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STRANDSOF

LANGUAGE
(81-PART
t)
MnicaAragons
Laura
Alba-Juez cD'So$l\
pc\$Je

/\ Editorial
universitaria
Ramon Areces
E
CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 15

INTRODUCTON 17

U N I T1 : S M I L E ! ! 23
A) W A R M I NU GP . . . . . . . . . . . 25
B) O R A LD IS C OU R SE EX : P R E SSING
OPINIONS AND
D E S C R IB INEGV E N T S 25
c) MULII-TASKING ACTIVITI ES 27
Grammar Capsule: Connectors 29
D ) T A C K L INVGOC A B U L A R........ Y 31
E ) N O WH , OW'S Y O U RS P E L L I N G. .?. . . . . . . . . . . . 35
1 . c h ,k, ck,o r c? ........ 35
2 . y ,i , o r i e ?. . . . . . . . . . . . 36
F) AND...HOW'SYOURFORMATION OF WORDS? 36
1. Suffixes-ence,-ance,-ency,-ancy 36
2. Negative prefixes un- anddis- .......... 37
3. Prefixescon-,ex-,in-,per- 37
G ) U S I N GE N GL IS A HP P R OP RIATELY ANDPUTTING IT INTO
MOTION 37
Grammar capsule:The genitive case's/ of 38
1. Thegenitive case / of 's 39
2. Difference betweenexpressions suchas a horserace/a
race horse 39
3. Prepositions at, in, of,on, andfor 39
4. Verbsmakeanddo (Grammar capsule) 40
5 . Ne i th e r...n o r............... 42
6. Emphatic andreflexive pronouns(Grammar .....
capsule) 42
TIMETO RELAX 44
Self-evaluation
unit1 45

CONTENTS9
UNIT2: LUXURYAND ROMANCE 49
A) WARM ING UP 3 l
B) O R A LD I S C O U R S ED:E S C R I B I NE
GX P E R I E N C E S c l
c) MULTI-TASKING ACTIVITIES 53
Grammar Capsule:
Connectors
again! 56
D) T ACKLING VOCABULARY........ 58
E ) NOW HOW' S YOURSPELLTNG? o+
'1. ul ir
b4
2. Doubleconsonants 64
F) AND...HOW'SYOURFORMATTON
OF WORDS? 65
1. Prefixespre-/pro- 65
2. Adjectiveandadverbformation 65
G ) U SINGENGLISH APPROPRIATELY ANDPUTTING IT IN T O
MOTION 66
Grammar capsule:Zeroplural 66
1. Translation
of sentences thezeroplural
containing ol
2 . Usesof even........ ot
3. Verbsexpressing epistemic or extrinsic
modality 68
Grammar Capsule: Modalauxiliaries 68
4. Modalauxiliaries 69
5. Prepositionson, in, at andfor 70
6. Tenseandtime(Grammar Capsule) 70
7. Definite,
indefiniteandzeroarticle 72
TIME TO RELAX 72
Self-evaluationunit2 73

UNIT3: TEA LOVERS 77


A) W A R M I N GU P 70

B) ORALDISCOURSE: PUTTING A CASE( lNA


CONVERSATION) 79
c) MULTI-TASKING ACTIVITIES 81
D ) TACKLING VOCABULARY 84
Grammar Capsule: /n as an adverbial particle 87
E ) N O WH O W ' Y S O U RS P E L L | N G. .?. . . . . . . " . . . . 88
1. Vowelcombinations -ie/ -ei 88
2. Doubleconsonants 89
F) AND...HOW'SYOURFORMATION OF WORDS? 89
1. Adjective formation: -lessI -ful(Grammar Capsule) 89
2. Adverbformation: -/y(Grammar Capsule) . 91

l0 sTRANDS (Bt-pART
oF LANGUAGE t)
G ) U S |N GE N GL T SAHP P R OP R |A TELY ANDPUTT|NG tT |NTO
MOTION 92
G r a m maca r p su l eS: o mea/ n y .......... 92
1 . S o m ea/ n y .......... 92
2. Compoundsof some,any,no, or every(nobody,no one,
anybody,everybody,nowhere,anywhere,everywhere,
anything,nothing,and everything).......... 94
3 . S u p e r l a t i v .e. s. . . . . . . . , . . . 94
4. Spaceprepositions (Grammar Capsule) 95
5. Frequency adverbs 96
6 . T i m ep h r a s e .s. . . . . . . . . . , 96
T I M ET O R E L A X 97
S e l f - e v a l u a tiuonni t3 ...,.......... 98
T R A N S L AT ION A N DC OMP OS IT ION l( Units1- 3) 100

U N I T4 : C R I M EA N DD A N G E R. . . . . . . . . . . 101
A ) W A R M IN G UP 103
B ) O R ALDIS C OU R SD EIS: C U S S ING MEANINGS 103
c ) M U L T |-T A S K TANCG T tV tT tE.............
S 105
D) TACKLING VOCABULARY 110
E ) N O WH , OW'S Y O U RS P E L L | N G. .?. . . . . . . . . . . . 115
1. Spellings - e r / - a rf o rt h es o u n dI A L . . . . . . . . 115
2 . V o we las n dco n so n a n ts ......... 115
3. Endings -ue/ -ew 116
F) AND...HOW'SYOURFORMATION OF WORDS? 116
Grammar Capsule: Compound words 116
1. Compound words:N+N/N+Adj/Adj+Adj 117
2. Negative prefixes dis-,un-,in-,or im- ........... 118
G) USTNG ENGLTSH AppROpRtATELy ANDPUTT|NG tT |NTO
MOTION 118
Grammarcapsule:The PastPerfect Tense 118
1 . Ve r bsi n th e P a stP e rfe ct ..,............ 118
2. PastSimple+ Pastperfect 120
3. Useof wherein relativeclauses 120
4. Personal Pronouns (subjective, objective, possessive and
reflexive)/ possessive adjectives (Grammar Capsule)...,. 121
5. Phrasesof thetype Io hisamazemenV to her owndismay
at the beginning of the sentence/clause ....... 123

CONTENTSI I
6. Reported speech t+
Grammar Capsule: Directand Indirect
speech 124
7. Useof reflexivepronouns tJ
TIMETO RELAX to
S e lf- evaluation
unit4 .............. 127

U N fT5 : W ILDLIFE
EXPERIENCE
.......... 129
A) w A R M t N G
U P. . . . . . . . . . . . 131
B) ORALDISCOURSE: NARRATION ABOUTW tLDLtF E
EXPERIENCE
. .S
...... 131
c) MULTI-TASKI
NGACTIVITIES 133
D) T A C K L I NVGO C A B U L A R Y , . . . . . . . 138
E ) N O WH , OW'S Y O U RS P E L L I N G. .?. . . , . . . . . . . . 144
1. Gr aphemes - ou/- ow .......... 144
2 . H o m o p h o n .e. s. . . . . . . . . . .. 144
F) AND...HOW'SYOURFORMATION OF WORDS? 145
1. Compound words:N+N;Adj/Adv+V/Adj+N .. 145
Grammar Capsule:Abstract Nouns 146
2. Abstr act- noun for m ation .............. 147
G) USINGENGLISH APPROPRIATELY ANDPUTTING IT INTO
MOTTON 148
1. Usesof since....... 149
Grammar Capsule: Timeprepositions/ conjunctions:
sinceI for ............ 148
2. Specialuseof somewordswithcertainprepositions
(e.9.awayfrom)....... '150
3. Quantifiers a little/a few+ mass/countnouns 150
GrammarCapsule: Quantifiers (a)little/(a) few 150
4. Adver bs of fr equency .............. 152
5. Relative clauses 153
6. Useof the expressions af the time/on time/in time/at
one time/at times 154
7. Prepositions: about,with,by,on,after,for,from,untit ..... 155
T IMETO RELAX 155
S e l f- evaluation
unit5 .............. 156

