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Senior Management Product Inspection and Human Resources

Commitment and Laboratory Testing Personal Hygiene

Continuous Improvement Control of Non- Protective Clothing for
conforming Product Personnel
Food Safety & Quality Product Release Contractors and Visitors
Management System Procedures Applicable to
Process Control Infectious
Food Safety & Quality
Policy Control of Operations Training
Food Safety & Quality Quantity Sanitary Facilities,
Manual Weight Volume & Number Equipment for
Organisational Structure, Control Personal Hygiene and Staff
Responsibilities and Calibration & Control of Facilities
Management Authority Measuring and Monitoring Production Process
Contract Review & Devices Contract Review
Customer Focus Personnel Product Specifications
Internal Audit
Product Development
Purchasing Training
Supplier Approval & Access & Movement of
Product Packaging
Performance Monitoring Personnel
Factory Environment
General Documentation Personal Hygiene
Requirements Medical Screening
Housekeeping & Hygiene
Corrective & Preventative Protective Clothing
Waste & Waste Disposal
Risk of Foreign Bodies,
Traceability The Requirements
Complaint Handling The audit assesses whether
Broken Glass & Wood
Management of Incidents, the
Pest Monitoring/Pest
Product Withdrawal and elements of an
Product Recall organisations quality
Receipt of Goods &
management system are
Site Standards documented, implemented,
maintained and
External Standards Maintenance & Repair
continuously approved. The
Security Equipment
elements that are
Internal Site Standards Process Validation
examined are as follows:
Utilities Traceability (including
Equipment GMOs and
Senior Management
Maintenance allergens)
Staff Facilities Genetically Modifidied
Chemical & Physical Organisms
Policy/Corporate Principles
Product Contamination (GMOs)
Corporate Structure &
Control Allergens, Specific
Housekeeping & Hygiene Methods of
Customer Focus
Waste/Waste Disposal Production & Treatment
Management Review
Pest Control Measurements Analysis &
Quality Management
Storage & Transport Improvements
Product Control Internal Audits
Site Factory Inspections
HACCP System
Product Process Control
Assemble HACCP Team
Design/Development Calibration & Checking of
HACCP Analysis
Handling Requirements Qualified
for Specific Materials Measuring & Monitoring
Materials Containing Devices
Record Keeping
Allergens and Identity Quantity Checking
Resource Management
Preserved Materials (Quantity
Human Resource
Foreign Body Detection Control/Filling Quantities)
Product Packaging Product Analysis
Product Quarantine & All schemes require a food safety are effectively actioned.
manual or a documented system to
Product Release be in place that covers or Management review
Management of references All schemes require senior
Complaints from procedures that control significant management
Authorities & Customers food to review the verification of the food
safety hazards. None of the safety management system and
Management of Incidents, schemes HACCP
Product are specific about the title or format plan, at pre-arranged intervals, to
Withdrawal, Product Recall of ensure
such documentation, as long as it its continuing suitability, adequacy
Management of Non- exists. and effectiveness. Review of the
conforming Management Commitment/ food
Products safety system is also required in the
Corrective Actions Responsibility event of any change that could
Most of schemes require an affect
organisational chart and job food safety. More specifically, the
descriptions IFS
to be in place. They all place great scheme requires that the
emphasis on management management
commitment review includes: buildings; supply
A SECTION-BY-SECTION to implement and maintain an systems; equipment and transport;
COMPARISON effective, staff
OF THE KEY SCHEMES continually upgraded food safety facilities, environmental conditions;
system demonstrated through safety and security at work;
General Requirements regularly hygienic
The general requirements for all scheduled management review condition and; workplace design
schemes are similar in that they meetings, business continuity and external influences (e.g. noise,
require planning, vibration). The IFS also requires that
a competently implemented, establishment of effective channels the result of the review is included
regularly for internal/external communication in subsequent budgeting. The BRC
evaluated, continually improved, and the appointment of a food scheme requires that the review
HACCP-based food safety safety process
management system. team and leader. This team leader includes: previous management
must be responsible for developing, review
Food Safety Policy implementing and communicating documents; action plans/time
All schemes require a food safety the elements of the food safety frames;
policy management system to company customer performance indicators;
that covers the scope of business personnel and must have the complaints and feedback; incidents;
activities. This policy should involve authority corrective actions; out-of-
the implementation of a HACCP- to act on managements behalf on specification
based food results and; non-conforming
food safety system that complies safety issues. The SQF scheme calls material
with this team leader the SQF as well as; developments in
regulatory/customer requirements, Practitioner, scientific
is specifically requiring that this information associated with the
internally audited, continually individual products
improved be a full time employee of the in scope. The SQF scheme requires
and effectively communicated to company, the
company personnel. This policy be trained in HACCP principles and review to include: policies; internal
must be is able to demonstrate a working and
supported within the organisation knowledge of the applicable SQF external audit findings; corrective
and code action;
measurable objectives need to be requirements. The SQF scheme also and customer complaints. Records
set requires that the organisational of
and tracked. The IFS scheme structure amended documents, validation
specifically within the company be and
requires the inclusion of communicated changes to the SQF system also
environmental to all staff. The BRC scheme need to
and social responsibility, while the specifically be maintained.
