You are on page 1of 65

Maintenance

Management

by
Asitha Kulasekera

Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 1


Aim and Objectives
To introduce maintenance Management function
To provide overview of concepts, techniques & tools in
Maintenance Management (MM)
To be able to address:
What is the purpose of maintenance ?
How MM is achieved ?
What are the economic aspects involved in maintenance
management ?
What are different types of maintenance strategies ?
What is reliability and effect on maintenance ?
What are common types of failure modes ?
What are the replacement strategies ?
Which strategy is to be selected ?
What are new philosophies in maintenance management ?
Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 2
Introduction to maintenance-1
Any equipment simple or complex liable to breakdown
Any sort of breakdown or malfunction:
Creates disruption to production
Loses production time (down time)
Increases production costs (overtime, subcontracting)
Decreases product and service quality (material spoilage)
Creates safety issues
Reduces customer satisfaction
Increases rescheduling
Any system should have procedures for maintenance to
overcome the above losses
Procedures should be planned, implemented & managed
Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 3
Introduction to maintenance
Maintenance planning depends on:
The type of layout used
Flow production considerable effect due to breakdown

Batch production able to cushion by alternative M/cs or stock

Type of machinery

Resources available

Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 4


Introduction to maintenance
Typical Maintenance Dept.:
Maintenance work under Maintenance Eng/Mgr. reports
to Production/Manufacturing Mgr.

Usually split in to two sections


Buildings/Grounds & Equipment

Equipment operator may undertake minor/routine maintenance

Complex machinery third party or supplier

Complicated in house machinery specialized personnel

Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 5


Objectives of Equip./Plant Maint.
Purpose: to ensure that that there are no breakdowns
Objectives:
to keep the production - plant, equipment, etc. in an
optimum working condition
to ensure specified accuracy to products and time
schedule of delivery to customers
to keep the down time of machines to the minimum
to improve productivity of machine tools
to reduce maintenance costs
to prolong the useful life of the plant and machinery,
while retaining the acceptable level of accuracy

Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 6


Advantages of MM
Reduction in production down time
Increase in manufacturing efficiency
Lesser overtime pay for production and maintenance
personnel due to regular maintenance
Lesser number of stand-by equipment
Less expenditure on repairs
Due to planned spare parts replacement, lesser spare
parts are needed to retain in store at all time
Greater safety to employees because of regular
maintenance
Increase of equipment useful life
Lesser maintenance cost
Better customer satisfaction
Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 7
Duties & responsibilities of MD
Inspection
Routine schedule to check the condition of repair parts
Inspections to ensure safe & efficient operation of equipment
(frequency depends on intensity of use i.e. belts every week)
Inspection of items removed for repairs
Checking of items received from vendors for fitness
Repair
Corrective repairs to alleviate unsatisfactory operation
Unscheduled emergency work with tight guidelines
Overhaul
Planning & scheduling replacement, reconditioning & assembly
Constructions
i.e. steel structures, minor building work
Salvage
Collection, segregation and disposal of scraps
Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 8
Duties & responsibilities (Contd..)
Clerical or office jobs:
Scheduling of maintenance plans
Keeping records schedules, costs, time progress,
maintenance records of equip., workforce details

Others jobs:
Generation and distribution of power and other utilities
Providing plant protection e.g. fire
Maintaining a store of maintenance materials
House keeping cleaning equip. building, toilets, wash
rooms etc.
Pollution & noise control etc.

Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 9


Means of achieving MM objectives
Design and manufacturing stage:
Improvement of the quality of equipment & components
through improved design and tighter mfg. standards
Improvement in equip design to facilitate easy replacement of
broken items and routine maintenance work

Operation planning stage:


Layout to facilitate maintenance work space around/under equip
Providing slack in the operating system excess capacity
Using WIP as buffer stock
Establishing a repair facility speedy replacement/reduce downtime
A suitable maintenance programme

Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 10


Economic aspects of maintenance
Does not earn a profit, but can contribute to profit
Cost components:
Downtime cost : M/c stop, wages during idle time, M/c
depreciation, scrap/rework
Cost of spares or materials: for repairs
Cost of labour: for maintenance
Overheads: maintenance plan & schedules
Losses due to inefficient operations: reduced
production rate, poor quality etc.
Capital expenditure: replacing broken equip
Decisions regarding staff, spare parts, maintenance frequency
will effect above cost components and reduce profits
Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 11
Types of maintenance - 1
Corrective or breakdown maintenance:
Perform after breakdown restore to acceptable standard
Impossible to plan work beforehand
Low organizational efficiency due to interruption
Increases risk of accidents and lowers safety
Economical for non-critical and irregular items
Justifiable for small factories with limited scheduling budgets
Less administrative work

Typical causes of equipment breakdown


Failure to replace worn out parts
Lack of lubrication
Neglected cooling systems
Unresponsiveness to minor faults
External factors such as high voltage, wrong usage of fuels

Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 12


Types of maintenance - 2
Planned or scheduled maintenance (preventive):
Carried out to planned schedule
Procedures to avoid breakdowns
Inspection, lubrication, repair, overhaul according to
predetermined schedule

Condition based maintenance:


Similar to preventive maintenance
Use the knowledge of the condition of a part gathered from
routine inspection and monitoring

Running maintenance:
Conduct while machine in service (working)

Shutdown maintenance:
Conduct while M/cs are out of service/work
Usually shutdown the plant during this period
Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 13
Types of maintenance - 3
Unplanned maintenance:
Operate machine until it breaks down without maintenance
Similar to breakdown maintenance

Preventive Maintenance (PM)


Similar to planned / scheduled maintenance
Proactive approach to reduce breakdowns through careful
attention to all parts
Locating of weak spots in all equip and providing regular
inspection and minor repairs to reduce risk of failure
Idea : Prevention is better than cure
Perform according to predetermined levels
PM is usually performed during idle periods

Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 14


Objectives of PM
To minimize the possibility of unanticipated production
interruption or major breakdowns by locating or uncovering
any potential conditions of failure
To make plant & equip always ready for use
To maintain the value of equip by regular upkeep
To maintain optimum production efficiency of equip
To maintain operational accuracy of equip
To reduce the work contents of maintenance jobs
To achieve maximum production at minimum repair cost
To ensure the safety of workers
Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 15
Who should do PM ?
Choice depends on the factory size, machinery, layout
Cooperation between production team and maintenance
team is essential for success
PM can be done by the production team as well
A separate division can be tasked with inspection

Application
Should not apply PM to whole factory at once
Should build up section by section
e.g. one section / one type of equipment at a time

Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 16


What to inspect in PM ?
PM can be costly PM cost should be balanced by cost due to
not doing PM
Application of PM to all equipment is uneconomical
Apply only for key items that seriously disrupt production
material handling equipment, safety equipment: i.e. pressure
relief valves; process equipment furnace
Prepare a list of all equipment requiring PM and physical
parts that require attention:
Use previous knowledge of operators, manuals of equipment
etc.
Prepare complete steps for inspection of prepared list
Frequency of inspection can be based on:
Past experience, severity of usage, safety requirements, age
and condition, cost of inspection process

Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 17


PM schedules
Schedule for: (ensure minimum interruption to production)
Routine up-keep:
{adjustment, lubrication, cleaning} during setup time
Periodic inspection: visual inspection, tear down
inspection, overhauls, scheduled replacements
Contingent work: inspection of oil burners whilst re-lining
the furnace (simultaneous work)
Example:
Weekly maintenance schedule for production machines
C- Clean, O-Overhaul, F-Functional Check
Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Lathe C
Shaper C O C
Grinder F
Milling F

Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 18


PM control
Following measures should be taken:
Periodic review of each dept.
Monthly reports on inspections
Analytical approach for performance measurement

Performance measurement:

100 = 10% (. )


100 = %

Performance should be increasing and/or stabilizing ~ 80 %

Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 19


Advantages of PM
Reduces breakdowns and connected down-time
Lesser odd-time repairs and reduced overtime to the
maintenance work-force
Greater safety for workers
Low maintenance and repair costs
Less stand-by or reserve equipment and spare parts
Identification of equipts requiring high maintenance cost
Lower unit cost of manufacture
Better product quality and fewer product rejects
Increased equipment life
Better industrial relations due to high production and
incentives as a result
Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 20
Selection of maintenance plan
More care needed on critical machines (that largely
influence the production )
Develop comprehensive inspection checklist
Carefully plan repair and replacement steps

Some machines can be allowed to breakdown


Maintain stand-by equipment
Depends on the layout and the type of production

Spare parts consideration: store or purchase when


needed
Objective: minimize maintenance cost

Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 21


Degree of maintenance effort
Optimum maintenance effort should be decided upon:
Relative importance of m/c in production line
Economics of maintenance effort

Total cost
Cost
Labour & overheads

Cost of spares &


maintenance

Cost of downtime

Degree of maintenance effort


Increased effort reduces downtime cost and repairs
Minimum total cost: at some level of effort
Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 22
Tradeoff between repairs & PM
As the PM effort is increased, breakdown and repair cost
is reduced
At some point, the total maintenance cost (PM,
breakdown, and repair) reach a minimum

Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 23


Example tradeoff: repairs & PM
Frequency of breakdowns per month is:
Number of breakdowns 0 1 2 3
Frequency of occurrence .20 .30 .40 .10
If the average cost of a breakdown is Rs. 10,000, and
the cost of preventative maintenance is Rs. 12,500 per
month, should we use preventive maintenance?
Expected cost to repair
Number of Frequency of Expected No. of = 1.4 breakdowns per
breakdowns occurrence breakdowns month X Rs. 10,000
0 .20 0 = Rs. 14,000
1 .30 .30 Cost of preventive
2 .40 .80 maintenance = 12,500
3 .10 .30 PM results in a saving
1.00 1.40 of Rs.1,500 per month

Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 24


Example service contract?
Should the firm contract for maintenance on their
printers?
Average cost of
Number of
Number of months that
a breakdown =
breakdownsbreakdowns occurred
$300
0 2 Service contract
1 8 can be awarded
expecting 1
2 6
breakdown and
3 4 a contract
Total: 20 amount = $150
1. Compute the expected number of breakdowns
Number of Frequency Number of Frequency
breakdowns breakdowns
0 2/20 = .1 2 6/20 = .3
1 8/20 = .4 3 4/20 = .2
Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 25
Example service contract (Contd..)
2. Compute the expected number of breakdowns
Expected number of
breakdowns = Number of
breakdowns x
Corresponding
frequency

= (0)(.1) + (1)(.4) + (2)(.3) + (3)(.2)


= 1.6 breakdowns per month
3. Compute the expected breakdown cost per month with
no preventive maintenance
Expected Expected number of Cost per
breakdown cost = breakdowns x breakdown
= (1.6)($300)
= $480 per month
4. Compute the cost of preventive maintenance
Cost of expected
Preventive Cost of
breakdowns if service + service contract
=
maintenance cost
contract signed
Hire the
= (1 breakdown/month)($300)+$150/month service firm;
= $450 per month it is less
Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa
expensive 26
Maintenance policies that reduce
Frequency and severity of malfunctions

Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 27


Reliability as performance
measurement in maintenance
Reliability: The percentage of time a plant is in
acceptable working order when it is required for use
Higher the reliability, lesser the maintenance

=
+

()
=
+ ()

Reliability depends on MTTF & MTTR:


Higher MTTF by proper maintenance higher reliability
Lower MTTR skilled staff/availability of spares higher reliability