12 sTRANDS
oF LANcuAGE
(Bt-pART
t)
Ji'{lT6: LANDSCAPEANDTHE ARTS 159
A ) W A R M T NU GP 161
B ) O R A LD I S C O U R S EE:X P R E S S I N P GE R S O N A O L PINIONS.
GIVINGDETAILSABOUTFAMOUSPEOPLE'S
B T o G R A P H T. E . .S
....... 161
c ) M U L T | -T A S K TAN CGT T V T T T.............
ES 163
D) TACKLING VOCABULARY 168
E ) N O WH , OW' SYOU SPR E L L I N G.?. . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
1 . S i l e ngt b e f o r n
e .............. 172
2. Doubleconsonants 173
F) AND...HOW'YOUR S FORMATTON OF WORDS? 173
Grammar Capsule: Noun-andadjective-formation
m o r p h e m e. .s. . . . . . . . . . . . 173
1. Nounformation morphemes -al/ -age 174
2. Adjective formation morpheme -al ........... 174
c) usrNc ENGLTSH APPROPRIATELY ANDPUTTING lr INTO
MOTION 175
1. Compounds with+ver 175
Grammar Capsule: Useof prepositional verbsin defining
relativeclauses 176
2. Defining relative clauses 176
3 . C o mp a ri soonf a d j e cti ve........... s 178
4. Conditional sentences (second type) ........ 179
Grammar Capsule: Secondtypeof conditional sentences... 1 8 0
'181
5 . Pr e s e nSt i mp l eo r p re se nco t n tinuous? ..............
6 . P r e p o s i t i o.n. s. . . . . . . . . . . . 182
7. (Omission of)thedefinite article 183

H ) L A N G U A GE A N DL IT E R A T U R E:THE CONNECTION .........183


1. ldentifying the structure of narratives:Analysis of an
excerpttrom Switzerland,the Cradleof Libertyby Mark
Twain 184
2. Exercise on anothernarrative 185
T I M ET O R EL A X .. 188
S e l f - e v a l u a tiuonni t6 ............... 189
T R AN S L AT ION A N DC OMP OS IT ION | ( Units4- 6) ......... 191

MODELEXAM 193

ANDTASKS
KEYTO EXERCISES 201

I3
CONTENTS
U N I Tl : S M I L E ! !
A) WARMINGUP
1) Doyoulikeit whenpeoplesmileat you?
2) Whatdo youthinkpeoplemeanif theysmileat you?
3) Do yousmileoften?Do youfindit healthy?

B) ORAI DISCOURSE:
EXPRESSING
OPINIONS
AND DESCRIBING
EVENTS
CAN DOs: 1) Expressopinions/likes/dislikes.
2) Exchangeideas:agreeldisagree.
3) Describean eventin your life.

o) Lisienfo Wendyond Mqrk's conversqfion

fffi
(Wendyis readinge-mailson hercomputer)
Wendy:Ugh!I'm reallypuzzledaboutall thisemoticonstuff.
Mark: Emoticonstuff?What do you mean?Why? What'sso
puzzlingaboutit?
W:Well,it'sa wholenewcodewe haveto dealwithnow...Didn't
we haveenoughwithlanguage itself?Howam I supposed
to interpret
a smileyface???

UNIT
l : S M l L E l l2 5
Andonewitha semi-colon on it ;-)tglZ Doesit meanit'sfunny
or theyaretryingto saysomething beyoncl that?lf theyarewinking an
eye,whaton earthdo theymean?Theywantus to guesstoo much...
M: Oh,com e I t h i n ky o u ' r eo v e r d o i n gi t a l i t t l eb i t . . . ls e e n o
co mp lication at Just use your common sense and your
i ma g i nation!
W: ...Andhowaboutthisfacesticking
itstongueoutandsmilingat
thesametime(Q)? Doesit meantheyarenicelysmilingat youbut
simultaneously you?Mygoodness!This
m-ocking is insulting!
M: I don' tthinkit' sinsulting,
no.. sayit' sEXClTlN G...
U S EY OURIM AGINATION, W ENDY!
W: lmagination? No way!l'm not hereto imaginethings.I want
F A C TS,symbols lcan r elyon...a languagewhichwillm ak em e feel
l 'mo n safegr ound...
Allthismoder n ambiguity...
ldon' tlik ei t at al l l l
M: Comeon,Wendy,relax!
W: Lookat thisone:1@Whatdo youthinkmycolleague is trying
to saywithit? lt looksso unfriendly anddisrespectful
to me!
M: Let me see... (Afterreadingthe message): Oooh,please,
Wendy... Willyouforoncemakean effortto understand? lf youplace
it rightin its context,you'llsee that whatshe-meansis that she's
stressed andupsetwithherboss.Nothing personalaboutyoul!
W: Well, you know, I still think all this smiley-face stuff is
u n n e cessar y confusing...
and
M: Wendy,please,SMILE!Life is beautiful. SMILE,WENDY

b) Now discussthe followingwlh your tutor


or clqssmqlesin the forum/virfuqlcloss:
1. Whyis Wendypuzzled?
2. Whatdoesshethinkaboutthedifferent
kindsof smileyfaces?

26 sTRANDS (Bt-pART
oF LANGUAGE t)
3. Whatis Mark'spointof view?
4. Whatkindof personality do you thinkWendyhas? Do you think
she'seasy-going?
5. HowaboutMark'spersonality? Canyoucomparebothapproaches
to life(Wendy's
and Mark's)?

c) MULTT-TASKING
ACTIVITIES
IIONA LISA:LOOK,READ,LISTEN,STUDYand WRITE

Step1.Go on the internetand LOOKat the portraitof MonaLisaat:

http//upload.wiki
media.org/wi
kipedia/com
mons/6/6a/Mona*Lisa.jpg

Step2. READthe relatedtextand LISTENto its spokenversionto make


sureyouknowhowto pronounce andgivethe correctintonationto it.

She haslongteasedscholarswithher mysterious sensuality, and


her identityhas beena puzzlefor almost500 years.Was MonaLisa
the wifeof Francescodel Giocondo, as manyscholarsbelieve,or a
duke'swidow or a Medici mistress?Now computerartist Lillian
Schwartzthinksshe has foundthe "mostobvious,most revealing,
mostpoetically.tight"
answer.MonaLisais noneotherthanLeonardo
da Vincihimself.
Schwartzwas testinga new computerprogramat AT & T Bell
Laboratories when she comparedLeonardo's mostfamouspainting
with his onlyknownself-portrait,
drawnin red chalkat the end of his
life.She scaledeaohpictureon her computerscreento the same
proportions,thenmatchedthe leftsideof the self-portrait
to the right
side of the Mona Lisa. The featuresmatchedprecisely- "a
congruenceso strikingas to precludecoincidence," she writesin
January'sArts & Antiquesmagazine. She concludesthat eventhe
smileis theartist'supsidedown,'lhe mirrored
H,?5,i;.,soj:fr:|
Schwartzcontendsthat her identificationmakes sense, for
Leonardolovedriddlesand opticalparadoxes.
And while he kept

UNIT
l : S M l L E l l2 7
precisenoteson his other commissions, she says,he apparently
madeno recordsforthe MonaLisa,norwashe everpaidforthework.
He neverpartedwithit, carryingit withhimfromFlorence to Milanto
Rome to France.Historiansbelievethat Leonardowas probably
homosexual. Perhaps,writesArts & Antiquespublisher WickAllison,
the MonaLisarepresents "a sideof himselfthathe treasured."
Manyart expertsremainunconvinced. "Nonsense,"said James
Beck,chairmanof Columbia University'sArt HistoryDepartment,who
arguesthat otherLeonardofaceshavesimilarfeaturesand that the
lookis simplya matterof style."An artistpaintswhat'sin his mind,"
says Beck,"not what he sees."lf Schwartzis right,what may have
beenin Leonardo'smindwasa privatejokethathasfooledposterity.

