You are on page 1of 49

Dar es Salaam institute of Technology (DIT

)

ET 412 Digital Networks Ally, J jumannea@gmail.com
DIT

Course Summary
Introduction to Wireless Broadband Network Introduction to Digital Transmission Signalling Network (SS7) SDH Network Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Principles Multi-label Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) IP Network and Next Generation Network (NGN) Network Management Basics

DIT

Introduction to Wireless broadband Network

DIT

Outline
Mobile Network Systems (3G & B3G) Wireless MAN Systems Wireless LAN Systems Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Systems 4G Network Systems
DIT

Mobile Network System (3G & B3G)

DIT

The Wireless Revolution
Cellular is the fastest growing sector of communication industry (exponential growth since 1982, with over 2 billion users worldwide today) Three generations of wireless

First Generation (1G): Analog 25 or 30 KHz FM, voice only, mostly vehicular communication Second Generation (2G): Narrowband TDMA and CDMA, voice and low bit-rate data, portable units. 2.5G increased data transmission capabilities Third Generation (3G): Wideband TDMA and CDMA, voice and high bit-rate data, portable units Fourth Generation (in progress): true broadband wireless: WIMAX, 3G LTE, 802.11 a/b/g/n, UWB

DIT

Progress of Mobile Networks
1980s
1G Analog
Voice-based

1990s
2G Digital 2.5G
Voice & data (~144kbps)

2000s

2010s

3G 4G (IMT-2000) (IMT-Advanced) 3.5G---------3.9G
Multimedia (~14.4Mbps) Multimedia BB IP based (~100Mbps) (1Gbps) Seamless service QoS OFDM, SC-FDMA Adaptive antenna LTE Advanced

Technologies FDMA Diversity Systems AMPS TACS

TDMA Distributed control PDC GSM EDGE GSM cdmaOne PHS etc.

CDMA RAKE receiver W-CDMA cdma2000 TD-SCDMA

DIT

Cellular Systems
General requirements
High capacity High data rate Wide service area (99% population coverage) Low cost Low power consumption (Terminal) High reliability Global
Cell

Base station

Mobile station

DIT

Multiple Access Schemes
Many users have to share the radio channel FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access)
Power Power Power Power

1st Gen

e im t

2nd Gen

e m ti

3rd Gen

e m ti

4th Gen

e m ti

12.5 - 30kHz

30 – 200kHz

1.25 – 5MHz

5 – 100MHz

Frequency

Frequency

Frequency

Frequency

FDMA

TDMA DIT

CDMA

OFDMA

Multiple Access Schemes (Summary)
Pros. Cons. • Difficult to handle traffics with various rate • Equalizer will be needed for wide-band systems

FDMA

• Technically simple • Easy handling of various rate traffics • The number of Tx can be reduced in BS

TDMA

CDMA

• Easy handling of various • Accurate transmit rate traffics power control needed • Easy cell planning • Robust against interference and multipath • Robust against multipath for very high data rates • High efficiency linear amplifier is required

OFDMA

DIT

Different Mobile Technologies for Different Services
1st generation in 1980s Analog
AMPS Digital technology Analog technology

2nd generation in 1990s Digital
GSM GSM
Speech service

3rd generation IMT-2000

TACS NMT Other

Driven by demands

CDMA CDMA IS95 IS95 TDMA TDMA IS-136 IS-136 PDC PDC

UMTS UMTS WCDMA WCDMA cdma cdma 2000 2000 TDTDSCDMA SCDMA

Broadband service

Driven by demands

3G provides perfect solutions to integrated services for users and operators.

