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Environmental Management MEEG

M.Tech in Health, Safety & Environment Engineering

Educational Qualification Improvement Programme


(EQUIP)

Indian School of Petroleum & Energy


in association with

University of Petroleum & Energy Studies

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ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

NAME OF THE CHAPTER UNIT NO. PAGE


NO.

INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & UNIT-I 3


ENGINEERING

ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY, MONITORING & UNIT-II 9


REPORTING

CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT UNIT-III 13

METHODS FOR POLLUTION MONITORING UNIT-IV 18

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM UNIT-V 38

VOCS AND FUGITIVE EMISSIONS UNIT-VI 56

NOISE POLLUTION & CONTROL UNIT-VII 59

WATER POLLUTION UNIT-VIII 66

AIR POLLUTION UNIT-IX 82

HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT UNIT-X 87

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT UNIT-XI 114

& MANAGEMENT PLAN

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL UNIT-XII 126

UNIT-1

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ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & ENGINEERING

INTRODUCTION

An envelope which surrounds all living and non living beings and effects, directly or
indirectly the sustenance of life on green and living planet earth.

The combination of external physical conditions that affect and influence the growth,
development, and survival of organisms

Environment is a multidisciplinary Science which includes study of:

Chemistry

Physics

Geology

Climatology

Earth Sciences

Engineering

Modelling of weather/ecosystem

Remote Sensing

Maths

Zoology

Botany etc. etc.

OBJECTIVES:

The environment can be protected by adopting the following strategies:

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Maintenance of environmental quality
Balancing the ecosystem
To restrict and regulate the exploitation of natural resources
To adopt engineered technology without creating adverse effects on the environment
To control over population and over consumption of resources
To promote environmental education and training among people
To formulate laws and regulations to control pollution
OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION

Knowledge. To know conservation of natural resources.

Evaluation ability: to evaluate environs measures and education and education


programmes in terms of social, economic, ecological and aesthetic factors.

KEY CONCEPTS AND DEFNITIONS:

MATTER: Substance, which occupies space and has mass.

CHEMISTRY: The science of matter- the study of the composition, structure and
properties of matter and the changes that matter undergoes.

ENERGY: The capacity to do work, such as causing a body of matter to move. The rate at
which energy is transferred or moved. That is energy per unit time is called power.

RESOURCES: Matter of specific kinds and energy needed by humans for their well being
or existence.

CLIMATE:

The overall, long term characteristics of weather, including temperature, precipitation and,
storms and wind patterns in an area.

POLLUTANT:

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A substance present in greater than natural concentration as a result of human activity
and having a net detrimental effect upon its environment or upon something of value in
that environment.

BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITY:

The total of all living organisms inhabiting in the specified area. A biological community
and the environmental conditions that characterize it are termed a biome. A group of
organisms of the same species in a biological community is called population.

PRODUCTIVITY:

Rate of production of biomass per unit time per unit area by organisms called productivity.

AUTECOLOGY: The study of individual species in relation to the environment

BIOTIC: living components of the system, in nature.

ABIOTIC: non-living components of any system in nature

INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY: is the study of the relationship of living organisms with their
environment (industry).

AUTOTROPH : is an organism that produces organic compounds from carbon dioxide as a


carbon source, using either light or reactions of inorganic chemical compounds as a source
of energy.

ECOLOGY

Original definition given by : Haeckel

Ecology = oikos logos (Greek words)

Oikos (house or dwelling place) & logos (the study of)

Ecology is the study of the relationship of organisms with their environment.

Ecology is the scientific study of the processes influencing the distribution and abundance
of organisms, the interactions among organisms, and the interactions between organisms
and the transformation and flux of energy and matter.

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INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY

Industrial Ecology is the scientific study of the driving forces that influence the flow of
selected materials among economic processes, energy and matter.

GREEN HOUSE EFFECT:

Atmospheric carbon dioxide, and a host of other gases, such as methane, nitrous oxide,
troposphoric ozone and chlorofluorocarbons ( CFCs) transmit short wavelength radiations
from the sun, while at the same time absorb long wavelength radiations from the earth. As
the concentration of these gases increases, less of earths long wavelength radiations escape
into space.

The result is that the earths atmosphere is warming up. This global warming called
Greenhouse effect, is said to be one of the most important environmental problems.

DEFORESTATION:

Removal of forests is called Deforestation. Deforestation is a worldwide phenomenon.

*Every year about 11 trillion hectares of forests, an area larger than Australia, are
destroyed.

*In India, the pace of deforestation is estimated to be 1.5 billion hectare annually. i.e., every
five years, forest area equivalent to the size of Haryana vanishes.

Plant use large quantities of atmospheric carbon dioxide in photosynthesis. As a result of


deforestation, an important sink of carbon dioxide is being eliminated.

Deforestation adds carbon dioxide to the atmosphere in two ways:

Firstly most of the trees are either burned or decomposed by bacteria,


emitting carbon dioxide directly to the air.
Secondly, the deforested land is unable to restore carbon dioxide through
photosynthesis.
EUTROPHICATION

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Natural eutrophication is the process by which lakes gradually age and become more
productive. It normally takes thousands of years to progress. However, humans, through
their various cultural activities, have greatly accelerated this process in thousands of lakes
around the globe. Cultural or anthropogenic "eutrophication" is water pollution caused by
excessive plant nutrients. Humans add excessive amounts of plant nutrients (primarily
phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbon) to streams and lakes in various ways.

Runoff from agricultural fields is one source of these nutrients. Untreated, or partially-
treated, domestic sewage is another major source.

Environmental Science has come to the forefront of public debate in recent years with the
recognition of potential effects of increased Greenhouse effect / climate change.

** Solutions to environmental problems require

concepts,
information, and
tools from a wide variety of disciplines
Individuals who have mastered a classic discipline (e.g. mathematics, mechanical,
chemical, Biotechnology engineering) and are also familiar with environmental concepts
and environmental concerns are in particular demand in Industry.

Importance of Environmental studies:

Environmental Disasters / accident:

*London smog 1952

*Chernobyl disaster

*Fire accident Bombay High

*Landslides in Uttaranchal

*Tsunamis / Katerina / Rita

*Latest - Earthquake of 09 Oct. 2005

INSTITUTES/ORGANISATION WORKING IN ENVIRONMENT

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Indian Institutes /organizations

CPCB; NEERI;
Centre for Environmental Education (CEE);
Centre for Science & Environment (CSE);
The Energy Research Institute (TERI);
WWF (I);
CPR Environmental education centre (CPR-EEC), Madras;
Uttarakhand Seva Nidhi (UKSN) Almora;
Kalpavriksha Pune; WII, Dehradun; Botanical survey of India Calcutta;
Zoological survey of India, Calcutta;
Andaman & Nicobar Environmental Team
International Institutes /organizations
Greenpeace
Friends of the Earth
Earth Watch
EarthScan
CITES -Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and
Fauna
PCC: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
UNEP : United Nations Environment Programme
IUCN: Intl. Union for Conservation andNatural resources

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UNIT-II

ENVIRONMENT POLICY, MONITORING, REPORTING

ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY IN INDIA

The 1972 UN Conference on Human Development at Stockholm influenced the need for a
well-developed legal mechanism to conserve resources, protect the environment and ensure
the health and well being of the people. In 1976, the 42nd Constitutional Amendment was
made to address environmental concerns. The India Constitution provides for necessary
directives and powers to frame and enforce environmental legislation. The Constitution
classifies the various legislative subjects into three categories, namely, Union List, State
List and Concurrent List. Subjects include in the Union List are enacted by the Parliament.
As stated in the Constitution of India, it is the duty of the state (Article 48 A) to protect
and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country. It
imposes a duty on every citizen (Article 51 A) to protect and improve the natural
environment including forests, lakes rivers and wildlife. Reference to the environment has
also been made in the Directive Principles of State Policy as well as the Fundamental
Rights. Over the years, the Government of India has promulgated a number of Acts, Rules
and Notifications for the preservation and protection of the environment and a list of
environment related laws are presented in Table 7.1. The Water Act, 1974, was enacted
under Article 252 to address environmental issues at the national level. It was under this

act that the CPCB and SPCBs were set up to control pollution in the country. The EPA was
brought out in 1986 (considered an umbrella legislation) to address the whole range of
environmental problems, laying down environmental standards, etc. The National
Conservation Strategy and Policy Statement on Environment and Development was
brought out by the MoEF in 1992 and this recognized the role of the government, NGOs,
industries and public to preserve resources and protect the environment while ensuring
developmental activities. This provides the basis for the integration and internalization on
environmental considerations in the policies and programmes of different sectors. In the
same year, the Policy Statement for Abatement of Pollution was declared by the MoEF to
promote voluntary initiatives for the protection and improvement of the environment,
through the use of incentives, in addition to the development of a regulatory and legislative

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framework. These incentives may be fiscal or financial to promote cleaner technologies and
production practices. In 1993, the Environment Action Programme

was initiated to prepare a blueprint for integrating environmental concerns into the
development process. Emphasis was given to the promotion of a decentralized system and
organizational strengthening for better environmental management. The MoEF is in the
process of developing a comprehensive national policy on environment. EIA is the process in
which environmental factors are integrated into project planning and decision making so as
to achieve ecologically sustainable development. Best practice EIA identifies environmental
risks, lessens

conflict by promoting community participation, minimizes adverse environmental effects,


informs decision makers and helps lay the base for environmentally sound projects. In
India, the MoEF has under the EPA 1986, promulgated a notification on 27 January 1994,
making environmental clearance mandatory for expansion or modernization of any activity
or for setting up new projects listed in schedule I of the notification. Till 1994, the EIA
clearance was the administrative requirement for big projects undertaken by the
government or public sector undertakings. The EIA clearance is required for 30 categories
of industries from the central government as listed in Table ( in EIA unit) . The notification
states that the requirement of EIA can be dispensed with by the IAA (Impact Assessment
Agency), which at present is the MoEF. The MoEF amended the EIA notification in 1997,
making a public hearing mandatory for environmental clearance. The public hearing will be
conducted by the State Pollution Control Boards before the proposals are sent to MoEF for
obtaining environmental clearance and, for site specific projects, it is even before the site
clearance applications are forwarded to MoEF. The MoEF, in 1997, delegated the
responsibilities to state government, of conducting EIA for certain categories of thermal
power plants. The MoEF also functions as the nodal agency for the participation in
international agreements relating to the environment such as the Montreal Protocol on
Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, Vienna Convention for the Protection of the
Ozone Layer, the Basal Convention on the control on Trans boundary movement of
Hazardous Substances, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change,
Male Declaration on prevention of air pollution, the Convention on Biological Diversity, the

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Convention to Combat Desertification, the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of
International

Importance, the Convention of the Conversion of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (Bonn
Convention), etc. The MoEF is also getting support from many bilateral and multilateral
agencies in order to improve capacity building in the area of environmental management,
decision making, reporting, monitoring, and participation. The Commission on Sustainable
Development (CSD) was created to implement the Agenda 21 at the national, regional and
international level. As part of the process, India contributed to CSDs country report 2000,
by highlighting the initiatives taken in the areas of integrated planning and management
of land resources, agriculture, financial

resources, and trade and investment. It is recognised that the public plays an important
role in environmental protection strategy. The Government of India launched an eco-
levelling scheme known as Ecomark in 1991 for easy identification of environmentally
friendly products. The Ecomark level will be awarded to consumer goods, which meet the
specified environmental criteria and the quality requirement of Indian standards. This will
influence consumers to adopt clean and eco-friendly technologies and environmentally safe
disposal of used products. Many new initiatives taken by the MoEF on policy, planning and
implementation related to the environment in the last two years are taken. The functions of
agencies involved in policy formulation, implementation, and decision-making need to be
well defined.

Duplication of functions leads to poor coordination amongst agencies. Greater efforts should
be made to adopt a decentralized approach to managing natural resources and
environment. Such an approach would ensure greater participation of stakeholders in
decision-making. Enforcement mechanisms need to be strengthened to ensure better
performance.

Greater transparency and accountability of agencies, well-defined regulations and adoption


of economic incentives in addition to a command-and-control approach are the determining
factors in achieving better enforcement. Better monitoring and reporting systems would
facilitate an improvement in the enforcement mechanism.

MONITORING:

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Weak enforcement of environmental compliance is attributed to inadequate technical
capacities, monitoring infrastructure, and trained staff in enforcement institutions. In
addition, there is insufficient involvement of the potentially impacted local communities in
the monitoring of compliance, an absence of institutionalized public -private partnerships in
enhancement of monitoring infrastructure.

The following actions would be taken:

a) Give greater legal standing to local community based organizations to undertake


monitoring of environmental compliance, and report violations to the concerned
enforcement authorities.

b) Develop feasible models of public -private partnerships to leverage financial, technical,


and management resources of the private sector in setting up and operating infrastructure
for monitoring of environmental compliance, with ironclad safeguards against possible
conflict of interest.

UNIT-III

CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

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Sustainable development is defined as balancing the fulfillment of human needs
with the protection of the natural environment so that these needs can be met not
only in the present, but in the indefinite future. The linkage between environment
and development was first made in 1980, when the International Union for the
Conservation of Nature published the World Conservation Strategy and used the
term "sustainable development. The concept came into general usage following
publication of the 1987 report of the Brundtland Commission formally, the World
Commission on Environment and Development. Set up by the United Nations
General Assembly, the Brundtland Commission coined what was to become the
most often-quoted definition of sustainable development as development that
"meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future
generations to meet their own needs.

The field of sustainable development can be conceptually broken into four


constituent parts: environmental sustainability, economic sustainability, social
sustainability and political sustainability.

The term sustainable development was first used at the Cocoyoc Declaration on
Environment and Development in the early 1970 report

Definition is contained in our common future the 1987 report of the proceeding of the
World Commission on Environment and Development

Global pandemics, climate change, natural disasters, poor soil conditions, deforestation
these issues are at the heart of sustainable development and at the heart of the work of The
Earth Institute

Ignoring the issues of sustainable development has many possible consequences,


such as rising sea levels, extreme droughts, erosion and loss of forests, increases in
slum populations, species extinctions and collapsing fisheries. There is also
increasing evidence that issues such as water scarcity play a role in internal violence
and regional conflict.

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The question of "Is sustainable development feasible?" is the subject of the two-day
conference, State of the Planet, taking place at The Earth Institute on March 28-29,
2006.
World commission has given the definition:
Sustainable development is the development that meets the need of present without
compromising the ability of future generation to meets their own need

It implies natural resource management that is economically viable in short run and
environmentally sustainable in long run.
It emphasize on optimum management of land and water resources so as to
maintain a balance between productivity function & conservation practices through
identification of problem area that require alternate management practices.
Continuous economic growth made much more eventually sensitive in order to raise
the living standard the poor globally & break the link between poverty and
environment.
It call for radical change in economic organization producing much lower rate or zero
rate.
Thus sustainable development is not looking for industrial production for shake of profit
alone nor does it purposes business . Now the issue is how to increase the wealth in
eventually sound way in order to make major redistribution on income world wide.

Principal of sustainability (Principal of Equity)

The principal of intergeneration equity


Use of natural resources in such a way to reduce the wealth gap within and
between the nations.
The principal of intergeneration equity
Minimize the adverse impact of utilization of natural resources on future
generation

We should

- Reduce the pollution


- Maintain ecological balance
OBJECTIVE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

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Concern for future generation
Protection of environment
Maintenance of high and stable levels of economic growth
Rational utilization of natural resources.
Social progress that recognizes the needs of everyone.
MEASURE TO PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

1. Restoring the environment and combating poverty

2. Sustainable mountain farming system.

- Soil erosion and fertility management.


- Dry land agriculture.
- Shifting cultivation
3. Afforestation and regeneration of degradation.

4. Rangeland & grassland development

5. Control desertification

6. Watershed management

7. Natural Hazard & disaster management

8. Healthy cropland & woodland


9. To promote renewable energy sources
10. Women and mountain development
11. Conservation of natural resources water forest and soil
12. Hazardous waste management
- Reuse, recycle, reduce
14. Promotion of organic farming
- Application of Bio-fertilizer
- Crop rotation
- Intercropping
- Multiple cropping
- Promotion of traditional technologies

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CHARACTERISTIC OF SUSTAINABILITY

1. SUBSTITUTION:
The substitution of non renewable natural resources are the use of renewable energy
resources. For e.g. the substitution of coal, petrol and natural gases are wind, solar,
geothermal and tidal energy

2. RENEWABILITY

Renewable resources should be used in such a way so that the rate of utilization of a
resources should be lower then or equal to the rate of regeneration of resources.
3. INSTITUTIONAL COMMITMENT

An individual cant bring change. The change needs political support, constitutional
provision, legal framework and coordination between legal institutions. All level of society
must be prepared through education, to accept and the value of sustainable development.

4 ADAPTABILITY
We have to learn to adapt to changing environment. For e.g. We have to adapt ourselves to
use clay cups or ordinary glasses that can be washed or used a number of time.
5. INTERDEPENDENCE
There exist interdependence among communalities and nations. Environment knows no
boundaries. Air pollution created by nation spread to neighboring countries. So
interdependence and mutual co-operation is necessary input in maintaining sustainability.