Step3. DOthefollowing andSTUDYthegrammarexplanations


exercises
whennecessary:

I ) Choose the correcf qnswer from the ones gven


below
1. Whatdo you thinkSchwartzmeanswhen she says"the most
poeticallyright"answer?
a,) lt remindsus of Dante'spoetry.
b) lt is the mostaesthetically answer.
satisfying
c,) Thereis something poeticalaboutthe picture.

2. Whydid she matchthe leftsideof Leonardo's to the


self-portrait
rightsideof MonaLisa's?
a) BecauseLeonardomighthave paintedhis reflectionin the
mirror.
b) Becausehe was left-handed.
c) Becauseit is the bestwayto comparetwo portraitswhichare
similar.

28 STRANDS (Br-PART
oF LANGUAGE r)
3 . Whatdo youthinka "mirrored smile"meansin the text?
a,) A mysterious
smile.
b,) A smilewhichis upsidedown.
c) Leonardo probablylookedat himselfin the mirrorto paintit.

4 . Thefactthathe mayhavebeenhomosexual
is important
because:
a,) lt explains
why he paintedsucha delicatesmile.
b) Hisstyleis effeminate.
c) lt representshowhe wouldhavelikedto be himself.
5 . "Anartistpaintswhat'sin his mind"meansthathe paints:
a) Thewomanwho he is in lovewith.
b) Hisowninterpretation
of things.
c) Whathe sees.

GRAMMARCAPSULE:
Conneclors

Connectors are wordsor expressions that are usedto connect


ideas,such as so, otherwise, then, on the contrary, on the other
hand.Whenspeakingaboutthe syntacticstructureof the sentence,
theseconnectors are calledconjuncts.Conjunctsare unitswhose
mainfunctionis to join togethertwo or moreutterances whichhave
a semanticrelationshipbetweenthem. They express textual
relationships.
Theyare connectorsof structure,and as such,theycan
connectphrases,clauses,sentences andparagraphs:
E.g.: He was a liar andfurthermorea criminal.(Nounphrases)
He neverstudiedfor hisexams.However,he passedthem
all with verygood grades.(Sentences)
In spokendiscourse, conjunctsare very frequently
usedto mark
the beginningof a turn in conversation,
and as such,they are also
consideredto be discoursemarkers.Among the most common
discourse markersarewell,now,now then,so, then,etc.allof which
can be usedto makedifferent typesof semanticconnections.

UNIT
l : S M l L E l l2 9
2> Pul the followingsentencesfogelher usngfhe
oppfopriqle connector
a) MonaLisais a mystery.
Heridentityhaslongpuzzled scholars(because/until).
b,) Schwartzwastestinga computerprogram.
Shecompared thetwopictures (inorderto/while).
d Shescaledthetwopictures.
Shematched eachoneon thecomputer (that/before).
d) Thefeaturesmatchedprecisely.
Sheconcluded thatMonaLisawasLeonardo (since/in
case).
e/ Schwartz's explanation
makessense.
Manyexpertsdisagree (whenever/although).
f) Leonardo tookthepicturewithhim.
He travelled(wherever/u
ntil).
g) Manyhistorians believethat Leonardo was probablyhomosexual.
The MonaLisamayhaverepresented "a sideof himselfthat he
treasured"(therefore/although).
h,) MonaLisamaybe Leonardo himself.
Manyart expertsremainunconvinced
(unless/yet).

3) ORAI PRODUCTION:
Describingon evenf usng
connecfors
Describe recenteventin yourpersonal
an important lifeanddiscussit
withyourclassmates/tutor
in classor in a videoconference.Whywasthis
eventimportantto you?Howhas it affectedyou?Ask othersfor advice.
USEconnectors/ discoursemarkers(e.9. First,Then,Nor2,etc.)to join
yourideasandmakethemcohesive andcoherent.

4> MAKEA LIST,


WRITE
ANDSUMMARIZE
a) Makea listof the mostconvincing
reasonsfor believing
thatMona
Lisais actuallyLeonardo.
b/ WouldyouagreewithSchwartzor withBeck?Explainwhy.
thepassageusingthefollowing
c) Rewrite notes:
. Mona Lisa'sidentityis a mystery- wife,widowor mistress?
answerpoetically
Schwartz's rightbutfactually
wrong?

30 sTRANDS (Bt-PART
oF LANGUAGE t)
L e o n a rd o 'sse l f-p o rtra iand
t M ona Lisa technologically
compared.Similarityof featuresmore than coincidence?
Mirrored smile.
Riddletypicalof Leonardo,lovedparadoxes. No recordsof
paymentforwork,tookit withhimeverywhere. Possibly painting
representsa secretaspectof himselfthat he treasured. Art
worldunconvinced? Similarities amongLeonardo's other works
makecoincidence a "matterof style".Doestheartistpaintreality
or was Leonardo's realityitselfa puzzle?

D) TACKHNGVOCABUTARY
BUILDUPYOUROWNGLOSSARY OFTERMSFOB UN|Tt: Look up
the following words in a monolingual (English-English) dictionary
as well as any others you find difficult to understand in the text:

(n)
a) sensuality d) obvious(adj.) g) famed(adj.)
b) identity
(n) e) match(v) h) argue(v)
c) mistress(n) f) striking(adj.) i) fool(v)

I ) Findin the fext fhe oppositeor neqr opposle


of the following words

a) ambiguous
b) wrong
c) ooscure
d) unknown
e) vaguely
0 frown
g) agrees
h) different
i) public

UNIT
l : S M l L E l 3l l
2> Complete these sentenceswth fhe opproprote
word from those listed below

sensuality identitity magazines publisher


features mind nonsense

a) These days you can find a aboutalmost


beauty,sport,cars, and many other subjects.
anything;fashion,
b) What he said was ; he neverseemsto say
anythingsensible.
c) The police couldn'tdiscoverthe of the
criminal,as no-one had seen him committhe crime'
d) She never thought she could write a book, but the
toldhershehada lotof talent.
e/ The of womenis somethingthat painters
oftentry to capturein theirwork.
f) The power of the has always been a
favouritesubjectfor psychologists.
s) H e r but
are nothingspecialindividually,
togetherthe effectis quitebeautiful.

3) Include one of fhe following verbs in the


oppropriote tense in lhe blqnk spqces below
fo complete the meoning of these sentences

draw carry remarn


match conclude argue

a) As she was alreadytwo hourslate,he that


shewasn'tcomingto the PartY.
b) | in Spainfor a weekafterthe othersleft,
becausethe weatherwas so good.
c) He lovesto portraitsof peoplein cafs,
if theyare notawarethathe is doingit.
especially

32 STRANDS (Bt-PART
oF LANGUAGE D
d) They for hoursaboutpoliticalissues,but
everyone stillthoughtthe sameafterwards.
a ) Thissweater doesn't thesetrousers; I think
l'llreturnit to thestoreandaskfor a refund.
'
f) H e my suitcasesall the way up to the fifth
floor,whichhurthisbackquitebadly.