BRC requires that the most senior
scheme requires that an production Resource management
organisations or operations manager on site must All schemes require that senior
policy includes a provision to ensure attend the opening and closing management provide adequate
that food safety system certification meetings of the audit for Global resources to ensure that the food
does not expire and that the Standard for Food Safety safety management system
organisation certification continues
has purchased a copy of the current and that senior management must to be effective in meeting
issue of the BRC Global Standard for ensure all non-conformities regulatory
Food Safety. identified at and customer requirements,
the previous audit against the including
Food Safety Manual standard
responsibility for competent withdrawal or recall. The BRC
provision of scheme Traceability
outsourced services or activities. also requires that internal audit All schemes require procedures to
Documentation results be in
All schemes require documented must be communicated to the place to identify all lots of raw
procedures to demonstrate HACCP materials
conformance food safety team. The SQF scheme and packaging from receipt through
with the specified scheme requires that an internal audit in-process status to finished product
requirements schedule and, at minimum, to the next level
and records to demonstrate the is in place, describing the of
effective control of processes and verification distribution. Traceability requires
food activities, their frequency of testing
safety management. Customer and completion annually with results documented
supplier related specifications and the person responsible for and
related each activity. used to improve the process when
to food safety must also be results do not fall within acceptable
controlled. Corrective action tolerance levels.
Requirements include verified All schemes require that the
issuance organisation has documented, Complaint handling
and consistent versions, as well as securely All schemes require that the
secure storage of such documents stored, accessible procedures in organisation
in a manner that allows them to be place for the determination and implements an effective system for
accessible for a retention time that implementation of timely, verified the
meets customer and legal corrective action in the event of any management of complaints related
requirements. nonconformity to
Both the BRC and SQF schemes relating to product safety. food safety, including action to
require that documents are in a The corrective action must include prevent
language or languages spoken by actions to bring the process back recurrence of the problem.
the under Incident management/
organisations staff and that they control and to prevent recurrence of business continuity
are the All schemes require that the
sufficiently detailed. non-conformity. organisation has an effective
Specifications Control of non-conforming product management procedure in place
All schemes require documented All schemes require that the that is
specifications for all items and organisation has documented, tested regularly and covers
services securely contingency
(including utilities, transport and stored, accessible procedures in planning for business continuity as
maintenance) purchased or place well
provided to ensure that any product that as plans for product withdrawal and
which have an effect on product does not product recall if warranted
safety conform to food safety by investigation.
and that a regular review process is requirements
in is clearly identified and controlled to Calibration
place to ensure these specifications prevent unintended use or delivery. All schemes require that the
are Product release organisation identifies measuring
kept up to date. All schemes require that the and
organisation monitoring devices required to
Internal Audit has appropriate procedures in place assure
All schemes require the organisation to product safety and has methods in
to have an internal audit system in ensure that food safety place
place that covers all systems and requirements are to ensure these devices are
procedures critical to product safety adequately met prior to product calibrated
and all applicable elements of the release. against a recognised standard.
scheme. This internal audit must be Product testing and analysis
performed at defined frequency, by Purchasing, supplier All schemes require that the
trained personnel independent of approval/monitoring organisation implements a system
activities audited, with documented All schemes require that the to
results and prompt follow-up to organisation ensure that finished
correct controls purchasing processes to product/ingredient
any identified non-conformities. The ensure analyses critical to the confirmation
IFS that all externally sourced items of conformity to critical food safety
scheme states examples of conform parameters is performed to
verification to food safety requirements and standards
activities, including analysis, that equivalent to ISO 17025 and that
sampling, procedures are in place for approval this
and evaluation. The BRC scheme and analysis is done frequently enough
states that examples of verification continued monitoring of its to
activities include a review of records suppliers. optimise food safety.
where acceptable limits have been The results of supplier evaluations
exceeded, review of incidents of and Gmp/Prerequisite programs
product follow up actions must be recorded.
