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Dar es Salaam institute of Technology (DIT

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ET 7308 Introduction to Communication System Ally, J jumannea@gmail.com

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Course Outline
Principle of Communication System, Types of signal characteristics and reason for modulation Analogue Modulation Angle Modulation Digital Coding Digital Modulation Errors

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Analogue Modulation

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Introduction to Modulation
Definitions
Analog modulation
Both the message signal and the transmitted signal are analog signals Two classes: amplitude modulation, angle modulation

Three signals:
Message signal: the information signal to be modulated and transmitted Carrier signal c(t) : high frequency sinusoidal signal Modulated signal: the signal to be transmitted, or the signal obtained after modulation

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Modulation
It is the process of facilitating the transfer of information over a medium. This is done by changing one or more the parameters of a signal including power, frequency, phase and amplitude depending on the requirement of the transmission system.

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Base band and band pass signals
Baseband, Passband
Baseband: refers to the signals and systems before modulation, which have frequencies/bandwidth much lower than the carrier frequency Passband: refers to the signals and systems after (including) modulation, which have frequencies/bandwidth around the carrier frequency Baseband signal: is usually the message signal Passband signal: is usually the modulated signal, or transmitted signal

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Base band and band pass signals

Base band signal is the original signal having the original frequencies when delivered by transmitters. In base band communication, signals are transmitted without modulation. Band pass signal is a signal which is modulated by one of the modulation schemes.

Demodulation is the process of extracting the baseband message from the carrier so that it may be processed and interpreted by the intended receiver

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Message signal m(t) modifies:
Amplitude: A(t ) AM linear modulation φ (t ) Phase: PM Non-linear modulation Frequency: f (t) = dφ(t) dt FM Example Compare signal waveforms
10 carrier

8 message signal

6 AM signal 4

2

0

FM signal −2 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

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Concept of Modulation

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Checkpoints for studying each modulation
Modulated signal (time-domain) Spectrum (frequency-domain) Parameters: bandwidth, power, etc Modulator and demodulator (Principles, block diagrams or circuits) Major properties (advantages/disadvantages over other modulations)

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List of modulation methods we will learn
Amplitude modulation methods and applications 1. AM (amplitude modulation): AM radio, short wave radio broadcast, 2. DSBSC (double sideband suppressed carrier AM): data modem, Color TV’s color signals 3. SSB (single sideband AM): telephone 4. VSB (vestigial sideband AM): TV picture signal Angle modulation methods and applications 1. FM (frequency modulation): FM radio broadcast, TV sound signal, analog cellular phone 2. PM (phase modulation): not widely used, except in digital communication systems (but that is different)

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Amplitude Modulation (AM)
AM (conventional amplitude modulation) Amplitude Modulation (AM) is the one which the amplitude of a sinusoidal carrier is varied in accordance with an incoming message signal Modulated signal Carrier: Message signal: m(t) AM modulated signal

where ka, is a constant called the amplitude sensitivity of the modulator responsible for the generation of the modulated signal s(t).

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Time-Domain description
The standard form of an AM wave is defined by The amplitude of the time function multiplying cos 2πf c t is called the envelope of AM wave s(t). The envelope of s(t) has essentially the same shape as the baseband signal m(t) provided that two requirements are satisfied: 1. The amplitude of is always less than unity, that is, for all t 2. The carrier frequency fc, is much greater than the highest frequency component W (message bandwidth) of the message signal m(t), that is (a) Baseband signal m(t) (b) AM wave for (c) AM wave for

(

)

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Frequency-Domain description
The Fourier transform of the AM wave s(t) is given by

(a) Spectrum of baseband signal

(b) Spectrum of AM wave

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Generation of AM Waves
Multipliers difficult to build in hardware AM waves typically generated using a nonlinear device to obtain the desired multiplication Square law modulator sums carrier c(t) and information m(t) signals, then squares them using a nonlinear device. Unwanted terms are filtered out with a bandpass filter. Switched modulation sums c(t) and m(t) then passes sum through a switch, which approximately multiplies it by a periodic square wave. This generates the desired signal plus extra terms that are filtered out. Accos(2πfct+φ)
m(t) s(t)

