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A REPORT ON HYDROGEN GENERATION UNIT (HGU) AND HYDROTREATING UNIT (HDT

)

BY
Name(s) of the Student(s) NITUL KHATANIAR KAMANASISH BHATTACHARJEE HARI SAURAV BARUAH 2008A3PS006P 2008A3PS020P 2008C6PS364H Electrical & Electronics Electrical & Electronics Information System ID No(s) Discipline(s)

Prepared in partial fulfillment of the Practice School-I Course AT Guwahati Refinery, Guwahati A Practice School-I station of

BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE, PILANI (June, 2010)

A REPORT ON HYDROGEN GENERATION UNIT (HGU) AND HYDROTREATING UNIT (HDT)

BY
Name(s) of the Student(s) NITUL KHATANIAR KAMANASISH BHATTACHARJEE HARI SAURAV BARUAH 2008A3PS006P 2008A3PS020P 2008C6PS364H Electrical & Electronics Electrical & Electronics Information System ID No(s) Discipline(s)

AT GUWAHATI REFINERY, GUWAHATI A Practice School-I station of

BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE, PILANI (June, 2010)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We acknowledge with thanks the support rendered by B.M. Bansal, chairman of Guwahati Refinery for inspiring us to write this report. We are extremely grateful to B.P. Das, General Manager, and Guwahati Refinery for showing his utmost interest towards our report. We owe a lot to Mr. Mahaveer Surana, a present employee in this refinery and an exBitsian. He helped us to make the orientation schedule for us and led us through the right path. We are also thankful to unit chiefs and employees of HGU, HDT and DDCS units for their cordial interaction with us in spite of their busy schedule. Inadequate to express our sincere thanks to Dr Sonia Nongmaithem, our PS-I instructor at Guwahati Refinery, Guwahati centre for her constant support and motivation without which we would not have been able to complete this report. Her catalytic role has really inspired us to accomplish this report in a very short span of time.

BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE PILANI (RAJASTHAN)
Practice School Division Station: GUWAHATI REFINERY Duration: 24th May-16th July, 2010 Date of Submission: 21st June, 2010 Centre: GUWAHATI Date of Start:

Title of the Project: A Report on Hydrogen Generation Unit (HGU) & Hydrotreating Unit (HDT)

ID No. /Name(s)/

2008A3PS006P NITUL KHATANIAR

Electrical & Electronics -do-

Discipline(s) of the 2008A3PS020P KAMANASISH BHATTACHARJEE student(s) : 2008C6PS364H HARI SAURAV BARUAH

Information System

Name(s)and Designation(s) of the expert(s):

Name(s) of the PS Faculty: Dr. Sonia Nongmaithem

Key Words: HGU, HDT Project Area: Hydrogen Generation unit & Hydrotreating unit

Abstract:
This project is all about HGU and HDT unit. In this report, we have tried to explain the main chemical processes going on inside these two plants based on the data collected from the manual and illustration by senior engineers. We have also thrown lights on the huge importance of these two units for the refinery in maintaining the environmental norms regulated by pollution control board. The main purpose of HGU is to produce hydrogen which is sent to HDT and ISOSIV unit. Hydrogen is used in reactor for saturating olefins. The main purpose of HDT is to remove sulphur, nitrogen from finished product as sulphur, nitrogen etc are harmful for environment. Thus HDT has been installed in Guwahati refinery so as to meet Bharat Stage II specifications of diesel and produce kerosene of high smoke point. In this report, detailed descriptions of chemical processes and important equipments (pump, compressor, reactor, valve etc) involved in those procedures have also been included. Flowcharts of both HGU & HDT have been attached at the end.

Signature(s) of Student(s):

Signature of PS Faculty:

Date:

Date:

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page no 1. Introduction 2. Design Information On HGU 3. Important Facts on HGU in Guwahati refinery 4. Equipment list for HGU 5. Main systems/function of HGU 6. Detailed process description of HGU 6.1. Feed Preheating and hydrogenation 6.2. Feed desulphurization and dechlorination 6.3. Prereforming 6.4. Reforming 6.5. HT & LT Shift Conversion 6.6. Product Recovery 6.7. Heat Recovery 6.7.1. Heat Recovery from flue gas 6.7.2. Heat Recovery from process gas 6.8. Steam system 6.9. Fuel system 7. Design Information on HDT 8. Important Facts on HDT in Guwahati refinery 9. Equipment list for HDT 10. Hydrotreater Process Principles 11. Hydrotreating Chemistry 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 13 6 6 6 7 7 7 1 2 3 3 5

11.1 Sulphur Removal 11.2 Nitrogen Removal 11.3 Oxygen Removal 11.4 Olefin Saturation 12. Main Systems/functions of HDT 13. Detailed process description of HDT 13.1 Reaction Section 13.2 Feed Heating 13.3 Reactors 13.4 Reactor Effluent Cooling 13.5 Reactor Effluent Water Wash 13.6 Vapor/ liquid seperator 13.7 Recycle Gas System 13.8 Make-Up Hydrogen System 13.9 Fractionation System 13.9.1 Diesel Mode 13.9.2 Kerosene Mode 14. Conclusion 15. References 16. Flowchart 15.1 Flowchart of HGU 15.2 Flowchart of HDT