All schemes require the organisation These cover: establish measures/schedules to
to Research and identification of maintain the effectiveness of the
have effective prerequisite food food
programs safety hazards associated with safety management system and
(PRPs) in place, with regularly ingredients must
scheduled Process aids/non-food chemicals include all aspects of the applicable
monitoring, documented corrective Equipment scheme, including management
actions in response to non- Packaging and process steps review,
conformities (including supplier level, supplier related activities, PRPs,
and verification of activities key to controllable preliminary steps, HACCP activities/
food customer level and transport studies and continual improvement.
safety control. PRPs include control generated hazards) The results of verification must be
of: facility exterior/interior Identification of control measures analysed for trends and submitted
(materials for to
& structural integrity); each hazard management review and must be
layout/product/ Establishment of critical control used
utility/personnel flow; staff facilities; points to continually improve the food
equipment design/maintenance; (CCPs) and/or operational safety
risk of biological/chemical/physical prerequisite management system. Revalidation
contamination (including allergen programs (oPRPs are the is
control); storage and transport intermediate required in the event of any
(including level of control between general changes that
temperature control in storage and PRP could impact food safety.
transport); stock rotation; controls and very strict CCPs) Management
sanitation/ For each CCP, a HACCP plan is must ensure that
cleaning; pest management; water required measures/personnel
quality; waste handling; personnel which includes critical limits for are in place to regularly research
hygiene/training/evaluation; each changes to information, regulations
labelling; control measure, responsibility and and
facility security/food defense; the customer requirements and they
traceability and recall procedures. frequency of monitoring these are
All schemes also have requirements limits, brought to the attention of
for enhanced hygiene, apparel and deviation procedures/corrective management
personnel flow control in high-risk actions in order to upgrade the food safety
areas. to be taken whenever a critical limit management system and maintain
Some schemes have very specific nonconformity its effectiveness. While the BRC and
requirements for such areas that occurs, and responsibility FSSC 22000 schemes provide more
can be and frequency of significant task specific details on
individually researched, (e.g. the verification and records associated validation/verification
BRC with requirements, all schemes imply or
requirement for physical separation each CCP (including corrective include the elements discussed in
and apparel control), but most PRP action this section.
requirements are common to all records). Each scheme phrases What an organisation should
food processor schemes approved these consider
by requirements in their own terms, when choosing a scheme
the GFSI. but The most important thing an
the essential requirements are organisation needs to consider
HACCP common when
A competent HACCP process for to all. choosing a GFSI approved food
food safety control is a mandatory safety
requirement for all GFSI food Validation, verification and scheme is making sure there is the
processor continual improvement perfect match between the scheme
approved schemes. This process All schemes require the organisation and the organisation. While each
includes five preliminary steps to provide evidence that they have scheme meets the requirements of
to HACCP: validated the assumptions and the
Establishment of a multi- effectiveness of controls within the GFSI, they do it through an
departmental food safety management system. individual
food safety/HACCP team They approach. At the heart of the
Descriptions of key food safety also require that the organisation decision
characteristics of finished products plans as to which scheme is best for a
Characteristics of raw materials verification activities, both routine particular organisation is having a
(including sources) (e.g. clear
Creation/verification of process next day record review) and understanding of the customer and
flow complete regulatory requirements that affect
diagrams (including water system verification (including the
treatment/ sampling organisations business and
utility in feeds and waste/rework of records for each significant food therefore
flow) safety task, procedure/HACCP plan need to be covered by the chosen
Creation/verification of review, key personnel interviews/ audit. This is a research task for the
plant schematics evaluation and on site verification of organisation and once fully
The HACCP principles are also operations). Verification planning understood,
mandated by all schemes. must
even ahead of choosing the audit Once the organisation is confident auditing, the appropriate audit can
itself, that be
the organisation should develop and its system is sufficiently robust and chosen to match.
put that it can stand up to validation
in place its own food safety system. and