+

Square or Switch

BPF

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Modulation Index
The degree of modulation is an important parameter and is known as the modulation index. It is the ratio of the peak amplitude of the modulating signal, Am to the peak amplitude of the carrier signal, Ac

(a) Under Modulation (ka < 1)

Am ka = Ac

(b) Ideal Modulation (ka = 1)

(c) Over Modulation (ka > 1)

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http://www.williamson-labs.com/480_am.htm

Over Modulation

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Detection of AM waves
There are two devices for the detection of AM waves, namely, the square-law detector and the envelope detector Square law detector, squares signal and then passes it through a LPF Residual distortion proportional to m2(t) Non-coherent (carrier phase not needed in RX) Envelope detection simple alternative method
Ac cos(2πf ct + φ )

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Explanation

Diode D1 cut the negative portion of AM signal s(t) When signal after D1 is positive, C is charged. When signal after D2 is 0, C is discharged. Overall effect: y(t) remains approximately as the envelope of s(t) m(t) can be detected from y(t) using capacitor to remove d.c.1.

Very important: this is Envelope Detector.

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Bandwidth of AM signal

BT = 2W

AM signal’s bandwidth is twice message bandwidth This is also transmitted signal bandwidth, or required minimum channel bandwidth Bc Negative frequency contents of m(t) becomes visible in positive frequency Upper sideband (USB): Lower sideband (LSB):
fc ≤ f ≤ f c +W
fc −W ≤ f ≤ fc

Transmission power:

PT = PM + Pcarrier = PUSB + PLSB + Pcarrier

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Normalized Average Power of AM signals
The normalized average power of the AM signal is

s

2

(t )

1 1 2 2 1 = = g (t ) A c2 [ + m (t )] 2 2 1 = A c2 1 + 2 m (t ) + m 2 (t ) 2 1 1 = A c2 + A c2 m (t ) + A c2 m 2 (t ) 2 2

[

]

If the modulation contains no dc level, then The normalized power of the AM signal is

m (t ) = 0

s

2

(t )

1 2 = Ac + 2
Discrete carrier power

1 2 A c m 2 (t ) 2
Sideband power

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AM – Modulation Efficiency
Definition : The modulation efficiency is the percentage of the total power of the modulated signal that conveys information. Only “Sideband Components” – Convey information Modulation Efficiency:

E=

m 2 (t ) 1 + m (t )
2

× 100

Highest efficiency for a 100% AM signal : 50% - square wave modulation Voltage Spectrum of the AM signal:

Ac [δ ( f − f c ) + M ( f − f c ) + δ ( f + f c ) + M ( f + f c )] S( f ) = 2
Carrier line spectral component Translated version of message signal

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Major Properties of AM
Advantages
Simplicity in implementation, especially in receiver and transmitter
The major reason that AM was the first & most popular broadcasting methods during early days

Disadvantages
Waste power and bandwidth
Carrier components wastes a major portion power, but carrier does not have message information Both USB and LSB are transmitted, which carry the same message information

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Ways for AM improvement
To enhance power efficiency
Reduce/remove carrier: DSB-SC Remove one/partial sideband: SSB, VSB

To enhance bandwidth efficiency
Remove one/partial sideband: SSB, VSB Multiplex two message signals together: QAM

Cost for the improvement
More expensive implementation The simple envelope detector is no longer applicable

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Double-Sideband Suppressed-carrier (DSB-SC)
In the standard form of Amplitude Modulation (AM), the carrier wave c(t) is completely independent of the message signal m(t), which means that the transmission of the carrier wave represents a waste of power.

To overcome this shortcoming , we may suppress the carrier component from the modulated wave, resulting in double-sideband suppressed carrier (DSB-SC) modulation.

Thus, by suppressing the carrier, we obtain a modulated wave that is proportional to the product of the carrier wave and the message signal.

