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Dar es Salaam institute of Technology (DIT


ET 8117 Introduction to Communication Systems Ally, J


Course Outline
Principle of Communication System AM Modulation Angle Modulation Digital coding Digital Modulation Errors


Principle of Communication System


Information Representation
Communication systems convert information into a format appropriate for the transmission medium. Channels convey electromagnetic waves (signals). Analog communication systems convert (modulate) analog signals into modulated (analog) signals Digital communication systems convert information in the form of bits into binary/digital signals Types of Information:
Analog Signals: Voice, Music, Temperature readings Analog signals or bits: Video, Images Bits: Text, Computer Data Analog signals can be converted into bits by quantizing/digitizing


Basic Mode of Communication There are two basic modes of communication:
Broadcasting: which involves the use of a single powerful transmitter and numerous receivers that are relatively inexpensive to build. Here information-bearing signals flow only in one direction. Point-to-point communication: in which the communication process takes place over a link between a single transmitter and a receiver. In this case, there is usually a bidirectional flow of information-bearing signals, which requires the use of a transmitter and receiver at each end of the link.


Primary Communication Resources
In a communication system, two primary resources are employed: Transmitted Power and Channel Bandwidth. The Transmitted Power: is the average power of the transmitted signal The channel bandwidth is defined as the band of frequencies allocated for the transmission of the message signal NB: A general system design objective is to use these two resources as efficiently as possible. In most communication channels, one resource may be considered more important than the other. Therefore we may classify communication channels as Power limited or Band-limited. Example, the telephone circuit is a typical Band-limited channel, whereas a space communication link or satellite channel is typically Power limited.


Source of Information
The telecommunications environment is dominated by four important sources of information: speech, music, pictures, and computer data Speech is the primary method of human communication Music is the one originates from instruments such as the piano, violin, and flute Pictures is the one relies on the human visual system for its perception. The picture can be dynamic, as in television, or static, as in fascimile (fax) machine Computer data is the information transmitted or exchanged through computer or other electronic devices


Communication System Block Diagram

m(t )


ˆ x(t)

ˆ m (t )

Source encoder converts message into message signal or bits. Transmitter converts message signal or bits into format appropriate for channel transmission (analog/digital signal). Channel introduces distortion, noise, and interference. Receiver decodes received signal back to message signal. Source decoder decodes message signal back into original message. NB: The good communication system is to produce at the destination (receiver) an acceptable replica of the source message.


Modulation and Demodulation
Is the process of changing ore or more properties such as amplitude, frequency, and phase of the analog carrier in proportion with the information signal Performed in a transmitter by a circuit called a modulator

Is the reverse process of modulation and converts the modulated carrier back to the original information Performed in a receiver by a circuit called a demodulator


Two Basic of Electronic Communication System
An analog communication system
Is a system in which energy is transmitted and received in analog form (a continuously varying signal such as sine wave) Both the information and the carriers are analog signal

The digital communication system
Covers a broad range of communication techniques, including digital transmission and digital radio


Two Basic of Electronic Communication System(2)
Digital transmission - Is a true digital system where digital pulses are transferred between two or more point a communication system - There is no analog carrier, and the original source may be in digital or analog form - Require physical transmission medium such as metallic cable or optical fiber Digital Radio - Is the transmitted of digitally modulated carrier between two or more points in a communication system - The modulating signal and the demodulated signal are digital pulses - Digital pulse modulate an analog carrier - Transmission medium may be a physical facility or free space (i.e. The Earth’s atmosphere)


Advantage of using Digital transmission compared to Analog transmission
Increased immunity to channel noise and external interference Flexible operation of the system A common format for the transmission of different kinds of message signals (e.g. voice signals, video signals, computer data) Improved security of communication through the use of encryption


Summary of various modulation technique
Analog Modulation Types Amplitude Modulation (AM): is the one if the information signal is analog and the amplitude (V) of the carrier is varied proportional to the information signal Frequency Modulation (FM): is the one if the frequency (f) of the carrier is varied proportional to the information signal Phase modulation (PM): is the one if the phase (θ) of the carrier is varied proportional to the information signal Digital Modulation Types Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK): is the one if the information signal is digital and the amplitude (V) of the carrier is varied proportional to the information signal Frequency Shift Keying (FSK): is the one if the frequency (f) of the carrier is varied proportional to the information signal Phase Shift Keying (PSK): is the one if the phase (θ) of the carrier is varied proportional to the information signal Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM): is the one if both the amplitude (V) and the phase (θ) of the carrier are varied proportional to the information signal


Why Modulation is necessary
It is extremely difficult to radiate low frequency signals from an antenna in the form of electromagnetic energy It is possible to combine a number of baseband (information) signal and send them through the medium, provided different carrier frequencies are used for different baseband signals Transmitting signals over large distance, because low frequency signals have poor radiation characteristics


Analog vs. Digital Systems
Analog signals
The amplitude changes continuously with respect to time with no discontinuities

Digital signals
The one which are discrete and their amplitudes maintains a constant level for prescribed period of time and then it changes to another level


t x(t)