In order to promote sustainable development we have to take care of the following area:

- Conservation of energy
- Conservation of Biodiversity
- Reduction in pollution
- Population Control
- Promotion of renewable energy resources
- Promoting organic farming
- Watershed Management
- An approach of common decision making

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UNIT-IV

METHODS OF POLLUTION MONITORING

DETERMINATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER


STACK EMISSIONS
Definition:
Stack monitoring or source monitoring may be defined as the method for collection
of representative samples of pollutants at a proper place on the stack/ducting.
Aims/Objectives of stack monitoring:
1. To determine the quantity and quality of the pollutant emitted by the source
2. To measure the efficiency of the control equipment.
3. To determine the effect on emission due to process changes.
Initial Planning
Before going in for any stack monitoring exercise, some initial planning is required.
The following steps should be kept in mind
1. Familiarity of the process and operation to determine the time of cyclic
operations (such as digester relief and blow, load on lime kiln etc.), peak
loading during the process (such as soot blowing in boilers) and the process
variables such as rate and quality of feed of fuel (coal/black liquor).
2. Determination of methods for the correct sampling and analysis of the
particulates. Usually, the methods are fixed in accordance with the codes
prescribed by the BIS. Occasionally, the methods prescribed in other
standard methods such as ASTM are also used.
3. Decide upon the frequency of sampling and the amount of sample that is
required to be collected for a precise determination. Thus, if the guaranteed
value of emission from a given system is low, sample has to be taken for
longer duration so as to collect sufficient particulates for precise
determination of results. On the other hand, if the sample is being collected
at the inlet of the ESP, the dust loading will be very high so that a sorter
duration sample may be sufficient for precise sampling. Further, as regards

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the frequency, normally one would like to have a sample at each stage of the
process in order to get a holistic picture. For example in a recovery boiler, one
would like to draw a sample when the ESP is working in the Auto Mode and
the Manual Mode. Further, one would like to have the sampling done before,
during and after the soot blowing operations.
The determination of particulate matter in stacks involves a two step operation
a) Determination of temperature and velocity of the flue gases
b) Taking of isokinetic sample from the stack stream.
DETERMINATION OF TEMPERATURE AND VELOCITY
The stack velocity monitor consists of a vertical cum inclined manometer
and an arrangement for the measurement of flue gas temperature. A pitot tube is
provided which can be attached to the two ends of the manometer so as to enable
the readings to be taken on a scale printed alongside the tube. The following steps
must be followed for the determination of velocity using the stack velocity meter.
1. As a first step, a liquid of the required density is filled in the U tube. Usually,
red oil is used as a displacing liquid. Care has to be taken that during the
filling and adjusting of zero level, the manometer must be properly leveled
and there should be no air trapped inside the manometer. The red oil is
introduced in the tube with the help of a syringe from a space provided on the
instrument.
2. In case the liquid level overshoots the zero mark, then the indicated reading
is taken and subtracted from the final reading.
3. Once this is done, the positive and negative ends of the pitot tube are
connected to the similar ends of the manometer as indicated on the
instrument panel. It must be ensured that the positive of the pitot tube is
connected to the positive of the manometer tube as indicated on the panel of
the instrument.
4. The pitot tube is inserted in to the stream in such a manner that the positive
end of the connection is facing the stream. Once this is done, a positive
displacement will be seen on the manometer. Usually, this reading will

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fluctuate with slight motion of the pitot tube. Gradually rotate the pitot tube
slightly in all directions while keeping a watch on the manometer. Best
alignment of the pitot tube with the stream is indicated by the highest
reading on the manometer.
5. Once the best position of the pitot tube is established, manometer reading is
taken at various transverse points.
6. The choice of these points as well as that of the metering point on the
chimney/duct have to be done as per the illustrations given in figure 1. The
stack monitoring is also metered on the same points.
7. The point of metering on the stack, i.e. the port hole is located on the ducting
in such a manner that it is at least 6 to 8 diameters away from the last
constriction in the duct and at least two diameters before the next
disturbance.
8. In case of circular ducts, the transverse points are located at the center of
equal annular areas across two perpendicular diameters. In case of
rectangular stacks, the area may be divided in to 12 to 25 equal areas and
metering should be carried out in the center of each such area.
9. The readings of the manometer so obtained on each transverse point can be
then utilized to calculate the velocity of the flue gas stream inside the
stack/duct.
10. The temperature of the flue gas required in calculation of velocity is
measured by a thermocouple inserted in the flue gas stream.
CALCULATIONS
As is clear from the above discussion, the pitot tube, when instead in to a
stream, develops an differential pressure proportional to the kinetic head of the
stream. This pressure is measured by the inclined cum vertical manometer. The
velocity can be calculated by using the following formula
V = K(2G.H.Dm/Ds)
Where :
V = Air velocity in m/sec

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G = acceleration due to gravity, 9.81 m/sec
H = height of the manometer fluid displaced in meters
Dm = density of the manometer fluid in kg/m3
(800 for red oil, 1600 for carbon tetra chloride)
Ds = Stack gas density in Kg/ m3
K = Pitot calibration constant
The pitot tube constant K is unique for every tube and is usually found out by the
use of a wind tunnel and is given by the supplier. For our tube, this constant is
0.841. The stack gas density is a function of the molecular weight of the gases
comprising the flue gas, the static pressure inside the duct/chimney and the
temperature of the flue gases. In case the data has to be generated for purely
research purposed, the partial fractions of the major constituents of the flue gas will
have to be determined to estimate the molecular weight of the gas in question.
Similarly, the static pressure and the stack as temperature have to be measured for
a very correct calculation.`
However, in most of the applications, the molecular weight of stack gases can
safely be assumed to be that of air whereas the static pressure can be approximated
close to atmospheric pressure. Thus, the stack gas density can be approximated as
Ds = Da x Ta/Ts
Where Da is the density of the atmosphere at a known temperature Ta and
Ts is the stack gas temperature. Both the temperatures are taken in Kelvin. It is
known that the density of the air at 25C is 1.25 kg/m3. Therefore, Ds can be
calculated as:
Ds = 1.25 x 298/Ts
Substituting the value of Ds in the equation, we get
V = K 2 x 9.81 x Dm x H x Ts
(1.25 x 298)
= K 0.0527 x Dm x H x Ts
Taking H in centimeters

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V = CH x Ts
Where
C = 0.02295 x K x Dm
For red oil, the value of C for our S pitot works out to be 0.546
In this manner, the velocity is determined along the transverse of the duct
and the average of all the readings is taken as the average velocity of the stacks.
ISO KINETIC SAMPLING OF PARTICULATE MATTER.
Stack monitoring kit is used for the determination of particulate load in the
flue gases. The kit basically consists of a sampling probe, filter holder and sampling
nozzles of 9.5, 6.3 and 3.2 mm internal diameter. The filter holder is capable of
taking a paper thimble or a glass microfiber thimble. The thimble holder along with
the appropriate nozzle is then fitted on to the filter holder which in turn is
connected to the sampling probe. The sampling probe is connected to a vacuum
pump via two flow meters. Flue gases enter the system through the nozzle, pass
through the filter thimble, where suspended particulate matter (SPM) is removed.
The flue gases then reach the sampling train/condenser assembly in the cold box
section of the instrument. Here the gas stream is split in to two sections. One
section passes through a small flow meter (0.5-3 LPM) and is lead on to a train of
impingers loaded with suitable reagents to absorb gaseous pollutants relevant to
the emission source while the remaining gas bubbles through a distilled water
impinger followed by silica gel. On passing through the cold box section the flue
gases cool down releasing any moisture or condensables which are scrubbed off in
the water impinger. Relatively clean air is made to pass through the flow meter and
dry gas meter so that the volume of the flue gas is measured. There is a provision
for measuring the pressure drop across the thimble and sampling train assembly
using a mercury manometer. Similarly, the temperature of the gas stream near the
flow meter inlet can be measured by a thermometer provided in the impinger train.
Hence the flue gas sample volume can be normalized as per gas laws. The present
system allows the simultaneous sampling of three gases while the volume of the gas
passed is determined by the knowledge of the sampling time and flow rate.

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Concentration of the individual components are analyzed as per procedure
described later on. Change in weight of the filter is used to determine the quantity
of dust contained in the flue gas sample while a product of the sampling rate and
time is used to measure the sample volume.
Since particles in motion have inertia, if the SPM concentration in the
sample drawn from the stack is to be truly representative of the stack condition,
ISOKINETIC CONDITION has to be maintained at the tip of the sampling nozzle.
CALCULATION OF ISOKINETIC FLOW RATE
The velocity measured by the stack velocity monitor is used for the
calculation of the isokinetic sampling rate for a nozzle of known cross section area.
The rate of sampling which would achieve isokinetic conditions for a nozzle of cross
section area An is given as:

Qs = V x An x 60 x 1000
Where
Qs = The rate of sampling from the stack in LPM
V = stack gas velocity in m/sec
An = area of nozzle in m2
As already mentioned stack gases cool down as they pass through the sampling
train and the rate of flow indicated by the flow meter must be therefore
correspondingly corrected to NTP as per gas laws.
Thus:
Qs = Qs x (273 +25)/Ts
Where
Qs = Sampling rate indicated by flow meter in LPM after
normalization
Ts = Stack temperature
Thus, we have applied the temperature correction to the observed flow rate.
However, there could also be a pressure drop across the sampling train so the
for an exact flow rate, correction of both pressure and temperature must be made.

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For this purpose there is a mercury manometer provided with the stack monitoring
kit. This manometer can be used to measure the pressure drop across the system.
Therefore, the actual flow rate is given as:
Qm = Qs x (Pm-Pm)/Ps x (298/Ta)
Where
Qm = Actual flow rate
Ps = Static pressure in the stack
Pm = Average mean pressure at metering point
Pm = Barometric pressure at the metering point
Ps = Static pressure in the stack
Ta = Temperature at metering point, K

SELECTION OF CORRECT NOZZLE


Three nozzles are available with us which have different cross sectional area. The
value of An are as follows
An for 1/8 (small size nozzle) = 7.917 x 10-6 m2
An for (middle size Nozzle) = 3.167 x 10-5 m2
An for 3/8 (largest size nozzle) = 7.123 x 10-5 m2
The nozzle size is to be selected in such a manner so that Qs falls within the range
of the 30 LPM rotameter. If two or more nozzles are giving flow rates falling less
than 30 LPM, then the nozzle giving flow rate closest to 15 LPM should be selected
for use.
ADJUSTMENT OF THE SPM FLOW RATE
Suppose on calculation, the flow rate for SPM sampling comes out to be 15
LPM. Also assume that the gases are to be absorbed at a flow rate of 2 LPM. Then,
2 LPM flow will be adjusted on the gas flow meter and 15-2 = 13 LPM will be
adjusted on the SPM flow meter. If there is no gaseous sampling being done, then
the flow of 15 LPM can be directly set on the SPM flow meter.

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Since the flow of stack gases varies across the cross section of the
duct/chimney, the particulate concentration too is likely to vary. Therefore,
sampling has to be performed at various transverse points to obtain a
representative sample. The determination of these points has already been
discussed while describing the determination of velocity.
OPERATIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR STACK MONITORING KIT
i) Connect the vacuum pump to the instrument panel using the vacuum hose.
Connect the pump to a live 220 V A.C. main outlet
ii) Set up the flow rate of 1 LPM through the gas flow meter
iii) Set the pressure selection switch to point towards the 3 LPM rotameter
iv) Open both isolation valves by a few turns to that the left column is connected
to the atmosphere while the right one is connected to the inlet of the 3 LPM
gas flow meter
v) Momentarily block the inlet marked B so that the pressure builds up and
mercury column starts to rise. Release the inlet as soon as the column
reaches 70 mm. This up and down movement of mercury column will release
trapped air and produce a continuous column of mercury. This step can be by
passed in case the mercury column is intact. In such a case, the instrument
is ready to use.
vi) Silicon grease must be applied to the mouth of the impingers so that proper
clamping is obtained. The impinger stand should be filled up with water or
ice to bring downs the temperature of the flue gas so as to avoid loss of
absorbing solutions due to evaporation.
vii) Time of sampling can be noted using the stop watch provided on the
instrument.
viii) The probe assembly must be carried out and the connections should be made
as shown in the Figure -3. Figure 4 gives the correct position of holding the
probe handle so that correct sampling can be obtained.
ix) If the dry gas meter is to be used, this must be connected properly with the
marked ports A and b on the dry gas meter and the main unit. This will

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ensure that the inlet and outlet ports of the gas meter are connected to the
correct couplers of the sampling train. In case the DGM is not to be used, the
opening A and B on the main stack monitoring kit must be connected with a
silicon tube, so as to ensure that there is no leak.
x) Fill the appropriate absorbing solution in impingers. Care must be taken to
select the appropriate sequence of the impingers. Generally, the impinger for
sulfur dioxide is kept before the impinger for oxides of nitrogen.
xi) The connection of the impingers should be made properly. The outlet of one
impinger must be connected to the inlet of the next one. The outlet of the
final impinger must be connected to the vacuum pump via the flow meter.
Utmost care must be taken to avoid wrong polarity connection as this will
cause suction of the absorbing solutions in the flow meter, dry gas meter and
pump assembly thus causing serious damage to the equipment.
xii) Similarly, a check must be made on the SPM silica gel bottle
xiii) Check that flow control knobs on both 3 and 30 LPM rotameters are in the off
position. Also ensure that the valves on the mercury manometer are in closed
position
xiv) Insert the probe pipe in to the chimneys port hole.
xv) Start the vacuum pump
xvi) Open the flow control valve on the 3 LPM flow meter slowly to set up the gas
sampling rate (usually 1.5 to 2.0 LPM). Subsequently open the control valve
of the bigger flow meter of 30 LPM. Likewise, when terminating the sample,
shut off the 30 LPM flow meter first and then shut off the 3 LPM meter.
Failure to follow this precaution is likely to case liquids in the gas sampling
impingers to be sucked back towards the particulate silica gel bottle.
SELECTION OF THE FILTER MEDIUM
If the temperature of the flue gas is lower than 120C, Cellulose filtration
thimbles can be used. For higher temperatures, glass microfiber thimble has to be
used. In practice, it has been observed that paper thimble causes problems in the

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pretreatment stage and the initial constant weight is difficult to obtain. Therefore,
for precise analysis, glass microfiber thimble is a better choice.
PREPARATION OF THIMBLES
Prior to sampling, the filter medium must be dried to constant weight in an
oven at 105C, cooled and weighed. As already mentioned cellulose thimbles are
quite hygroscopic and therefore, these should be weighed immediately after the
cooling is accomplished.
LOADING OF THIMBLE
Pre weighed thimbles are kept in small polyethene bags of good quality prior
to use. The thimble should be exposed to the environment only during loading. For
loading the thimble, the screw mounted on the U shape clamp on the thimble holder
is opened and the thimble is fitted on to the conical loading surface. Then the screw
is tightened keeping the thimble straight. Care must be taken to avoid over
tightening of the screw as this will cause leakage.
CALCULATION OF PARTICLE LOAD
Let:
Initial weight of thimble = w1 g
Final weight of thimble = w2 g
Weight of dust collected = w2-w1 g
Corrected flow rate = Qm LPM
Time of sampling = t minutes
Then,
SPM = (w2-w1) x 106
Qm x t

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DETERMINATION OF SUSPENDED PARTICULATE MATTER AND GASES


IN THE AMBIENT AIR

High volume samplers are used for the determination of suspended particulate
matter and gases in the ambient air. They are in widespread use all over the world to
measure air pollution in industrial areas, urban areas, on the shop floor, near monuments
and other sensitive areas. The High Volume Sampler is a vital tool for studies relating the
impact of industrialization to the air environment, and for work relating diseases of the
respiratory system to air pollution.

In these samplers, air-borne particulates are measured by passing air at a high flow-
rate of 1 to 1.3 cubic meters per minute through a high efficiency filter paper which retains
the particles. The instrument measures the volume of air sampled, while the amount of
particulates collected is determined by measuring the change in weight of the filter paper
as a consequence of the sampling. The passage for air reaching the filter is designed to
prevent heavier settable dust particles from reaching the filter. Hence High Volume
Samplers measure only the concentration of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) in
atmospheric air.

Often High Volume Samplers are also fitted with absorbers which would sample
gaseous pollutants. Here the air is passed through chemicals that would absorb specific
gases, and the atmospheric concentration of gaseous pollutants is determined by a chemical
analysis of the absorbing solutions.

The flow measuring system using an orifice Plate incorporated in the Filter Holder-
casting ensures an exact measurement of the air passing through the filter, with minimum
possibility of leakages, or extraneous air flows, affecting the flow readings

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PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION

High Volume Sampler is a basic instrument used primarily for measuring


concentration of suspended particulate matter in atmospheric air. By definition, suspended
particulates are too small in size to have an appreciable falling velocity and are likely to
remain in the atmosphere for significant periods of time. These particulates usually range
from 1 micron to approximately 100 microns in size and may be caused by a variety of
processes such as incomplete combustion of solid, liquid, or gaseous fuels, wastes from
metallurgical, chemical and refining operations, incineration etc. Moreover, natural sources
also contribute suspended materials like spores, salt water spray and pollens.

High Volume Sampling is an internationally accepted standard technique for


monitoring the concentration of suspended particulates. Figure -4 shows a schematic view
of the High Volume Sampler. In these systems a large volume (1500 cubic meters) of
atmospheric air is passed through a suitable filter medium over a period of upto 24 hours.
This will thus yield measurable dust samples in areas with dust levels as low as one
microgram per cubic meter of air. However, where dust concentrations are high, shorter
sampling times may suffice.

MEASUREMENT OF PARTICULATE CONCENTRATION

The mass concentration of suspended particulates in ambient air, expressed in


micrograms per cubic meter is calculated by measuring the mass of collected particulates
and the volume of air sampled.

In the APM 410, the flow rate of air passing through the filter is monitored by
measuring the pressure drop across an Orifice Plate placed between the filter holder and
the blower. The scale of the manometer used to measure the pressure drop is calibrated in
air flow units of cubic meters per minute. A Time Totalizer records the time in
minutes/hours, for which the system has sampled air. Hence the volume of air sampled is
known.

The mass of particulates collected is measured gravimetrically, using a balance


capable of reliable measurement to the nearest milligram.

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For identification of trace quantities of specific elements or compounds the collected
dust may be analyzed using standard techniques like Electron Microscopes. Atomic-
Absorption, Infra-red Spectroscope and trace metal analyzer etc.

One must remember, however, that particulate matter that is oily, such as wood
smoke or photochemical smog, may block the filter and cause a rapid decrease in air flow at
a non-uniform rate. Even fog or high humidity can severely reduce the air flow through the
filter since even though glass fibre filters are insensitive to changes in relative humidity,
the collected particulates may be hygroscopic. Hence, it is recommended that filter
mediums must be carefully conditioned, both before and after sampling, prior to the
measurement of their weight.

MEASUREMENT OF GASEOUS POLLUTANTS

The high volume sampler is designed to monitor the concentration of suspended


particulates in atmospheric air. For the determination of gaseous pollutants a separate
sampling attachment is used. The gaseous samples are analyzed by using wet chemical
methods for the absorption and detection of gaseous pollutants. Hence, atmospheric air
must be passed through absorbers containing suitable reagents which would absorb
relevant gases like Sulfur dioxide, Nitrogen oxides, Hydrogen sulfides, etc. the absorbing
reagents must be analyzed in a laboratory to work out the quantity of gas absorbed as per
the procedures described later on in this write up.

The gas attachment system has been provided with a set of four midget impingers
for gaseous sampling. A gas manifold with separate flow control valves allows independent
flow rates to be set in individual impingers. A flow-meter has been incorporated which
allows a precise measurement of sampling rate when the system is being set up. The
impingers have been kept in an ice-tray to improve the absorption efficiency of the system
and prevent loss of absorbers by evaporation.

With a little care in the selection of chemicals gas concentrations up to 5


micrograms/meter cube of Air can be routinely measured. The wet chemical
methods are reference standard recommended by leading bodies like the World
Health organization and the American Environment Protection Agency (EPA).

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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS

SELECTION OF SAMPLING SITE

The High Volume Sampler is usually operated at ground level. In normal usage it is
never operated more than 15 meters above ground level. In order to obtain a representative
sample, the Sampler should be placed in such a manner that a 90 degree cone on top of the
sampler should be free of all obstructions. However, this condition is not applicable when
the fugitive emissions are being monitored. In excessively turbulent conditions or in the
presence of strong surface winds or otherwise inclement weather, the sampling rate is
likely to decrease rapidly and perhaps in a non-linear fashion due to filter choking. If the
sampler is operating in-the vicinity of a source, day-to-day variations in the measurement
are expected due to varying meteorological conditions and changing atmospheric
phenomena, like wind speed and direction, dispersion and diffusion etc.

SELECTION OF FILTER MEDIUM

For most cases where interest is limited to a gravimetric determination of the total
suspended particulate concentration, glass microfiber filters having a low resistance to
airflow, a low affinity for moisture and a 98% collection efficiency for particles of 0.5 micron
or larger size are suitable (Whatman GF-A sheets are normally used for the purpose).
However, where further analysis of the particulates is to be attempted to detect specific
elements/radicals, care should be taken to choose special filter mediums having a low
background concentration of the substances of interest. For instance, special grades of glass
microfiber filters (Whatman EPM 2000) are available which have a controlled and low
concentration of metals like Iron, Zinc, Cadmium, Lead, Arsenic, Nickel, etc.