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INTRODUCTION
As a part of Practice School-I programme in Guwahati Refinery centre, we have made this report as mid-term report which is specifically to be based on the organizational unit itself. Three of us were allotted to make a report on hydrogen generation unit (HGU) and hydrotreating unit (HDT) by our PS instructor. In this report, we have tried to focus on the basic chemical processes going on inside these two plants. We have also thrown lights on the huge importance of these two units for the refinery in maintaining the environmental norms regulated by pollution control board. For having a clear-cut idea about the processes we visited HGU first. There at first the flowchart which was just at the entrance of the unit was illustrated by a senior engineer. Then he led us to the inside of the plant and gave us ideas about the working principles of various equipments and their contribution towards the completion of the whole process. For learning about the controlling and monitoring process, we went to DDCS. There we collected the raw data about the processes and performance from a manual. The HGU is designed to produce hydrogen which is sent to hydrotreating and ISOSIV unit. The basic purpose of producing hydrogen in a refinery is to saturate olefins, to remove sulphur, nitrogen etc from the finished product. After completion of HGU, we visited HDT unit. In this case also we followed the same procedure to understand the processes and to collect the necessary data as in HGU. This unit is very crucial to maintain the environmental norms. In this unit sulphur, nitrogen etc are removed from the product. As we know that sulphur is very dangerous to ecosystem, it should be removed from the fuel. It is removed from product by treating it with hydrogen which is taken from HGU. In HDT also olefins are saturated. In this unit, we studied the principles of two reactors for removal of toxic component and three types of compressors for suctioning lighter gases like hydrogen. They are recycle gas compressor, makeup gas compressor and net gas compressor. Other equipments were also nicely illustrated. In this report, we have tried to reflect the interdependence and correlation that exist in between these two units. The first part of the report is attributed to HGU. In this part, we at first have provided the design information and some important facts on HGU in Guwahati refinery followed by equipment list. Then we have discussed the chemical processes of this unit one by one with necessary operating conditions and chemical reactions. The second part is kept for HDT unit where the same writing sequence has been maintained. Towards the end of the report we have given a conclusion based on our study. Flowcharts of both the units have been attached at the end of this report.

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DESIGN INFORMATION ABOUT HGU ±
1> HGU in Guwahati Refinery has been designed to produce hydrogen at a rate of 1250kg/h with a minimum purity of 99.985 mol %. 2> Normal operation is based on 0.5T/hr naphtha feed. Generally LRU off gases are not taken as feed due to diene content.

3> Turn down ratio is 30% of design. 4> On stream days: 360 days/year.

IMPORTANT FACTS ON HGU IN GUWAHATI REFINERY ±
OBJECTIVE ± To supply hydrogen to hydrotreating unit (HDT) and ISOSIV unit. CAPACITY LICENSOR FEED 10,000 TPA Technip, BV, Netherlands Straight Run Naphtha (SRN) LRU offgas PRODUCT - Hydrogen

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EQUIPMENT LISTS FOR HGU EQUIPMENT NUMBER 48-V-01 48-V-02 48-V-03 48-V-04 48-V-05 48-V-06 48-V-07 48-V-08 48-V-09 48-V-10 48-V-11 48-R-01 48-R-02 48-R-03 48-R-04 48-R-05 48-E-01 48-E-02 48-E-03 48-E-04 48-E-05 48-E-06 48-E-07 48-E-08 48-E-09 48-E-10 48-E-11 48-E-12 48-E-13 48-E-20 48-E-21 48-E-22 48-E-23 48-E-24 48-E-25 48-E-26 48-E-27 48-AC-01 48-AC-02 EQUIPMENT NAME FEED GAS K.O DRUM NAPTHA FEED SURGE DRUM STEAM CONDENSATE POT STEAM DRUM BLOW DOWN FLASH DRUM DEGASIFIER HOT CONDENSATE SEPARATOR COLD CONDENSATE SEPARATOR SPILL BACK DRUM COKER NAPTHA FUEL SURGE DRUM DISCHARGE DAMPNER VESSEL HYDROGENATOR DESULPHERISER PREREFORMER HT SHIFT REACTOR LT SHIFT REACTOR FEED COMPRESSOR RECYCLE COOLER FEED PREHEATER/VAPORIZER HYDROGENATION LOOP COOLER PROCESS GAS BOILER STEAM SUPERHEATER BFW PREHEATER I BFW PREHEATER II DEMIN WATER PREHEATER PROCESS GAS TRIM COOLER PREREFORMER STARTUP HEATER COKER NAPTHA FUEL VAPORISER INDUCT AIR PREWARMWER COKER NAPTHA COOLER SHOCK BOILER REFORMER FEED PREHEATER PREREFORMER FEED PREHEATER STEAM SUPERHEATER FEED PREHEATER COMBUSTION AIR PREHEATER I COMBUSTION AIR PREHEATER II ECONOMIZER PROCESS GAS AIR COOLER SPILL BACK COOLER/NITROGEN COOLER