Digital systems more robust Binary signals
Has at most 2 values Used to represent bit values Bit time T needed to send 1 bit Data rate R=1/T bits per second

t x(t)
0 1 1 0 0 1 0




j = −1

Line Spectra and Fourier Series
Phasors and line spectra
-we express sinusoids in terms of the cosine function and write

where A is the peak value or amplitude θ is the radian frequency -The reciprocal of the period equals the cyclical frequency

-The phasor representation of a sinusoidal signal comes from Euler's theorem -we can write any sinusoid as the real part of a complex exponential, namely


Periodic Signals and Average Power
Given any time function v(t), its average value over all time is defined as:

In the case of a periodic signal, the equation above reduces to the average over any interval of duration To, thus

Our definition of the average power associated with an arbitrary periodic signal then becomes

In any case, the value of P will be real and nonnegative and the signal v(t) is said to have well defined average power, and will be called a periodic power signal


Fourier Series
Let be a power signal with period Fourier series expansion is . Its exponential

The series coefficients are related to


so , equals the average of the product since the coefficients are complex quantities in general, they can be xpressed in the polar form

where arg c, stands for the angle of c


Three important spectral properties of periodic power signals
All frequencies are integer multiples or harmonics of the fundamental frequency fo = l/To. Thus the spectral lines have uniform spacing fo. The dc component equals the average value of the signal, by setting n = 0

If v(t) is a real (noncomplex) function of time, then

Replace the above equation by n=-n. Hence

which means that the amplitude spectrum has even symmetry and the phase spectrum has odd symmetry


Consider the periodic train of rectangular pulses amplitude, A and width or duration To calculate the Fourier coefficients, we'll take the range of integration over the central period ,where


For simplification we use the sinc function, which is Multiplying and dividing by finally gives


Fourier Transform Properties
Useful Properties
Linearity, time shift,Parseval

Key Properties
Time scaling Duality
Contracting in time yields expansion in frequency Operations in time lead to dual operations in frequency Fourier transform pairs are duals of each other Multiplying in time by an exponential leads to a frequency shift. Multiplication in time leads to convolution in frequency Convolution in time leads to multiplication in frequency

Frequency shifting

Convolution and Multiplication


Fourier Transforms
If v(t) is the voltage across a resistance, the total delivered energy would be found by integrating the instantaneous power . We therefore define normalized signal energy as

NB: When the integral in the above equation exists and yields the signal u(t) is said to have well-defined energy and is called a nonperiodic energy signal.

To introduce the Fourier transform, we'll start with the Fourier series representation of a periodic power signal


Fourier Transforms(2)
Let the frequency spacing infinity such that the product approach zero, and the index n approach approaches a continuous frequency variable f. Then

The bracketed term is the Fourier transform of v(t) symbolized by and defined as:


The time function v(t) is recovered from V(f) by the inverse Fourier transform


Parseval’s Power Theorem
Parseval's theorem relates the average power P of a periodic signal to its Fourier coefficients, which is

Homework Derive Parseval's theorem by using the following expression


Rayleigh's Energy Theorem
Rayleigh's energy theorem is analogous to Parseval's power theorem. It states that the energy E of a signal v(t) is related to the spectrum V(f) by

it implies that gives the distribution of energy in the frequency domain, and therefore may be termed the energy spectral density Rayleigh's theorem is actually a special case of the more general integral relationship

Homework: Prove Rayleigh's theorem by follows the same lines for the derivation of Parseval’s theorem


Duality Theorem
The theorem states that if v(t) and V(f) constitute a known transform pair, and if there exists a time function z(t) related to the function V(f) by then where v(-f) equals v(t) with t = -f Therefore, we may replace f in fourier transform equation with the dummy variable and write

Furthermore, since t is a dummy variable, z(t) = V(t) in the theorem,

Comparing these integrals then confirms that


Time delay and Scale change
Specifically, replacing t by , produces the time-delayed signal

If , is a negative quantity, the signal is advanced in time and the added phase has positive slope. The amplitude spectrum remains unchanged in either case, since

Scale change in the time domain becomes reciprocal scale change in the frequency domain, since

Hence, compressing a signal expands its spectrum, and vice versa. If then so both the signal and spectrum are reversed.


Frequency Translation and Modulation
Besides generating new transform pairs, duality can be used to generate transform theorems. In particular, a dual of the time-delay theorem is

Since is not a real time function and cannot occur as a communication signal. However, signals of the form are common-in fact, they are the basis of carrier modulation-and by direct extension of the equation above we have the following modulation theorem:

The theorem is easily proved with the aid of Euler’s theorem


Differentiation and Integration
Differentiation in the time domain Let and assume that the first derivative of v(t) is Fourier transformable. then

and by iteration we get

which is the differentiation theorem. Integration in the time domain Let then, provided V(0), the integration theorem says that then The zero net area condition in the above equation ensures that the integrated signal goes to zero as


Convolution Theorems
This property is listed below along with the associative and distributive properties

we now list the two convolution theorems:

The prove of above theorem is by using time delay theorem


Special Functions
Dirac delta function






-fc fc


Delta Function Train













Sampling (Time):
x(t) ∑nδ(t-nTs)





Sampling (Frequency)
X(f) 1




Xs(f) 1/Ts

-1/Ts 0 1/Ts 0

-B 0



Nyquist: Must sample at Ts<1/(2B) to recreate signal from samples DIT