MTTF & MTTR both are controlled by management


Trade off between reliability and maintenance cost
Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 28
Reliability of components & system
Reliability of individuals determine the reliability of whole
system
System reliability:
Rs = R1 x R2 x R3 x x Rn
R1= reliability of component 1
R2= reliability of component 2 & so on
Rs= reliability of the system or process

R1 R2 R3

.90 .80 .99 Rs

Reliability of the process is:


Rs = R1 x R2 x R3 = .90 x .80 x .99 = .713 or 71.3%

Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 29


Product failure rate (FR)

Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 30


Providing redundancy

Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 31


Failure modes
R1 - Infancy failure:
Failure of machines soon after installation or
maintenance
R2 - Random failure or middle age failure:
Accidental failure due to abuse of machines,
overloading, etc.
R3 - Wear-out failure or old age failure:
Due to wear and tear and normal deterioration

Random failure is critical. It is where


planned maintenance is necessary
Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 32
Bath-tub curve for failure rates
Failure
Rate R1 R3
No. of R1 - Infancy failure
failures/time
R2 R2 Random failure
R3 Wear-out failure

Time
03 phases are important in analysing item reliability
If improved reliability during the infancy failure period (R1),
Reliability during random or middle age failures would be high
Reduce failures during the old age period
Critical period is the random failure stage, where
systematic maintenance system is needed
Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 33
Repair and replacement
Issue: to decide the amount of resources for
maintenance
Large team with shorter repair time: large resource idle
time
Small team with long repair time (longer downtime)

Repairing may involve:


Use of subcontractors
Replacement of entire equipment, parts or sub-assemblies
In-house repair or removed repair
Standby equipment in permanent or temporary basis or else loss of
production

Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 34


Replacement policies

Two types of replacements:


Replacement of items subject to sudden failure:
Machine breakdown due to faulty parts or components,
which can be replaced

Replacement of items which deteriorate with


usage:
Machine does not function to the standard level due to wear
& tear (old machines)
Technologically out of date machines

Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 35


Replacement strategies
Strategy 1:
Replace the broken part only
E.g.: replacing a bulb
Strategy 2:
Replace the broken part and also all other similar
components on the assumption that since they all have
been in service for the same time and are likely to fail
E.g.: faulty spark plug + all other spark plugs
Strategy 3:
Replace the broken component and other similar
components that are in service over the average life
E.g.: faulty spark plug + all other spark plugs which
service life is more than average life
Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 36
Which replacement strategy?
Replacement cost:
Depend on the probability of component failure characteristics

Strategy I:
Depend on the cost of a single replacement
Probable No. of failures during a particular period (e.g. year)

Strategy 2:
Total cost is determined by the No. of components replaced
No. of first failure during the period

Strategy 3:
Total cost is determined by the No. of parts replaced at every
replacement period which have longer service life than average
No. of first failure during the period

Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 37


Optimum replacement time (ORT)
Mathematical expressions
Inadequate in real world

Statistical theory
Not effective due to non-availability of standard patterns
like Normal, Poisson, Exponential, etc.

Simulation: most effective


Because of random failure
Monte Carlo Method (hand simulation) is used to
understand the concept

Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 38


Replacement policies for
deteriorating items
Equipment become inefficient with time
Cost of operation increases with age
Maintenance cost may become high
Output may not compensate for the expenses incurred
Some equipment may even become obsolete
Spare parts required for maintenance may be scarce or
may no longer available
New equipment may produce high quality products with
high efficiency and be more efficient & lesser cost
Old & obsolete machines may loose their competitiveness

Issue: At what point in time equipment to be replaced


Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 39
Replacement decision
Factors affecting the replacement decision:
Present equipment
Expected remaining working life
Salvage value during expected remaining working life
Revenue expected during expected remaining working life
Expenditure incurred during the expected remaining working life
New equipment
Purchase price
Expected life

