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Analyzing Transit AC and DC Traction Power Networks

Richard N. Rauceo Tristan Kneschke, PE Michael K. Fitzgerald John A. Martin


LTK Engineering Services LTK Engineering Services Massachusetts Bay Transportation Massachusetts Bay Transportation
Boston, MA Ambler, PA Authority Authority
Boston, MA Boston, MA

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION
Numerous software programs have been DC Traction Power Substations (TPSS) are
developed to analyze ac power utility systems and dc normally fed from power utility ac feeders. In some
transit traction power networks. Often, the two traction power systems, each TPSS is fed from one or
systems are studied separately, as the impact of dc more dedicated utility ac feeders so that, in the event
loads on the utility medium voltage system is not of a loss of an ac feeder, disruption of system
significant in many cases. operation is minimized and transit service can be
maintained at the scheduled headways. As with any
However, this is not always the case. Some US power system, it is the responsibility of the power
transit agencies have their own ac distribution utility to provide protection up to the point of
system, using medium voltage to supply traction common coupling (PCC), and the transit agencys
power substations and auxiliary loads. The ac responsibility is downstream of the PCC as illustrated
distribution system is normally fed from several in Figure 1. In providing ac protection for the
utility sources to mitigate the impact from a partial substations, the transit agency is responsible for
utility outage. This is the case with the Bay Area ensuring that substation protection is coordinated
Rapid Transit District (BART) and Sound Transits with the power utility protection and approved by the
tunnel (ST) systems. In the unique case of the utility.
Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority
(MBTA) system, the agencys power to their 13.8 kV
ac distribution system is distributed from a
centralized location known as South Boston Power
Complex (SBPC). Normally, the SBPC receives
power from NSTARs 115 kV grid, but if necessary,
backup power can be provided from MBTAs own
68 MVA combustion turbine generator.
In the aforementioned ac distribution systems,
the dc substation loads usually present the heaviest
power demand. Due to the nature of transit system Figure 1: Graphical Representation of Power Utility System &
operation, the substation power demand varies Traction Power Substation Interface
rapidly which directly influences the ac load flow.
Consequently, the interactions between the two Transit agencies such as BART, Sound Transit,
systems can only be determined by using a and the MBTA own their ac distribution system; their
comprehensive ac & dc study approach. This paper immunity to partial utility ac outage is attributed to
will present the methodology and tools being applied utility source configuration and associated feeder
to MBTAs distinct distribution system in order to system arrangements that provide a high level of
perform comprehensive ac and dc load-flow, short- redundancy. As an additional level of redundancy,
circuit, and protective relay device coordination the MBTA owns a combustion turbine generator that
studies. can be operated in the event of a major power utility
outage or blackout.
APPLICABILITY TO OTHER AGENCIES
BACKGROUND
While this study is being performed for the
MBTA, the work is also applicable to other transit Over the last 15 years, the MBTAs 13.8 kV
agencies. Agencies that have their own ac distribution system has been steadily expanding and
distribution systems may utilize the approach the traction power load demand has increased
outlined herein as a guide to assess and study their significantly. In addition, new traction power
particular system. substations have been added to the ac network, and
several substation feeding arrangements were