PREPARING THE FILTER

Prior to use, expose each filter to a light source and inspect for pinholes, particles and other
imperfections. Filters with visible defects should not be used. A small brush is often used to
remove stray particles adhering to the surface of new filters. Always handle filter papers
from their edges and do not crease or fold the filter medium prior to use.

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Both blank and samples should be conditioned at 20 to 25 degrees Centigrade, and
relative humidity below 50% for at least 16 hours prior to weighing. If in case such a
facility is not available, the conditioning of the filter paper before and after exposure is
carried out in an oven at 105C. for 4 hours. Subsequently, the paper is allowed to cool and
weighed.

It is usual to put an identification number and date of sampling on the filters. Weigh
the filter papers to the nearest milligram and record the weight and filter identification
number.

INSTALLATION OF THE FILTER

Always install or remove the filter only when the Sampler is OFF. Open the gable
roof of the Shelter, loosen the wing nuts and remove the face plate from the filter holder.
Place a numbered, pre-weighed filter in position with its rough side up. Replace the face
plate without disturbing the filter and fasten securely. Under tightening will allow air
leakage whereas over tightening will damage the rubber face plate gasket. A very light
application of talcum powder may be used on the rubber gasket to prevent the filter from
sticking. Close the roof of the shelter.

OPERATION OF THE ORIFICE METER

The Orifice meter is really a differential manometer used to measure the pressure drop
across an Orifice Plate. It uses distilled water as the indicating fluid which must be topped
up from time to time. The brass screw mounted on the meter plate is a filling plug which
must be opened to fill in the manometer fluid. Use the syringe provided with the
instrument to fill distilled water up-to the "zero" mark on the meter scale. When adequate
fluid has been filled into the system, close the filling plug. Do not over-tighten the plug
since it would damage its seal ring.

USING THE TIMER

Different kinds of timers are available with different models. Basically, these timers
can be programmed to run the high volume samplers for the required duration of time.

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There is also a time totalizer which gives the exact time in hours or minutes of the
operation of the sampler. This reading is taken for calculation purposes later on.

OPERATION OF THE GASEOUS SAMPLING ATTACHMENT

As discussed during in stack monitoring section, the gas impingers must be properly
connected to the vacuum system as a wrong polarity will in this case lead to the absorbing
solution going in to the blower motor

Fill approximately 20 ml of absorbing reagent in each impinger as per the sampling


plan adopted. Place the impingers in the ice tray. Cold water or crushed ice should be
placed around the impingers in the ice tray, so that high absorption efficiency is maintained
and evaporative losses of absorbers are minimized.

Place the loaded ice-tray in the gas sampler. Connect the impinger outlet to
individual inlets of the gas manifold. In case the sampling plan requires some impingers in
series, the corresponding manifold inlet would remain free. Follow start-up sequence later
on to switch on the instrument.

Connect the flexible pipe of the flow meter to the inlet of the first impinger and
adjust the flow by rotating the corresponding manifold pin. A screw driver set can be used
for this purpose. Rotation of the pin in the anti-clockwise direction will increase the flow,
while a clockwise rotation will shut-off the valve.

Disconnect the flow meter pipe from the first impinger and repeat the procedure
until the airflows have been set in all the impingers.

Note down the Time-totalizer reading. At the time of Sampler shut-off, note the
Time Totalizer reading again. The difference of Time- Totalizer readings gives the gaseous
sampling time, which must be multiplied with individual flow rates to determine the
volume of air sampled in each impinger.

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SAMPLER START-UP SEQUENCE

a) The system is suitably located as described


b) A fresh, pre-weighed filter is installed in the filter holder.
c) The fluid in the orifice meter is at 'Zero' level.
d) Program the timer as per requirement.
e) In case both particulate and gaseous pollutants are to be sampled, check that
impingers with suitable reagents are in place and are connected properly.
f) Connect the mains chord of the sampler to a live 220 V.A.C. outlet. Switch on the
Power ON-OFF switch. Check the mains voltage indicated by the meter on the
Voltage Stabilizer. The sampler will not operate unless the Voltage is in a safe
operating range. Note down the reading of time totaliser and switch the blower on.
g) Allow the Blower to run for 10 minute so that it attains full speed and then record
the sampling rate indicated by the orifice meter. In case gases are also to be
sampled, set the desired flow rates (for gaseous sampling) using the needle valves of
the gas manifold. Record the sampling rates for gases.

SAMPLER SHUT OF F SEQUENCE:

a) Record the flow-rate indicated by the orifice meter.

b) Record the flow-rate indicated by the rotameter (for gaseous sampling).


c) In case the system was operating under the control of the Timer and the blower has
already been shut off, restart the blower using the manual ON-OFF switch and
allow the flow rate to stabilize for a minute before recording the flow rates
mentioned above.
d) Switch off the sampler using the power ON-OFF switch.
e) Record the final sampling-time indicated by the Time Totalizer.
f) Open the filter-holder and carefully remove the Filter Paper. Fold the paper along
its length so that the soiled sides are in contact and are facing inwards. Store the
filter paper in a clean envelope.
g) Remove the Sampler from the Sampling Site to a safe storage area.
h)

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CALCULATIONS (FOR SUSPENDED PARTICULATE SAMPLING)

Weight of suspended particulates (W) = W2-W1 (grams)

Where

W2 = Weight of the filter paper after

sampling (grams)

W1 = Weight of fresh filter paper

before sampling (grams)

Both the weights are taken after proper conditioning of the filter paper before and after the
sampling.

Volume of Air Sampled V = Q.T (m3)

Where

Q = Average sampling rate (m3)

T = Sampling Time (Minutes)

Q = (Q1+Q2) / 2

Where

Q1 = Initial sampling rate indicated by the Orifice

Meter at the start of sampling

Q2 = Final sampling rate indicated by the orifice


meter just before the end of sampling.

Then

Suspended Particulate Matter = W/V (g/m3)

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UNIT-V

ENVIRONMENTAL MANGEMENT SYSTEMS

INTRODUCTION

In present times, environmental management is not only satisfying legal


requirements. In fact, it is an integral part of an organization's overall management
system. A petroleum installation can create a lot of environmental problems, if enough
care is not taken during the initial stages of a new project and during its entire life
cycle. There are numerous cases of closure of installations or heavy penalties on account of
poor environmental performance. Oil spill from Exxon's Valdez ship in 1989 is a classical
example. Exxon had to pay more than US$ 4 billion in direct and indirect fines. Every
organization should therefore be concerned to achieve and demonstrate sound
environmental performance by controlling the impact of its activities, products or
services. This is required also in the context of ever increasing stringent legislation,
development of economic policies and other measures to foster environmental
protection. Further, the organizations should be responsive to the concerns of
interested parties about environmental matters including sustainable development.
Sustainable development is meeting the needs of present without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet their needs.

An organization must have an effective environmental management system (EMS) with


sound policy, objectives and commitment to achieve all this.

BENEFITS OF EMS

An organization whose management system incorporates an EMS has a framework to


balance and integrate economic and environmental interes ts and can achieve
significant competitive advantages as listed below:

Assuring customers of commitment to demonstrate environmental management.

Maintaining good public/community relations.

Satisfying investors' criteria and improving access to capital.

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Obtaining insurance at reasonable cost.

Enhancing image and market share.

Meeting vendor certification criteria.

Improving cost control.

Reducing incidents that result in liability.

Demonstrating reasonable and responsible care.

Conserving input materials and energy.

Facilitating the attainment of permits and authorizations.

Fostering sustainable development and sharing environmental solutions.

Improving industry government relations.

KEY PRINCIPLES OF EMS

Key principles for an organization implementing or enhancing an environmental


management system are:

Recognize that environmental management is among the highest corporate priorities.

Establish and maintain communication with internal and external interested


parties.

Determine the legislative requirements to be fulfilled.

Identify environmental aspects associated with the organization's products and


services.

Develop management and employee commitment to the protection of environment with


clear assignment of accountability and responsibility.

Encourage environmental planning throughout the product or process life cycle.

Establish a process for achieving targeted performance levels.

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Provide appropriate and sufficient resources, including training, to achieve targeted
performance.

Evaluate environmental performance against the organization's environmental


policy, objectives and targets and seek improvement where appropriate.

Establish a management process to audit and review the EMS and to identify
opportunities for improvement.

Encourage contractors and suppliers to establish EMS.

ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION

Complying with the statutory provisions of environmental legislation is the first and
foremost responsibility of any organization. It is important that persons responsible
for EMS understand these requirements and comply with them fully at all times.
Following are the important environmental legislation related to projects and activities
in the petroleum industry:

Bio-medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998

5. The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991

The critical requirements of these legislations are briefly explained below:

THE WATER (PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION) ACT, 1974

This is enforced by the State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs) and by Central
Pollution Control Board (CPCB) in Union Territories. The obligations of the industry
are:

Obtain consent from SPCB/CPCB by making an application detailing all the


information regarding manufacturing processes, raw materials used, effluent
characteristics, generation sources and quantities, water pollution control
facilities/treatment, etc.

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ENVIRONMENT (PROTECTION) RULES, 1986

These rules:

Specify industry specific standards for emission and resource conservation.

Specify mass specific standards.

S tip ul at e y ea rl y s ub mis s io n of en v iro nm ent al statement.

The responsibility of the industry:

Comply with the emission standards.

Submit yearly environmental statement to SPCB/CPCB.

Analyze the emissions for the specific pollutants and submit re gular returns to
the SPCB/CPCB.

Use of best available technology for pollution prevention/control.

Maximum reuse and recycle of resources.

Use of cleaner technology.

Use of tertiary treatment for reducing chemical components in the treated


waste water.

THE HAZARDOUS WASTES (MANAGEMENT AND HANDLING) RULES, 1 9 8 9

These rules enforced by SPCB/CPCB specify categories of hazardous wastes handled


in any installation. The responsibility of the company is to:

Obtain an authorization letter from SPCB/CPCB by making an application for


handling of hazardous wastes.

Submit all information including quantity, waste category, generation rates,


and safety precautions in handling, transportation safety, treatment procedures
and disposal methods to SPCB/CPCB.

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MANUFACTURE, STORAGE AND IMPORT OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS
RULES, 1989

These rules aim at preventing the accidents involving hazardous chemicals in


various categories. The rules are enforced by state Factory Inspectorate along with
SPCB/ CPCB. The obligations of the industry are:

Identification of major hazards and take preventive steps for identified hazards.

Demonstrate safe operation/emergency preparedness while handling hazardous


chemicals.

Prepare MSDS; ensure proper labelling of containers.

Preparation of safety reports, in case of exceeding threshold quantities of hazardous


chemical storage.

Notification of sites in case of use of hazardous chemical storage exceeding threshold


quantities.

Preparation of on-site emergency plan and conducting mock drills regularly.

Dissemination of information related to hazardous chemicals to people in the vicinity.

NOTIFICATION ON ENVIRONMENTAL CLEARANCE

This notification specifies 29 categories of projects which have potential to degrade


environment including polluting industries and restricts their activities. The
industry's obligations are:

Obtain environmental clearance for setting up a new project or for


modernization/expansion of existing plants from Ministry of Environment & Forests, as
per the applicability in the notification.

Conduct environmental impact assessment and prepare environmental plan to prevent


adverse effects of the project on the environment.

Follow the conditions specified in the environmental clearance and monitor the
quality of environment before starting the project and after the project is over.

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BIO-MEDICAL WASTE (MANAGEMENT AND HANDLING) RULES, 1 9 9 8

These rules:

Classify bio-medical wastes into 10 categories and identify treatment and disposal
methods for them and standards of treatment.

Lay down colour coding system and prescribe type of container for disposal.

Prescribe labels for bio-medical waste containers/bags and their transport.

The obligations of the organizations handling these wastes are:

Ensure that bio-medical waste is handled without any

adverse effect to human health and environment.

Install requisite bio-medical waste treatment facilities.

Segregation and labelling of the wastes.

Submit an annual report about categories and quantities of the waste handled.

Maintain records of the generation, collection, reception, storage, transportation,


treatment, disposal, etc.

Report accidents occurring during handling and transporting of the waste.

THE PUBLIC LIABILITY INSURANCE ACT, 1991

The Act and the rules framed under the Act aim at providing relief to the persons affected
by accidents involving hazardous

chemicals. The rules empower the concerned District Collector to verify the
accident and order relief. The responsibilities of the organizations are:

Draw an insurance policy.

Contribute to relief fund.

Follow the orders of DC in case of any accident.

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Proper labelling of the containers and safety precautions during
handling/transportation of the hazardous chemicals.

CURRENT ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS IN INDIA

Environmental standards are the limiting values of various pollutants in air, water
and soil which are prescribed by CPCB/SPCB for different industrial activities.
Over the period of time, the environmental standards in India have become quite
stringent which of course reflects the country's concern for the environment. Following
are the current environmental standards for the oil and gas industry:

EFFLUENT DISPOSAL STANDARDS

PARAMETER PERMISSIBLE
Refineries PH 6 to8.5
LIMIT
Suspended Solids 20 mg/I
Oil & Grease 10 mg/I
Phenol (as C6H5OH) 1 mg/I
Sulphides (as S) 0.5 mg/1
BOD (5 days at 20 degrees C) 15 mg/I
COD - 50 mg/1
Cyanides (as CN) 0.2 mg/I
Fluoride (as F) 1.5 mg/I
On-shore OiUGas Drilling/ Extraction pH 5.5 to 9.0

Oil & Grease 10 mg/I


Suspended solids 100 mg/I
BOD ( 3 days at 27 degrees C) 30 mg/I
COD 100 mg/I
Chlorides 600 mg/I
Sulphates 1000 mg/I
TDS 2100 mg/I
% Sodium 60 mg/I
Phenols 1.2 mg/I
Cyanides 0.2 mg/I
Fluorides 1.5 mg/I

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ISO-14000 STANDARDS ON EMS

ISO-14000 is a group of international standards covering e n vir onm en tal


m an a gem ent int end ed to p ro vid e organizations w ith th e elements of an
ef f ective environmental management system which can be integrated w it h o th er
m an a gem ent re qu ire me nts to ac hi e ve environmental and economic goals. These
standards, like other international standards, are not intended to be used to create
non-tariff trade barriers or to increase or change an organization's legal obligations.
This group of standards includes:

ISO-14001:1996 Environmental Management System Specifications with Guidance


for Use

ISO-14004:1996

Environmental Management System

General Guidelines on Principles, Systems and Supporting Techniques

ISO-14010:1996 Guidelines for Environmental Auditing General Principles

ISO-14011: 1996 Guidelines for Environmental Auditing Audit P r oc e d ur es ,


A u d i t i n g of E n v i r on m e n t a l Management System

ISO-14012:1996 Guidelines for Environmental Auditing Qualification Criteria for


Environmental Auditors.

ISO-14001 is the most important of these standards. This standard contains only
those requirements that may be objectively audited for certification/registration
purposes and/ or self-declaration purposes. Some important elements of this
standard are briefly explained in the next unit. Those organizations requiring more
general guidance on a broad range of environmental management issues should refer
to ISO-14004.

An organization having the environmental management system in place as


guided by these standards is considered to be more efficient and conscious of its
obligations towards business, society and humanity at large. With globalization of

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trade, those organizations which are certified under these standards, have
certainly an advantage over others in conducting their businesses. More and
more organizations are realizing the need of registration under ISO-14000 EMS
standards.

ISO-14001 Registration

As said before, this standard lays down the requirements of environmental


management system for external certification and registration. The important
requirements are briefly discussed here.

ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

Top management shall define the organization's environmental policy and


ensure that it

Is appropriate to -the nature, scale and environmental aspects of its various


activities, products and services.
Includes a commitment to continual improvement and prevention of pollution.
Includes a commitment to comply with relevant environmental legislation
and regulations and the other requirements to which the organization
subscribes.
Provides a framework for setting and reviewing environmental objectives
and targets.
Is documented, implemented, maintained communicated to the employees.
Is available to the public.
PLANNING

The organization shall establish and maintain procedure(s) to identify the


environmental aspects of its activities, products and services that it can control
and over which i t c a n b e e x p e c t e d to h a v e a n i n f l u e n c e , i n o r d er t o
determine thos e w hich have or can have s ignif icant impacts on the
environment. The organizations shall ensure that the aspects related to these
significant impacts are considered in setting its environmental objectives. The
organization shall keep this information up-to-date. This will include:

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Legal and other requirements.

Objectives and targets.

Environmental management programmes.

IMPLEMENTATION AND OPERATION

STRUCTURE AND RESPONSIBILITY

Roles, responsibilities and authorities shall be defined, documented and


communicated in order to facilitate effective environmental management.
Management shall provide resources essential to the implementation and control of
the environmental management system. This includes human resources, specialised
skills, technology and financial resources.

TRAINING, AWARENESS AND COMPETENCE

The organization shall identify traini ng needs. It shall require that all personnel
whose work may create a significant impact upon the environment have received
appropriate training.

COMMUNICATION

The organization shall establish and maintain procedure for (a) internal
communication between various levels and functions of the organization (b) receiving,
documenting and responding to relevant communication from external interested
parties.

DOCUMENTATION

The organization shall establish and maintain information in paper or electronic form
to describe the core elements of the EMS and their interaction. There should also
be a procedure to control the documentation with respect to updating, revisions,
removing obsolete documents, etc.

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OPERATIONAL CONTROL

The organization shall identify those opera tions and activities that are associated
with the identified significant environmental aspects in line with its policy, objectives
and targets. The organization shall plan these activities including maintenance to
ensure they are carried out under specified conditions.

EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE

The organization shall establish and maintain procedures to identify potential for
and respond to accidents and emergency situations and for preventing and mitigating
the environmental impacts that may be associated with them.

CHECKING AND CORRECTIVE ACTION MONITORING AND MEASUREMENT

The organization shall establish and maintain documented procedures to control and
measure on a regular basis, the

key characteristics of its operations and activities that can have a significant impact on
the environment. Monitoring equipment shall be calibrated and maintained and record of
this process shall be retained according to the organization's procedures.

NONCONFORMANCE, CORRECTIVE AND PREVENTIVE ACTION

The organization shall establish and maintain procedures for defining responsibility and
authority for handling and investigating nonconformance, taking action to mitigate any
impacts caused and initiating and completing corrective and preventive action.

MANAGEMENT REVIEW

The organization's top management shall, at intervals, review the environmental


management system to ensure its continuing stability, adequacy and effectiveness.
This review process shall ensure that necessary information is collected to allow
management to carry out the evaluation.

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EMS AUDITING

Environmental auditing has established itself as a valuable instrument to verify and


help improve environmental performance. The international standard ISO-14010: 1996
is intended to guide organizations, auditors and their clients on general principles
common to the conduct of environmental audits. This is one in a series of international
standards in the field of environmental auditing, which also includes:

ISO-14011: 1996, Guidelines for environmental auditing-Audit procedures, auditing of


environmental management system.

ISO-14012: 1996, Guidelines for environmental auditing-Qualification criteria for


environmental auditors. Some

important features of a good EMS audit as given in these standards are listed below:

REQUIREMENTS OF EMS AUDIT

There is sufficient and appropriate information about the subject matter of the audit.