DIT

UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) R99 Network Architecture
MSC/VLR GSM /GPRS BSS BSC BTS PCU RNC SMS NodeB
GPRS backbone

GMSC

Other PLMN PSTN,ISDN

HLR/AUC

SS7

SCE

SCP Internet, Intranet GGSN

UMTS UTRAN

SGSN

CG

BG Other PLMN’s GPRS network

DIT

Configuration of IMT-2000 System
SCP HLR

MT BS

BS

RNC

PSTN MSC GMSC

RNC BS BS PDSN PDGN Internet

Core network
MT: Mobile Terminal SCP: Service Control Point HLR: Home Location Register GMSC: Gateway MSC PDGN: Packet Data Gateway Node PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network

Radio access network
BS: Base Station RNC: Radio Network Controller MSC: Mobile Switching Center PDSN: Packet Data Serving Node

DIT

Air Interfaces of IMT-2000
2G
(10 kbps)

GSM GSM

TDMA (IS-136) TDMA (IS-136) GPRS GPRS EDGE EDGE

cdmaOne cdmaOne IS-95B IS-95B

2.5G
(64~144 kbps)

3G
(384k~2Mbps)

TD-SCDMA TD-SCDMA

W-CDMA W-CDMA
FDD | TDD

UWC-136 UWC-136

cdma2000 cdma2000 1xEV-DO 1xEV-DO 1xEV-DV 1xEV-DV

3.5G
(DL: ~14.4Mbps) (UL: ~5.7Mbps)

HSDPA HSDPA HSUPA HSUPA 3G LTE (S3G) 3G LTE (S3G)

3.9G
(DL: 100 Mbps) (UL: 50 Mbps)
GSM: Global System for Mobile communication GPRS: General Packet Radio Service EDGE: Enhanced Data Rate for Global Evolution 3G LTE: 3G Long Term Evolution

DIT

HSDPA: High Speed Downlink Packet Access HSUPA: High Speed Uplink Packet Access 1xEV-DO: cdma2000 1x Evolution - Data only 1xEV-DV: cdma2000 1x Evolution - Data and Voice S3G: Super 3G

Mobile Multimedia Services by 3G
• High-speed packet communication • Audio/Visual communication (ex. Video phone) • Location service (ex. Navigation) • Mobile e-Commerce • Multi-call service (Voice+Packet+…) • International roaming • Contents distribution (Video, Music, Game, Map, etc.)

DIT

3G/Beyond 3G Cellular Systems
3G Access method Bandwidth Modulation DL: CDMA UL: CDMA 5 MHz 3.5G
(HSDPA,HSUPA)

3G LTE

IMT-Advanced (4G)

cdma2000 1xEV-DO Rev.0 Rev.A DL:CDMA UL: CDMA 1.25 MHz

DL: CDMA UL: CDMA 5 MHz

DL:CDMA DL: OFDMA DL: OFDMA UL: SC-FDMA UL: SC-FDMA UL: CDMA 20 MHz >100 MHz 1.25 MHz

BPSK,QPSK BPSK,QPSK 16QAM DL: 384kbps DL: 14.4Mbps UL: 64kbps UL: 5.7Mbps Available Available

QPSK,16QAM QPSK,16QAM BPSK,QPSK BPSK,QPSK 8PSK, 16QAM 8PSK,16QAM 64QAM,etc. 64QAM,etc. DL: 100Mbps UL: 50Mbps Expected in 2010 Great improvement of data rate and latency DL: ~1Gbps UL: >50Mbps Expected in 2012-2015 DL: 2.4Mbps UL: 154kbps Available DL: 3.1Mbps UL: 1.8Mbps Available

Data rate (max.) Service-in

Features

Circuit switching

Enhancement of packetised data rate

High speed Enhancement Further improvement low-cost data of data rate and QoS of data rate and mobility

3G LTE: 3G Long Term Evolution

DIT

Progress in Mobile Communications Data Rate
1G

3G LTE & 4G
100M 10M 1M 100k 10k
2.4k PDC

4G 100M1Gbps 3G LTE 30-100Mbps

Data Rate

3G & 3.5G

HSDPA 2-4M average MAX14Mbps 2.4M 1x EV-DO

384k W- CDMA 144k CDMA 2000 1x

2G & 2.5G

64k PHS 32k PHS 28k PDC Packet 14.4k cdma One 9.6k GSM/PDC

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

DIT

Mobile Subscribers (Worldwide)
2 .5

Number of subscribers (billion)