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reconfigured. Furthermore, the short-circuit level at 115 kV/13.8 kV Transformers
the NSTAR PCC with MBTA increased due to a
reconfiguration of the NSTAR substation. As a result, The power from the NSTAR system to the
a new comprehensive system study is required to MBTAs 13.8 kV distribution system is supplied by
understand system impact and ensure continued safe, four (4) National Industries outdoor 115 kV
reliable, and efficient operation of this vital system. (delta)/13.8 kV (wye) step-down 24/32/40 MVA
OA/FA/FA rated transformers. Normally all four (4)
transformers are in service. The neutral points of all
MBTAs SYSTEM CONFIGURATION & four transformers secondary windings are connected
OPERATION to a common grounding resistor.
This section describes the various system
elements of the ac network to provide a general Series Reactors
understanding of the MBTAs distribution system The combustion turbine generator feeders are
which is referred to later in the paper during the equipped with series current-limiting reactors. In the
discussion of the ac and dc analysis. Figure 2 and event that the NSTAR system and the generator are
Figure 3 provide a schematic overview of the both operating in parallel, the reactors are in service
distribution system. In Figure 2, the ac network and limit the short-circuit current at the 13.8 kV bus.
drawing is referred to as the spider diagram due
multiple feeder paths and interconnections to TPSS.
SBPC Switching Station
Power Supply System The 115 kV/13.8 kV transformers and the
13.8 kV MBTA combustion turbine generator supply
The network receives power from two sources: power to the 13.8 kV distribution system via a four-
NSTARs 115 kV transmission system via two bus switchgear arrangement, configured as a
MBTA 115 kV copper pipe-type transmission normally closed ring-bus. The transformers, bus-ties,
cables that supply four 115 kV/13.8 kV step-down and feeder circuit breakers are equipped with full
transformers. protective relaying, as well as local and remote
control capabilities.
MBTAs combustion turbine generator.
The SBPC switching station modes of operation
Under normal operating conditions, the two
are summarized in Table 1.
115 kV cables and the four transformers are in
service supplying the MBTAs 13.8 kV network. The NSTAR 115 kV/13.8 kV
Generator
Generator 13.8 kV Bus
System Transformers Feeder Reactors Arrangement
generator is on cold standby and can be connected to
Both Sources
the system when necessary. In-Service
In-Service Out-of-Service Out-of-Service Ring Bus

Both Sources
In-Service In-Service In-Service Split Bus
South Boston Power Complex (SBPC) In-Service
One Source
In-Service Out-of-Service Out-of-Service Ring Bus
Power Generating Unit In-Service
Both Sources
Out-of-Service In-Service Out-of-Service Ring Bus
The MBTA combustion turbine generator is used Out-of-Service

during an NSTAR system outage and high power Table 1 - The SBPC Switching Station Operation
demand periods when the Independent System
Operator-New England (ISO-NE) requests additional 13.8 kV Distribution Network
capacity support from the MBTA. In this case, the Lincoln Switching Station (LSS)
MBTA can either provide power directly into the
NSTAR system or assist NSTAR by reducing its load The Lincoln Switching Station shown in
requirements. During these requests, all operation Figure 2 is comprised of three-buses and 13.8 kV
and maintenance costs are covered by ISO-NE. In switchgear with two bus-tie circuit breakers. Both
addition, NSTAR and ISO-NE compensate the bus-tie circuit breakers are normally closed. LSS is
Authority for power reserve, black start, and quick an interconnection point for substations and SBPC.
start capability.
Feeder Distribution System
ISO-NE is an organization that oversees the
operation of New Englands bulk electric power The MBTAs 13.8 kV power supply system is a
system and transmission lines generated and complex network of medium voltage distribution
transmitted by its member utilities. MBTA also cables where multiple load and short-circuit current
purchases power on the wholesale market. paths are possible, depending on the system
configuration.

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Figure 2: MBTA AC Cables Spider Diagram

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NSTAR NSTAR
EXTERNAL GRID K STREET EXTERNAL GRID
STATION NO. 385T
WEST BUS 1 WEST BUS 2

21 21
SOUTH BOSTON POWER COMPLEX
115 KV LINE 576-534 115 KV LINE 576-535
1,000 MCM 1,000 MCM
21 21
115 KV BUSBAR NO. 1 115 KV BUSBAR NO. 2
M M M M
300/5 300/5 300/5 300/5
50 50N 50 50N 50 50N 50 50N
51 51N 51 51N 51 51N 51 51N

COMBUSTION TURBINE
GENERATOR
TRANSFORMER TA TRANSFORMER TB 68 MVA, 0.9 PF TRANSFORMER TC TRANSFORMER TD
115 KV/13.8 KV 115 KV/13.8 KV G Xd"=12% 115 KV/13.8 KV 115 KV/13.8 KV
24/32/40 MVA OA/FA/FA 24/32/40 MVA OA/FA/FA 600/5
51 600/5
24/32/40 MVA OA/FA/FA 24/32/40 MVA OA/FA/FA
Z=16.4% 2000/5
Z=16.4% 2000/5
R=1.52 OHMS R1
51
N 2000/5
Z=16.3% 2000/5
Z=16.3%
51 51 51 51
N N 4x1000 kcmil 4x1000 kcmil N N