4> Findlhe phrosesin lhe lexf thEt completethe


following$enlences
d/ theday,l'm too tiredto go out.
b) Heturnedtheglass and spilledmilkall over
thefloor.
l lf youworkharderthanotherpeople,it that
youshouldearnmoremoney.
d) A goodstudent should of allhislectures
and
classes.
o ) She lovedhimso muchthatevento himfor
a day was difficult,
f) To be good at a sport is usuallyas m uch
oracticeas of talent.
s) Theytellso many that peopleneverknow
what they are laughingabout.

5) l. Findffie odjecfiyes or o'dverbsin the text


lhot medn the following
a) clear,blatant.
b/ immediately impressive.
c) wellknown.
d) according to whatis generally
thought.

2. filouinclude the apprapriot ward from fose


you found above (rn exercise I ) in the blank
spces
a) Her beauty was all over the country;
hadheardabouther.
everybody

l : S M l L E l l3 3
UNIT
Tome,thesolution problem
to yourmoney is
youshouldgeta jobthatpaysyoumore.
c) he is havingan affairwith anotherwoman,
but I don'tbelieveit.
d) Van Gogh'spaintingsare usually because
of the brightcolourshe uses.

) Solvelhe crossword usnglhe clues below

34 STRANDS (BI-PART
oF LANGUAGE D
DOWN
1. a womanwhohasa continuing 10. thoughts, spirit.
illicitrelationship
witha man.
12. pertainingto thesenses.
2. deceive. 14. register,
keepdata.
3. reacha judgement. 15. continueto be.
6. discuss. 17. impressive,obvious.
7. sketch. 18. resemble. coincide.
9. a personwho publishes books
or ileriodicals.

ACROSS;
4. painting
of oneself. 16. characteristics.
6. well-known. 18. publication.
8. as it seems. 19. to takewithoneself.
11. picture. awareof itsexistence.
20. identified,
1 3 . n o b l e ma n . or likeness.
21. sameness

E) NOW HOW'SYOURSPETUNG?
ln the text we find wordssuch as scholars,duke, opticaland Beck.
Canyoutellthedifference in theirspelling?

I ) Add ch, k, ck, or c fo the following words

knoa-
=

lusy_-olo$r
la

l : S M l L E l l3 5
UNIT
2) Wordsendngin -y following$ consonsnf
chcnge the y to i beforesddng o suffix
- laboratories,
E.g.:laboratory history- historians.
Thisis notthecasewiththesuffix"ing";carry- carrying.
Addy, i, or ie in the blankspaces:

obe_ed cherr_s funn_er sunn_er


stead_ly fl_ing worr_d stud_ing
SP_-S happ_ly stor_s cr_s

After checkingyour answerstry to formulatethe corresponding


spellingrules.Go to your grammarbook if necessary.

F) AND... HOW'$YOURFORMATTON
OF WORDS?
Noticethe words congruenceor emergency. The endings-ence,
-ance,-ency,-ancyare oftenusedto formabstractnouns.

I ) Formnew words by using one of l'rese


suffixes

different convenient
efficient consistent
dependent assure
acquaint accept
annoy predom
inant
absent allow

3 STRANDS
oF LANGUAGE r)
Gr-PART
2> The_negqfive ptefxesun-,qs in "unconvinced",
ond d,s-os n disregordore frequenilyused.
Add eitherone of themto the follbwingwords:

_illusion -happy
order grateful
_important advantaoe
aqree -loyal
WISE aporove
healthv ooeorenl

3) Look qt the words "precluden',"conclude",


"include"n "excludeo'.-clude is the bEse
fo which differenf prefxes ore ddded
Seehow manywordsyou can makeby joiningthesefour prefixes
(con-,ex-, in-, per-) to the following bases:

_ceive _fect _cept -form


ject -sist _vert -mit

G) US|NGENGUSH APpROPR|ATETY
AND PUTTING
IT INTOMOTIOH
Possessivesappearvery often in the Mona Lrbatext:

E.g.:"A duke'swidow."
"Leonardo'smostfamouspainting"
"...The MonaLisa'sfamedsmileis theartist's"
". . . in L e o n a rd omi
's n d "

UNIT
l : S M l L E l l3 7
lf
The genitive cose: 's / of
GRAMMARCAPSULE:

Examinethe instances in whichthe genitiveis usedin TheSecret


of the Smile.Someof them are:the wifeof Francescodel Giocondo,a
duke'swidow,Leonardo'smost famouspainting,the right side of the
MonaLisa, elc.
As we can see in these examples,sometimesthe construction
NP's(NounPhrase+'s) is usedandsomeothertimestheformulaNP -
+ of + NP is preferred.In spite of the fact that there are usually
compelling reasonsfor preferring in a
one or the otherconstruction
givencase,the degreeof similarityand overlaphas led linguiststo
regardthe two constructions as variantformsof the genitive.
In general,the genitiveconstruction 's (traditionally
knownas the
Saxonpossessive) is preferredfor humannouns:

E.g.: a duke'swidow
Leonardo'smind

This constructionis preferredto a lesserextentfor animalnouns


(thecat'sears)and humangroupnouns(thegovernment's policy).
However, this rule is not alwaysobserved,as we can see in this
examplefromthe text:fhe wifeof Francesco del Giocondo, wherethe
nounphraserefersto a humanbeing.
The constructionwith of (traditionally known as the Latin
possessive),is generallypreferredfor inanimateobjects,massand
abstractnouns.
E.g.: Theleft sideof the self-portrait.
is also preferredwhen the modifyingnoun
The of-construction
phraseis long:

E.g. Thearrivalof the 10:30planefromManchester.

38 (Bt-PART
oF LANGUAGE
STRANDS t)
I ) f{er_-consullingthis point in your grommqr book,'
join lhe following nounsusing 's oi simply t
(opostrophewitouf s)
a) Charlesthe Second/ his reign
b) The house/ Tomand Mary
c) MiltonandShakespeare /'theirworks
d) The backyard / our neighbours
- e) Bismarck / hisGermany
f) Europe/ its difficulties
g) Bill'sfather/ hisfriend
h) John/ oneof his nephews
i) My smallsisters/ theirtoys
j) The ladies/ theirctothes
k) . My son-in-law/ the bicycle
l) Jimand Elisabeth / theirchildren
m) Yerdiand Puccini/ the operas
n) The portrait/ Mr.Brown

2> Explointhe ditferencebelween the following


expressionsby sloling whqt eqch one meqns
a) A goodbusiness deal/ A gooddealof business.
b) A wineglass/ A glassof wine.
c) A pay-day/A day'spay.
d) A horseracelA racehorse.
e) A sportsfield/ Fieldsports.

3) Note-fh9 u9e of lhe prepositionsat, in, oi, on,


ond lor tn lhe texf ond ofter reqding oboul fem
in o grommqr book, fill in he blonk-spqceswih
fhe oppropriqte one
a) Mr.Smithhaslivedhere two years.
b) Shewaswearingseveralrings herfingers.

UNITl: SM|LEll39
c) Thereis no room themin thishouse.
d) He is working a newproject the moment.
e) The childrenwrote their names the screenof their
computers.
0 The man ljust methim
thegreycoatis a detective.
thepub.
s) Wecouldhear he saidbecausehe spoke
everything
voice.
a veryloud
h) Marysmells lavender.
i) Youshouldtry to keepwhatI havetoldyou m i nd.
) I haveboughtthesebooks Dillon's.
k) They all came home Christmas, no matterhow far
awaythey might have been.
t) l'llstop thesupermarket mywaynome.
m) Allthe menshegoesoutwithare theirth i r ti es .
n) He studiedChemistry the Universityof Kansas
fouryears.