Salvage value (overhaul/repair value) during expected life

Revenue expected during the expected life

Expenditure incurred during the expected life

Depreciation of money value


Depreciation of value of money which are occurred on expenses

and revenues
Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 40
NPV values
Rs. 100 investment at present will be worth only [100/(1+i)n]
in n years time, if the investment could generate an
interest of i% per year
E.g.: Rs. 100 investment in this year is worth only RS. 82.64 in
02 years time, if the interest rate is 10%

Expression for NPV for net revenue for a given period:

I n En
N
SN In Income in year n
NPV En Expenditure in year n
N Life of equipment or number of
n 1 (1 i ) n
(1 i ) N
years been considered
SN Sale or scrap value at the end of
N years

The replacement decision will be viable, if the NPV is


greater than or equal zero
Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 41
Example for NPV comparison
A company is contemplating on whether to replace the
present equipment with modern equipment. Present
equipment has some useful life left, but the new type of
equipment, which is used by some competitors, is known
to achieve high production rates. If annual interest is 10%,
make the decision based on NPV.
Present equipment:
Current disposal value Rs. 50,000
Anticipated life - 6 years
Required overhaul (repair) time 3 years from now (only this)
Overhaul cost after first 3 years Rs. 15,000
Disposal value after 6 years Rs. 20,000
Expected income for the next first 3 years - Rs. 45,000 /year
Expected income for the last 3 years - Rs. 40,000 /year

Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 42


E.g. for NPV comparison (Contd.)
New equipment:
Purchase price Rs. 250,000
Anticipated life 10 years
Required overhaul time 4 years after purchase
Overhaul cost after 4 years Rs. 10,000
Disposal value after 6 years Rs. 50,000
Disposal value after 10 years Rs. 10,000
Expected income for the next first 4 years - Rs. 90,000 /Year
Expected income for the following 2 years - Rs. 60,000 /Year

Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 43


E.g. for NPV comparison (Contd.)
New Equipment Present Equipment
A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J.
Year 1/ Outlays Net Net PV in Outlays Net Net Cash PV in
No. {I+0 in Income Cash Rs000 in Income Flow in Rs000
(n) .1}n Rs000 in Flow in (E x B) Rs000 in Rs000 (I x B)
Rs000 Rs000 Rs000 (H - I)
(C - D)

0 1.0000 250 50 -200 -200 00 00 00 00.000


1 0.9091 00 90 90 81.819 00 45 45 40.909
2 0.8264 00 90 90 74.376 00 45 45 37.188
3 0.7513 00 90 90 67.617 15 45 30 22.539
4 0.6830 10 90 80 54.640 00 40 40 27.320
5 0.6209 00 60 60 37.254 00 40 40 24.836

6 0.5645 00 60 + 50 110 62.095 00 40 + 20 60 33.870

NPV for New Equipment = 177.801 NPV for Present Equipment = 186.662

Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 44


E.g. for NPV comparison (Contd.)
NPV for present equipment for the next 6 years is
greater than that for new equipment
Decision: retain the present equipment for further 6
years rather than buying new equipment
Issues in NPV cash flow:
Widely used technique for replacement, but does
not taken into account
Uncertainty of future sales
Operating condition of new equipment
Fluctuation in inflation rates
Difficulties of raising money for outlays
Possible future development of improved equipment
Accuracy of cash flow in
Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 45
Decision analysis in repair programs
No focus on the crew or No. of machines that need to be
kept during the repair
Important
Finding the size of repair crews
Finding No. of standby equipments

Size of repair crew


This is one repair-capacity decision
Queuing analysis is often used
Computer simulation is used when the assumptions of
queuing formulas do not apply

No. of standby machines


Trade-off between cost of lost production and cost of
machine storage, handling, .
Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 46
Example for finding crew size-1
Sewing machines breakdown at an average rate of 12
per hour and the average repair time is .75 hours. The
plant manager at Shirt Factory has specified that a
malfunctioning machine should be out of production for
not more than 2 hours at an average.
How many sewing machine repair specialists should
the factory have on duty?
Average service rate (ts) is given by:

