a wide range of hardware and built upon the
Frontline award-winning Torque Game Engine Advanced. [Online]

21. - GLGE home page. [Online]

22. - SpiderGL home page. [Online]

23. -
RenderMonkey is a rich shader development environment for both
programmers and artists. [Online]

24. -
PVRShaman is an integrated shader development environment
allowing rapid-prototyping of new vertex and fragment shader
programs. . [Online]

25. - Ajax (shorthand

for asynchronous JavaScript and XML) is a group of interrelated web
development techniques enabling interactive web applications.

26. -a BSD licensed open source platform for

games and virtual worlds. [Online]

27. ( - a subscription-based service for linking to

high-quality Open Type fonts from some of the worlds best type
foundries through Typekit’s web-only font linking license.

28. - Shader Toy, an online

shader editor. It's using the pretty new WebGL specification to allow
you to edit GLSL shaders. [Online]

29. - Home of Second Life. [Online]

30. [Online]

31. - Copperlicht
engine home page. [Online]

32. [Online]

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