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Time-Domain Description
The standard form of a DSB-SC wave is defined by

s(t ) = c(t )m(t )
s (t ) = Ac cos (2πf c t )m (t )
This modulated wave undergoes a phase reversal whenever the message signal m(t) crosses zero, as illustrated in figure below

(a) Baseband signal

(b) DSB-SC modulated wave

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Frequency-Domain Description
The Fourier transform of the DSB-SC wave s(t) is given by

(a) Spectrum of message signal

(b) Spectrum of DSB-SC modulated wave

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Generation of DSB-SC Waves
A DSB-SC modulated wave consists simply of the product of the message signal and the carrier wave. A device achieving this requirement is called a Product Modulator. Remove inefficient constant term Modulated signal is

Can also use ring modulator: diodes and inductors

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Coherent Detection of DSB-SC Modulated Wave
The baseband signal m(t) can be uniquely recovered from a DSBSC wave s(t) by first multiplying s(t) with a locally generated sinusoidal wave and then low-pass filtering the product It is assumed that the local oscillator output is exactly coherent or synchronized, in both frequency and phase, with the carrier wave c(t) used in the product modulator to generate s(t). This method of demodulation is known as coherent detection or synchronous detection.

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Coherent Detection of DSB-SC Modulated Wave-2
We find that the product modulator output is:

The first term represents a DSB-SC modulated signal with a carrier frequency 2fc, whereas the second term is proportional to the baseband signal m(t). the first term is removed by the low-pass filter, this requirement is satisfied by choosing fc > W. At the filter output we then obtain a signal given by

The demodulated signal is therefore proportional to m(t) when the phase error is a constant.

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Coherent Detection of DSB-SC Modulated Wave-3
The amplitude of this demodulated signal is maximum when and it is minimum (zero) when As long as the phase error is constant, the detector provides an undistorted version of the original baseband signal m(t). In practice, however, we usually find that the phase error varies randomly with time, due to random variations in the communication channel. The result is that at the detector output, the multiplying factor cos φ also varies randomly with time, which is obviously undesirable. Therefore, provision must be made in the system to maintain the local oscillator in the receiver in perfect synchronism, in both frequency and phase, with the carrier wave used to generate the DSB-SC modulated signal in the transmitter. The resulting system complexity is the price that must be paid for suppressing the carrier wave to save transmitter power.

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Costas Loop (DSB-SC Demodulator)
Goal: Maintain

∆φ ≈ ο
1 cosφm(t ) 2

cos (2πf c t + φ )

Ac cos (2πf c t )m(t )

sin (2πf c t + φ )
1 sin φm(t ) 2

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Costas Loop
One method of obtaining a practical synchronous receiver system, suitable for demodulating DSB-SC waves, is to use the Costas loop. This receiver consists of two coherent detectors supplied with the same input signal, namely, the incoming DSB-SC wave Accos(2πfct)m(t), but with individual local oscillator signals that are in phase quadrature with respect to each other. The frequency of the local oscillator is adjusted to be the same as the carrier frequency fc, which is assumed known a priori. The detector in the upper path is referred to as the in-phase coherent detector or I-channel, and that in the lower path is referred to as the quadrature-phase coherent detector or Q-channel. These two detectors are coupled together to form a negative feedback system designed in such a way as to maintain the local oscillator synchronous with the carrier wave.

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Double Side Band Suppressed Carrier
Power in a AM signal is given by

s 2 (t ) =

1 2 1 2 2 Ac + Ac m (t ) 2 2
Sideband power

Discrete carrier power

Discrete carrier power can be eliminated (Suppressing carrier )if m(t) is assumed to have a zero DC level Then

s (t ) = Ac m(t ) cos ωc t
Power

Spectrum A S ( f ) = c [M ( f − f c ) + M ( f + f c )] 2

s 2 (t ) =
m 2 (t ) m (t )
2

1 2 2 Ac m (t ) 2
×100 = 100%

Since no power is wasted in carrier the efficiency is

E=

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Noise in AM Receivers
White Gaussian noise (AWGN) n(t) s(t)=Accos(2πfct+φ)m(t) + LPF
1
-B B