There are adequate resources to support the audit process.

There is adequate cooperation from the auditee. Objectivity, Independence and


Competence

In order to ensure the objectivity of the audit process and its findings and any conclusions,
the members of the audit team should be independent of the activities they audit. They
should be objective, and free from bias and conflict of interest throughout the audit process.

The use of external or internal audit team members is at the discretion of the client. An
audit team member chosen from within the organization should be accountable to those
directly responsible for the subject matter being audited. The audit team members should
possess an appropriate combination of knowledge, skills and experience to carry out audit
responsibilities.

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DUE PROFESSIONAL CARE

In the conduct of an environmental audit, auditors should use care, diligence, skill and
judgment expected of any auditor in similar circumstances. The relationship between the
audit team members and the client should be one of confidentiality and discretion. Unless
required by law, the audit team members should not disclose information or documents
obtained during the audit or the final report to any third party without the express
approval of client.

SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURES

The environmental audit should be conducted in accordance with these general principles
and any guideline developed for the appropriate type of environmental audit. ISO-14011

Gives guidelines on procedures to be followed for environmental audits.

QUALIFICATION CRITERIA FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING

Standard ISO-14012 gives guidance on qualification criteria for environmental


auditors and lead auditors and is applicable to both internal and external auditors.
Some highlights are given below:

EDUCATION AND WORK EXPERIENCE

Auditors should have a university degree or must have completed at least secondary
education with 5 years minimum work experience. They should have experience in :

Environmental science and technology

Technical and environmental aspects of facility op erations

Relevant requirements of environmental laws and regulations

Environmental management systems and standards against which audits may be


conducted

Audit procedures, processes and techniques

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AUDITOR TRAINING

Besides formal training, which should address the above issues, the auditors should have
also completed on-the-job training, to develop co mpetence in carrying out
environmental audits. Such training may be provided by the auditor's own organization or
by any external organization. The on-the-job training should be for a total of twenty
equivalent workdays of environmental auditing, and for a minimum of four
environmental audits. This should include involvement in the entire audit process under
the supervision and guidance of the lead auditor.

PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES AND SKILLS

Auditors should possess personal attributes and skills like:

Competence in clearly expressing concept and ideas orally and in writing


Interpersonal skills conducive to the effective and efficient performance of the
audit, such as diplomacy, tact and ability to listen
Ability to maintain independence and objectivity sufficient to permit the
accomplishment of auditors' responsibilities
Ability to reach sound judgments based on objective evidence
Ability to react with sensitivity to the conventions and culture of the country
or region where the audit is performed
LEAD AUDITOR

Besides having the qualifications, experience, personal attitudes and skills as


mentioned above, a lead auditor should have the following additional criteria.

Participation in the entire audit process for a total of fifteen equivalent workdays of
environmental auditing, for a minimum of three additional complete environmental
audits and participation as lead auditor, under the supervision and guidance of a
lead auditor for at least one of these three audits.

LANGUAGES

No auditor should participate unsupported in an audit when unable to communicate


effectively in the language necessary for performing his or her responsibilities. When

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necessary, support be obtained from a person with the necessary language skills,
who is not subject to pressures that could affect the conduct of the audit.

AREAS OF EMS AUDIT

An EMS audit should review the entire installation by departments or site,


including the processes that are operated, raw materials and energy used, and
the waste that is produced. The areas that should be audited include:

What environmental legislation applies to the installation and is it being


complied with?
Is there a clear written environmental policy with the correct management
structure to implement it?
How much energy and resources such as electricity and water are used?
Which raw materials are used, in what quantities and how much is recycled?
What are the sources of wastes and emissions and how can they be reduced?
What levels of wastes are produced and can waste be recycled?
What impact do production processes have on the environment?
Are products designed for recycling?
Is staff provided with environmental awareness training and are they encouraged
to suggest ways of improving environmental performance?
How efficient is the transport of petroleum products and what hazards are
involved in transporting these?
What systems are in place to deal with environmental accidents and
emergencies?
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPROVEMENT INITIATIVES

Following is a list of some significant initiatives taken by a modern petroleum


refinery in the area of environmental management. Some of these initiatives were
mandatory, while many others came as a result of organization's self discipline and
concern for protection of environment and sustainable development. Since the refinery
is located in a water scarce coastal area, the initiatives for water management
were very significant. Any organization can think of its own initiatives based on this
example.

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INITIATIVES RELATED TO WATER MANAGEMENT

Ground water not tapped for industrial and domestic purposes.


Fresh water obtained through desalination of' sea water.
Reuse of treated effluent and sewage completely as cooling water make up and
green belt development.
Use of air coolers to optimize the requirement for cooling/fresh water.
Rainwater harvesting with large storm water ponds having a combined storage
capacity of 1.5 million cubic meters.
Discharge of brine from the desalination plant deep inside the sea through a
scientifically designed diffuser
INITIATIVES ON EMISSIONS

Optimize fuel requirement


High efficiency furnaces, heaters and boilers
Very high level of heat integration among various process units
Waste heat recovery systems - Power recovery turbines
Use of pinch technology for preheat optimization
SO2 REDUCTION

o FCC feed hydro-desulpheriser


o High efficiency sulfur recovery units
o High selective and stable MDEA for H2 S absorption Low No2 burners for all
heaters, furnaces and boilers Floating roof tanks for light products and
diesel
o storage
o Vapour recovery system for benzene loading Closed loop sampling
o Closed blow down system
o Four stage cyclone separator in FCC
o Hooded conveyors for handling petroleum coke Granulation of sulphur
o Reduction of odorous compounds by routing of disulfide off gas from
merox units and vacuum units off gas to heaters
o Complete burning of flare gases

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SLUDGE/WASTE

Swivel angle side entry mixers in crude oil tanks to minimize sludge
generation
Processing of oily sludge from ETP in delayed coker bio sludge from
ETP used as manure in green belt Vermiculture of grass and kitchen
waste Segregation and disposal of' other solid wastes.

GREEN BELT DEVELOPMENT

The refinery has developed a very big green belt-much more than the statutory
requirements. Plants and trees of various types including teak, mango and other
fruits and many vegetables have been grown. This has changed the entire
landscape of the arid area. This refinery can be a good example of industry and
nature existing together.

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UNIT-VI

VOCS

ORGANIC GASES (VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS - VOCS)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted as gases from certain solids or
liquids. VOCs include a variety of chemicals, some of which may have short- and
long-term adverse health effects. Concentrations of many VOCs are consistently
higher indoors (up to ten times higher) than outdoors. VOCs are emitted by a wide
array of products numbering in the thousands. Examples include: paints and
lacquers, paint strippers, cleaning supplies, pesticides, building materials and
furnishings, office equipment such as copiers and printers, correction fluids and
carbonless copy paper, graphics and craft materials including glues and adhesives,
permanent markers, and photographic solutions.

Organic chemicals are widely used as ingredients in household products. Paints,


varnishes, and wax all contain organic solvents, as do many cleaning, disinfecting,
cosmetic, degreasing, and hobby products. Fuels are made up of organic chemicals.
All of these products can release organic compounds while you are using them, and,
to some degree, when they are stored.

EPA's Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (TEAM) studies found levels of


about a dozen common organic pollutants to be 2 to 5 times higher inside homes
than outside, regardless of whether the homes were located in rural or highly
industrial areas. Additional TEAM studies indicate that while people are using
products containing organic chemicals, they can expose themselves and others to
very high pollutant levels, and elevated concentrations can persist in the air long
after the activity is completed.

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CONTENTS

Sources
Health Effects
Levels in Homes
Steps to Reduce Exposure
Standards or Guidelines
Additional Resources

SOURCES

Household products including: paints, paint strippers, and other solvents; wood
preservatives; aerosol sprays; cleansers and disinfectants; moth repellents and air
fresheners; stored fuels and automotive products; hobby supplies; dry-cleaned
clothing.

HEALTH EFFECTS

Eye, nose, and throat irritation; headaches, loss of coordination, nausea; damage to
liver, kidney, and central nervous system. Some organics can cause cancer in
animals; some are suspected or known to cause cancer in humans. Key signs or
symptoms associated with exposure to VOCs include conjunctival irritation, nose
and throat discomfort, headache, allergic skin reaction, dyspnoea, declines in serum
cholinesterase levels, nausea, emesis, epistaxis, fatigue, dizziness.

The ability of organic chemicals to cause health effects varies greatly from those
that are highly toxic, to those with no known health effect. As with other pollutants,
the extent and nature of the health effect will depend on many factors including
level of exposure and length of time exposed. Eye and respiratory tract irritation,
headaches, dizziness, visual disorders, and memory impairment are among the
immediate symptoms that some people have experienced soon after exposure to
some organics. At present, not much is known about what health effects occur from

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the levels of organics usually found in homes. Many organic compounds are known
to cause cancer in animals; some are suspected of causing, or are known to cause,
cancer in humans.

LEVELS IN HOMES

Studies have found that levels of several organics average 2 to 5 times higher
indoors than outdoors. During and for several hours immediately after certain
activities, such as paint stripping, levels may be 1,000 times background outdoor
levels.

STEPS TO REDUCE EXPOSURE

Increase ventilation when using products that emit VOCs. Meet or exceed any label
precautions. Do not store opened containers of unused paints and similar materials
within the school. Formaldehyde, one of the best known VOCs, is one of the few
indoor air pollutants that can be readily measured. Identify, and if possible, remove
the source. If not possible to remove, reduce exposure by using a sealant on all
exposed surfaces of paneling and other furnishings. Use integrated pest
management techniques to reduce the need for pesticides.

Use household products according to manufacturer's directions.


Make sure you provide plenty of fresh air when using these products.
Throw away unused or little-used containers safely; buy in quantities that you will
use soon.
Keep out of reach of children and pets.
Never mix household care products unless directed on the label.

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UNIT-VI

NOISE POLLUTION

INTRODUCTION:

Noise can be defined as 'Clamour', 'Din', 'Loud outlay'. Noise (sound) is a physical
disturbance in a medium that is capable of being detected by human ear. Sound waves in air are
formed by variations in pressure above and below the static of atmosphere due to any
manmade (i.e. Industrial, Commercial industrial/or Domestic activity) or natural activity.

Depending upon the noise levels and duration of exposures, various impacts
on human beings can be enumerated. Short duration exposures to high noise levels may
cause discomfort, irritation and problems in speech communications, where as long
duration exposures to high noise levels may cause mental problems, permanent or
temporary disorders, efficiency loss, nervous disorders even up-to insanity and gastric
disorders. Sudden generation of very high noise levels may cause diversion of
concentration, which may lead to accidents resulting loss of money, machine and even life.

Air borne noise levels have been limited in different areas as per notification
dated 26t" December-1989 under schedule-III by Ministry of Environment & Forests
(MOEF) Govt. of India ( Table-1) .

DEFNITION OF NOISE POLLUTION

As per the definition in Encyclopedia Americana, Noise by definition is unwanted sound ,


what is pleasant to some ears it may be extremely unpleasant to other, depending on a
number of physiological factors the sweetest music , if it disturbs person who is
trying to concentrate or sleep is a noise to him. Just as the sound of pneumatic reverting
hammer is noise to nearly everyone.

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MEASUREMENT OF NOISE:

The two most important measurement of noise are , sound pressure and sound intensity,
these are measured in different units and the scale of the magnitude is different and very
large in relation to noise.

The unit of measurement of sound is decibel (dB). It is ratio expressed as logarithmic


scale relative to a reference sound pressure level .

Intensity measured ( I)

SOUND INTENSITY LEVEL= 10 log 10 ------------------------------------------------------

Reference intensity ( lo)

( I)

Decibe1=10 log 10 ----------------

Io

The reference intensity used is the threshold of hearing" which is a sound that
can be first heard at a sound pressure of 2X10 5 N/M2 of a sound Intensity of 10-12
W/M2.

It is quite important to note that doubling of sound pressures produces an increase


of 6 dB and doubling of sound intensity produces an increase of 3 decibels, which is
implicit in the logarithmic scale for sound measurement.

GENERAL SOURCES OF NOISE POLLUTION

The sources of noise pollution can be divided in two categories.

1. INDUSTRIAL

In industries noise is the byproduct of energy, use of big machines, cutting, grinding, packaging,
transportation of materials all are the sources of Noise pollution.

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2. NON-INDUSTRIAL SOURCES

Non-industrial sources can be mainly loudspeakers, automobiles, trains, aircrafts,


construction work, radio, cassettes and CD players etc.

EFFECTS OF NOISE POLLUTION:

Noise is one of the main pollutants of the environment causing various hazardous
consequences for human life. Noise not only impairs sensibility to auditory stimuli by
masking effects, it has other consequences too.

Studies have proved that a loud noise during peak hours creates tiredness, irritation
and impairs brain activities, so as to reduce thinking and working abilities.

Its general effects on human being is that it covers disturbances in sleep which lead to
other side effects. The effects of noise pollution can be categorized in to following

A- PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

This form of environmental degradation has implications for health as serious as air or
water pollution. Noise can change mans physiological state by speeding up pulse and
respiratory rates. It can impair hearing either permanently or temporarily Millions of
industrial workers are threatened with hearing damage.

Medical evidence suggests -that noise can cause heart attacks.

Noise can cause chronic effects as hypertension or ulcers

Noise can cause deafness

Some empirical research conducted on pregnant female mice reveals that air craft
taking off which bring 120 to 160 db caused miscarriages in them , if the findings on
mice are made applicable on human being.

B- PHYSICOLOGICAL EFFECTS:

The effect of this category includes, annoyance, tensions in muscles, nervous irritability and
strain.

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C- BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS:

It has been reported that performance of school going children is poor in comprehension, where
schools are in the busy/ traffic prone area. Noise can cause irritation, which results in
learning disabilities.

D- PERSONOLOGICAL EFFECTS:

If the injurious effects of noise tend to persist for longer duration they may cause
maladaptive reactions in the individuals, disturbing his total personality make-up.

Insomnia, fatigue, hypertension, blood pressure and deafness are the symptoms shown by
the people living in the noise polluted areas .

E- NOISE POLLUTION EFFECTS ON WILDLIFE:

It has been reported that noise pollution has serious adverse effects on wildlife too.

There is decline in migratory birds to a habitat if it becomes noisy.

Deers and lions affected from the traffic noise as observed in some Zoo.

Physiological and environmental consequences of noise could be serious to the


survival of wild life.

F- EFFECTS OF NOISE ON NON-LIVING THINGS:

The high intensity of noise such as vibrations emanating from heavy machinery cause
shattering of window glasses, loosing the plaster of house walls, cracks in walls , cracks in
household crockery and breaking down the hanging in the house .

CONTROL TECHNOLGIES AVAILABLE FOR NOISE POLLUTION:

There are various options available to control the noise pollution. The options of noise
pollution can be selected as per the particular needs.

1. T0 ISOLATE NOISE AT SOURCE:

The first and simple way to control the noise pollution is insulation. By insulation noise
can be reduced at source. Department for the maintains should have a routine

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checkup to observe the noise generated by every machine of the plant and restrict to
its original noise level by replacing bearings, tighting of all loose parts that can vibrate.

Machines should be placed on vibration isolators or mounts. Since these mounts are
relatively inexpensive square pads of felts, cork and rubber.

2. ISOLATION OF NOISE SOURCES:

Controlling the noise along its transmission path can do the isolation of every source
of noise. Wall partitions and doors possess good insulation properties only a small
portion of sound energy from source goes to the individual. Most sound waves are
reflected bouncing back and forth from wall and other obstacles in an enclosed space with each
impact the noise gets weaker.

Acoustic materials lined on walls and ceilings can reduce noise levels within
a room for a small area. This is not usually the best method for large rooms because
acoustic absorption is most effective when it is located near the source. It is therefore
most suitable to enclose the individual machines or so setup acoustic barriers close to
them.

3. PERSONAL ISOLATION FROM NOISE SOURCE:

It would mean wearing of noise protectors could protect to reduce noise levels. Personal
hearing protectors (earplugs and earmuffs) should be properly selected and carefully
fitted.

4. VOLUME REDUCTION:

In case of noise produced by a machine volume reduction can be achieved by the


reduction of its speed.

5. SUPPRESSION OF NOISE BY STATE PLASMA SHIELD:

The important property of solid-state plasma is that it retains its own properties and yet
retains its own properties and yet attains the plasma state (at room temperature) due
to the presence of free carriers inside the medium. The elastic properties of solid-state

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plasma medium determine the mode of propagation and speed of sound through it, the
suppression of noise is possible by using solid state plasma medium .

NOISE LEGISLATION:

A . International:

The international labor conference adopted on its 54 th (1970) session a resolution


calling interdia for the inclusion of occupational deafness in the list of occupational
disease appended to convention no-121. Guidelines suggested by occupational safety
and health administration (OSHA) for industrial noise exposure are shown in table-4.

Noise limits vary from country to country. The ILO code of practice on the
protection of workers against noise and vibration recommended that depending upon
the degree of protection required the following limits values should be determined

a. Warning limit value that sets the noise level under which there is very
little risk of hearing impairment is 85 db for an eight -hour exposure.

b. Danger limit value of 90db that sets the noise level above which hearing
impairment and a deafness may results from an eight hour exposure of an
unprotected ear.

B. National

Legislation On Noise In India

In India the government had included "" Noise hearing loss" as a notifiable disease
under the Factories Act. 1948, under section 89 of the Act. Any Medical practioner who
detects noise included hearing losses in worker has to report the case to the chief
inspector of the factories.

NOISE POLLUTION RULES 2000:

In India, ambient noise level has increased in public places from various
sources. The Ministry of Environment and forests considered if necessary to regulate
and control noise-producing sources with the objective of maintaining the ambient air

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quality standards. This notification called as '" the Noise Pollution (regulation and
control) rules 2000".

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UNIT-VIII

WATER POLLUTION

WATER POLLUTION:

Water pollution can be defined as presence of solid, liquid or gaseous contaminants in such
concentration that may alter the quality of water. Or

Water pollution is defined as the addition to water of an excess material or heat that is
harmful to the living organism or which impairs the beneficial use of water. Pollution
makes water physically impure or foul.

It changes the natural qualities of water, so that it becomes unsuitable for the uses to
which it is normally put to.

Pollutants may be present in water either as suspended particles or as dissolved compound


or both. The dissolved compound are more difficult to remove and these taint the water
resources more seriously than the suspended impurities.

UNIQUE CHARECTERSTICS OF WATER:

Water has a number of properties that are critical importance to life and the environment.
Water is the only naturally occurring inorganic liquid. It is also the only chemical on the
planet that natural occurs in all three states of matter-solid , liquid and gaseous.

WATER AND THE LIVING ENVIRONMENT:

The origin of water preceded the evolution of life. In fact, the reactions that makeup life,
such as synthesis of proteins and nucleotides, occurred in the aqueous medium. It is for this
reason that water forms a part of biological structures.

An adult human has a water content of 65-70%. A normal person consumes .two and a half
liters of water every day and losses equal amount

TYPE OF WATER POLLUTION:

Water pollution can be classified in to four broad categories

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1. Chemical
2. Physical
3. Biological
4. Physiological
CLASSIFICATION OF WATER POLUTANTS

CHEMICAL PHYSICAL PHYSIOLOGICAL BIOLOGICAL

Organic Color Taste Weeds


pollutants
Turbidity odor Algae
Inorganic
Suspended Viruses
pollutants
matter
Bacteria
thermal
Protozoa

Parasitic worms

1.CHEMICAL POLLUTANTS:

Chemical contaminates are subdivided into organic pollutants and inorganic pollutants.

a. ORGANIC POLLUTANTS:

Organic pollution is the most common form of water pollution.