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48-F-01 48-X-01 48-X-02 48-X-03 48-X-04 48-X-05 48-J-01 48-P-01 48-P-02 48-P-03 48-P-04 48-P-05 48-G-01 48-K-01 48-K-02 48-K-03 48-K-04 48-K-05 48-V-20 to 29 48-V-30

REFORMER DeNox WINDOW(FOR FUTURE) STACK STEAM SILENCER CHEMICALS DOSING UNIT PSA UNIT RECYCLE GAS INJECTOR NAPTHA FEED PUMP BFW PUMP COKER NAPTHA FUEL PUMP NAPTHA BOOSTER PUMP COKER NAPTHA BOOSTER PUMP PSA FILTER FEED GAS COMPRESSOR RECYCLE HYDROGEN COMPRESSOR COMBUSTION AIR FAN FLUE GAS FAN PENTHOUSE VANTILATION FAN PSA ADSORBER PSA SURGE DRUM

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MAIN SYSTEMS/FUNCTIONS:1> FEED PREHEATING & HYDROGENATION

2> FEED DESULPHERISATION & DECHLORINATION

3> PREREFORMING

4> REFORMING

5> HT & LT SHIFT CONVERSION

6> PRODUCT RECOVERY

7> HEAT RECOVERY

8> STEAM SYSTEM

9>FUEL SYSTEM

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DETAILED PROCESS DESCRIPTION:1> FEED PREHEATING & HYDROGENATIONFeed from B.L is first pumped through the naphtha booster pump 48-P-04 to feed surge drum 48-V-02.Then it is again pumped through naphtha feed pump 48-P01.Its outlet pressure is 36.3 kg/cm²g.The feed is mixed with Hydrogen. To bring the pressure of Hydrogen at the same as that of feed,48-K-02 recycle hydrogen compressor is used, the inlet pressure of which is about 20 kg/cm²g.This recycle hydrogen provides necessary quantity for the conversion of olefins and other unsaturated organic compounds and ensuring adequate partial pressure of hydrogen for the conversion of organic sulphur and chlorine in the hydrogenator 48-R-01. Saturation reaction of olefins in the hydrogenatorR=R + H RH-RH Hydrogenation of organic sulphur & chlorine compoundsRSH + H RH + H S RCl + ½ H RH + HCl The sulphur content in naphtha is reduced to less than 0.1 ppm here. 2> FEED DESULPHURISATION & DECHLORINATIONChlorine & sulphur contents are poisons for the downstream prereformer & reformer. Therefore they must be removed from the feed. This is done in the desulphuriser 48-R-02.In the desulphuriser, there is a chlorine bed which comprises of sodium aluminate supported on alumina & a ZnO bed which consists of granulated ZnO with cement binder. The chlorine bed is located above the ZnO bed. Because then the HCl will be absorbed on the chlorine bed & that will avoid the formation of zinc chloride which can cause further problems in the process. The sulphur content in the form of hydrogen sulphide is removed in the ZnO bed. The reaction is as followsZnO + H S ZnS + H O The ZnO bed removes hydrogen sulphide content to less than 0.2 ppmw. The chlorine & ZnO beds are designed to last up to 6 months for mixed feed. When the sulphur content will found to be greater than 0.2 ppmw in the outlet of desulphuriser then it is an indication for the renewal of the beds.

3> PREREFORMINGSteam reforming of naphtha takes place in the prereformer 48-R-03.The prereformer operates adiabatically. In prereformer, CRG catalysts converts all heavier hydrocarbons to hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide & methane. The inlet temperature of prereformer is 450ÛC.The reaction that takes place in the prereformer is exothermic. Now, temperature increase in the prereformer is directly proportional to the 6

amount of heavier hydrocarbons present. For mixed feed, the outlet temperature is around 465ÛC.But as the amount of heavier hydrocarbons is greater in the pure naphtha, the outlet temperature reaches around 524ÛC for pure naphtha feed. 4> REFORMINGSteam reforming of naphtha also takes place in the tubular reformer 48-F-01.The reformer consists of 36 tubes divided into 2 rows,18 each with a heated length of 11.7m.The reformer tubes have an ID of 110 mm & are filled with Ni based catalysts ICI-25-4 & ICI-57-4G.The superheated gas is distributed into reformer tubes where the reforming reactions takes place. Here hydrogen is produced from methane & steam. The reaction is as followsCnHm + nH O nCO + (½m+n) H This conversion is favoured by high temperature, low pressure & high steam quantity. The normal reformer outlet temperature is 850ÛC.The reforming duty is provided by purge gas & vaporized coker naphtha or SRN.