4, In the text we find fhe expressions


"makessense"
;"madeno records".

in meaningand usagebetweenthe verbs


Do youknowthe difference
to do andto make?

MAKEI dO
GRAMMARCAPSULE: &i
Spanishspeakersoften have problemsdistinguishing between
make and do becausebothverbscan be translated intoSpanishas
hacer.To make means to buildor producesomethingand can be
To do meansfo
translatedas hacerin the Senseof fabricar,elaborar.
carryoutandcanbe translated as hacerwilhthe meaningofrealizar,
Itevra cabo.Ultimately, the choiceof theseverbsdependson the
wordswithwhichtheycollocate:

40 (Bt-PART
oF LANGUAGE
STRANDS l)
You make: an accusation, allowances, an appointment,
arrangements, an attempt,a bed,the bestof ..., a cake,certainthat...,
a change,a choice,a comment,a complaint,a confession,a darc,
decision,a demand,a liscgvery, a dress,an effort, an enquiry,'an
estimate,an excuse,a fire, friends(with),fun of ..., a gestur, fuss
of..,.,. a good/bad impression,a journey, a living, loss, love, a
mistake,.money,the mostof ...,.a movement,a noie,an offer,peace,
war,a phone call, a plan, a point (of ...), a profrt,progress,a wish,a
promise,a proposition,a remark, useof, a statem'ent, etc.
. You do: your best, business,a course,the cleaning,the cooking,
damage,the dishes,your dyty,evil,an exercise,a favourlthegardenig,
qood,your hair, harry, one's homework,honour,the housetiork,a jo-b,
justice, research,right, the rooms,the shopping, - a srJm,a translaiioni,
the washing,wonders,some work,wrong,eic.

After readingthe grammarcapsuleand some more information


aboutthe use of theseverbs in a grammarbook,includeeithermake
or do, in the appropriatetense,in the followingsentences:

a) "Whatare you ?""l'mreading


a book".
b) She enjoys exerciseearly in the
m o rn i n g .
c) The dogs so muchnoisethat it was
impossible
to sleep.
d) Sh e all herclothesherself.
e) Everyone
must hisbedbeforeleaving
the house.
f) "Whatdo you "1workas
fora living?"
a secretaryin a Canadianbank".
s) H e- a mostuninterestingproposition
whichnobodyaccepted.
h) Whydon'tyoujust the bestof it and
enjoyyourselfinsteadof complainingso much?
i) The children their homeworkand
thenwentout to the gardento play.
Wouldyou me a favour?
coffee.

UNIT
l : S M l L E l l4 1
k) What will you for the Christmas
holidays?
t) Please,
don't that,it bothersme.
m) D o n 't that,you're a fool
of yourself.

5) Thesentenceprecedingnor olwoys
hos o negqtvemeqnng
E.g.:"Hemadeno records...nor washe everpaidforthework".
parentsneverforgave
Hisgirlfriend's him,nor did hersisters.
neither
But the mostfrequentuse of nor is with the coniunction
pair.
forminga correlative

Rewritethe followingsentencesas in the example:

didn'go
E .g .:Jo hn t to thecinem a. t to thepub.
Hedidn'go
Johnwentneitherto thecinemanor to thepub.
didn'tquarrel.
a) Thechildren Theydidn'tfight.
b) The examwasn'tshort.lt wasn'teasy.
c) Thatoldmancan'tread.He can'twrite.
d) Tommustn'twork.He mustn'tstudy.
e) Shecan'trun.Shecan'tparticipate
in sports.
f) Theycan'teat fish.Theycan'teat meat.

) Theword himselfis used emphoticolly


in this lexl
"MonaLisais noneotherthan Leonardoda Vincihimself",
"a
It is also used as a reflexivepronoun: side of himself that he
treasured".

42 (BI-PART
oF LANGUAGE
sTRANDS t)
GRAMMAR CAPSULE:
Empholic qnd reflexive pronouns

The pronounhimselfis usedin the MonaLisatext(The secretof


the Smile)bothas a reflexiveand as an emphaticpronoun.
we usethe reflexivepronounswhenthe subjectand the object
of an actionare the same, i.e., reflexiveprononsreplacea co-
referential
nounphrase,normallywithinthe samefinitevrbclause:
E.g.: Suecut herselfwiththe razor.
He lookedat himselfin the mirror.
I promisedmyselfI wouldbehavebetternexttime.
Emphaticreflexivepronouns:Reflexive pronouns aresometimes
placedin apposition forthesakeof emphasis and/orend-focus.
In this
case,andfromthe discourse pointof view,theycannotbe saidto be
proper,for theydo notfulfilthe objectiunction
reflexive andconveya
differentmeaning.They are used emphaticailyto indicatethat
someone,and not someoneelse, did something. This could be
translatedintoSpanishas uno mismo,en persona.

E.g.: I myselfsowedthe dress.


lsowedthe dressmyself.

A: Canyoudo the shopping?


B:Whydon'tyoudo it yourself?

After reviewingemphaticand reflexivepronounsin the capsule


and in your grammarbook,fll n the gapswith the appropriateiorm:

a) The President receivedthe journalists


and
explained thesituation
to them.
b) Thatold manis alwaystalkingto
c) I live by in an old housein the country.
d) DidSuehurt with the knife?
e) Lookat in the mirrorwiththatsillyhat.
f) They must solve all the problemsby
otherwise theywon'tlearn.

UNIT
l : S M l L E l l4 3
s) We havebought a lovelynewcarbecause
theoldoneno longerworkedproperly.
h) Stopfeelingsorryfor to
anddo something
get out of so muchtrouble.
i) She makesall her clothes and she does
quitea goodjob too.
i) Theseboysalwaysseemto begetting into
trouble.

You can check the answersto all exercsesand tasks in the KEY
TO EXERCISESANDTASKSat the end of the book.

TIMETORELAX:Now let'srelax,sit down,and watchsome


withthe topicof this uni{_
videosin connection
interesting

re=relatd
?v=mPeeTbiTPCU&featu
http://www.youtube.com/watch
lwEM&feature=related
?v=lEdGhfO
http://www.youtube.com/watch
?v=ffej15-DglO&feature=fvst
hp://www.youtube.com/watch
?v=eskXn
be.com/watch
http//www.youtu bVYr3Y
?v=nCpD72b-df
http://www.youtube.com/watch s

M STRANDSOF (BI-PART
LANGUAGE D
Self-EvaluationUniI I
_^ o_9llg_tollowing
exercises
and thencheckyouranswersin the KEy
TOEXERCISES AND TASKSat the end of thebook:

I ) Ghoosefhe opposife or neor opposteof these


words
1 . a m bi g u o u s a) laugh
2. unknown b) private
3. frown c) smile
4. different d) famous
5. public e) indifferent
f) obvious
g) similar

2> Complefe lhese words with lhe correct opfon


1. emistry
a) ch b) k c) ck d)c

2. fantasti
a) ch b) k c) ck d) c

lu_
a) ch b) k c) ck d) c

we2
a) ch b)k c) ck d) c

5 . psy-ology
a) ch b) k c) ck d) c

UNITl: SMlLEll45
3) Choose lhe correct oPfion

I. A good deal oi business


a) A lot of business.
b) A profitablebusiness.
c) A welldonebusiness.