It is caused by the naturally occurring pollutants like proteins, fats, carbohydrates etc. as
well as by synthetic compounds like dyes, pesticide and herbicides etc.

the synthetic organic derivatives cause more harm to the environment than the naturally
occurring ones.

The organic pollutants originate mainly from domestic sewage , urban runoff, industrial
effluents and farm wastes.

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b. INORGANIC POLLUTANTS:

These pollutants largely originate from industrial waste.


Inorganic acids and alkalis can do extensive damage to water body by breaking down its
natural buffer system and alerting its normal pH values. Changes in the pH have a
profound effect on aquatic organism , especially fish. Fresh water fish can usual survive in
the range of 5-8.5. Under more acidic and alkaline conditions, the fish populations tend to
fall.

Acids are also objectionable on account of their corrosive nature. If the pH of watercourse
falls below 5.0, the metal or concrete structures, pumps and other equipments installed in
water become corroded. Both Acids and alkalis destroy bacteria and so inhibit or prevent
the self purification of a stream.

2. PHYSICAL POLLUTNATS:

The impact on the natural qualities of water occurs not only when the chemical
constituents are introduced in the aquatic system but also when the physical parameters of
water quality are drastically altered. No doubt physical pollution is less damaging than
chemical pollution, yet it can not be altogether ignored. eg colour, turbidity, suspended
matter and temperature.

PHYSIOLOGICAL POLLUTANTS

Physiological pollution is always a secondary phenomenon , arising from the presence of


trace quantities of chemicals . eg-taste, odor

BIOLOGICAL POLLUTANTS:

Those aquatic organisms which either multiply excessively or are otherwise undesirable,
harmful or injurious are classified as biological pollutants. These pollutants generally arise
as a secondary result of pollution by sewage or trade wastes. eg-algae, bacteria, viruses and
protozoa.

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WALER POLLUTANTS AND THEIR EFFECTS:

Most of the rivers and fresh water streams in India are badly polluted by industrial wastes
or effluents. Contaminations of the industrial wastes which come in the water are most
dangerous. The sewage of big cities is often drained into the rivers. This sewage promotes
the growth of phytoplanktons. This excessive growth depletes the oxygen of the water. This
reduction of oxygen and the presence of the poisonous wastes affects the fish population.
Besides this rivers lakes and ponds are used directly by people for bathing and washing.
This contaminants the water with the germs of various diseases like cholera, dysentery and
hepatitis.

SEWAGE TREATMENT DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT,

Is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, both runoff and domestic. It
includes physical, chemical and biological processes to remove physical, chemical and
biological contaminants. Its objective is to produce a waste stream (or treated effluent) and
a solid waste or sludge also suitable for discharge or reuse back into the environment.
Sewage can be treated close to where it is created (in septic tanks or on site package plants
and other aerobic treatment systems), or collected and transported via a network of pipes
and pump stations to a municipal treatment plant.

Typically, sewage treatment involves three stages, called primary, secondary and
tertiary treatment. First, the solids are separated from the wastewater stream. Then
dissolved biological matter is progressively converted into a solid mass by using indigenous,
water-borne bacteria. Finally, the biological solids are neutralized then disposed of or re-
used, and the treated water may be disinfected chemically or physically (for example by
lagoons and micro-filtration). The final effluent can be discharged into a stream, river, bay,
lagoon or wetland, or it can be used for the irrigation of a golf course, green way or park.

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DESCRIPTION
Raw influent (sewage) is the liquid waste from toilets, baths, showers, kitchens, sinks etc.
Household waste that is disposed of via sewers. In many areas sewage also includes some
liquid waste from industry and commerce.

The site where the raw wastewater is processed before it is discharged back to the
environment is called a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The order and types
of mechanical, chemical and biological systems that comprise the wastewater
treatment plant are typically the same for most developed countries:
MECHANICAL TREATMENT;
Influx (Influent)

Removal of large objects

Removal of sand and grit

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Pre-precipitation

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT;
Oxidation bed (oxidizing bed) or aeration system

Post precipitation

Effluent

CHEMICAL TREATMENT

(This step is usually combined with settling and other processes to remove solids, such as
filtration. The combination is referred to in the U.S. as physical-chemical treatment.).

TREATMENT STAGES

PRIMARY TREATMENT

Primary treatment removes the materials that can be easily collected from the raw
wastewater and disposed of. The typical materials that are removed during primary
treatment include to fats, oils, and greases (also referred to as FOG), sand, gravels
and rocks (also referred to as grit), larger settle able solids including human waste,
and floating materials. This step is done entirely with machinery, hence the name
mechanical treatment.
INFLUX (INFLUENT) AND REMOVAL OF LARGE OBJECTS
In the mechanical treatment, the influx (influent) of sewage water is strained to
remove all large objects that are deposited in the sewer system, such as rags, sticks,
condoms, sanitary towels (sanitary napkins) or tampons, cans, fruit, etc. This is
most commonly done with a manual or automated mechanically raked screen. This
type of waste is removed because it can damage or clog the equipment in the sewage
treatment plant.

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SAND AND GRIT REMOVAL
Primary treatment typically includes a sand or grit channel or chamber where the
velocity of the incoming wastewater is carefully controlled to allow sand grit and
stones to settle, while keeping the majority of the suspended organic material in the
water column. This equipment is called a detritor or sand catcher. Sand grit and
stones need to be removed early in the process to avoid damage to pumps and other
equipment in the remaining treatment stages.

PRIMARY SEDIMENTATION TANK AT A RURAL TREATMENT PLANT

SEDIMENTATION
Many plants have a sedimentation stage where the sewage is allowed to pass slowly
through large tanks, commonly called "primary clarifiers" or "primary
sedimentation tanks". The tanks are large enough that faecal solids can settle and
floating material such as grease and oils can rise to the surface and be skimmed off.
The main purpose of the primary stage is to produce a generally homogeneous
liquid capable of being treated biologically and a sludge that can be separately
treated or processed. Primary settlement tanks are usually equipped with
mechanically driven scrapers that continually drive the collected sludge towards a
hopper in the base of the tank from where it can be pumped to further sludge
treatment stages.
SECONDARY TREATMENT

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is designed to substantially degrade the biological content of the sewage such as are derived
from human waste, food waste, soaps and detergent. The majority of municipal and
industrial plants treat the settled sewage liquor using aerobic biological processes. For this
to be effective, the biota requires both oxygen and a substrate on which to live. There are
number of ways in which this is done. In all these methods, the bacteria and protozoa
consume biodegradable soluble organic contaminants (e.g. sugars, fats, organic short-chain
carbon molecules, etc.) and bind much of the less soluble fractions into floc. Secondary
treatment systems are classified as fixed film or suspended growth.

ROUGHING FILTERS
are intended to treat particularly strong or variable organic loads, typically
industrial, to allow them to then be treated by conventional secondary treatment
processes. Characteristics include typically tall, circular filters filled with open
synthetic filter media to which wastewater is applied at a relatively high rate. They
are designed to allow high hydraulic loading and a high flow-through of air. On
larger installations, air is forced through the media using blowers. The resultant
wastewater is usually within the normal range for conventional treatment
processes.
ACTIVATED SLUDGE
Activated sludge plants use a variety of mechanisms and processes to use dissolved
oxygen to promote the growth of biological floc that substantially removes organic
material. It also traps particulate material and can, under ideal conditions, convert
ammonia to nitrite and nitrate ultimately to nitrogen gas.
TRICKLING FILTERS- These are beds of coarse media (often stones or plastic) 3-10 ft.
deep. Wastewater is sprayed into the air (aeration), and then allowed to trickle through the
media. Microorganisms attached to and growing on the media, break down organic material
in the wastewater. Trickling filters drain at the bottom; the wastewater is collected and
then undergoes sedimentation.

LAGOONS- These are slow, cheap, and relatively inefficient, but can be used for various
types of wastewater. They rely on the interaction of sunlight, algae, microorganisms, and
oxygen (sometimes aerated).

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FLUIDIZED BED REACTORS
The carbon adsorption following biological treatment was particularly effective in
reducing both the BOD and COD to low levels. A fluidized bed reactor is a
combination of the most common stirred tank packed bed, continuous flow reactors.
It is very important to chemical engineering because of its excellent heat and mass
transfer characteristics. In a fluidized bed reactor, the substrate is passed upward
through the immobilized enzyme bed at a high velocity to lift the particles. However
the velocity must not be so high that the enzymes are swept away from the reactor
entirely. This causes high mixing; these types of reactors are highly suitable for the
exothermic reactions. It is most often applied in immobilized enzyme catalysis.
In older plants and plants receiving more variable loads, trickling filter beds are used
where the settled sewage liquor is spread onto the surface of a deep bed made up of coke
(carbonized coal), limestone chips or specially fabricated plastic media. Such media must
have high surface areas to support the biofilms that form. The liquor is distributed through
perforated rotating arms radiating from a central pivot. The distributed liquor trickles
through this bed and is collected in drains at the base. These drains also provide a source of
air which percolates up through the bed, keeping it aerobic. Biological films of bacteria,
protozoa and fungi form on the medias surfaces and eat or otherwise reduce the organic
content.

BIOLOGICAL AERATED FILTERS


Biological Aerated (or Anoxic) Filter (BAF) combines filtration with biological
carbon reduction, nitrification or denitrification. BAF usually includes a reactor
filled with a filter media. The media is either in suspension or supported by a gravel
layer at the foot of the filter. The dual purpose of this media is to support highly
active biomass that is attached to it and to filter suspended solids. Carbon reduction
and ammonia conversion occurs in aerobic mode and sometime achieved in a single
reactor while nitrate conversion occurs in anoxic mode. BAF is operated either in
upflow or downflow configuration depending on design specified by manufacturer.

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MEMBRANE BIOLOGICAL REACTORS
Membrane biological reactors (MBR) combines activated sludge treatment with a
membrane liquid-solid separation process. The membrane component utilizes low
pressure microfiltration or ultra filtration membranes and eliminates the need for
clarification and tertiary filtration. The membranes are typically immersed in the
aeration tank (however, some applications utilize a separate membrane tank). One
of the key benefits of a membrane bioreactor system is that it effectively overcomes
the limitations associated with poor settling of sludge in conventional activated
sludge (CAS) processes. The technology permits bioreactor operation with
considerably higher mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration than CAS
systems, which are limited by sludge settling. The process is typically operated at
MLSS in the range of 8,00012,000 mg/L, while CAS is operated in the range of
2,0003,000 mg/L. The elevated biomass concentration in the membrane bioreactor
process allows for very effective removal of both soluble and particulate
biodegradable materials at higher loading rates. Thus increased Sludge Retention
Times (SRTs)usually exceeding 15 daysensure complete nitrification even
under extreme cold weather operating conditions.
ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTORS
Rotating biological contactors (RBCs) are mechanical secondary treatment systems,
which are robust and capable of withstanding surges in organic load. RBCs were
first installed in Germany in 1960 and have since been developed and refined into a
reliable operating unit. The rotating disks support the growth of bacteria and micro-
organisms present in the sewage, which breakdown and stabilize organic pollutants.
To be successful, micro-organisms need both oxygen to live and food to grow.
Oxygen is obtained from the atmosphere as the disks rotate. As the micro-
organisms grow, they build up on the media until they are sloughed off due to shear
forces provided by the rotating discs in the sewage. Effluent from the RBC is then
passed through final clarifiers where the micro-organisms in suspension settle as
sludge. The sludge is withdrawn from the clarifier for further treatment.

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TERTIARY TREATMENT

Tertiary treatment provides a final stage to raise the effluent quality before it is
discharged to the receiving environment (sea, river, lake, ground, etc.). More than
one tertiary treatment process may be used at any treatment plant. If disinfection is
practiced, it is always the final process. It is also called "effluent polishing".
FILTRATION
Sand filtration removes much of the residual suspended matter. Filtration over
activated carbon removes residual toxins.
LAGOONING
Lagooning provides settlement and further biological improvement through storage
in large man-made ponds or lagoons. These lagoons are highly aerobic and
colonization by native macrophytes, especially reeds, is often encouraged. Small
filter feeding invertebrates such as Daphnia and species of Rotifera greatly assist in
treatment by removing fine particulates.
CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS
Constructed wetlands include engineered reed beds and a range of similar
methodologies, all of which provide a high degree of aerobic biological improvement
and can often be used instead of secondary treatment for small communities, also
see phytoremediation.
WASTE REMOVAL
Wastewater may contain high levels of the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus.
Excessive release to the environment can lead to a build up of nutrients, called
eutrophication, which can in turn encourage the overgrowth of weeds, algae, and
cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). This may cause an algal bloom, a rapid growth in
the population of algae. The algae numbers are unsustainable and eventually most
of them die. The decomposition of the algae by bacteria uses up so much of oxygen
in the water that most or all of the animals die, which creates more organic matter
for the bacteria to decompose.

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NITROGEN REMOVAL
The removal of nitrogen is effected through the biological oxidation of nitrogen from
ammonia (nitrification) to nitrate, followed by denitrification, the reduction of
nitrate to nitrogen gas. Nitrogen gas is released to the atmosphere and thus
removed from the water. Nitrification itself is a two-step aerobic process, each step
facilitated by a different type of bacteria. The oxidation of ammonia (NH3) to nitrite
(NO2) is most often facilitated by Nitrosomonas spp. (nitroso=ammonium). Nitrite
oxidation to nitrate (NO3), though traditionally believed to be facilitated by
Nitrobacter spp. (nitro=nitrite), is now known to be facilitated in the environment
almost exclusively by Nitrospira spp.
Denitrification requires anoxic conditions to encourage the appropriate biological
communities to form. It is facilitated by a wide diversity of bacteria. Sand filters, lagooning
and reed beds can all be used to reduce nitrogen, but the activated sludge process (if
designed well) can do the job the most easily. Since denitrification is the reduction of nitrate
to dinitrogen gas, an electron donor is needed.

PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL
Phosphorus can be removed biologically in a process called enhanced biological
phosphorus removal. In this process, specific bacteria, called polyphosphate
accumulating organisms are selectively enriched and accumulate large quantities of
phosphorus within their cells (up to 20% of their mass). When the biomass enriched
in these bacteria is separated from the treated water, these biosolids have a high
fertilizer value. Phosphorus removal can also be achieved by chemical precipitation,
usually with salts of iron (e.g. ferric chloride) or aluminum (e.g. alum). The
resulting chemical sludge is difficult to handle and the added chemicals can be
expensive.

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SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL

The sludges accumulated in a wastewater treatment process must be treated and


disposed of in a safe and effective manner. The purpose of digestion is to reduce the
amount of organic matter and the number of disease-causing microorganisms
present in the solids. The most common treatment options include anaerobic
digestion, aerobic digestion, and composting. The choice of a wastewater solid
treatment method depends on the amount of solids generated and other site-specific
conditions. However, in general, composting is most often applied to smaller-scale
applications followed by aerobic digestion and then lastly anaerobic digestion for the
larger-scale municipal applications.
ANAEROBIC DIGESTION
Anaerobic digestion is a bacterial process that is carried out in the absence of
oxygen. The process can either be thermophilic digestion, in which sludge is
fermented in tanks at a temperature of 55C, or mesophilic, at a temperature of
around 36C. Though allowing shorter retention time (and thus smaller tanks),
thermophilic digestion is more expensive in terms of energy consumption for
heating the sludge. One major feature of anaerobic digestion is the production of
biogas, which can be used in generators for electricity production and/or in boilers
for heating purposes.
AEROBIC DIGESTION
Aerobic digestion is a bacterial process occurring in the presence of oxygen. Under aerobic
conditions, bacteria rapidly consume organic matter and convert it into carbon dioxide. The
operating costs are characteristically much greater than for anaerobic digestion because of
the energy costs needed to add oxygen to the process.

SLUDGE DISPOSAL

When a liquid sludge is produced, further treatment may be required to make it


suitable for final disposal. Typically, sludges are thickened (dewatered) to reduce
the volumes transported off-site for disposal. There is no process which completely

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eliminates the need to dispose of bio-solids. There is, however, an additional step
some cities are taking to superheat the wastewater sludge and convert it into small
palletized granules that are high in nitrogen and other organic materials. This
product is then sold to local farmers and turf farms as a soil amendment or
fertilizer, reducing the amount of space required to dispose of sludge in landfills.

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UNIT-IX

AIR POLLUTION

INTRODUCTION

Today millions of people are without the basic human needs of food clothes, health,
education and employment. This is not due to overpopulation alone but also due to
environmental consequences. The loss of forests, fertility of soil, productivity and energy
crises have created many problems.

The pollution created many problems. The pollution created by industry, technology and
over consumption by the affluent society lead to rapid depletion of basic natural resources.
Many human problems are s\also due to mismanagement of environment which is created
by man himself.

Environmental implications due to pollution are in various aspects. These produce serious
problems for human being to maintain its existence, protection, survival and for the
improvement of general standard. The basic needs for human being has disturbed natural
resources and finally led to a situation which has threatened to be disaster.

In the recent years everyone has started thinking over the problem of over population and
its consequences, which is primarily concerned with the environmental pollution and every
efforts should be made to focus public attention to save mankind and steps should be taken
at national and international levels so the consequences may not become worse.

POLLUTION:

Pollution is defined as the addition of materials to water, air or land which adversely affect
the natural quality of the environment. or

A pollutant is a substance which may alter environmental constituents or cause pollution.


Or

A pollutant can also be defined as the constituents in the wrong amount at the wrong place
or at the wrong time. For eg. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are extensively used in

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agriculture to increase crop yields but sometimes they cause pollution in lakes and rivers by
promoting algal growth.

The ecological state of biosphere is becoming more and more disbalanced day by day
due to technical and industrial advancements as well as population explosion . Vast
changes are taking place in the environment due to interaction between human society and
environment itself.

Man is exploiting the natural resources for its own interests and many such instances are
there as clearly indicate that man has disturbed the natural balance for the sake of small
benefits and has changed the environment of many places to such an extent that they are
not fit for inhabitation by living beings.

The environmental science is concerned with the study of all the systems of air, land water,
energy and the life that surround us.

As regards the nature of pollutants the problem of pollution can be divided into the
following categories.

1. Pollution caused by the gaseous wastes AIR POLLUTANTS


2. Pollution caused by the liquid wastes WATER POLLUTANTS
3. Pollution caused by the solid wastes SOLID WASTES POLLUTANTS
4. Pollution caused by the wastes without weight-NOISE POLLUTANTS
5. Pollution caused by the gaseous wastes
AIR POLLUTANTS:

Air pollution can be defined as the presence of solid, liquid or gaseous contaminates
in sufficient concentration and for sufficient time so as to be, or threaten to be injurious
to human being, plants, animal life or property.

Air pollutants arise from both man made and natural processes.