FEEDER 2 REACTOR
2000/5 600/5 2000/5
51 WITH BY-PASS CB
R2
FEEDER 1 REACTOR 51 2,000 A, X=0.8 OHMS
V R=1.52 OHMS
WITH BY-PASS CB SB 2
2,000 A, X=0.8 OHMS
SB 1
13.8 KV BUS A 2000/5 13.8 KV BUS B 2000/5 13.8 KV BUS C 2000/5 13.8 KV BUS D 2000/5

51 51 51 51
400/5 400/5 600/5 400/5 600/5 400/5 400/5 400/5 400/5 400/5 600/5 400/5 600/5 400/5 400/5 400/5 600/5 400/5 600/5 400/5 400/5 400/5 400/5 400/5 400/5 400/5 400/5 400/5 400/5
67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67

Figure 3: South Boston Power Complex

The distribution network consists of 15 kV Square to Alewife are fed primarily by NSTAR
Paper-Insulated Lead-Covered (PILC) shielded distribution feeders.
copper, three-conductor cable feeders namely:
2/0 AWG cables - aerial
4/0 AWG cables - ductbank system 13.8 KV BUS 1 13.8 KV BUS 2

600 kcmil cables - ductbank system


1,000 kcmil cables - ductbank system
The feeders distribute power from the SBPC TRANSFORMERS EQUIVALENT EQUIVALENT
13.8 kV switching station bus to the traction & RECTIFIERS TRANSFORMER TRANSFORMER

power substations, unit substations and LSS. In M


addition to the multiple 13.8 kV feeder cables P (KW) MODELS OF S (KVA), PF
from SBPC and LSS, there are radial feeders to TOTAL DC
TRACTION
INDIVIDUAL TOTAL AC
MOTORS AUXILIARY
the traction power substations and backup power LOAD LOAD
supply is provided by substation-to-substation Figure 4: Substation Configuration
cross feeders.
Unit Substations
The distribution system is essentially
comprised of numerous feeder loops, where each The unit substations distribute power at
feeder loop supplies several traction power 480 V. Unit substations supply power to many
substations with one or multiple feeder cables. types of loads including tunnel ventilation fan
The meshed nature of the system results in a motors, pumping stations motors, and various
reliable system network, as there generally are auxiliary power systems, such as passenger
multiple paths to supply substation loads in the station loads, signal house loads, and
event of a cable failure or contingency outage. maintenance facilities.

Traction Power Substations STUDY METHODOLOGY


The 13.8 kV ac distribution system supplies The comprehensive ac and dc analysis study
power primarily to 26 TPSS. Each TPSS has an being undertaken incorporates the contribution of
ac switchgear line up that is connected by two or each sub-system that influences the overall
more ac distribution feeders as illustrated in system behavior under normal operation and
Figure 4. The TPSS ac bus also serves the needs short-circuit cases; the process is illustrated in
of unit substations. In the spider diagram, High Figure 5. The objective of the study is to ensure
Street TPSS receives power from both the that the system operates satisfactorily under
MBTAs ac distribution system and NSTAR; normal operating conditions and system outages,
under normal operation, the bus tie breaker is while supplying the increased power demand
open. The TPSS and unit substations from Porter

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resulting from increases in revenue service and Light Rail System
short-circuit levels at NSTAR. Green Line (includes B, C, D & E Lines)
Mattapan Line
Electric Trolley Bus System
Silver Line
Electric Trolley Bus Service in Belmont,
Cambridge and Watertown.