Product Modulator

m´(t)+ n´(t)

Accos(2πfct+φ) Power in s(t) is 0.5Ac2Pm Power in n(t) is N0B SNR=Pm/Pn= Ac2Pm/(2N0B)= Ps/(N0B) (SNR at the receiver input) Power in m′(t) is 0.25Ac2Pm (half the power in s(t)) Power in n′(t) is 0.5N0B (PSD 0.25N0 over BW 2B) SNR=Pm´/Pn´= Ac2Pm/(2N0B)= Ps/(N0B) (SNR at the receiver output)

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Single-SideBand (SSB) Modulation
Standard AM and DSB-SC Modulation are wasteful of bandwidth because they both require a transmission bandwidth equal to twice message the message bandwidth. This means that insofar as the transmission of information is concerned, only one sideband is necessary, and no information is lost. Thus the channel needs to provide only the same bandwidth as the message signal, a conclusion that is intuitively satisfying. When only one sideband is transmitted, the modulation is referred to as single-sideband modulation

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Single Sideband Modulation(2)
Only transmits upper or lower sideband of AM and DSBSC The transmitted signal can be written in terms m(t) and the Hilbert Transform of m(t) Use same demodulator as DSBSC SSB has half the SNR of DSBSC for half the transmit power: no SNR gain SSB can introduce significant distortion at DC where the sidebands meet: not good for TV signals
A s ( t ) = c [ m ( t ) cos( 2 π f c t + φ ) ± m h ( t ) sin( 2 π f c t + φ )] 2
USB
M(f) USB LSB

LSB

-B

B

-fc

0

fc

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Baseband Representation of Modulated Signals
Baseband signal representation is a compact way to represent passband signals. All passband signals at carrier frequency fc can be written as s(t) = sI(t) cos(2fct) + sQ(t) sin(2fct). sI(t) is called the in-phase signal component; sQ(t) is called the quadrature signal component. The sine and cosine are orthogonal signals, can be used to separate out the in-phase and quadrature components from s(t). We define Then analyze passband signals. as the baseband signal representation. which is a compact way to represent and

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Generating of SSB modulated wave by phase discrimination method
The phase discrimination method of generating an SSB modulated wave involves two separate simultaneous modulation processes and subsequent combination of the resulting modulation products. The system uses two product modulators, I and Q, supplied with carrier waves in phase quadrature to each other. The incoming baseband signal m(t) is applied to product modulator I, producing a modulated DSBSC wave that contains reference phase sidebands symmetrically spaced about carrier frequency fc. The hilbert transform mh(t) of m(t) is applied to product modulator Q, producing DSBSC modulated wave that containssideband having identical amplitude spectra to those of modulator I, but with phase spectra such that vector addition or subtraction of the two modulator outputs results in cancellation of one setof sidebands and reinforcement of the other set. The use of plus sign yields SSB wave with only the upper sideband, whereas the use of minus sign yields SSB wave with only upper sideband.

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Block diagram for generating of SSB modulated wave by phase discrimination method

Ac cos(2πf c t )

Ac sin (2πf c t )

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Demodulation of SSB wave
To recover the baseband signal m(t) from the SSB wave s(t), we have to shift the spectrum by the amounts −+ f c so as to convert the transmitted sideband back into the baseband signal. This can be accomplished using coherent detection, which involves applying the SSB wave s(t), together with locally generated carrier cos(2πf ct ), assumed to be of unit amplitude for convenience, to a product modulator and then low-pass filtering the modulator output.