Fixe d 2

Mobile

Mobile user growth: 14%/year

1 .5

1

0 .5

0

1998

2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

DIT

Operator Assessment of Growth in Data Demand on Relative Basis

DIT

Relative Adoption of Technologies

DIT

Wireless MAN Systems

DIT

Wireless MAN History (Metropolitan Area Network)
Fixed Wireless Access
Wireless MAN was first developed as fixed wireless access Usually LoS link

Point to Multipoint Access
Today, it has been enhanced to be used as P-MP access Can be used in NLoS link
LoS :Line of Sight NLoS :Non Line of Sight

DIT

WMAN and WLAN Comparison
WMAN
Coverage: Up to 50km Output power: can be as high as 10W Bitrate: Up to 75Mbps (in 20MHz BW) Frequency: < 11GHz (Licensed and Licence exempt)

WLAN
Coverage: Up to 100m Output power ~200mW Bitrate: Up to 54Mbps
(500Mbps is under study in 802.11n)

Frequency: 2.4GHz, 5GHz (Licence exempt)
DIT

Main Features of IEEE802.16
Provide low-cost solution (networking, mobile performance) Fit to IP Communication Flexible depending on frequency assignment Various operational parameters are defined Only MAC/PHY layers are specified (i.e. Core network is out of scope in the 802.16)

DIT

WiMAX Forum
Non profitable organization Established in 2001 to promote Broadband Wireless Access Objectives
Promotion of IEEE802.16 based products Define system profiles Create end to end network specification Conduct interoperability test Give the certificate logo allowance

DIT

802.16 Series Wireless MAN Specification

DIT

802.16j: Multi-hop Relay

DIT

Specification of WiMAX (World Interoperability for Microwave Access)

DIT

IEEE802.16 Standard Family

DIT

WiMAX System Structure
Web Streaming PTT

Service // Service Application cont Application cont Network Network Middleware Middleware IP Core Transport IP Core Transport Layer 2 Access Layer 2 Access PHY //MAC PHY MAC

QoS

Call

Authentification Mobility /Charge

WiMAX WiMAX Network Network

AGW (BRAS)

AGW

AGW (ASN-GW)

AGW

FTTH

3G/E-UTRA PC Card

WiMAX

WiFi

WiMAX WiMAX Client Client

Indoor CPE

Outdoor CPE

E-UTRA: Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access

DIT

Wireless LAN Systems

DIT

LAN (Local Area Network)
Local Area Network (Wired)
1980’s ~

Remote Access to Main Computer Printers, Data Storage, etc. are shared

Internet Usage (e-mail, WWW, etc.)

1990’s ~

DIT

Wireless LAN
Wide spread of WLAN 2000s ~

WLAN (IEEE802.11) 802.11 (1997) 802.11b (2000) 802.11a (2000) 802.11g (2003) 802.11n ( 2007)

DIT

Wireless LANs: WiFi/802.11
Based on the IEEE 802.11a/b/g/n family of standards, and is primarily a local area networking technology designed to provide in-building or campus broadband coverage. IEEE 802.11a/g peak physical layer data rate of 54 Mbps and indoor coverage over a distance of 100 feet. Beyond buildings: municipal WiFi, Neighborhood Area Networks (NaN), hotspots Much higher peak data rates than 3G systems, primarily since it operates over a larger bandwidth (20 MHz). Its MAC scheme CSMA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access) is inefficient for large numbers of users The interference constraints of operating in the license-exempt band is likely to significantly reduce the actual capacity of outdoor Wi-Fi systems. Wi-Fi systems are not designed to support high-speed mobility. Wide availability of terminal devices 802.11n: MIMO techniques for range extension and higher bit rates

DIT

Wireless LAN Standards
802.11b (Current Generation)
Standard for 2.4GHz ISM band (80 MHz) Frequency hopped spread spectrum 1.6-10 Mbps, 500 ft range

802.11a (Emerging Generation)
Standard for 5GHz NII band (300 MHz) OFDM with time division 20-70 Mbps, variable range Similar to HiperLAN in Europe