2. A wine grdss
a) A glasswithwinein it.
b) A glassusedfordrinkingwine.
c) A glassof wine.

3. A day's pdy
a) A payof one day.
b) A dayon whichone is Paid.
c) A pay-day.

4. A race horse
a) A horserace.
b) A racein whichhorsesparticipate.
c) A horsefor racing.

5. Field sporls
a) A fieldwheresportsare practised.
b) A sportsfield.
c) Sportspractised
outdoors.

46 STRANDS (Bl-PART
oF LANGUAGE D
4> Choosefhe correct opton lo complele lhe
meqning of lhe following senlences
1. Whatdo you for a living?
a) to make b) make c) to do d) do

2. I lovehome bread.
a) doing b) making c) made d) did

3. I my bedandcleanedthe housebeforeleaving.
a) did b) made c) do d) make

4. WhathaveI to deservethis?!
a) to do b) made c) done d) to make

5. Stop so muchnoise!You're
disturbing
us.
a) doing b) make c) do d) making

UNIT
l : S M l L E l l4 7
ffiruffiH
ffi=
,#ffiffiffiW
&ffiffiffi#ffie###ffi
A) WARMTNG
UP
1) Whatdo youthinkwe aregoingto studyin thisunit?Why?
2) Areyoua romanticperson?Why/Whynot?
3) Wouldyou liketo livea lifeof luxury?

B) ORAI DISCOURSE:
DESCRIBING
EXPERIENCES
1. CANDOs: 1) Describea placeand discussdreams,hopes
and ambitions.
2l Narratea story.
3) Relatedetailsof unpredictableoccurrences.

lislen fo Meg ond Lindsoy's conversolion

(Meg and Lindsayare watchinga TV show aboutthe top ten


luxurioushotelsin theworld)
Meg:Wow!| certainlywouldliketo takemy significant
otherto a
placelikethat!

UNIT
2: LUXURY
ANDROMANCE5l
Whatdidyousay?Yourwhat?
a minutel
Lindsay:Wait
other.That'sit.
M: My significant
L : Oo o h ...w e l l ,w e l l !T h a t'sver ygoodnews!ldidn' tknowther e
wassucha personin yourlife...Tellme all aboutit,younaughty girl!

M : We l l ....l 'm n o t g o i n gto tell you the detailsbut...hejust


appeared in my lifewhenI leastexpected it...lt wasmagic!Myknight
in shiningarmorcameto my rescuewhenI no longerhadanyhopes
o f b e i n gsa ve d ...frol m Andltell you:I' mnowhaving
o n e l i n ess... the
t i m eo f my l i few i thh i m!!!
a t u n d so
L :Wo o o h l T h so Luckyyou!lI wishI couldsay
s e x citing!!!
t h es a m e . . .
M:Yes.lt lS exciting, and SOOOROMANTICI!
hallucinating So I
wantto planan escape withhim to a dream placelikethoseon FV...
Whatdo you makeof it, eh?
L: I thinkit'sa fantasticidea!lf I maygiveyousomeadvice,I have
a greatplaceto recommend, but it's none of thosetop ten world-
f a m ou sh o te l s...
i t's...
, l lme ,te l lme !I'mallear s...
M :Y e a hte
L:Well,thisis a dreamplacein thevillageof Mondariz, in Spain. '.
so high-sounding
nothing as thosetoptenhotels, youknow,butit has
thesoberIuxuryandelegance European
of high-class style...lt'sthe
MondarizSpa, one of those magical places where you can isolate
fromthe restof the world in an atmosphere of enchantment, tradition,
peaceanda particular "BelleEpoque" kindof luxury...
in Spainis that?
Whereabouts
M: Really?
to thenorth-west
areain Galicia,
L: lt'sin a beautiful '.an
of Spain..
areathathasbeenableto bringtogether artists,politicians,
thinkers,
loversandall kindsof peoplein searchof an ideal...A fantastic place
i n d e e d !l !
t's si cto mYear s!!!t
M :Ww w ..T h amu
L: In the hotelyou notonlycan bathein thermalwaters,butyou
can alsoreceiveall kindsof beautytreatments at the sametimeyou
are havinga romantic, luxurious,
and - l'd dare say - out-of-body
experience withyour "significant
other"...

52 (Bt-PART
oF LANGUAGE
STRANDS t)
M: EnoughlI takeit! l'llgo on the internetrightawayto makethe
reservation
for our weekvacation! Thanksa lot! l'll tell you all about
ourSpanish adventurewhenwe'reback!!!!
e
!

)L

lt
S
A

b) Now discussthe followngwilh your lutor or


clqssmotesin lhe forum/-virtuqlcloss
1) What does the expression "my significant other"mean?lf you
haven'theardthe expression before,makea guess.
2) Whatdo youthinkMegmeanswhenshesays:,,|'rn notgoingto tell
youthe details"withrespectto her loveaffair?
3) Howdoesshedescribe therelationship?ls sheveryenthusiastic?
4) what do youthinkof the description of Mondariz? Doesit sound
likea niceplaceto you?Explainwhyor whynot.
5) Narratea romanticeventor storyaboutyourselfor someoneyou
know.

l.
c) MULTI-TASKING
ACTtVtTtES
THELUXURYDAIMLER:LOOK,READ,L|STEN,STUDYand WRTTE

step t. Go to the followingwebpageon the internetto see different


picturesof GuySalmonluxurycars:

http:i/images.
google.
es/images?hl=es&q=Guy+Sal
mon+cars&btnG=
Buscar+im7"C3%A1genes&gbv=!g.q=f
Ssq=
u step2. READthe relatedtextand LlsrEN to itsspokenversionto make
sureyou knowhowto pronounce and givethe correctintonation
to it.
Y

UNIT2: LUXURY
AND ROMANCE 53
This is the true story of a lady,a gentleman,a Guy Salmon
chauffeuranda dozenred roses.Or,to be strictlyaccurate,twodozen
red roses.The roseswereorderedto be placedin a chauffeur-driven
Daimler, reservedrecentlyby oneof our clients.
The roses- and the Daimler- wereto markthe occasionof his
ladyfriend's birthday. Hisintentionwasto presentonewhilsttravelling
in the otherto a fashionable and elegantWestEnd restaurant for a
surprisebirthdaydinner.
To start the eveningin a suitablycelebratory manner,he also
ordereda bottleof PolRogerlobe chilled and waiting in thelimousine.
Havinggivenhis instructions, the gentlemanknewhe couldlook
forwardwi pleasantanticipation to an eveningto remember. Forthe-
Guy Salmonchauffeur, however, the eveningstartedmuchearlierin
the day.
EachGuy Salmonlimousine is the responsibility of one particular
chauffeur. lt is hisdutyto ensureit is maintained in perfect mechanical
order, and washed and valetedto perfection. So, althoughthis
particularDaimlerhad madeonly one trip sinceits last wash,the
chauffeur washedit again.He polishedit too.He brushedeveryinch
of the upholstery. He vacuumedthe carpets.He polishedthe wood
workand cleanedthe windows.He evenwashedoutthe ashtrays'
The limousineprepared,the chauffeurchanged into his
immaculate Thenhe placedthe champagne
livery. in the Daimler's ice
bucketandthedbzen redroses on the back seat before settingoff.His
destination wasa privateaddressin SouthLondon.
He intendedto arrive,as always,ten minutesearly,savinghis
clientsfromanylastminuteworrythattheirlimousine maybe late.His
timing,as always,was perfect.He knocked,informedthe gentleman
his limousine hadarrived,andwaited.
In a fewminutes,his passengers wereready.The gentleman was
suitablycharming. The lady was suitably impressed. Thanks to the
chauffeur's drivingskills,for oncethe course of true love ran smooth.
Nota dropof champagne wasspilt,andthe couplearrivedin the best
of spirits.
Fourhourslater,thelimousine returned.Theladyembarked, whilst
the chauffeur tookthe gentleman to one side.'l hope you don't mind,

54 (Bt-PART
oF LANGUAGE
STRANDS l)
sir,but I felt the roseswereperhapsnot of the standardthev mioht
havebeen,'heexplained.'And foui hoursin the backof the aimier
wouldnothaveimproved them.So I tookthe libertyof replacing
them
withanotherdozenroses,sir.I hopeyoudon'tobject'.
The gentleman certainly
didn't.Nordid his ladyfriend,
whofound
her roses mysteriously lookingeven fresherthan when she first
received them.But howdid the chauffeur finda dozenfreshrosesat
in centralLondon?Well,he was a Guy Satmonchauffeur,
:]i:l'3f.,,
Punch,Publicity.

step3. Do thefollowing
exercises
andsruDY thegrammarexplanations
whennecessary:

I ) Ghoosefhe coruecfqnswerfrom the ones gven


below
1. T h ech a u ffe uclre a n s...
a) the ashtrays.
b,) the upholstery.
c/ the entirecar.