5> HT & LT SHIFT CONVERSIONThe shift conversion is used to convert carbon monoxide to hydrogen. The reaction is as followsCO + H O CO + H-H This reaction takes place in 2 different reactors-the HT shift reactor 48-R-04 & the LT shift reactor 48-R-05.The inlet temperature of HT shift reactor is 340ÛC.The CO content is reduced to 4.15 mol% here. Again the inlet temperature of LT shift reactor is 200ÛC.The CO content is reduced to 0.57 mol%(dry basis) here. The shift reaction is favoured by low temperature & high steam quantity independent of pressure.

6> PRODUCT RECOVERYHydrogen produced is purified by PSA (Pressure Swing Adsorbtion) technique.PSA adsorber contains molecular sieves which adsorb the contaminants under pressure and allow hydrogen to pass. To regenerate sieves the adsorber is depressurized where contaminants are released. After pressurization, the adsorber is ready for reuse. The contaminants which are released at low pressure are collected in the purge drum and are used to meet part of the heat demand of the reformer. The purge gas releasing from PSA has normal pressure of .33kg/cm²g.Finally hydrogen is passed through a filter 48-G-01 to remove any finer. A part of pure hydrogen is recycled through hydrogen recycle compressor 48-K-02 A/B for hydrodesulphurization and rest is sent to B.L. under pressure control at a pressure of 20kg/cm²g.It is the pressure control which fixes the operating pressure of reformer.

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7> HEAT RECOVERYHEAT RECOVERY FROM FLUE GAS:Heat of flue gases leaving the radiant section is recovered in the convection section by 48-E-20 shock boiler,48-E-21 reformer feed preheater,48-E-22 prereformer feed preheater,48-E-23 steam superheater,48-E-24 feed preheater & finally combustion air preheaters 48-E-25 & 48-E-26 with an economizer 48-E-27 in between the air preheaters to enable an acceptable stack temperature. These APH are being provided with bypass to take care of flue gas dew point. The flue gas is discharged to the atmosphere via the flue gas fan 48-K-04 to the stack 48-X-02.The radiant box draft is maintained by the flue gas fan & is achieved through controlling the motor of 48-K-04. The combustion air required to burn the fuels is provided by the combustion air fan 48-K-03. HEAT RECOVERY FROM PROCESS GAS:Reformer effluent is cooled to the required inlet temperature of about 340ÛC for HT shift reactor 48-K-04 in the process gas boiler 48-E-04.Boiler water from steam drum 48-V-04 operating at a pressure of 42 kg/cm²g,under natural circulation, serves to remove this heat. The inlet temperature for shift reactor 48-R-04 is controlled by means of an internal bypass. The outlet temperature of the gas at HT shift is about 412ÛC.The heat recovery from this effluent is achieved through steam superheating in 48-E-05 & boiler feed water preheating in 48-E-07.The inlet temperature to the LT shift reactor 48-R-05 is controlled by a process gas around 48-E-07.To prevent boiler feed water from boiling in this exchanger, the outlet boiler feed temperature is controlled by a bypass of process gas around the second boiler feed water preheater 48-E-06. After LT shift reaction, the process gas is further cooled to below the dew point of the process gas in the boiler feed water preheater 48-E-06.The remaining heat is recovered in the DeMin water preheater 48-E-08.The hot process condensate is separated from the gas in 48-V-07 & the gas is further cooled to about 40C in the process gas air cooler 48-E-09.The old condensate is separated in 48-V-08 before the gas enters the psa unit 48-X-05.

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8>STEAM SYSTEM:The boiler feed water receives water from the following sources1>Process condensate from the hot & cold seperators 48-V-07 & 48-V-08. 2>Demineralised water, received at the B.L at a normal operating pressure of 5 kg/cm²g & temperature of 25C. Steam system consists of a degasifier 48-V-06 operating at 0.3 kg/cm²g.Steam condensate from the feed preheater & flash blow down are added to provide the required heat for stripping. The process condensate & demineralised water are stripped in the degasifier 48-V-06 & collected in its sump. This water is pumped by the boiler feed water pumps 48P-02 to the steam drum 48-V-06 operating at 42 kg/cm²g.Before entering the steam drum the water is preheated in the boiler feed water preheaters to maintain below an acceptable level of contaminants in the boiler water, a part of the boiler water is continuously blown down. The blown down from steam drum is flashed in blow down flash drum 48-V-05 to enhance heat recovery. The liquid portion of this flash is cooled against combustion air before discharge to sewer. The generated steam is partly used as process steam for the steam reforming reactions in the prereformer & reformer. Further steam is used as a heat source for feed preheating/vaporizing in the naphtha feed vaporizer 48-E-02 & as stripping steam make-up in the degasifier for boiler feed water degassing. The balance steam is superheated in steam superheater 48-E-23.This is desuperheated as required by boiler feed water to comply with HP steam quality requirements & sent as export steam on pressure control to the B.L.

9>FUEL SYSTEMThe fuels used to supply the required heat demand for reformer are as follows(i) PSA purge gas. This is used as the priority fuel(almost 80% of the reformer fuel). (ii) Coker naphtha fuel. (iii) Straight Run Naphtha (SRN). (iv) Refinery fuel gas.