In 2006, WLAN cards have all 3 standards

802.11g (New Standard)
Standard in 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands OFDM Speeds up to 54 Mbps

DIT

IEEE 802.11n
WG started in 2002 Two Groups: TGnsync and WWiSE Joint proposal approved January 2006 Specification expected to fix in 2007 Features:
Over 100Mbps Throughput Use MIMO Reduce the overhead for more efficiency Backward Compatibility to 802.11a,b,g

DIT

WLAN Network Architecture
Basic Service Set (BSS): a set of stations which communicate with one another

Ad hoc network

Infrastructure Mode

• •

Only direct communication possible No relay function

• • • •

Stations communicate with AP AP provides connection to wired network (e.g. Ethernet) Stations not allowed to communicate directly Some similarities with cellular (covered later)

DIT

Source: AirTight Networks

WLAN Network Architecture (2)
ESS: a set of BSSs interconnected by a distribution system (DS)

Local Area Network (e.g. Ethernet) Future: Meshed Wireless Backhaul

DIT

Source: AirTight Networks

In-building W-LAN and 3G Dual Mode
Effective use of existing W-LAN system for 3G

Coupler Dual Band Antenna

Quick Expansion of coverage area
W-LAN ACCESS POINT

Coupler Filter/ COMBINER Dual Band Antenna

PICO Node-B

DIT

Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Systems

DIT

UWB (Ultra Wide Band)
Applications
Wireless USB Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) Sensor
Wireless USB

Features
Difficult to intercept Short range communication (up to 10m) Location identification Low power High data rate >100Mbps Low cost DIT
WPAN Sensor

Concept of UWB
Narrowband to Wideband
Noise floor
Thermal/Man made

Narrowband signal Bandwidth ~ user data rate

Spread spectrum Bandwidth ~ user data rate * SF
Normally 10 - 100

Signal energy should be the same so as to satisfy Shannon limit.

Ultra Wide Band Power spectrum density becomes well bellow the noise floor Using: Short pulses Big SF

DIT

UWB
Challenges
Antenna: wide bandwidth Interference to other systems
TV/Radio reception, Rader (military/civilian), Radio astronomy, Wireless LAN

Multiple-access Multi-path Regulation

3.1GHz

10.6GHz

DIT

4G Network Systems

DIT

Wireless Technology Trend

DIT

4G Mobile Network
Requirements (Partially realized in 3G LTE) •Broadband packet communication (100M~1Gbps) •High capacity •Based on next generation Internet technologies (IPv6, QoS) •Seamless mobility/roaming (Home, Office, Outdoor, etc.) •Seamless connectivity with various networks (ex. WLAN, WMAN, Broadcasting) •Connection with Ubiquitous networks (Sensor net, RFID) •Low bit-cost •One terminal (Reconfigurable radio terminal by software)

DIT

Next Generation Packet-based Network
Service
Circuit switch Emulated service IP multimedia Service Streaming service

Control / Management Transport/Access
3G/3.5G
RNC

Resource Control/Mobility Management PSTN Internet
AGW

IP Core Network

xGSN AGW AGW

xDSL/FTTx
E-UTRA

WiFi/WiMAX
AP

HGW

BTS

BTS BTS BTS AP

BTS: Base station transceiver RNC: Radio Network Controller xGSN: Serving/ Gateway GPRS Support Node

AGW: Access Gateway AED: Access edge Device E-UTRA: Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access

DIT

Summary
3G technologies and its evolutions are introduced Towards Ubiquitous networking world, wireless network technology will be a key component
1990 2000 2010 2020

1G
• Voice-based • Low-rate data services • Digital technology

2G

3G

4G
• Broadband services • Seamless service • Adaptive QoS • Reconfigurabl e terminals • End-to end IP systems

5G
• Cognitive radio • Ad hoc network • Mesh networks • Radio on fiber • Virtual reality • Remote operation • Context aware • Five senses communication

• Multimedia services • Larger bandwidth • New business models • International standard

DIT

Thanks!

Technology changes but communication lasts.

DIT