Figure 6: Combined System Traction Power Demand

The dc traction power system loads are


Figure 5: System Development Procedure Flowchart being determined by building models of all the
transit lines in a single database and running
Identify System Elements &Understand schedule scenarios which represent the expected
System Operation loading of the traction power system using
TrainOps simulation software.
In developing a computer model, it is
important to identify the different elements of the The advantages of this approach are:
power system, understand their operational
Identification of peak loads in the rapidly
behavior and interaction within the system
variable load profile of each substation.
network. The system operational characteristics
are essential in defining simulation scenarios for Capture possible future load increases due to
the various studies. train service operations and schedule
enhancements.
Determination of System Loads Capture combined load demand for substations
on the system that provide power to more than
DC Load Flow Study - TPSS Demands one transit line.
The traction power system loads fluctuate Effectively present coincident, non-coincident
highly as shown in Figure 6. This is the result of and variable loads.
abrupt, impulse-like changes in the power The simulations capture the traction power
requirements of trains, as they accelerate, substation loads during the peak period of
decelerate, or as they encounter or leave track operation. The peak values are obtained in one
grades and other civil elements. The magnitude second intervals. Substation loads can be
and frequency of the train power requirements expressed as coincident, non-coincident, or
increase during peak periods of operation. variable.
The following transit lines are part of the During normal system operation, the peak
MBTA ac distribution network: loads occur at different times. Summarizing all
Rapid Transit System (Heavy Rail) the TPSS peak loads on the system is referred to
Red Line as the non-coincident load. Using non-coincident
Blue Line loads is considered an unrealistic and overly
Orange Line conservative assumption since these are the peak

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values that occur at different times. In addition, are entered into the software as power versus
the sum of all the non-coincident loads in the time characteristics.
system will be significantly higher than the sum
of the coincident loads.
Understanding how much load is present at
any given time is referred to as the coincident
load. The coincident load is what the ac
distribution system will see as a maximum at any
given time.
The coincident loads are realistic and
utilized as an input to the ac model. For
coincident load determination, the individual
TPSS loads are based at the time when the entire
system load is peak. The coincident and non- Figure 8: Generator Supplying Demand of Entire System
coincident loads are compared in Figure 7. In
Figure 7 the total coincident and non-coincident Ventilation Shaft and Pumping Station
loads are 50 MW and 105 MW, respectively.
The ventilation shaft and pumping station
loads are being determined by collecting the fan
motor, pump motor and transformer ratings. The
ventilation shaft and pumping station motors in
each facility are represented by an equivalent
circuit of each induction motor. The individual
induction motors are connected to an equivalent
transformer that is connected to the 13.8 kV
busbars.
During normal operation, each motor exerts
a load on the system. In the case of short circuit,
the motors operate as a source of current to the
Figure 7: Coincident and Non-coincident Loads short circuit. The contribution to the short circuit
is typically for a few cycles until the rotor flux
Variable loads (time-varying loads) reduces to zero.
represent the most realistic loading profile.
Variable loads are particularly suitable for the In determining loads to be used in the load-
evaluation of loading levels of equipment such flow study, it is important to review the
as generators, transformers, cables and frequency of operation of the various fan and
estimation of the time duration a particular type pump motors based on either historical data or
of equipment may be overloaded. The generator standard operation procedures of equipment.
power demand under particularly onerous Alternatively, all motors can be included for the
conditions, when supplying the traction power worst case loading situation.
loads, ventilation fan motors and pump motors,
is illustrated in Figure 8. The diagram also shows Auxiliary Power System
the base, peak, and emergency ratings of the gas The auxiliary power system loads are being
turbines for comparison. determined by collecting the auxiliary power
In DIgSILENT PowerFactory (ac demands in the substations, and are expressed as
software), this type of simulation is called quasi- the real power demand (kW) and related power
dynamic simulation. It has the ability to factor. The individual auxiliary system loads are
represent loads as a time-varying function, rather lumped and supplied via an equivalent
than a single value. This is particularly transformer connected to the 13.8 kV busbars.
advantageous when representing traction power There are two types of loads, intermittent
loads, as the load in each substation varies and continuous. With intermittent loads, such as
independently with time. The individual elevators, loading occurs at various irregular
substation time-varying loads are obtained from intervals. These types of loads are generally not
the DC load flow simulation of the system and included. Continuous loads are loads that are