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DESIGN INFORMATION ABOUT HDT
1> Turn down ratio is 40% of design. 2> On stream hours: 8000 hours

IMPORTANT FACTS ON HGU IN GUWAHATI REFINERY OBJECTIVE ± Bharat Stage II specifications of diesel and produce kerosene of high
smoke point

CAPACITY LICENSOR FEED-

0.6 mmtpa UOP LIC, USA

Diesel mode
state run kero-II, state run gas oil coker kerosene coker gas oil

Kerosene mode
state run kero-I state run kero-II

PRODUCT y y y High Speed Diesel ATF State Run Kerosene Oil

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EQUIPMENT NUMBER
49-V-01 49-V-02 49-V-03 49-V-04 49-V-05 49-V-06 49-V-07 49-V-08 49-V-09 49-V-10 49-V-12 49-V-13 49-V-14 49-V-15 49-V-16 49-V-17 49-V-18 49-V-19 10-B-V 49-T-01 49-T-02 49-C-01 49-C-02 49-R-01 49-R-02 49-R-03 49-F-01 49-E-01 49-E-02 49-E-03 49-E-04 49-E-05 49-E-06 49-E-07 49-E-08 49-E-09 49-E-10 49-AC-01(A-D) 49-AC02(A-C) 49-P-01

EQUIPMENT NAME
FEED COALESCER FEED SURGE DRUM WASH WATER BREAK TANK HIGH PRESSURE SEPERATOR FIRST STAGE SUCTION DRUM PRODUCT COALESCER CAUSTIC WASH TOWER SAND FILTER STRIPPER RECIEVER FUEL GAS KNOCKOUT DRUM SULPHIDE STORAGE DRUM SULPHIDE METERING DRUM NET GAS KNOCKOUT DRUM SALT DRIER SECOND STAGE SUCTION DRUM STRIPPER OFF GAS KNOCKOUT DRUM ANTISTATIC MIXING TANK CLOSED BLOW DOWN DRUM FLARE KNOCKOUT DRUM NEUTRALISATION STORAGE TANK CAUSTIC HOLDING TANK RECYCLE GAS COMPRESSOR KOD STRIPPER REACTOR-1 REACTOR-2 REACTOR-3(FOR FUTURE) COMBINED FEED HEATER FEED PREHEAT EXCHANGER COLD COMBINED FEED EXCHANGER HOT COMBINED FEED EXCHANGER FIRST STAGE DISCHARGE COOLER SPILLBACK COOLER PRODUCT COOLER STRIPPER FEED BOTTOMS EXCHANGER REACTOR EFFLUENT STRIPPER FEED STRIPPER TRIM CONDENSER NET GAS COOLER REACTOR EFFLUENT CONDENSER STRIPPER CONDENSER DIESEL/KEROSENE TRANSFER PUMP 11

49-P-02 49-P-03 49-P-04 49-P-05 49-P-06 49-P-07 49-P-08 49-P-09 49-P-10 49-P-11 49-P-12 49-P-13 49-P-14 10B-P-01 07-P-01 49-K-01 49-K-02 49-K-03 49-J-01 49-G-01 49-MX-01 49-M-01

ATF TRANSFER PUMP SURGE PUMP WASH WATER PUMP STRIPPER BOTTOMS PUMP STRIPPER OVERHEAD PUMP CAUSTIC MAKE-UP PUMP CAUSTIC CIRCULATION PUMP SULPHIDE INJECTION PUMP NEUTRALISATION FEELING PUMP NEUTRALISATION RETURN PUMP INHIBITOR INJECTION PUMP ANTISTATIC AGENT INJECTION PUMP CLOSED BLOW DOWN PUMP FLARE KOD BLOW DOWN PUMP BACK BLENDING PUMP RECYCLE GAS COMPRESSOR NET GAS COMPRESSOR MAKE-UP GAS COMPRESSOR EJECTOR FEED FILTER NEUTRALISATION STORAGE TANK MIXER CONSERVATION VENT

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Hydrotreater (HDT) Unit
The Unionfining process involves removal of contaminants like organic sulphur, nitrogen and metal compounds. These contaminants contribute to air pollution, equipment corrosion and cause difficulties in further processing of material. The Unionfining process is a proprietary, fixed-bed catalytic process developed by UOP for hydrotreating a wide range of feedstock. The process uses a catalytic hydrogenation method to upgrade the quantity of petroleum distillate fraction by decomposing the contaminants with a negligible effect on the boiling range of the feed. This process is designed to remove sulphur and nitrogen, increase cetane number (48.5 min) and processing kerosene to better smoke point (21min) by saturating olefin and aromatic compounds while reducing carbon and removing other contaminants such as organometallic compounds.

Process principles
Unionfining process is carried out at elevated temperature and pressures in a hydrogen atmosphere. The pressure and temperature may range up to 80-93 kg/cm² c and 350-428 C respectively. The catalyst is formulated by composting varying amounts of nickel or cobalt with molybdenum oxides on an alumina base. The specific catalyst system and unit design parameters are evaluated on an economic basis for each unit. Each design is based on feed quality, desired product property, ease of operation, desired cycle length, operating flexibility, construction schedule and operating costs.