1 Where, machines. per.hour


ts
............ Breakdown.rate

Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 47


Example for finding crew size-2
Compute the average machines per hour:
1 1 Where, t 2.hours
ts 2
12 ............ 12. per.hour
12.5machines. per.hour
Average service rate per repair specialist:
= 1/(Hours per machine per specialist)
= 1/.75
= 1.333 machines per hour
Necessary number of repair specialists:
= /(Machines per hour per specialist)
= 12.5/1.333
= 9.375
= 10 specialists (Crew Size)
Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 48
Example for determining No. of
standby machines - 1
In data master, a stock of standard desktop computers
is available to replace computers that malfunction
anywhere in the building. If a standby computer is not
available when needed, it costs $300 for employee idle
time and overtime. An idle standby computer costs $180
per week (opportunity, obsolescence, and storage
costs). Based on the last 105 weeks, the demand pattern
for standby computers at the company is:
Weekly demand Occurrence
5 15
10 25
15 35
20 30
How many standby computers should be stocked by
the company to minimize total expected costs?
Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 49
Example for determining No. of
standby machines - 2
Compute the probability of occurrence for each level of
demand
Weekly demand Occurrence Probability
5 15 15/105 = .143
10 25 .238
15 35 .333
20 30 .286
105 1.000
Compute Payoff Table (Cij values in box) to find the
minimum total cost

Payoff table can also used for determining the No. of spare
parts to carry for maintenance (uncertain demand)
Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 50
Example for determining No. of
standby machines - 3
Payoff table
=300 (15-5)=3000 =1500*.238+3000*.333+4500*.286=2643

=180 (10-5)=900 Lowest total cost. Therefore,


standby computers = 15
Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 51
Determining the frequency of maint.
First, compute the expected number of breakdowns
Next, compute the expected breakdown cost,
maintenance cost, and total cost for each policy
Finally, identify the policy that minimises the total cost
per unit time
Expected number of breakdowns is given by:
n
Bn N( p n ) B(n 1) p1 B(n 2) p 2 ... B1p (n 1)
1

where:
Bn = expected number of breakdowns for each policy
pn = probability that a breakdown will occur between
inspections when PM is performed every n periods
N = number of machines in group
Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 52
Example for determining the
frequency of maintenace-1
It costs Rs. 6,000 to perform PM on a group of four
machines . The cost of down time and repairs, if a
machine malfunctions between inspections is Rs. 8,000.
How often should the maintenance be performed
to minimise the expected cost of malfunction and
the cost of maintenance

The machines breakdown history


Weeks Probability that a
between PM Machine will malfunction
1 0.2
2 0.3
3 0.5
Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 53
Example for determining the
frequency of maintenace-2
n
Bn N( p n ) B(n 1) p1 B(n 2) p 2 ... B1p (n 1)
1

B1 = 4(0.2) = 0.800
B2 = 4(0.2 + 0.3) + 0.8(0.2) = 2.160
B3 = 4(0.2 + 0.3 + 0.5) + 2.16(0.2) + 0.8(0.3) = 4.672
=2.160/2=1.080 =1.080*8000=8640

=6400
+6000

Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa


=6000/3=2000 54
Computerised maintenance
management systems (CMMS)
Maintains a database about maintenance operations
Helps maintenance workers do their jobs more effectively
Helps management make decisions

Controls maintenance inventory (store's management,


requisition and purchasing)
Process condition monitoring inputs
Provides analysis tools for maintenance performance

Now CMMS is intergraded to ERP (e.g. SAP)

Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 55


CMMS

Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 56


Manual Vs. CMMS
Manual system CMMS
Little more than a record of Contains lot of information about
scheduled maintenance assets
Discipline of the people to keep System is user friendly to enter
maintenance records information
The effort required, by The effort is very less
supervisors and managers, in the
organisation and documentation
of the system
Trade group's reluctance to Trade groups very much likely to
become involved in paper work involve with computer system