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always in operation, such as signal loads, station acceptable value.
loads including lighting, concessionaire stores,
In this context, normal equipment operation
and escalators. The continuous loads are
is defined as follows:
generally included in the model.
The maximum load current should not exceed
AC Load Flow Study the feeder ampacity, circuit breaker continuous
rating, or transformer rated current.
The load-flow studies calculations are being
conducted for the following purposes: The voltage level at any substation bus should
not fall below 95% of nominal voltage.
Calculate load currents in all cables and circuit
breakers; confirm that ampacities of cables AC Load Flow Study - Schedule of Studies
and the continuous current ratings of circuit
breakers are not exceeded. The following studies are being performed:
Identify cables and circuit breakers where All Systems in Service. The system is
ampacity or continuous current rating is simulated under normal operating conditions
nearing its rating or exceeding it. with all systems in service. This will become
Calculate voltage values for all buses in the the base case, serving as the system
system and verify bus voltage levels do not reference when evaluating the subsequent
violate the established study criterion. contingency simulations. Two alternative base
configurations are considered:
Identify buses with voltage values below Primary feed from the NSTAR system
minimums established in the study criterion. Primary feed from the MBTA combustion
Check the settings of instantaneous elements turbine generator
of directional feeder relays. In the event of Systems Contingency Conditions. The
high load transfer associated with opening and contingency simulations allow one to
closing of circuit breakers under load, a investigate the system performance under
polarization error may occur causing the relay equipment outage conditions, including:
to operate unintentionally.
SBPC 115 kV/13.8 kV transformer outage
A typical power utility system study takes Various distribution feeder cable outages
into consideration the performance of the system (single and double contingencies)
under both normal operating conditions, when all
equipment is in service, and operation under a The contingency studies are specifically
single contingency condition, when a single item selected to produce the highest feeder loading
of equipment is out of service. A typical single and/or the lowest bus voltage using the following
item out of service may be a cable feeder, a considerations (incremental steps):
transformer or any distribution system element. Outage of the heaviest-loaded feeder in order
In the case of a transit system, a more strict to break the highest supply source to a
study criterion should be applied rather than substation or a loop.
what is normally applied to a typical utility Outage of the next heaviest-loaded feeder to
system since a significant portion of the transit create even higher loading on the heaviest-
system is underground and elevated. loaded feeder.
Furthermore, power outages could represent a Outage of a feeder supplying a bus with an
public safety issue to passengers. A combination already marginal voltage level to cause an
of single and double contingency outage even lower voltage condition on the bus.
simulations are being used for the load-flow
study. This will allow for the possibility of a
Short-Circuit Study
fault occurring while another item of equipment
has been switched out of service for repair or The short-circuit studies are being
maintenance. The system under single performed for the following reasons:
contingency and double contingency
Verify that the interrupting and momentary
conditions should operate normally; that is, the
(close and latch) current ratings of the circuit
system equipment loadings should be within the
breakers are not exceeded, as well as identify
equipments ratings, and the substation bus
circuit breakers where the short-circuit duties
voltages should remain above the minimum
are at or near their ratings.