,

cos(2πf ct )

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Demodulation of SSB wave (2)
The product modulator output is given by v(t ) = cos(2πf c t )s(t ) 1 ~ = Ac cos(2πf c t )[m(t ) cos(2πf c t ) ± m(t )sin(2πf c t )] 2 1 1 ~ = Ac m(t ) + Ac [m(t ) cos(4πf c t ) m m(t )sin(4πf c t )] 4 4 The first term is the desired message signal. The second term represents an unwanted components in the product modulator output that is removed by low-pass filtering. The detection of SSB modulated waves assume perfect synchronization between the local carrier and that in the transmitter both in frequency and phase. The effect of a phase error Ф in the locally generated carrier wave is to modify the detector output as follows 1 1 ~ vo (t ) = Ac m(t ) cosφ m Ac m(t )sinφ
4 4

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Demodulation of SSB wave (2)
Owing to the phase error Ф, the detector output vo(t) contains not only the message signal m(t) but also its Hilbert transform mh(t). Consequently, the detector output suffers from phase distortion. This phase distortion is usually not serious with voice communications because the human ear is relatively insensitive to phase distortion. In the transmission of music and video signals, on the other hand, phase distortion in the form of a constant phase difference in all components can be intolerable.

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Implementation Issues and Superheterodyne Receivers
Envelope detectors tailored to a given frequency fc
In AM radio the carrier frequency changes

In DSBSC and SSB the local oscillator can radiate out the receiver front end and cause self-interference Fix these problems by IF processing
Downconvert the signal to an intermediate frequency (IF) Do demodulation/filtering at IF No reradiation and envelope detector or filter can be optimized for IF rather than a variable carrier Structure is called a superheterodyne receiver (used in most analog and digital radio today)

Current technology moving to direct conversion
Fewer parts and less power consumption

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Vestigial Side-Band (VSB) Modulation
Single-sideband modulation is well-suited for the transmission of voice because of the energy gap that exists in the spectrum of voice signals between zero and a few hundred hertz. When the message signal contains significant components at extremely low frequencies i.e. television signals, the upper and lower sidebands meet at the carrier frequency. This means SSB modulation is inappropriate for the transmission of television signals. This difficulty suggests another scheme known as vestigial sideband modulation (VSB), which is a compromise between SSB and DSBSC modulation.

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Vestigial Sideband
VSB is similar to SSB but it retains a small portion (a vestige) of the undesired sideband to reduce DC distortion. Transmits USB or LSB and vestige of other sideband
USB

Reduces bandwidth by roughly a factor of 2 VSB signals are generated using standard AM or DSBSC modulation, then passing modulated signal through a band-pass filter i.e. it is the special design of the band-pass filter that distinguishes VSB modulation from SSB modulation. Demodulation uses either standard AM or DSBSC demodulation VSB used for image transmission in TV signals

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Generation of VSB modulated wave
The transmission bandwidth of VSB modulation is given by where W is the message bandwidth, and f, is the width of the vestigial sideband To generate a VSB modulated wave, we pass a DSBSC modulated wave through a sideband shaping filter. The exact design of this filter depends on the desired spectrum of the VSB modulated wave. the VSB modulated wave is described in the time domain as A A s(t ) = c m(t ) cos(2πf ct ) − c mQ (t )sin(2πf ct ) 2 2 This is the desired representation representation for a VSB modulated wave containing a vestige of the lower sideband. The component 0.5Acm(t) constitutes the in-phase component of this VSB modulated wave, and 0.5AcmQ(t) constitutes the quadrature components.

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Scheme for generation and demodulation of a VSB modulated wave
Block diagram of VSB modulator

Ac cos (2πf c t )

Block diagram of VSB demodulator
vo (t )

Ac cos(2πf c t )

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In commercial television broadcasting, a sizable carrier is transmitted together with the modulated wave. This makes it possible to demodulate the incoming modulated wave by an envelope detector in the receiver. In commercial television broadcasting, the vestigial sideband occupies a width of about 1.25 MHz, or about one-quarter of a full sideband. This has been determined empirically as the width of vestigial sideband required to keep the distortion due to mQ(t) within tolerable limits when when the percentage modulation is nearly 100.

Envelope detection of a VSB wave plus carrier

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