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Hydrotreating chemistry Sulphur removal
Feedstock contains simple mercaptans, sulphides, disulphides which are converted to H S Mercaptan C-C-C-C-SH-H Sulphide C-C-S-C-C + 2H Disulphide C-C-S-S-C + 3H Cyclic sulphide C C S Thiophenic C C S C C +4H C-C-C-C + H S C C +H C-C-C-C + H S 2C-C + 2H S 2C-C +H S C-C-C-C + H S

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Nitrogen removal
It is more difficult then desulphurization. The side reactions may yield nitrogen compounds which are more difficult to hydrogenate than the original reactant. Pyridine C C C N Quinone C C C C Pyrrole C C N N C C + 4H C-C-C-C + NH C C N C C C +H C-C-C-C + NH C C + 5H C-C-C-C + NH

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Oxygen Removal
Organically combined oxygen removal by hydrogenation of carbon ±hydroxyl bond (C-OH) forming water and corresponding hydrocarbon. Phenol C C C C Olefin Saturation It proceeds rapidly and has a high degree of reaction a) Linear olefin b) Cyclic olefin C C C C Aromatic These are the most difficult of all. Unit design parameters consider the desired degree of saturation for each specific unit. The saturation reaction is very exothermic. C C C C C C + H C C C C C C C C C-C=C-C-C-C + H C-C-C-C-C-C C C OH + H C C C C C C +H O

+ H C C

C C C C

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MAIN SYSTEMS/FUNCTIONS:1> REACTION SECTION

2> FEED HEATING

3> REACTORS

4> REACTOR EFFLUENT COOLING

5> REACTOR EFFLUENT WATERWASH

6> VAPOR/LIQUID SEPERATOR

7> RECYCLE GAS SYSTEM

8> MAKE-UP HYDROGEN GAS SYSTEM

9> FRACTIONATION SECTION

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PROCESS FLOW
The diesel hydrotreating unit consists of two sections ± high pressure reactor and low pressure fractionation section

1) REACTION SECTION
Feed from the blanketed storage in offsite is passed to the diesel/ kerosene transfer pumps 49-P01 A/B. the pump raises feed pressure to 8.4 kg /cm² g. The ATF feed passes on to a separate SR Kero-I (ATF feed transfer pump 49-P-02) which raise the pressure to 77kg/ cm² g.

The pumped feed passes on to Feed Coalescer (49-V-01) where water is coalesced from the feed. The Feed Coalescer is provided with water boat where water coming along with the feed gets separated. The water is drained automatically from the water boat by LIC-0702.The feed passes from the Feed Coalescer onto the Feed Surge Drum (49-V-02) via Feed Filter (49-G-01). The Feed Filter is a back wash type filter. It retains particles of size more than 25 microns.

2) FEED HEATING
The filtered feed from 49-G-01 passes through the shell side of Feed Preheat Exchanger 49-E-01 where it gets heated by Stripper Feed bottoms Exchanger ( 49-E-07 A/B/C) tube side effluent. The outlet temperature is around 68 to 70ÛC to avoid vaporization of feed.The preheated feed passes to the Feed Surge Drum (49-V-02) and then to the Charge Pumps (49-P-03A/B) where the pressure is around 120.9 77kg/ cm² g.An interlock to shutdown oil fat in case of low flow of Diesel/Kerosene or ATF is provided. This is accomplished by closing the shutdown valves FV1402 and TV-1401 located in main line and bypass of the exchanger. The feed passes from the Charge Pumps to the shell side of Cold Combined Feed Exchangers 49E-02 and the shell of Hot Combined Feed Exchanger 49-E-03 A/B. the outlet temperature is controlled by bypassing part of liquid feed across 49-E-02A/B/C and 49-E-03A/B.The combined gas-liquid feed is preheated in 49-E-02A/B/C and the reactor effluents. The combined feed flows down on the shell side whereas the reactor effluents flow on the tube side. 49-E-02 has 3 shells arranged in series, whereas 49-E-03 has two shells stacked on top of other in series. 49-E-03 preheats the combined feed with reactor effluents coming from Stripper Feed/ Reactor Effluents Exchanger 49-E-08A/B.The feed passes from the exchangers to the Charge Heater 49-F-01. The recycle gas from the Recycle Gas Compressor (49-K-01) goes upstream of 49-E-02. Part of the recycle gas goes to two parts ± Reactor no.1 and Reactor no. 2 catalysts for quenching the bed.