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Use the various scenarios to calculate the Protective Relay Setting Study
maximum and minimum short-circuit current
The protective system includes both bi-
levels for relay coordination purposes. The
directional and directional over-current relays of
maximum momentary r.m.s current and the
various characteristics. The majority of the relays
30-cycle current are used to set instantaneous
are electro-mechanical; however, the newer
and over current relays, respectively.
substations use modern, solid-state
Circuit breaker evaluations are determined microprocessor-based multifunction relays.
as recommended by the ANSI/IEEE C37.04, .06,
.010 series of standards. Rectifier Transformer Protection
The phase-fault and ground-fault relays
Short-Circuit Study - Schedule of Studies protect the rectifier transformers from overload,
The short-circuit types considered are three- phase-fault, and ground-fault short-circuit
phase, phase-to-phase and phase-to-ground. The current conditions and provide backup protection
purpose of the short-circuit studies is to: to the dc distribution system protective relays
downstream. Therefore, the rectifier transformer
Determine the maximum short-circuit currents primary winding relays need to be set and time-
under the appropriate system operating coordinated with the dc relays. In addition, the
conditions with all circuits in service and rectifier transformer relays need to coordinate
under single contingency conditions with with the rectifier diode fuses.
maximum short-circuit current infeed out of
service. Infeed is the current contribution to a To develop the rectifier transformer
fault made by sources, lines, transformers and protective relay settings, the following data
generators. should be depicted on the protective relay
coordination chart:
Determine the minimum short-circuit currents
under normal system operating conditions with Rectifier transformer and its associated
all circuits in service. rectifier full load current.
The three types of faults used to set relays Rectifier transformer and its associated
are: rectifier overload characteristic.
o Three-phase faults to set phase fault Rectifier transformer damage curve.
relay settings Rectifier transformer inrush current.
o Phase-to-phase faults to set -GY Rectifier single diode leg and combined diode
connected transformer phase-fault legs fuse characteristics.
relay settings
The protective relay settings should be
o Phase-to-ground faults to set ground- chosen to achieve the following:
fault relay settings
Allow flow of the transformer inrush current
The three-phase and phase-to-ground short- upon energization, typically eight-to-ten times
circuit studies are being performed to establish the full load current, lasting for approximately
the highest short-circuit current flow through a 0.1 seconds.
particular element of protected equipment, as the
fastest relay operation occurs at the highest Protect the rectifier transformer and its
current. The following are used to obtain the associated rectifier against overload currents
highest short-circuit current in the equipment: taking into account the transformer overload
characteristic.
Simulation of equipment which contributes the
Protect the transformer against damage, taking
maximum short-circuit current to the fault or
into account the transformer damage curve.
the maximum infeed being out-of-service.
Allow fuse operation for rectifier internal
In a loop circuit, opening the loop at one end
faults.
by a circuit breaker.
Clear the transformer following internal faults.
In compliance with the ANSI C37-approved
method, all short-circuit studies are performed
with unity pre-fault voltage and zero short-circuit
impedance.

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Feeder & Bus Tie Protection bus outgoing relays. The bus-tie protective relay
should coordinate with the slowest bus outgoing
For the feeder directional relays with their
feeder relay.
operating direction pointing to SBPC, their
overcurrent settings can be set low since the
115 kV/13.8 kV Transformer Relay Settings
power flow is from SBPC, which is in the non-
operating direction of these relays and, as a The phase-fault and ground-fault relays
result, these relays will not be sensitive to loads. protect the transformers from excessive
The relays along the loops will be set to overloads, as well as phase-fault and ground-
coordinate with these relays. fault short-circuit conditions.
The feeder directional relays need to be set These transformers will have settings based
as they relate to each loop. Typically, the loop is on conditions similar to other transformers in the
broken at one end by opening a circuit breaker system; therefore, the protective relay settings
and the relays are set around the loop, away from should be chosen to achieve the following:
the opened circuit breaker. Then, the open circuit
breaker is closed, and the circuit breaker at the Allow flow of the transformer inrush current
other end of the loop is opened and the process is upon energization, typically eight-to-ten times
repeated. A typical loop is shown in Figure 9. the full load current, lasting for approximately
0.1 seconds.
Protect the transformer against overload
SBPC
BUS C
SBPC
BUS D
SBPC
BUS A
LSS
BUS 3
currents as specified by the transformer
overload characteristic.
9 10 6 7 Protect the transformer against damage, taking
67 67 67 67 into account the transformer damage curve.
0-50-1 0-50-2 0-12-2 0-12-1 0-12-3 Clear the transformer following internal faults.
1 2 8 5 3 4
67 67 67
Generator Relay Settings
67 67 67
The phase-fault and ground-fault
50 12
overcurrent relays protect the combustion turbine
WTC AQUARIUM
generator from excessive overload, phase-fault
Figure 9: World Trade Center Substation (WTC) Loop and ground-fault short-circuit conditions. In
Relays, Feeders and Substations
general, a simple time-overcurrent relay cannot
The feeder phase-fault (67) and ground-fault be set to provide adequate backup protection. A
relays (67N) protect the substation-to-substation steady-state fault current for a three-phase fault
feeders and substation-to-substation cross- may result in generator current magnitudes less
feeders from overload, phase-fault and ground- than the full-load current of the generator;
fault short-circuit current conditions and provide however, the fault will cause the generator
backup protection to the feeder and substation terminal voltage to drop significantly. In order
protective relays downstream. for an overcurrent relay to detect and operate on
uncleared system faults, two types of phase-fault
The feeder protective relay settings should overcurrent relays are used:
be chosen to achieve the following:
Voltage-controlled relays- The voltage-
Allow for the feeder cold load pickup upon controlled (51/27C) feature allows the relay to
cable circuit power restoration after a lengthy be set below the rated current, and the
outage. operation is blocked (inhibited) until the
Protect the feeder against damage. The relay voltage falls below the pre-set voltage.
characteristic curve should be set below the Voltage-restrained relays- The voltage-
intermediate overload and short-circuit restrained (51/27R) feature causes the pick-up
damage curves of the cable. value to decrease with reducing voltage.
Clear the feeder on internal faults. Both types of relays are designed to restrain
Allow coordination with the slowest-operating operation under emergency overload conditions
relay at the downstream substation. and still provide adequate sensitivity for the
detection of faults.
The phase-fault and ground-fault bus-tie
relays at SBPC provide backup protection for the