2. Thechauffeur
putsthe roses...
a) on the backseat.
b) in the ice bucket.
c) on the frontseat.

3. He leavesten minutes
early...
a/ becausehe wasoncelatedue to trafficproblems.
b/ to avoidhisclientsgettingimpatient.
c) in orderto buythe flowersbeforearriving.

UNIT2: LUXURY
AND ROMANCE 55
I
4 . Thecarpicksthe clientsup...
a) at theirhouse.
b) at a restaurant.
c) al a hotel.

5 . Thanksto thechauffeur's drivingskills...


a) the champagnewas notsPilt.
b) theyavoidedthe trafficjam.
soonerthananyoneelse'
c,) theyarrivedat the restaurant

6 . Theyspentthefourhours...
d at an EastEndrestaurant.
b) at a WestEnd restaurant.
c) havingdrinksin the car.

7 . Theadvertisement mainlysells...
a) a practical
service.
b,) luxury.
c,) speed.

8 . Thedriver's qualityis thathe...


mostoutstanding
a) drivesveryquickly.
b) repairsthe car himself.
c/ foreseeseverything.

GRAMMAR CAPSULE: Conneclors ogon! Lel's


fevise whql we leqrnt in Unit I

Connectors are wordsor expressions that are used to connect


ideas,such as so, otherwise,then, on the contrary,on the other
hand.Whenspeakingaboutthe syntacticstructureof the sentence,
theseconnectors are calledconiuncts.Conjunctsare unitswhose
mainfunctionis to join togethertwo or moreutteranceswhichhave
a semanticrelationshipbetweenthem. They express textual

5 STRANDS (Bt-PART
oF LANGUAGE D
relationships.
Theyareconnectors of structure,
andas such,theycan
connectphrases,clauses,sentencesand paragraphs:
E.g.:He was a liar andfurthermorea criminal.
(Nounphrases)
He neverstudiedfor hisexams.However,he passedthemail with
verygoodgrades.(Sentences)
In spokendiscourse, conjunctsare very frequently
usedto mark
the beginning
of a turn in conversation,
and as such,theyare also
consideredto be discoursemarkers.Among the most common
discoursemarkersare Well,Now,Nowthen,So,Then,etc.all of which
canbe usedto makedifferent typesof semanticconnections.

2> Join the following sentences by usng one


of lhe connecfors qnd including fhe necessqry
puneluqlion qnd chqnges
a) Thegentleman hadgivenhisinstructions.
He thoughthe couldlook forwardto an eveningto remember.
(once/while)
b) Theyentered the limousine.
He ordereda bottleto be chilled.(before/ although)
c) EachGuySalmonlimousine is the responsibility
of oneparticular
chauffeur.
It is his duty to maintainit in perfectmechanical condition.
(however /therefore)
d) Thisparticular Daimler hadmadeonlyonetrip.
It hadto be washed.(once/ although)
e) He brushedeveryinchof the upholstery.
He alsovacuumed the carpets.(andI as a result)
f) He wantedto arrivewithenoughtime.
Hisclientswouldnot haveto wait.(sothat/ but)
g) He hadplacedthe champagne in the Daimler.
He set off.(once/ while)
h) He leftthenminutesearly.
Histimingwasperfect.(once/ so)

UNIT2: LUXURY
AND ROMANCE 57
He knockedat the door.
He informedthe gentlemanhis limousinehad arrived.(until/ in
order)
He waited.
Theywerenotquiteready.(therefore/ because)

k) The roseswerenotof the standardtheymighthavebeen.


hadto buysomenewones.(since/ in contrast)
The chauffeur

3) ORAIANDWRITTEN PRODUCTION: Describeqnd


discussdreoms,hopesond ombitions;nonqfe o
slory; relqle detoils of unpredicloble
occurfences

t. Answerthese questions
a) Whatdoestheslogan"We'renotnumberone;youare"suggest
to
you?
b) Commenton someof the advantages offeredby thisservice.
c) Whatsort of personmightbe interestedin rentingone of these
chauffeur-driven
cars?
d,) Howdo youthinkthe chauffeur
foundthe roses?
e) Wouldyoudreamof hiringa servicelikethiseverin yourlife?

2. lmagine you dre inlerestedin impressingthe


daughter of d local millionaire with d view to
marrying her eventually. Everything must be
perecl and money is no object, Explainyour
requremenfscrnd plans to ]he Daimlerdgent in
l5O words (obout two or three psragro,phs)

VOCABULARY
D) TACKLTNG
BUILD UP YOUROWN GLOSSARYOF TERMSFOR UNIT2: Look
up the lollowing words in a monolingual (English-English)

58 (Br-PART
oF LANGUAGE
STRANDS r)
dictionary, as well as any others you tind difficutt to understand in
the text:

a) strictly(adv.) d) ensure(v) g) skill(n)


b) accurate(adj.) e) polish(v) h) ice bucket(n)
c) suitably(adv.) f) spill(v) i) intend(v)

| ) Find fhe opposle or neqr opposle of fhe


following words in the texf

WORD OPPOSITE/NEAR
OPPOSITE
a) false
b) vaguely
c) unstylish
d) inappropriately
e) horrible
f) unattractive
g) inability
h) obviously

2> Someof the words in lhe texl ore reloted to


cleoning.Trylo find the qpproprqleverb
fo complefe eoch senfence

clean wipe polish


vacuum brush wash

a) Youshould yourshoesbeforeyougo out.


b) I haveto my hair;it'sverydirty.
c) He always histeethtwicea day.

UNIT2: LUXURY
AND ROMANCE 59
d) Thisrugis fullof dust,youwillhaveto
e) Please havespiltmilkalloverit.
thetable;you

3)- Complete fhe following senfenceswith o verb


in the opproprofe lense from fhose listed below

order ensure tmpress


reserve maintain mind
intend present mark
inform replace improve

a) It is important to whenyou
highstandards
a r e r u n n i n ga b u s i n e s s .
b) lf you wantto youmuststudY
yourEnglish,
and practicehard.
c) We becausewe
a tableat the restaurant,
knewit wouldbe verycrowded.
d) Whenhe leftthe comPanY,theY h i mw i t ha
gold watchfor his years of service.
a) to cometo the party,butat the lastminute
the bossgaveme someextraworkto do.
f) H e thatthe housewassafeby lockingallthe
doorsand windows.
s) Theywere very by the flowerswe bought
them;theysaidtheyhadneverseenanyso beautiful'
to
h) Everyyearwe opena bottleof champagne
thedayon whichwe gotmarried.
i) He sayshe doesn't taking us to the airport
on Saturday,becausehe has nothingelse to do.
i) Whenhe brokethe glass,he hadto it with
anotherone,as it wasveryvaluable.
k) two bottlesof wine, but the waiterhas
onlyone.
brought
t) They- himof hismother'sillnessaSSoonaS
he camebackfromhis holidaY.