CLASSIFICATION
Air pollutants can be further categorized as the

Primary air pollutants


Secondary air pollutants

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Air pollution can be classified in to two major categories of primary and
secondary pollutants. In some reporting, the air pollutants are said to be made up
of three major classes viz., inorganic gases, organic gases and particulates. (Table
1).
Table 1
CLASSIFICATION OF AIR POLLUTANTS

S.No. Major Class Sub class Constitutes of class


1 Inorganic gases Oxides of Nitric oxide,
Nitrogen Nitrogen dioxide
Oxides of Sulfur Sulfur Dioxide,
Sulfur trioxide
Oxides of Carbon monoxide,
carbon Carbon dioxide
2 Organic acids Hydrocarbons C1-C5
Aldehydes and Formaldehyde,
ketones Acetone
Other organic Organic acids,
Alcohols
3 Particulates Solids Fume, Dust,
Smoke, Ash,
Carbon, Lead
Liquid Mist, spray, oil,
grease, acids
a. PRIMARY AIR POLLUTANTS

These are the pollutants that results from combustion of fuels and industrial operations.

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b. SECONDARY AIR POLLUTANTS

These are the pollutants which are produced due to the reactions of primary pollutants in
the atmosphere.

COMBUSTION SOURCES:

These are fossil fuels, coal, natural gas, petrol, diesel and furnace oil are burnt to get
energy. This includes power plants, industrial boilers, domestic heating and automobile.

THERMAL POWER PLANTS:

Thermal power plants are major sources of SPM, SO2 and NOx. Depending upon the type
of Fuel used. Emission of one or more of these pollutants may be of environmental
significance.

A large amount of SPM as fly ash is emitted from coal fired power plants,
particularly if the ash removal unit such as an electrostatic or precipitation (ESP ) is not
used.

AUTOMOBILES:

In urban areas automobiles form a significant source of a number of air pollutants namely
particulates, hydrocarbon and lead. These pollutants are produced when fuel is burnt under
less than ideal conditions. Non- uniform oxygen supply within the combustion chamber
and lower flame temperature leads to incomplete combustion releasing CO, HC and
unburnt particles in the exhaust.

INDUSTRIAL SOURCES:

The generation of air pollutants is different for the different industries.

CEMENT INDUSTRY:

The process for cement manufacturing consists of mining, crushing , grinding and calcining
in along cylindrically shaped oven or kiln. Air pollutants can originate at several
operations.

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SOURCE EMISSION

Raw material crushing, grinding----PARTICULATES

Kiln operation and cooling-----------PARTICULATES, CO,SO2,NOx,HC

Product grinding and packaging----PARTICULATES

COMMON AIR POLLUTANTS AND THEIR EFFECTS:

1. SUSPENDED PARTICULATE MATTER:

Atmospheric particulate matter is defined to be any dispersed matter, solid or liquid


smaller than 500um. Under various conditions of their generation, they are also called by
other names such as dust, fume , smoke and mist. The common diseases caused by the
these particulates are : bronchitis, bronchopneumonia and asthma.

SULPHUR DIOXIDE:

Sulphur dioxide when released in the atmosphere can also convert to SO3, which leads to
production of sulphuric acid. When SO3 is inhaled it is likely to be absorbed in moist
passages of respiratory tract. When it is entrained in an aerosol, however it may reach to
deeper into lungs.

NITROGEN OXIDE

Almost all NOx emissions are in the form of NO, which has no, known adverse health
effects in the concentrations found in the atmosphere, which in turn may give rise to
secondary pollutants, which are injurious. NO2 may also lead to formation of HNO3, which
is washed out of the atmosphere as acid rain.

CARBON MONOXIDE:

Most of the CO emissions are from transportation sector. Peek concentrations occur at
street level in busy urban centers particularly when there is no atmospheric mixing as it
happens during winter season. Carbon monoxide interferes with bloods ability to carry
oxygen. It also causes headache and dizziness.

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LEAD:

Lead released from motor vehicle exhaust may affect human populations by direct
inhalations , in which case people living nearest to highways are at greatest risk. Lead can
be ingested also after it is deposited on the foodstuffs. it may also cause behavioral changes,
learning disabilities and permanent brain damage.

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UNIT-X

SOLID WASTE POLLUTION:

Human activities produce large quantities of wastes .solid wastes can be broadly
categorized in to two main categories:

1. Biodegradable
2. Non-biodegradable
1. BIODEGRADABLE WASTES:

These pollutants are natural organic compounds which are degraded by biological and
microbial action, eg. sewage.

2. NON- BIODEGRADABLE WASTES:

These pollutants are not acted by microbes but are oxidized and dissociated automatically
eg. Glass, plastics.

These wastes can also be classified in to two broad terms

A. HOUSEHOLD SOLID WASTES

B. COMMERCIAL WASTES

A. HOUSEHOLD SOLID WASTES:

Generally solid wastes from the house hold is collected locally and the amount depends
upon the size and consumption habits of the populations. it is disposed on either public
property or private contractors site.

B. COMMERCIAL WASTES:

Commercial wastes are generated by commercial establishments but are usually disposed
off by public facilities. Industrial wastes are those wastes that are generated by
manufacturing firms.

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CLASSIFICATION OF REFUSE MATERIALS:

a. GARBAGE:
These are the wastes that are generated from the kitchen , slaughter houses,
canning and freezing industries.

b. RUBBISH:
Rubbish includes two types of wastes i.e. combustible and Non-combustible
wastes.

Combustible wastes are mainly leaves, grasses and plants .

Non-combustibles wastes such as bottles, crockery and plastic materials.

c. ASHES:
Residue from fires used for cooking and for heating buildings, cinders.

d. BULKY WASTES:
Large auto parts , tyres, stoves, refrigerators.

e. DEAD ANIMALS:
Like dead bodies of cats, dogs, poultry , horses, cows etc.

f. SLUDGE:
Settled solid components of sewage wastes.

g. INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTES:


Chemicals , paints and sand etc.

h. MINING WASTES:
These contains wastes from coal mine.

i. AGRICULTURAL WASTES:
Such as farm animal wastes, manure crop residue, pesticides , insecticides and
so on.

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DEFINTION OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

Solid Waste Management comprises of purposeful and systematic control of


the generation, storage, collection, transportation, separation, processing, recycling,
recovery and disposal of solid waste.

ELEMENTS OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

WASTE GENERATION

Waste generation involves reduction in volume of the waste and


reuse, i.e. an article should be disposed of only when it of no use.
STORAGE

Storage involves the activity associated with management of wastes


until they are placed in storage containers for collection.
Different components should be stored in different containers, so
that the process of solid waste management becomes effective and
easy.

FIGURE 1:

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COLLECTION

Collection involves the use of large containers which can be


emptied mechanically with a container pickup mechanism or
manually.
It is normally accomplished by a fleet of trucks and crew that
operates together as collection system.
Based on mode of operation, collection systems are classified as:
Hauled Container system.
Stationary container system.
Door to door collection system.
Collection of waste from storage bins.

HAULED CONTAINER SYSTEM/ FIGURE 2:

STATIONARY CONTAINER SYSTEM/ FIGURE3:

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TRANSFER AND TRANSPORTATION

The transportation of MSW in open trucks should be prohibited.


In commercial areas collection should be done daily and at night
times.
In residential areas collection is done once or twice a weak and it
should be collected during day time.

The Methods of Transportation:

Direct Method.
Source of Generation Disposal site.
Indirect Method.

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Source of Generation Transfer station Disposal site.

SALVAGING, PROCESSING AND RECOVERY

Components of waste which are having economical value can be


salvaged for recycling.
Eg: metallic cans, paper, plastics etc.
Separation of bulk items, ferrous metals.
Manual separation of waste components.
Volume and Size reduction by shredding, compaction and
combustion.
Transformation processes are used to recover products and energy.

DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE

Open Dumping
Dumping into Sea

Disposal of Solid Waste Hog Feeding


Incineration
Composting
Vermi Composting
Sanitary Land Fills
OPEN DUMPING
Discharge into Sewers
Salvaging

Components suitable are street sweeping, ashes and non


combustible.
Serious nuisance result if garbage is disposed in this manner.
This method is not the best method for disposal hence it should not
be selected.
FIGURE 4:

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DUMPING INTO SEA

This method is possible in coastal areas.


Waste should be taken 2 3km away from the shore and dumped
there.
Tides are to be considered to avoid the waste from coming back.
It is costly method and is not adopted in INDIA.
HOG FEEDING

It is estimated 25% of total quantity of garbage is used for hog


feeding.
Garbage from restaurants and hotels are used for hog feeding.
Every day each hog consumer 10 kg of waste and gains a weight by
0.5 Kg.

FIGURE 5:

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COMPOSTING

Composting is biological process brought by microorganisms,


which convert organic matter into bio-fertilizers and soil additives.
The End Product is called Compost.

FIGURE 6:

VERMI - COMPOSTING

Composting aided by earthworms is called Vermin composting.


The end products formed is known as Vermin Castings.

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The worms used for Vermin Composting are Red Worms called
as Red Winglers.
SANITARY LANDFILLS

In sanitary land fill there is a sanitary control over the process.


Factors to be considered for selection of sight.
Land requirements.
Land use restrictions.
Haul distance.
Hydrological investigation.
The lands which can be used are:
Mineral Excavated land.
Low Lying areas.
Valleys.
Areas involving reclamation of land from water.
METHODS OF SANITARY LANDFILL

Trench Method (6 to 10ft deep and 10 to 40 ft width).


Area Ramp Method (moderately sloppy terrains).
Area Fill Method (low lying areas).
PROCESS

In either of the methods slope of 300 is to be maintained.


Dumped waste is compacted and 6 inches of soil is covered and
after each days work 2ft thick compacted soil is laid on the site.

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HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT

HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT

The term Hazardous Waste means any waste or combination of wastes which pose a
substantial present or potential hazard to human health or living organisms because such
wastes are lethal, non degradable, persistent in nature, biologically magnified, or other
wise cause or tend to cause detrimental cumulative effects. General categories of hazardous
waste are toxic chemical, flammable, radio active or, explosive or and biological. These
wastes can take the form of solid, sludge, liquids or gases.

DEFINITION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE

The U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has defined a waste to be hazardous
under the legislation if it meets one or more of the following conditions:

a) Exhibits characteristics of ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, and / or toxicity.

b) Is a non specific source waste (generic waste from industrial process).

c) Is a specific commercial chemical product or intermediate.

d) Is a mixture containing a listed hazardous waste.

CHARACTERISTICS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE

A waste is said to be hazardous if it exhibits the characteristics of ignitability, corrosivity,


reactivity, and / or toxicity.

CHARACTERISTICS OF IGNITABILITY

Ignitability is the characteristics used to define as hazardous waste that could cause a fire
during transport, storage, or disposal. Eg: Wastes include oils and used solvents.

A waste exhibits the characteristics of ignitability if a representative sample of the waste


has any of the following properties:

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a) It is a liquid, other than an aqueous solution containing less than 24% alcohol by volume,
and has flash point less than 600C (1400F), as determined by a Pensky - Martens Close
Cup Tester or by a Seta Flash

Cup Tester.

b) It is not a liquid and is capable, under standard temperature and pressure, of causing
fire through friction, absorption of moisture, or spontaneous chemical changes and, when
ignited, burns so vigorously and persistently that it creates a hazard.

c) It is an ignitable compressed gas and oxidizer.

CHARACTERISTICS OF CORROSIVITY

Corrosivity, as indicated by pH, was chosen as an identifying characteristic of a hazardous


waste because wastes with high or low pH can react with other wastes or cause toxic
contaminants to migrate from certain wastes. Examples of corrosive wastes include acidic
wastes and used pickle liquor from steel manufacture.

A waste exhibits the characteristics of corrosivity if a representative sample of the waste


has either of the following properties:

a) It is aqueous and has pH less than or equal to 2 or greater than or equal to 12.5, as
determined by a pH meter using an EPA test method.

b) It is a liquid and corrodes steel at a rate greater than 6.35mm

(0.25 inch) per year at a test temperature of 550C (1300F), as determined by the test
method specified in NACE (National Association of Corrosion Engineers).

CHARACTERISTICS OF REACTIVITY

Reactivity was chosen as an identifying characteristic of a hazardous waste because


unstable wastes can pose an explosive problem at any stage of the waste management cycle.
Examples of reactive waste include water from TNT operations and used cyanide solvents.

A waste exhibits the characteristic of reactivity if a representative sample of the waste has
any of the following properties:

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a) It is normally unstable and readily under goes violent change without detonating.

b) It reacts violently with water.

c) It forms potentially explosive mixtures with water.

d) When mixed with water, it generates toxic gases vapors, or fumes in a quantity
sufficient to present a danger to human health or the environment.

e) It is a cyanide - or sulfide - bearing waste which, when exposed to Ph concentrations


between 2 and 12.5, can generate toxic gases, vapors, or fumes in a quantity sufficient to
present a danger to human health or the environment.

f) It is capable of detonation or explosive reaction if subjected to a strong initiating source or


if heated under confinement.

g) It is readily capable of detonation or explosive decomposition or reaction at standard


temperature and pressure.

CHARACTERISTICS OF EP TOXICITY

The term EP Toxicity often refers to a characteristic of a waste; it also refers to a test. The
test, called an extraction procedure (EP), is designed to identify wastes likely to leach
hazardous concentrations.

During the procedure, constituents are extracted from the waste to simulate the leaching
actions that occur in landfills. The extract is then analyzed to determine if it possesses
certain toxic contaminants. If the concentrations of the toxic constituent exceed the
regulatory levels, the waste is classified as hazardous.

A waste exhibits the characteristic of EP toxicity if the extract from representative sample
of the waste contains any of the contaminants whose

concentration is equal to or greater than the respective values given below in the table.
Where the waste contains less than 0.5% filterable solids, the waste it - self, after filtering,
is considered to be the extract.

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TABLE:

EP TOXICITY CHARACTERISTICS, MAXIMUM CONCENTRATION OF


CONTAMINANTS.

MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE

The primary objective of a hazardous waste management plan is to eliminate or reduce the
hazardous waste through processing changes or resource recovery. Having accomplished
this objective the remaining hazardous wastes must be accounted for from its origin to
ultimate disposal. This cradle to grave concept is followed by countries like USA and
Canada.

The important components of hazardous waste management plant are as follows.

INVENTORY

All the industries producing more than 100kg of hazardous wastes per month should be
registered. An inventory of such waste generating agencies and the quantity of the waste
produced per month should be prepared.

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STORAGE

The hazardous waste generating industries should equip themselves with special on - site
tanks or basins for storage of large quantities of hazardous wastes. Chemically resistant
drums should be used for temporarily storing small quantities of corrosive materials.

TRANSPORT

The wastes stored must be collected at regular intervals by licensed haulers and
transported by suitable tankers trucks or flat - bed trucks or rail cars to the approved
disposal site.

SPILLAGE

A well - publicized emergency plan should be prepared to deal with unexpected spillage or
accidental release of contaminants during transport to prevent environmental damage or
public health hazard.

DISPOSAL

The wastes collected as above should be transported to a physical and chemical treatment
plant for processing or concentration; or directly hauled to an approved hazardous
treatment facility for final disposal.

WASTE - EXCHANGE

Where on - site recycling or recovery of waste is not feasible, the possibility of waste
exchange should be explored. Transferring wastes from big industries to smaller ones which
are able to reuse low - purity oils, acids, alkalis, solvents, catalysts, etc. or recovery valuable
metals and other materials fromconcentrated wastes, can also be considered.

HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL METHODS

When an industrial establishment is not able to dispose of its hazardous waste in an on -


site facility or into municipal sewers, the following three alternatives for off - site disposal
are considered.

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HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY

In a hazardous waste treatment facility, organic wastes are either incinerated or treated to
produce an acceptable liquid effluent and a concentrated sludge that can be land filled.
Inorganic wastes are detoxified, neutralized and concentrated to produce an acceptable
liquid effluent and sludge which can be further concentrated and solidified by chemical
fixation for land fill disposal.

CO - DISPOSAL

The hazardous waste may sometimes be co - disposed with municipal refuse.

In such a case, the relative small quantities of hazardous inorganic liquid wastes and some
organics will be absorbed by large quantities of refuse so that the contaminants are
attenuated by the waste and the surrounding soil.

SECURE LANDFILL

Secure landfills are meant to accept and retain concentrated inorganic and organic
hazardous wastes for indefinite period, perhaps, in perpetuity. If necessary, leachate can be
periodically removed for treatment and disposal.

The secure landfill is the ultimate repository for all hazardous waste residues

and it should be considered as the last resort when all other efforts to eliminate the waste
problem fail. In designing a secured land fill, protection of ground water from pollution is
the main concern, apart from subsidence, fire, explosion, erosion and migration of organics
should be considered.

Figure: Some special features of a secured landfill.

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A secure landfill must be located in a land of marginal agricultural potential in rural area,
at-least 8 km from populated area and 750 m from the nearest

neighbor. It should have 1 to 5% surface slopes overlying deep impermeable clay and the
maximum ground water table should be at- least 1.5 m below the bottom of the landfill.
Other hydrological parameters, surface drainage, wild life, flooding potential, access to
vehicles to the area and connection to major water resources and community waster supply
are the other important considerations in selecting the land for security landfill. Although
many designs are possible for a secured landfill, a typical one used in Niagara Falls, New
York is described here to illustrate an example. An area of about 10 hectares and located in
heavy clay, partly above and partly below the original ground, to provide an over all depth
of over 10 meters. Three lifts were allowed for several cells, with each lift and cell being
separated by a clay or absorbent barrier. The clay bottom is excavated and sloped to install
an under drain monitoring system below the land fill for future surveillance. A synthetic
membrane liner sandwiched between protecting clay layer was then placed over the sloped
bottom. Sump pipes of about 900 mm diameter were installed vertically as the filling
processed for leachate monitoring, If there is possibility of burial of organic wastes,
provision of gas venting is also made. Finally when the filling was completed, sloping clay
with a synthetic membrane was placed and finished with top soil and grass cover.

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HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT

A secure landfill should not be considered as the sole means to hazardous waste disposal. It
should be a part of an over all system which minimizes the volume and hazard of the waste
by physical and chemical treatment (PCT),

INCINERATION AND SOLIDIFICATION.

Since the leachate characteristics are mostly site -specific and waste specific and vary
considerably, the type of the leachate treatment, disposal, recycling or interim storage have
to be discarded accordingly.

BIO - MEDICAL WASTE

Any waste generated during diagnosis, treatment, immunization and any research work
pertaining their to is defined as biomedical waste. In this biomedical waste 85% of waste is
non - hazardous, 10% is infectious, 5% is non - infectious but hazardous. The best method of
disposal of biomedical waste is by incineration.

FEATURES OF BIO - MEDICAL WASTE

The main features of the biomedical waste (Management and Handling) Rules,

1998 are as follows.

a) State government will nominate any one or all the following agencies

as the authority to enforce the rules.

a. Directorate of Health Services.

b. Directorate of Animal Husbandry / Veterinary Science.

c. State Pollution Control Board.

b) All clinical waste generators or processors will obtain authorization for disposal from the
prescribed authority.

c) An advisory committee shall be constituted by the government or every State / Union


Territory about matters related to implementation of the rules.