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Sequence of Relay Settings systems when performing load-flow, short-
circuit and protective relay device coordination
The aforementioned protective relay settings
studies as outlined in this paper is recommended.
philosophy was developed for the study for all
In addition, this approach is also suitable for
relays in the MBTA system, including feeder
evaluation of the impact of traction loads on
relays, bus-tie relays, transformer relays, and
power utility systems.
generator relays.
The heavily interconnected MBTA network SOFTWARE TOOLS
configuration may be considered as a
combination of distinctive radial feeder TrainOps. The dc traction power system
connections and feeder loops. The following loads are being calculated using the LTK-
general procedure is followed in the protective developed TrainOps software. TrainOps is a
relay settings: comprehensive, state-of-the-art train operations
and electrification system modeling and
The loops are set first. simulation software.
Once all loop relays are set, each bus-tie relay The software models the entire traction
is set to coordinate with the slowest relay on electrification system, including the impedance
either bus section of the bus-tie. of the power supply utility system, traction
Finally, the SBPC transformer relays and the power substations, and the traction power
generator relays are set to coordinate with the distribution and return systems. The power
slowest bus-tie relay. distribution and return systems are modeled
separately, enabling representation of multiple
The above procedure is the generally
power distribution conductors; i.e., parallel
accepted method for relay setting. However, on a
cables, and return system bonding and cross
cautionary note, in an extensively interconnected
bonding.
network such as the MBTAs, there may be
occasions, such as multiple feeder outage The software computes the essential values
scenarios, where ideal relay coordination may of the traction power system using parameters of
not be achieved and a compromise may be the system operation, including train and running
necessary. In these circumstances, the preferred rail voltage profiles along the alignment,
alternative will depend on the necessary distribution system currents, catenary and third
personnel protection, equipment damage and the rail conductor operating temperatures, substation
effect on the system operation. power demands, and substation energy
consumptions. The software models the full
CONCLUSION POTENTIAL interaction between the system and associated
APPLICABILITY TO OTHER train voltage variation with the rolling stock
TRANSIT SYSTEMS performance.

Transit systems are considered critical PowerFactory. PowerFactory software by


infrastructure. During the Northeast Blackout of DIgSILENT is being used for the ac load-flow
1965, the MBTA was the only system operating and short-circuit studies. The software is capable
on the entire East coast [8]. Some transit of modeling 1-, 2-, and 3-wire ac networks with
agencies, such as NJ Transit, have commenced neutrals, grounding conductors, and dc networks.
studies into building a more resilient system to The networks can be mesh or radial of any
minimize crippling effects, such as the one complexity, balanced or unbalanced, including
caused by Superstorm Sandy. The State of New harmonics.
Jersey is collaborating with the U.S. Department
of Energy to design NJ TransitGrid - a first-of- In addition to standard power devices, the
its-kind electrical microgrid capable of supplying software can also represent special equipment,
highly-reliable power during storms or other such as Static VAr compensators (SVCs),
times when the traditional centralized grid is rectifiers, wind generators, fuel cells, and energy
compromised [9]. As ac/dc transit agencies storage devices.
consider microgrid installations and existing ac
distribution systems experience load growth or
system changes, the collaborative approach in
analyzing both transit power demands into the ac