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The combined feed leaves the preheat train of 49-E-02 and 49-E-03 at a temperature range of 326-356ÛC for Diesel and 306-315ÛC for Kerosene. SHELL SIDE

Diesel/Kerosene ATF

49-E-02(C B A) 49-E-02(C B A)

E-03 (B E-03 (A

A) B)

TUBE SIDE (Reactor Effluent Fluid) Diesel/Kerosene ATF E-03 (A E-08 (A B) B) E-08(A E-03(B B) A) 49-E-02(C B A) 49-E-02(C B A)

The feed is passed onto the Charge Heater 49-F-01 for further heating to proper reactor inlet temperature. The charger is a vertical cylindrical heater with atop mounted convection section. Feed passes through convection section and leave through radiant section. Heater effluent goes to Reactor No. 1 (49-R-01). The combined feed leaves 49-F-01 with temperature of 354-365ÛC for Diesel, 334-343ÛC for Kerosene and 334-348ÛC for ATF.

3) REACTORS
The feed passes on to the reactors for reaction over the catalyst bed. Various exothermic reactions occur and the temperature of the flowing steam increases. Depending upon the anticipated temperature rise, arrangement for intermediate quenching of flowing steam with recycle gas is provided. 49-R-01 has its catalyst divided into two beds with recycle gas quench steam in between. The outlet of the bottom bed is directed to 49-R-02. The effluents from 49-R-01 is quenched with recycle gas and passed to 49-R-02. During the course of an operating cycle, the temperature required to obtain the desired product quality will increase as a result of catalyst deactivation. The gradual loss in catalyst activity can be compensated for by increasing the reactor temperature to 385ÛC for 49-R-01 and 415ÛC for 49-R-02. Above this temperature coke formation is rapid and performance improvement is slow.

4) REACTOR EFFLUENT COOLING
Diesel mode 49-R-02 effluent passes through 49-E-03 A/B tube side where it exchanges heat with the reactor feed. After that it goes to the tube side of Stripper Feed/ Reactor Effluent Exchanger 49-E-08 where it exchanges heat with the stripper feed. From 49-E-08 it goes to 49-E-02 where it exchanges heat with reactor feed.

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ATF mode 49-R-02 effluent passes through 49-E-08 A/B tube side where it exchanges heat with the stripper feed. From 49-E-08 it goes to tube side of 49-E-03 where it exchanges heat with reactor feed. 49E-03A/B effluents are directed to 49-E-02 where it exchanges heat with reactor feed.

5) REACTOR EFFLUENT WATER WASH
Final cooling of reactor effluent steam is performed in an air Finn cooler i.e. the Reactor Effluent Condensor 49-AC-01. In the reactor, sulphur is converted to H S and nitrogen to NH . These combine in vapor phase to from vaporized ammonium salts which can solidify and precipitate as reactor effluents are cooled. Wash water injected into the steam before it enters condenser in order to prevent deposition of the salts that may corrode the cooler. Wash water can be cold clean condensate or a combination of stripped water from sour water stripping unit and cold clean condensate. Cooled effluent from 49-AC-01 is passed to High Pressure Separator 49-V-04.

6) VAPOR/LIQUID SEPERATOR
Vapor, liquid and sour water separated in High Pressure Seperator 49-V-04. It is a horizontal vessel with water boot on its underside. Mesh blanket has been provided to act as coalesce and to separate free water from hydrocarbon. The Hydrocarbon phase leaves from the bottom of 49-V04 to Stripper Feed / Bottoms Exchanger 49-E-07. The sour water collected in the boat of 49-V-04 is sent to interface level control to 49-V-09 via 49-P-06 A/B minimum circulation line. Sour water collected in Stripper Receiver boot is sent to Sour Water Treating unit located in Sulphur Block. As this water contains large quantities of toxic H S and NH , it is advisable not to drain it to OWS for any length of time.

7) RECYCLE GAS SYSTEM
The overhead gas goes to the Recycle Gas Compressor Suction K.O. Drum 49-C-01 for entrained liquid removal before going to Recycle Gas Compressor 49-K-01 A/B. the overhead from 49-C-01 goes to the Recycle Gas Compressor 49-K-01. The bottom from 49-C-01 is drained to CBD. Alternatively, it can also be drained to OWS. Hydrogen from Make-up Gas Compressor 49-K-03 is mixed with recycle gas going to 49-K-01 A/B. lubrication for 49-K-01 A/B is achieved through forced lube oil circulation. For this, a lube oil circulation circuit is provided consisting of lube oil tank, lube oil pumps, lube oil filters etc. lube oil circulation should be maintained at all times and only shut off when the compressor is reqd. for maintenance.

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49-K-01 A/B discharge line supplies recycle gas to a) Combined feed exchangers inlet b) In between two beds of catalyst in 49-R-01 c) 49-R-02 inlet

8) MAKE-UP HYDROGEN SYSTEM
The Make-Up hydrogen obtained from hydrogen unit at a pressure of about 19.5 kg/ cm² g. since the hydrogen injection pressure in the reactor section is much higher, the make-up gas needs to be compressed before injection into the DHDT circuit. The make-up gas from the hydrogen unit is mixed with cooled makeup gas compressor spillback and then to Make-Up Gas Compressor First Stage Drum 49-V-05. 49-V-05 is provided with mesh blanket to avoid liquid entrainment with vapor. The overheads from 49-V-05 passes to the Make-Up Gas Compressor 49-K-03 A/B. two reciprocating Make-UP Gas Compressor 49-K-03 A/B have been provided for raising the pressure of make-up gas. The discharge from 49-K-03 A/B is sent to mix with recycle gas at the inlet 49-AC-01. A part of compressed gases from 49K-03 A/B second stage discharge is sent to Make-Up Gas Spillback Cooler 49-E-05 from where they are sent to 49-V-05.