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d) Every occupier / operator shall submit an annual report to the prescribed authority by 31
January every year.

e) Bio - medical wastes shall not be mixed with other wastes and all bio - medical wastes
shall be segregated, securely contained, labeled and transported.

f) Proper treatment and controlled disposal of bio - medical wastes, using prescribed
technique shall be used.

g) No untreated bio - medical waste shall be kept stored beyond a period of 48 hours.

h) Every authorized person of the occupier / operator shall maintain records related to these
rules and guidelines.

i) When any accident occurs where bio - medical waste is handled or during transportation,
the authorized person shall report to the prescribed Authority immediately.

j) All clinical wastes shall be classified in to ten categories

(i)Human Anatomical waste,

(ii) Animal waste,

(iii) Microbiology and biotechnology waste,

(iv) Waste sharps,

(v) Discarded medicines and cytotoxic drugs,

(vi) Solid waste related with blood and body fluids,

(vii) Solid wastes related to disposable items, (viii) Liquid waste,

(ix) Incineration ash and (x) Chemical waste.

TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL METHODS

The methods of treatment and disposal of these ten categories of biomedical wastes are
given in Table.

Table: Treatment and disposal methods of different categories of biomedical

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wastes.

CATEGORY WASTE CATEGORY TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL

1. Human anatomical waste like body parts, tissues and organs. Incineration / deep burial.

2. Animal waste like body parts, tissues and biotechnological wastes.

Incineration / deep burial.

3. Microbiology and biotechnology waste. Local autoclaving / micro waving / incineration.

4. Waste sharps needles, syringes, blades etc. Disinfection (chemical treatment /


autoclaving / micro waving and mutilation / shredding).

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5. Discarded medicines and cytotoxic drugs. Incineration/ destruction anddrugs disposal in
secured landfills.

6. Solid waste related to blood and body fluids like bandages and linen etc. Incineration /
autoclaving / micro waving.

7. Solid waste other than sharps, plastic, papers, covers etc. Disinfection by
chemicaltreatment / autoclaving / microwaving and mutilation / shredding.

8. Liquid waste. Disinfection by chemical treatment and discharge into drains.

9. Incineration ash. Disposal in municipal landfill.

10. Chemical waste. Chemical treatment and discharge into drains for liquid and secured
landfill for solids.

SEGRE GATION OF BIO - MEDICAL WASTE

Different category of waste should be stored in different colored bags.

a) Yellow plastic bags : Category 1, 2.

b) Red plastic bags : Category 3, 6, 7.

c) White, blue puncture proof plastic bags : Category 4, 7.

d) Black plastic bags : Category 5, 9, 10.

NOTE: For category nos refer above table.

DISINFECTION METHODS

Disinfection means killing of pathogens. There are four different methods of disinfection.

THERMAL

Autoclave is one technology that is used for disinfection. It relies on circulation of stem
through infectious waste at certain temperature and pressure (1350C and 31psi pressure
[pound per square inch] and residential time is 30 min).

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IRRADIATION

U.V irradiation is used for disinfection of air in hospitals and exposed surfaces and infrared
radiation is used for disinfection of metals and glasses.

MICROWAVE

Air of high frequency which are used for the disinfection of liquids, they create vibration
with evolution of heat and this heat is sufficient for killing the microbes.

CHEMICAL DISINFECTION

Ethylene dioxide, bleaching powder, 1% chlorine solution is used as a disinfectant.

STANDARD DISINFECTANTS FOR CLEANING WORK IN HOSPITALS

House hold bleach is used in a stock solution of 1:10 (1 part of bleach to 10parts of water).
This solution must be made daily however it must be noted that a bleach solution is
corrosive and will corrode the stainless steel if not thoroughly rinsed with water. 70%
ethanol has been commonly been in use in the laboratory for disinfecting surfaces. Although
it is effective as a general disinfectant is extremely flammable and has been responsible
innumerable lab fires.

An alternate disinfectant on phenol containing disinfectant i.e. lyzole it is quite toxic in


concentrated forms.

NUCLEAR WASTE

Recently man made sources have begun to add large doses of radiation to the existing
natural radioactive pollution to which our bodies have got accustomed with several ill
effects. The major days sources include.

a) Medical X - rays.

b) Radio - isotopes.

Hazardous Waste Management 150

c) Nuclear tests.

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d) Radio active fallout.

e) Nuclear reactors.

f) Nuclear power plants.

g) Nuclear installations.

h) Radioactive or processing.

i) Industrial, medical and research use of radioactive material.

j) Radiation pollution from electric fields.

k) Miscellaneous sources.

DISPOSAL OF NUCLEAR WASTE

The disposal of nuclear wastes mainly depends on the toxicity of radio - nuclides and rate of
disintegration.

DEPENDING ON THE TOXICITY OF RADIO - NUCLIDES

Depending on the toxicity of radio nuclides there are three different methodsof disposal.

DILUTE AND DISPERSE METHOD

This method came to be accepted in the beginning because it offered a simple solution to
conform the effluent activity to regulatory standards. This categorization includes
radioactive wash from radio - active therapeutic X - ray treatment. Hospitals which posses
extremely low radio - activity. This type of radio - active waste is so much diluted that the
concentration of the given radio isotope / lit of water becomes insignificant and can be
safely disposed in water stream without any detrimental effect on eugenetic plant and
animals. The radio - active effluent may be discharged into the sewage system or sea water
like other industrial effluents. It can be stored in vessels underground to reduce the radio -
activity. But, accumulation of radio - nuclide in food chain has concluded that this
technique is not adequate.

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DELAY AND DECAY METHOD

This method is generally employed for medium activity wastes where slow movement
through soil allows time for radio waste to decay. But the process badly deteriorates the soil
system by radioactive contamination.

CONCENTRATION AND CONTAIN METHOD

This method is used for radioactive wastes that are too dangerous to bereleased any where
in the biosphere. Latest technology involves locking radio-waves in the crystalline structure
of special type of rock which is synthesized by a group Australian scientist. This specially
designed rock is some what insoluble in waters and is capable of impressing the waste for
million of years.

This rock should be enclosed in container made of Nickel - iron alloy and inserted into holes
drilled into solid granite to a depth of about 5km. But this method is not applicable for long
lived high level radio - wastes.

DEPENDING ON RATE OF DISINTEGRATION

There are different methods to dispose level wastes such as low level waste,

intermediate level waste, and high level waste.

DISPOSAL OF LOW LEVEL WASTE

Low level radio - active waste ranges from 0 - 1 micro curie / lt. Curie is defined as quantity
of radioactive isotope which decay at the rate of 3.7 1010 disintegrations / sec. Low level
radioactive waste containing very short living and weak b - radioactivity can be extremely
diluted and discharged in water bodies like other domestic chemical and industrial waste.
Before disposal the radio - active waste should be fixed in bitumen and stored for sufficient
time to reduce radio - active. These wastes were so formed being stored in liquid form in
storage tanks deep underground to protect the environment from radiation hazard. Then
the waste may be disposed into sewage system or river or sea without harming any aquatic
organism. Generally, radioactive waste that comes from hospital for diagnostic purposes
belongs to this category.

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However permissible discharge depends on dilution and dispersion capability

of receiving medium.

METHOD TO DISPOSE INTERMEDIATE LEVEL WASTE

Intermediate level radioactive wastes range from 1u Ci to 100 Ci / l. The intermediate


waste originate as sludge from decontamination process, in fuel reprocessing, wastes from
research laboratories and nuclear reactor processes have radioactive a little more energetic
and nuclear reactor processes have radioactivity a little more energetic and long lasting.
Such wastes are safely contained in concrete lined tanks till their radioactivity dies to a
minimum.

The intermediate level radio waste is packed in study concrete boxes covered by steel
casing. i.e not easily corroded by chemicals. The waste can also be sealed in concrete filled
steel drums and then discharged into a depth of 1000 fathons (a measure of 6 feet).

METHOD TO DISPOSE HIGH LEVEL WASTE

High level radioactive waste more than 100 Ci / lit cannot be discharged directly.
E.g.Radioactive fuel used in nuclear power reactors and nuclear bombs. The disposal has to
be made with many cautions. Since the wastes remain radioactive even after ten
generations.

To dispose high level radio active wastes the other recent methods of disposal are chemical
method, reprocessing, Immobilization technique, and vitrification.

CHEMICAL METHOD

The radio nuclides from high level wastes are segregated by coagulation, precipitation or by
ion - exchange method. Solid form is then stored or buried under ground. After
decontamination, the waste water which is highly diluted may be grounded. After
decontamination, the waste water which is highly diluted may be discharged into the sea.

REPROCESSING METHOD

High level waste should be separated out from reusable uranium and plutonium. The non -
usable liquid waste are then solidified by passing the through an evaporator which avoids

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any possibilities of radiation leakage to near by soil or underground water. This method is
not so effective as numerous radioisotopes mix in the atmosphere during evaporation there
by severely polluting the environment and living organisms.

IMMOBILIZATION TECHNIQUE

The waste contaminated by radio - nuclides can be collected and immobilized in the
following ways.

a) By heating - The waste is heated with Sulphur and the pitch solidified or mixed with
cement and water which is then allowed to settle, used for intermediate radio activity.

b) In tank solidification - The liquid waste is evaporated to a solid cake and left in
underground container. The main drawback is the nitre cake is freely soluble in water and
may be washed away when it comes in contact with underground water.

c) Using zeolites - The method is extremely selective and sensitive to salt

content and pH of the solution. It requires final sintering and vitrification for permanent
fixation of radioactive substances.

d) Calcinations - The waste is dried and calcined either alone or with additives. It involves
the heating up of the waste materials with or without additives to a temperature where
little or no melting occur and ingredients react with each other to form an inert material.

VITRIFICATION

In all developed countries including India. The radioactive waste is stored in underground
stainless steel tanks with strict measure over radiation leakage, off gas release,
temperature increases because of long half life period off toxic fission products, these
wastes have to be stored safely in the tank for period extending from 1600 to 2000 years.
But the main worry is that the tank life may not exceed a few decades.

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UNIT-XI

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT

INTRODUCTION:

Developing countries are faced with the problem of ever growing population which has
made it compulsory to have developmental activities such as generation of power railways,
highways and industries in various sectors etc. For maintaining the standard of living,
economic progress is the goal of all developing countries with the objective of improvement
in quality of life of the people. This developmental effort has translated in to rampart
exploitation of the available resources and industrialization at the maximum possible pace
by the use of technology. A side effects of such effort has been the adverse impacts on the
natural environment. Industrialization and technological development and consequent
detoriation of natural resources and introduction of new foreign materials in the
environment, which are progressively lowering the quality of life .It is in this context that
the environmental issues have received growing attention in recent years. Primarily of
frequent detrimental side effects that developmental activities have on both environment
and public health. Planners and policy makers have become increasingly cognizant that
environmental safeguards should be part and parcel of the developmental process, if the
development has to be in the long run. This has employed a valuable concept of EIA

( Environmental Impact Assessment ) which incorporates environmental considerations in


to planning of developmental activities so as to prevent/ minimize the adverse impacts on
the natural resources.

The objective of the Environmental Impact Assessment is to help in achieving


sustainable development with minimum environmental degradation along with prevention
of long term environmental effects by incorporating suitable mitigative measures.
Environmental Impact Assessment process therefore , involves evaluation of
Environmental implications and incorporation of necessary safeguards for these activities
having bearing environmental quality. Evaluation of beneficial and adverse effects of

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developmental project on the Eco-system is attempted, both qualitatively as well as
quantitatively.

DEFINITION AND SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT

The purpose of Environmental Impact Assessment is to identify and evaluate the potential
impacts (beneficial and adverse) of development projects on environmental components
including social, cultural and aesthetic concerns. The exercise should be taken well in
advance in planning stage of projects for selection of environmentally compatiable sites,
process technologies and such other environmental safeguards. The potential scope of a
comprehensive EIA system is considerable and could include the appraisal of policies,
plans, programmes and specific projects. The aim of the EIA is to assess the overall impact
on the environment of development projects proposed by the public and private sectors.

The evolution of EIA procedures occurred in many countries. It varies in parts keeping in
view the local conditions. However all EIA procedures have the following stages.

1. Identification of projects requiring EIA, sometimes known as screening.


2. Identification of the key issues to be addressed in an EIA, called scoping.
3. Impact assessment and evaluation.
4. Impact mitigation and monitoring.
5. Review of the completed EIS and;
6. Public participation.
The result of an EIA is assembled in a document known as an Environmental Impact
Statement(EIS), which looks at all the positive and negative effects of a particular project
on the Environment.

INDIAN SCENARIO:

Environmental clearance on the basis of Environmental Impact Assessment is mandatory


for various developments projects in most part of the world today. In India, this was
introduced as an administrative measures in 1978-79, initially for river valley projects and
extending later to industrial projects. There are about 29 categories of projects (annexure-1)
for which

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Environmental Clearance was made mandatory by the Environmental Impact Assessment
(EIA) Notification issued in January 1994 under the Environment Protection Act, 1986(4).
Certain activities permissible under the coastal regulation zone Notification 1991 also
require clearance.

Environmental Clearance is granted by the Impact Assessment in the Ministry of


Environment and Forest. This power has been delegated to the State governments in the
case of co-generation power plants of any capacity, gas/ naphtha based and coal based
power plants with fluidized bed technology of up to 500 MW capacity and conventional coal
based power plants of up to 250 MW capacity except when located within 25 Km. of the
boundary of reserved forests, biosphere reserves and critically polluted areas or within 50
km. of inter-state boundary.

In 1985, the Government had published a set of guidelines, recommended by a working


group, for siting up various developments projects including industries, power plants and
mining.

In addition, Government offices notifies, from time to time, certain areas in the country as
ecologically sensitive and developmental activities to be taken up in these areas are
regulated through the provisions of these notifications. Such areas include coastal
regulation zone(CRZ), DOON valley, Murud-Janjira, Dahanu Taluka, Numaligarh, Taj
Trapezium and Aravali ranges in Gurgaon (Haryana) and Alwar (Rajasthan ) districts.
Activities to be taken up in forest areas are governed by Forest (conservation ) Act and Wild
Life Protection Act,1972. An amendment to the EIA Notification introduced in April 1997
has made public hearing mandatory for all the cases, where the environmental clearance is
required.

METHODOLOGY:

Environmental Impact Assessment can be classified in to two main types viz

Rapid Environmental Impact Assessment


Comprehensive Environmental Impact Assessment

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RAPID ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (REIA):

Rapid Environmental Impact Assessment can be defined as the study, which is done for
quick assessment of likely adverse impacts. Rapid Environmental Impact Assessment
studies will be conducted at the initiation of the new activity. In some cases this study may
be required for the expansion of existing unit or change in the current manufacturing
process( if the pollution load is to exceed the existing one ). Rapid Environmental Impact
Assessment study covers one season baseline data for various environmental components
viz. Air, Noise, water; land, Biological and Socio-economic including parameters of human
interest.

COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT(CEIA):

Comprehensive Environmental Impact Assessment is basically a study which includes


collection of data for various components for four seasons i.e. Monsoon, Post-monsoon,
Winter and Summer. Comprehensive Environmental Impact Assessment report has to be
submitted after the evaluation of Rapid Environmental Impact Assessment report, if so
asked by the Impact Assessment Agency.

The various methods used in the EIA are Adhoc Method, Overlays methods,
Checklists, Matrix, network and Integrated Method- combination of Matrix, Network
analysis model and a computer aided systematic approach. A typical EIA study including
an industry includes.

1. Field data collection for various Environmental parameters.


2. Assessment of various liquid, solid and gaseous pollutants generated from the plant and
existing pollution control devices.
3. Assessment of various impacts from these pollutants on Environment.
4. Consideration of various statuary guidelines and standards prescribed by Central
Pollution Control Board and Ministry of Environment and Forests.
5. Formulation of detailed Environment Management Plan (EMP) to mitigate / control the
various impacts and bring them within the standards limits.

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EIA AND INDUSTRY:

The various components of the Environment which has to be studied for EIA of a cement
industry are discussed in brief as follows.

A: PROCESS DETAILS:

The manufacturing process of cement mill is different for the manufacture of different
kinds of cement. The raw material requirement and other requirement such as energy,
water and chemical have different impacts on the surrounding environment. The sources of
raw materials, their mode of transport and handling of materials would also be described
and the manufacturing process has to be discussed in detail to find out the nature of
different pollutants. Some of the salient features about the particular industry should also
be described.

B: SOURCES OF POLLUTION AND EXISTING CONTROL MEASURES:

A detailed study has to be carried out to identify sources of generation of various pollutants
generation. Emissions from liquid, solid and gaseous pollution have to be identified and
quantified. This study has to be carried out for all the four seasons(in case of REIA one
season other than monsoon ) These results form an integral part of EIA reports.

C: AIR ENVIRONMENT:

For the study of air environment, it may be divided in to three main component i.e. ambient
air quality, stack and fugitive emission characteristics and prediction of ground level
concentration ( GLC ) through suitable air dispersion mathematical model. In addition to
this micro-meteorological parameters like temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, wind
velocity, wind direction, cloud coverage and mixing height has to be recorded throughout
the study period ( for the REIA only one season data will be required, while in the case of
CEIA four season data will be required) to assess the dispersion of pollutants emitted from
the cement industry.

To find out the base line status of ambient air quality 12-13 sampling locations
should be selected, within 10 km radius taking plant site at its center. Station has to be
selected after considering topography of the region, past meteorological scenario and

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human settlement in the region. Monitoring has to be conducted as per the guidelines of
Ministry of Environment and Forest,N.Delhi. The various pollutants that need to be
monitored for assessing the ambient air quality for the cement industry includes;
suspended particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and dust fall. More
sampling stations could be located in the downwind direction of mill to record the highest
concentration within the impact zone.

Stack monitoring should be carried out for all the major point sources viz. crusher
unit, raw mill, cement mill coal mill, coller and D.G set stack (if available). In case of new
plant the details regarding the emission sources can be collected from the feasibility report
wherein the details regarding number of power boilers as well as type of fuel can also be
found.

Performance evaluation of control equipment attached to the process unit has to carried out
to ultimate delineate Environment Management Plan.

In the cement industry manufacturing activities also generate fugitive emissions


from the shop floor of different sources. Fugitive emissions are diffuse and typically come
from many small sources as opposed to well defined specific stack emissions. Fugitive
emissions are also of diffuse nature and are low level emissions from a larger area. The
sources of fugitive emissions in a cement industry are limestone and coal crushing, coal
mills kilns cement mills and limestone also generate fugitive dust emissions . Major
fugitive are from limestone crushing, coal crushing etc. Finally detailed air modeling for
various stack emissions from the particular plant has to be carried out using computer
aided mathematical model. In the case of new plant emission sources may be find out from
the detail feasibility report and emission from these sources can be find out by studying the
fuel analysis and then GLC can be calculated. The purpose of this modeling is to find out
the ground level concentration as well as contribution of air pollution to the ambient air
quality from the particular plant.

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D: NOISE ENVIRONMENT:

Noise can be defined as 'Clamour', 'Din' or Loud outlay'. Noise (sound) is a physical
disturbance in a medium that is capable of being detected by human ear. Sound
waves in air are formed by variations in pressure above and below the static of
atmosphere due to any man made (i.e. Industrial, Commercial industrial/or
Domestic activity) or natural activity.
Depending upon the noise levels and duration of exposures, various impacts on human
beings can be enumerated. Short duration exposures to high noise levels may cause
discomfort, irritation and problems in speech communications, where as long duration
exposures to high noise levels may cause mental problems, permanent or temporary
disorders, efficiency loss, nervous disorders even upto insanity and gastric disorders.
Sudden generation of very high noise levels may cause diversion of concentration which
may lead to accidents resulting losses of money, machine and even life.