Need a huge effort to retrieve Data can be retrieve easily in


the data in useful format various formats
Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 57
What does a CMMS do?
Controls company's list of assets through an asset
register
Controls accounting of assets, purchase price,
depreciation rates, etc.
Schedules planned preventive maintenance routines
Controls preventive maintenance procedures and
documentation
Controls issue and documentation of planned and
unplanned maintenance work
Organise maintenance personnel database
Assists in maintenance project management
Provides maintenance budgeting and costing statistics
Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 58
Modern approaches to MM-1
In traditional MM, maintenance staff is responsible for
keeping the machine in running conditions
But, in reality, machine operators are the ones who
interact most with them.

Advantages of letting workers repair their own machines:


Greater variety may make job more satisfying
May be more sensitive to potential malfunctions
Can make minor repairs faster
Can avoid minor repairs by cleaning, lubricating, adjusting
and servicing machines
Operate machines more carefully

Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 59


Modern approaches to MM-2
However (with Automation of operations):
Many operations are slowly moving toward
workerless production
Shift from large to smaller production workforces
Therefore, a shift from small to larger
maintenance workforces
Production workers displaced by automation will
need to be re-trained to become PM workers
Where are we proceeding to???

Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 60


Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)
TPM is a new approach to plant maintenance that
combines preventive maintenance with total quality
control and employee involvement
TPM is a management system for optimizing the
productivity of manufacturing equipment through
systematic equipment maintenance involving
employees at all levels
Under TPM, everyone is involved in keeping the
equipment in good working in order to minimize
production losses from equipment repairs & set-ups
TPM is accomplished by getting the involvement of
the largest assets of the organization, people and
equipment, to work together
Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 61
TPM target
Motives of TPM:
Adoption of life cycle approach for improving the overall
performance of production equipment
Improving productivity by highly motivated workers which
is achieved by job enlargement
Use of voluntary small group activities for identifying the
cause of failure, possible plant & equipment modifications
Uniqueness of TPM:
Involvement of workers for the maintenance process
"I (production operators) operate, You (maintenance
department) fix" is not followed
TPM objectives:
Achieve zero defects, zero breakdown and zero accidents
Get people involved in all levels to reduce defects & Mt.
Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 62
Benefits of TPM
Direct benefits of TPM:
Increase productivity
Rectify customer complaints
Reduce the manufacturing cost
Satisfy the customers needs by 100 %
(Deliver right quantity at right time & required quality)
Reduce accidents
Follow pollution control measures
Indirect benefits of TPM:
Higher confidence level among the employees
Keep the workplace clean, neat and attractive
Favourable change in the attitude of the operators
Working in teams
Horizontal deployment of a new concept in all areas
Share knowledge and experience
The workers get a feeling of owning the machine (ownership)
Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 63
Focus on TPM
TPM - innovative Japanese concept
Origin of TPM dates back to 1951 when preventive
maintenance was introduced in Japan from USA
In early period, no maintenance practice to prevent from
breakdowns, instead breakdown maintenance
Realized the importance of preventing equipment
breakdowns, thus preventive maintenance
Equipment maintenance is the sole responsibility of
technical personnel (maintenance staff)
With high automation, maintenance became a problem
as more maintenance staff were required
So, routine maintenance of equipment was proposed to
carry out by operators (Autonomous Mt feature of
TPM)
Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 64
Focus of TPM (Contd..)
Maintenance staff took only essential Mt works
This leads to maintenance prevention
Birth of Productive Maintenance: Preventive maintenance
along with Maintenance prevention & Maintainability
Improvement
In 1960s, pioneered by Nippon Denso (Toyota group)
Later, added quality circles, involving the employees
participation for maintenance
All employees took part in implementing PM: TPM
concept was implemented
Distinguished plant prize for developing and
implementing TPM (TPM Certification) for Nippon Denso
Now TPM is around the word with certification
Industrial Engineering University of Moratuwa 65