9) FRACTIONATION SECTION
The fractionation section is used for separating sour gas and naphtha from hydrodesulphurized Diesel/Kerosene/ATF product. The hydrocarbon liquid from 49-V-09 is sent to Stripper 49-C-02 through 49-E-07 A/B/C and 49-E-08 A/B. the feed is preheated by exchanging heat in 49-E-07 and reactor effluents in 49-E-08. 49-C-02 has a total of 38 trays. Vapors leaving top tray are directed to air cooled Stripper Overheads Condensor 49-AC-02 followed by Stripper Overhead Trim Condensor 49-E-09. To reduce corrosion in downstream lines and equipment, corrosion injection in Stripper Overhead Trim Condensor 49-E-09. From here it goes to Stripper Receiver 49-V-09 where separation of vapor, liquid and water takes place. The water collected in water boot along with sour water sent from High Pressure Seperator is sent to Sour Water Stripper Unit. The vapors from 49-V-09 are sent to Stripper Off Gas Knock Out Drum 49-V-17 which is provided with mesh blanket to separate liquid droplets entrained along with vapors. The overheads from 49-V-17 pass on to Net Gas Compressor 49-V-09. The hydrocarbon liquids from 49-V-09 pass on to Stripper Overhead Pumps 49-P-06. The discharge from 49-P-06 is sent to 49-C-02. Part of discharge from 49-P-06 A/B is drained and sent to CDU/DCU as unstabilized overhead liquid product. The bottoms of 49-C-02 pass on to Stripper Bottom Pumps 49-P-05 A/B. The discharge from 49-P-05 A/B is sent to 49-E-07, 49-E01 and 49-E-06 which is followed by Diesel Product Coalescer 49-V-06. It is a horizontal vessel provided with a coalescing element and water boat to separate water from hydrocarbons.

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Diesel mode: The outlet of 49-V-06 passes on to Salt drier 49-V-15 keeping Caustic Wash Tower (49-V-07) and Sand Filter (49-V-08) bypasses, for final removal of water. The Salt Drier 49-V-15 is packed vessel filled with rock salt. When the level of rock salt in the drier falls. It is replaced with a fresh load. Kero/ATF mode The outlet of 49-V-06 passes on to 49-V-07 to remove any residual H2S from product steam and then through Sand Filter 49-V-08 to remove and entrain caustic. The product is sent to the location: a. On-spee hydrotreated product to product storage. b. Off-spee hydrotreated product to slops There are provision for anti-static agent in ATF product through anti-static mixing tank and antistatic pump. Overhead from Stripper Off Gas KOD passes on to Net Gas Compressor Suction. The net gas from the compressor discharges to Net Gas Knockout Drum via Net Gas Cooler. The final product is obtained from Net Gas Knockout Drum. The final product is y y y High Speed Diesel ATF State Run Kerosene Oil

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CONCLUSION
In today¶s industrial era, it is very important to have sharp eye on environment as it is crucial for the survival of ecosystem. Industries like oil refinery discharge a huge amount of wastes that are harmful to environment, so they have to be treated before discharge. In Guwahati Refinery, we have studied hydrogen generation unit(HGU) and hydrotreating unit(HDT).We have made this report on the importance of these two units in maintaining the environmental norms regulated by pollution control board. For violation of these norms, an industry may confront with penalty. The basic purpose of HGU is to produce hydrogen which is sent to HDT and ISOSIV unit. Hydrogen is used to saturate olefins. In HGU we have studied the main chemical processes and the essential equipments. The two types of reactors-adiabatic pre-reformer and tubular reformer were also studied. For purification of hydrogen, PSA adsorber is used and the purge gas coming out of this is utilized as the reformer fuel. The HDT unit in Guwahati Refinery has been installed as to meet Bharat Stage II specifications of diesel and produce kerosene of high smoke point. In this unit, toxic components like sulphur, nitrogen are removed from the finished product. We studied the main processes going inside this plant. Various important equipments like pump, compressor, reactors, cooler, and heat exchanger have also been studied and included in this report. Three types of compressors-Recycle gas compressor, Makeup gas compressor and Net gas compressor take important role in the whole process. Thus we can conclude that HGU and HDT units are the integral parts of any oil industry as they are acting as the friend of environment by removing the toxic components from the finished product.

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REFERENCES
1. Operating manual of HGU 2. Operating manual of HDT 3.http://www.interstatetraveler.us/Reference-Bibliography/Bellona-HydrogenReport.html 4.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrodesulphurization 5.http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/ioc-hydrgen-generation-unitgoesstream/226364/

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