Noise measurement has to be made once in every season in case of CEIA while in
case of REIA it may be done only in one season(other than monsoon).The noise level
measurement is to be done in the entire study area i.e. with in the ten kilometer. radius. In
the cement mill there are various noise generating sources in the cement industry like DG
sets . Spot noise levels have to be measured using a precision noise level meter at 1 to 3
meter from the source inside the plant.

To control these noise pollution proper green belt has to be provide around the plant
while for the control of noise pollution at source suitable noise proofing should be done with
the use of acoustic material.

E: WATER ENVIRONMENT:

To asses the current status of water quality, samples of all water sources i.e. both surface
and ground water have to be collected within the study area. Sampling has to be done in all
the four season, on the basis of once in every season in case of CEIA for evaluation, while in
case of REIA samples have to be collected only in one season. The parameters has to be
selected on the basis of their importance. Water sampling has to be conducted for impact

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prediction and evaluation of discharge of water pollution load by applying appropriate
techniques.

For the prediction of worst impact scenario with respect river flow as well as
effluent strength, suitable water quality model has to be used.

F: LAND ENVIRONMENT:

Land use pattern of is an important indicator of the environmental health and human
activity of the study area. The basic idea of incorporating the land use pattern in EIA study
is to present a clear picture of distribution of existing land according to its use. This
depends upon the soil quality, climate and water availability for irrigation in the area. It
also depends upon the population pressure , their occupation and customs. As excessive
pressure on land for lively hood may cause unsuitable land pattern leading to
environmental degradation . It is therefore essential to study the land use pattern of the
area in question. The data regarding this can be obtained from the Census Department of
India. The main land use may be defined as;

a. Forest land
b. Irrigated land
c. Unirrigated land
d. Cultivable waste land
e. Area not available for cultivation
To asses the soil quality, samples has to be collected from different locations within the
study area. Sampling has to be carried out in every season in the complete year in case
of CEIA, while in the case of REIA samples have to be collected in one season only. The
soil may be affected due to fallout of air pollutants and emission of harmful gases,
irrigation with waste water having high salinity and dumping of solid waste ( in case of
existing plant).

A proper survey has to carried out for the identification and prediction of all
hazardous solid as well as liquid wastes sources at their disposal sites. The possibilities
of leachate percolation to ground water has to be examined and suitable mitigation
methods should applied.

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G: BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT:

The study of biological environment includes the documentation of flora/ fauna within
10 kilometer radius of the plant / proposed area of activity. In some cases, the local
Revenue department and Forestry department are able to give the data. Other wise,
surveys have to be under taken for the same.

The documentation of the local fauna has to be carried out to rule out the
disturbance of natural habitat of the animals. In case of the presence of any
endangered species in the study area, relocation of the project site is recommended in
case of new project

Thus the impact on the biological component of the total environment due to the plant
process on the terrestrial and aquatic biological aspects are to be studied in detail. The
status of micro flora as well biological status of surface and ground water sources has to
be established within the impact zone to asses the impact of leachetes and waste water
disposal practices.

F: SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT :

When a major industry like a cement industry is established, it leads to a series of


various impacts on the social and economic status of the area. i.e. on population
distribution , employment and literacy rate, economic status of the community and basic
amenities including schools, drinking water facilities, electricity, medical facility ,
transportation and communication facility etc. These impacts can be positive or
negative in nature and hence it is very important to asses the various impacts from a
project. In order to identify whether the social community in the immediate vicinity of
the project .site will undergo development or subjected to degradation of social
environment.

G: ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT PLAN:

Based on the findings of the CEIA/REIA study of a cement industry, a systematic and
organized Environment management Plan has to be prepared.

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The objective of this plan to minimize the adverse impacts on the environment due
to the plant as well as to restrict the concentration of various pollutants within the
prescribed limits of Ministry of Environment and Forest, to make the proposed activity
more cleaner- greener and Eco-friendly.

Various control / mitigation measures have to be prescribed in this plan according to


the different impacts, their nature and intensity along with green belt development
plan. Green belt development being one of the important component of Environment
Management Plan, it is made to meet the following objectives:

Mitigation of fugitive gaseous emissions including the odor


Sufficient capability to arrest accidental release.
Noise pollution control
Waste water reuse
Ecological balance
Prevent soil erosion
Economic sustenance and
Improvement in aesthetic environment
The scenario of planting and size is based on the optimum use of available land, quantity of
irrigation water and treated wastewater. It has been considered that the plant trees would
survive under existing environment ( resistant species) and would be useful for pollution
control. A 200 meter wide green belt should be laid down around the periphery of the plant.
Keeping in view the soil and water quality available in and around the plant and the
topography of the land, following additional aspects were considered for green belt
development.

Vertical root development system


Large leaf area index
Fast growth potential
Perennial nature
Thick and shinning leaves
Preferably local availability
Low transportation rate
The green belt is raised in tiers as stated below:

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Shrubs species having tolerance
Plants having fast growth potential with conical canopy, and
Plants with broad leaf area index having thick and shining surface.
In continuation to this general steps to handle emergency conditions are also recommended
as Disaster Management Plan.

CONCLUSIONS

Over the past two decades, the process of EIA has seen many changes to suit the
procedural needs of a given country. Also, some variations in procedures have come due to
local factors. As of today, EIA studies in India have to be carried out as per a set procedure
employing well known techniques. The importance of EIA lies in the fact that the study
serves as a baseline for post project management of environmental issues. This makes the
precision of the content of EIA report very important. Due care must be taken to ensure
that data generated/collected reflects the most representative prevailing conditions. In this
reference, proper procedures as laid down in standard literature must be followed.

It has now been accepted that developmental projects do not operate in isolation
from their surroundings. They have both positive and negative impacts over other processes
and activities occurring concurrent with the project. An EIA identifies key parameters
depicting cumulative affects on the ecosystem and looks in to ways and mans to mitigate
the negative impacts.

The advent of EIA studies is of relatively recent origin amongst the field of applied
sciences and the process of its maturing is still under way. Changes in the technique can be
expected in the future with better understanding of toxicology, monitoring and evaluation
techniques.

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ANNEXURE

LIST OF PROJECTS REQUIRING ENVIRONMENTAL CLEARANCE FROM THE

CENTRAL GOVERNMENT:

1. Nuclear power and related projects such as heavy water plants, nuclear fuel complex,
rare earth
2. River valley projects including hydel power, major irrigation and their combination
including flood control
3. Ports, harbours, airports (except minor ports and harbours)
4. Petroleum refineries including crude and products pipelines
5. Chemical fertilizers (nitrogenous and phosphatic other than single superphosphate)
6. Pesticides (technical)
7. Petroleum complexes ( both olefinic and aromatic ) and petrochemicals intermediates
such as DMT, Caprolactam, LAB etc. and production of basic plastic such as LDPE,
HDPE, PP,PVC
8. Bulk drugs and pharmaceuticals
9. Exploration for oil and gas and their production , transportation and storage
10. Synthetic rubber
11. Asbestos and asbestos products
12. Hydrocyanic acid and its derivatives
13. Primary metallurgical industries ( such as production of iron and steel, aluminum,
copper, zinc, lead and ferro-alloys)
14. Chlor alkali industry
15. Integrated paint complex including manufacture of resins and basic raw materials
required in the manufacture of paints
16. Viscose staple and filament yarn
17. Storage batteries integrated with manufacture of oxides of lead antimony alloy
18. All tourism projects between 200m-500 meters of high water line and at locations with
an elevation of more than 1000 meters with investment of more than 5 crore
19. Thermal power plants
20. Mining projects ( with lease more than 5 hectares )
21. Highway projects except projects relating to improvement work including widening and
strengthening of roads with marginal land acquisition along the existing alignment
provided it does not pass through ecologically sensitive areas such as National Parks,
Sanctuaries . Tiger Reserves, Reserve Forests
22. Tarred roads in the Himalayas and forest areas
23. Distilleries
24. Raw skins and hides
25. Pulp, paper and Newsprint
26. Dyes
27. Cement
28. Foundries (individual )
29. Electroplating

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UNIT-XII AIR POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT

TYPES OF DUST COLLECTORS

Five principal types of industrial dust collectors are-


Inertial separators
Fabric collectors
Wet scrubbers
Electrostatic precipitators
Unit collectors

1. INERTIAL SEPARATORS

Inertial separators separate dust from gas streams using a combination of forces,
such as centrifugal, gravitational, and inertial. These forces move the dust to an
area where the forces exerted by the gas stream are minimal. The separated dust is
moved by gravity into a hopper, where it is temporarily stored.
The three primary types of inertial separators are-
Settling chambers
Baffle chambers
Centrifugal collectors
Neither settling chambers nor baffle chambers are commonly used in the minerals
processing industry. However, their principles of operation are often incorporated
into the design of more efficient dust collectors.

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SETTLING CHAMBER
A settling chamber consists of a large box installed in the ductwork. The sudden
expansion of size at the chamber reduces the speed of the dust-filled air stream and
heavier particles settle out.
Settling chambers are simple in design and can be manufactured from almost any
material. However, they are seldom used as primary dust collectors because of their
large space requirements and low efficiency. A practical use is as precleaners for
more efficient collectors.

BAFFLE CHAMBER
Baffle chambers use a fixed baffle plate that causes the conveying gas stream to
make a sudden change of direction. Large-diameter particles do not follow the gas
stream but continue into a dead air space and settle. Baffle chambers are used as
precleaners.
CENTRIFUGAL COLLECTORS

Centrifugal collectors use cyclonic action to separate dust particles from the gas
stream. In a typical cyclone, the dust gas stream enters at an angle and is spun
rapidly. The Centrifugal force created by the circular flow throws the dust particles

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toward the wall of the cyclone. After striking the wall, these particles fall into a
hopper located underneath.
The most common types of centrifugal, or inertial, collectors in use today are-
SINGLE-CYCLONE SEPARATORS
They create a dual vortex to separate coarse from fine dust. The main vortex spirals
downward and carries most of the coarser dust particles. The inner vortex, created
near the bottom of the cyclone, spirals upward and carries finer dust particles.

MULTIPLE-CYCLONE SEPARATORS
Also known as multiclones, consist of a number of small-diameter cyclones,
operating in parallel and having a common gas inlet and outlet, as shown in the
figure. Multi-clones operate on the same principle as cyclones--creating a main
downward vortex and an ascending inner vortex.
Multiclones are more efficient than single cyclones because they are longer and
smaller in diameter. The longer length provides longer residence time while the
smaller diameter creates greater centrifugal force. These two factors result in better
separation of dust particulates. The pressure drop of multiclone collectors is higher
than that of single-cyclone separators.

2. FABRIC COLLECTORS

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Commonly known as baghouses, fabric collectors use filtration to separate dust


particulates from dusty gases. They are one of the most efficient and cost effective
types of dust collectors available and can achieve a collection efficiency of more than
99% for very fine particulates.
Dust-laden gases enter the bag house and pass through fabric bags that act as
filters. The bags can be of woven or felted cotton, synthetic, or glass-fiber material
in either a tube or envelope shape.
The high efficiency of these collectors is due to the dust cake formed on the surfaces
of the bags. The fabric primarily provides a surface on which dust particulates
collect through the following four mechanisms:
Inertial Collection - Dust particles strike the fibers placed perpendicular to the gas-
flow direction instead of changing direction with the gas stream.
Interception - Particles that do not cross the fluid streamlines come in contact with
fibers because of the fiber size.
Brownian Movement Sub micrometer particles are diffused, increasing the
probability of contact between the particles and collecting surfaces.
Electrostatic Forces - The presence of an electrostatic charge on the particles and the
filter can increase dust capture.
A combination of these mechanisms results in formation of the dust cake on the
filter, which eventually increases the resistance to gas flow. The filter must be
cleaned periodically.

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TYPES OF BAGHOUSES
As classified by cleaning method, three common types of baghouses are -

MECHANICAL SHAKER
In mechanical-shaker bag-houses, tubular filter bags are fastened onto a cell plate
at the bottom of the bag-house and suspended from horizontal beams at the top.
Dirty gas enters the bottom of the bag-house and passes through the filter, and the
dust collects on the inside surface of the bags.
Cleaning a mechanical-shaker bag-house is accomplished by shaking the top
horizontal bar from which the bags are suspended. Vibration produced by a motor-
driven shaft and cam creates waves in the bags to shake off the dust cake.
Shaker bag-houses range in size from small, hand shake devices to large,
compartmentalized units. They can operate intermittently or continuously.
Intermittent units can be used when processes operate on a batch basis-when a
batch is completed, the bag-house can be cleaned. Continuous processes use
compartmentalized bag-houses; when one compartment is being cleaned, the airflow
can be diverted to other compartments.
In shaker bag-houses, there must be no positive pressure inside the bags during the
shake cycle. The air to cloth ratio for shaker bag houses is relatively low, hence the
space requirements are quite high. However, because of the simplicity of design,
they are popular in the minerals processing industry.

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REVERSE AIR

In reverse-air bag houses, the bags are fastened onto a cell plate at the bottom of
the bag house and suspended from an adjustable hanger frame at the top. Dirty gas
flow normally enters the bag house and passes through the bag from the inside, and
the dust collects on the inside of the bags.
Reverse-air bag houses are compartmentalized to allow continuous operation.
Before a cleaning cycle begins, filtration is stopped in the compartment to be
cleaned. Bags are cleaned by injecting clean air into the dust collector in a reverse
direction, which pressurizes the compartment. The pressure makes the bags
collapse partially, causing the dust cake to crack and fall into the hopper below. At
the end of the cleaning cycle, reverse airflow is discontinued, and the compartment
is returned to the main stream.
The flow of the dirty gas helps maintain the shape of the bag. However, to prevent
total collapse and fabric chafing during the cleaning cycle, rigid rings are sewn into
the bags at intervals.
Space requirements for a reverse-air baghouse are comparable to those of a shaker
baghouse; however, maintenance needs are somewhat greater.

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3. WET SCRUBBERS

Dust collectors that use liquid are commonly known as wet scrubbers. In these
systems, the scrubbing liquid (usually water) comes into contact with a gas stream
containing dust particles. The greater the contact of the gas and liquid streams, the
higher the dust removal efficiency.
There is a large variety of wet scrubbers; however, all have of three basic
operations:
Gas-Humidification - The gas-humidification process conditions fine particles to
increase their size so they can be collected more easily.
Gas-Liquid Contact - This is one of the most important factors affecting collection
efficiency. The particle and droplet come into contact by four primary mechanisms:
o Inertial Impaction - When water droplets placed in the path of a dust-laden
gas stream, the stream separates and flows around them. Due to inertial, the
larger dust particles will continue on in a straight path, hit the droplets, and
become encapsulated.
o Interception - Finer particles moving within a gas stream do not hit droplets
directly but brush against them and adhere to them.
o Diffusion - When liquid droplets are scattered among dust particles, the
particles are deposited on the droplet surfaces by Brownian movement, or
diffusion. This is the principal mechanism in the collection of sub micrometer
dust particles.

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o Condensation Nucleation - If a gas passing through a scrubber is cooled below
the dew point, condensation of moisture occurs on the dust particles. This
increase in particle size makes collection easier.
Gas-Liquid Separation - Regardless of the contact mechanism used, as much liquid
and dust as possible must be removed. Once contact is made, dust particulates and
water droplets combine to form agglomerates. As the agglomerates grow larger, they
settle into a collector.
The "cleaned" gases are normally passed through a mist eliminator (demister pads)
to remove water droplets from the gas stream. The dirty water from the scrubber
system is either cleaned and discharged or recycled to the scrubber. Dust is removed
from the scrubber in a clarification unit or a drag chain tank. In both systems solid
material settles on the bottom of the tank. A drag chain system removes the sludge
and deposits in into a dumpster or stockpile.
4. ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS
Electrostatic Precipitators use electrostatic forces to separate dust particles from
exhaust gases. A number of high-voltage, direct-current discharge electrodes are
placed between grounded collecting electrodes. The contaminated gases flow
through the passage formed by the discharge and collecting electrodes.
The airborne particles receive a negative charge as they pass through the ionized
field between the electrodes. These charged particles are then attracted to a
grounded or positively charged electrode and adhere to it.
The collected material on the electrodes is removed by rapping or vibrating the
collecting electrodes either continuously or at a predetermined interval. Cleaning a
precipitator can usually be done without interrupting the airflow.
The four main components of all electrostatic precipitators are-
Power supply unit, to provide high-voltage, unidirectional current
Ionizing section, to impart a charge to particulates in the gas stream
A means of removing the collected particulates
A housing to enclose the precipitator zone
The following factors affect the efficiency of electrostatic precipitators:

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Larger collection-surface areas and lower gas-flow rates increase efficiency because
of the increased time available for electrical activity to treat the dust particles.
An increase in the dust-particle migration velocity to the collecting electrodes
increases efficiency. The migration velocity can be increased by-
o Decreasing the gas viscosity
o Increasing the gas temperature
o Increasing the voltage field

SELECTING A DUST COLLECTOR

Dust collectors vary widely in design, operation, effectiveness, space requirements,


construction, and capital, operating, and maintenance costs. Each type has
advantages and disadvantages. However, the selection of a dust collector should be
based on the following general factors:
Dust Concentration and Particle Size - For minerals processing operations, the dust
concentration can range from 0.1 to 5.0 grains of dust per cubic feet of air, and the
particle size can vary from 0.5 to 100 m.
Degree of Dust Collection Required - The degree of dust collection required depends
on its potential as a health hazard or public nuisance, the plant location, the
allowable emission rate, the nature of the dust, its salvage value, and so forth. The
selection of a collector should be based on the efficiency required and should consider
the need for high-efficiency, high-cost equipment, such as electrostatic precipitators;
high-efficiency, moderate-cost equipment, such as bag houses or wet scrubbers; or
lower cost, primary units, such as dry centrifugal collectors.
Characteristics of Air stream - The characteristics of the airstream can have a
significant impact on collector selection. For example, cotton fabric filters cannot be
used where air temperatures exceed 180 F. Also, condensation of steam or water
vapor can blind bags. Various chemicals can attach fabric or metal and cause
corrosion in wet scrubbers.
Characteristics of Dust - Moderate to heavy concentrations of many dusts (such as
dust from silica sand or metal ores) can be abrasive to dry centrifugal collectors.
Hygroscopic material can blind bag collectors. Sticky material can adhere to collector

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elements and plug passages. Some particle sizes and shapes may rule out certain
types of fabric collectors. The combustible nature of many fine materials rules out
the use of electrostatic precipitators.
Methods of Disposal - Methods of dust removal and disposal vary with the material,
plant process, volume, and type of collector used. Collectors can unload continuously
or in batches. Dry materials can create secondary dust problems during unloading
and disposal that do not occur with wet collectors. Disposal of wet slurry or sludge
can be an additional material-handling problem; sewer or water pollution problems
can result if wastewater is not treated properly.

FAN AND MOTOR

The fan and motor system supplies mechanical energy to move contaminated air
from the dust-producing source to a dust collector.

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