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REFERENCES assignments of varying complexities and
1. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, durations. The projects included system studies,
Electrical Transmission and Distribution preliminary designs, final designs, and
Reference Book, Fourth Edition: Eighth construction-related services. His main areas of
Printing, 1964. interest include modeling and simulation of ac-
and dc-powered transportation systems,
2. Southwire Company, Power Cable investigation of electrification impact on power
Manual, 4th Edition, 2005. utility transmission and distribution systems,
3. Okonite Company, Engineering application of protective relay settings, and
Handbook, 3/2011. energy storage device applications.
4. IEEE Std. 242, IEEE Recommended
Practice for Protection and Coordination Michael K. Fitzgerald is a Project Manager
of Industrial and Commercial Power with the Massachusetts Bay Transportation
Systems (Buff Book) Authority. Over his 5 years with the Authority,
5. IEEE Std. 399, IEEE Recommended Michael has held the positions of Deputy
Practice for Industrial and Commercial Director of Power and Superintendent of
Power Systems Analysis (Brown Book) Transmission and Distribution. In addition to his
responsibilities of directing a large workforce to
6. IEEE Std. 551, Calculating Short-Circuit maintain and repair the Power Network, he also
Currents in Industrial and Commercial oversaw the implementation of the $200 million
Power Systems (Violet Book) Capital Improvement Program for the Power
7. IEEE Std. C37.04, .06, .010, High Voltage Systems Maintenance Division. In Michaels
Circuit Breaker Rating current position, he has oversight of the Orange
8. Boston Sites and Insights: An Essential Line Traction Power Substation Upgrades, South
Guide to Historic Landmarks In and Around Boston Switching Station Jet Control Upgrade,
Boston by Susan Wilson South Boston Switching Station 24/32/40 MVA
9. https://www.njtransit.com/tm/tm_servlet.srv Transformer replacement and the ac Power Load
?hdnPageAction=PressReleaseTo&PRESS_ Flow Study. Prior to joining the MBTA, Michael
RELEASE_ID=2884 held supervisory positions for 8 years in the
Power and Operations Departments at Verizon
Communications. Michael holds a Bachelors
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
degree in Electrical Engineering from the
Richard N. Rauceo is a staff consultant University of Massachusetts Lowell, and a
specializing in traction power systems with LTK Masters degree in Administrative Studies from
Engineering Services based in the Boston, Boston College.
Massachusetts office. He holds a Bachelors
degree in Electrical Engineering from Drexel John A. Martin is currently the Director of the
University and Masters of Science degree in Power Systems Maintenance Division of the
Systems Engineering from Missouri University MBTA in Boston, Massachusetts. He has over
of Science and Technology. Richard has over 6 30 years experience in electrical construction and
years of experience in traction electrification generation. John is a 19 year veteran of the
systems. Richard has worked extensively in MBTA Power Division with expertise in
traction power design and construction-related electrical maintenance and construction, and has
services. He is an expert in traction power held positions of electrician, foreperson, and
system simulation and modeling of ac and dc project manager. John is a veteran of the United
power systems for light rail, streetcar, electric States Air Force who has worked as project lead
trolley bus, rapid transit and commuter rail on power plant installations, turbine overhauls,
systems. radar and navigation systems, and antennae
units.
Tristan A. Kneschke is a senior electrical
engineer with LTK Engineering Services, a rail
transit consulting firm headquartered in Ambler,
Pennsylvania. He holds B.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees
in Electrical Engineering from University of
Sussex, UK. Over his 25-year association with
LTK, Tristan has participated in more than 100

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