0 (Bt-PART
oF LANGUAGE
STRANDS l)
4> Cg.mp!-etelhe sentencesusngthe qppropriqfe
odjecfive or qdverb from those listed belbw ond
chonging fhem where necessory

strictly particular
accurate charming
fashionable mysteriously
pleasant suitable

a) Her clothes were very ; she was


appropriately dressedfor the occasion.
b,) Hismoneydisappeared fromhiswallet,and
he neverfoundoutwhotookit.
c,) Theirreporton thesituation in Africawasvery
all of the correctfactswerethere.
d) H es mi l e d ; he wasa veryattractive
man.
e) She wantedthat painting;she wouldn't
acceptanyother.
f) The sun shonevery ; it was neithertoo hot
nortoo cold.
g) Theyalwayswantto go to the most places;
theycan'tstandgoingto unstylish
ones.
h,) His remarkswere not true;I foundthem
rathervagueand exaggerated.

5) Thephrosqverb set off meonsto leqve,lo stort


gong.lnsqrfone of the followingverbsh the blqnk
spqeesof lhese sentences:fum off (stop by using
q switch), put of (_d.gloy,
postpone); iake o7 (the-
beginningof o flight),be off (go, Iove),wedr oft
(lose intensity,fqde -9wqy),put (somene)otf
(discourqge),get oft (corire down from)
a) Please, the light,I wantto go to sleep.
b) As soonas I finishtypingthis reportl'll to
John'shouse.

UNIT
2: LUXURY
ANDROMANCEl
c) The planewas supposedto at 12.00,butit
wasdelayed.
d) thathorse,it'sverydangerous.
e) Don'tworryif the colouris too bright,it will
so o ne n o u g h .
We will haveto goingto Londonuntilnext
month.
g) Sheis veryenthusiasticaboutthe idea;trynotto
her withyoursarcasm.

wth the correctform:


)' Fillin the blqnk spoce__s
setup (roseinto positon),9ef Pgc\ (deloy)' sef
rn (begin ond contnue),sel ds-id.e (reserve'
kep), seI abouf (to begin_lodo_)' down
set-
(estoOtish),sef off (cogse.lo qct), set out
(begin o courseof oction)
a) We all to lookforthe lostgirl.
b) They the camerasand recording equipment
beforethe actors so
arrived they wouldn'twaste tme.
c) All our holidayPlans were by the bad
weather.
d) TheruleswereclearlY by the teacher.
e) The bombcouldhavebeen by the heat.
f) Winterhas earlierthanusualthisYear.
s) She had just doing her work when he
arrived.
h) At the storeI askedthemto the greencoat
for me untilthe nextdaY.

62 STRANDS (Bl-PART
oF LANGUAGE D
7> Solvefhe crosswordusing lhe clues below

DOWN
1 . a b i l i t y, q u a l i ty o f d o i n g 4. precise,correct.
something well.
6. strangely.
2. specific, singular.
10. makebetter.

UNIT2: LUXURY
AND ROMANCE 3
3. in vogue,uPto theminute. 9. attractive,
Pleasant.
5. in an approPriatewaY. 11. setaside.
to identifY.
6. to signify, of liquid.
12. a smallquantitY
7. affect stronglY,create a 13. tell,r ePor t.
favorableattitude. 14. something whichis givenon a
L substitute. specialoccasion.

E) NOW,HOW'SYOURSPEIIING?
I- l' Thei in q word such qs Siris sometimes
indistinguishoblefrom the letter u when il s
pronounced.Add eitheri ot u lo complele
fhe followingwords

ret--n c_rcus d_rt


s_rvive b_rst fl--rt
c--rve s---rprise P-rchase
sh.-rt f_rm f-rnish
o rpose c_rcle m_rder
s--rface th_rst b_rth
s_rgeon b_rth ---rgent

oppe<rrin the lext


2>Someqof lhese words whichInclude
te double consonont. it in fhe blqnk
spoce whefe necessofy

chauf-eur ac_urate oc_as_lon


ele-gant din-s even-ing

64 STRANDS (Bl-PART
oF LANGUAGE D
bot le chil_ed rem ember
val eted vacuum-ed
_aculate ad_res_
WOT V ti m i no inform_ed
pas enoers charm_ing

F) AND... HOW'SYOURFORMATION
OF WORDS?

I ) Notice fhe words 'opresent,' ond ,,promise".The


prefixes prc-and prc- hove been odded fo
lhe bqses-senfsnd -mrbeto form these lerms. See
]ro* moly words you cun mqke by joining these
fwo prefixes pre-lpro- lo fhe following bqses

fer tend vide voke


-*-*Pel scribe serve cede
sume duce -pose dict

2) Give fhe odjeclive ond lhe odverb fhot


cofrespond lo lhese nouns:

UNIT2: LUXURY
AND ROMANCE 5
c) usrNc ENGUSH
APPROPRTATELY
AND PUTTNG
IT INTOMOTION
1. Look at the expression "two dozenred roses"(in
Spanishdos
docenasde rosas rojas).Noticethat the word "dozen"(like
hundred,thousand,million)when used with a definitenumber
takesneitherthe pluralsuffix-s northepreposition
of.

GRAMMAR Zero plurol


CAPSULE:

Somenounswhichindicatequantities or measureshavethesame
form in the singularas in the pluralwhenfollowedby a noun,for
example:dozen,foot,hundred,thousand,million,elc.

E.g.: Mexicocityhasaround22 millioninhabitants.


He'ssixfoottwo (inches). [6ft2in.]
Or to be strictlyaccurate,two dozen (red) roses.(Seetext)

Thesenouns,however, addthe plural-s inflectional


morphemeif
they are followedby the prepositionof (e.9.:Dozensof students,
millionsof ants\.
Someanimalnamestakethe zeropluralbut can be usedwith
r n d p l u ra lme a ning,for exam ple:cod, deer ,salmon,
a s i n g u l aa
sheep,grouse,etc.(e.9.'.Onesheep,two sheep,etc.;onecod, a lot
of cod, etc.).
Someothernamesof animalsalso havezero pluralif they are
prey,e.g.:herring,pheasant,
considered salmon,trout,etc.However,

66 STRANDS (Bt-PART
oF LANcUAGE t)
if theyare usedto denotedifferentindividuals
or speciestheytakethe
rg.gulqfpluralinflection(e.g:^Theysaw fivedeer'runningin"thepark;
The fishes of the tndic ocean are different from "those tn
Caribbean\.
zeroplurals.
include:a) somewordswithbasesendingin -s:
^ 91h.r
senes,me.?ns,species(one series/ two series, etc.);b) Nati-onality
yorq: endingin -ese: p91lyguese,Chinese,etc. 1onortuguesi
two Portuguese,etc.);c) words such as aircraftanddice qe.i: on
aircraft/ dice;two aircraft/ dice, etc.)

| ) Now frqnslqte into English


a) Trescientosdlares.
b) Cincuentaeuros.
c) Cientosde libros.
d) Cincodocenasde huevos.
e) Ochomiltrescientas personas.
f) Docenasde flores.
g) Cincomillones de habitantes.

2> look of the use of lhe word evenin the texl:,,He


even wqshed out lhe qshtroys,,(inctuso)
..."lookingevenfresherthanwhenshefirstreceivedthem,'. (an ms)
Fromthe following pairsof sentences
writea newone usingthe word
evenas in the examplebelow:

E.g.: Yesterday
was hot.Todaywas hotter.
Todaywas evenhotterthanyesterday.
a) Maryis beautiful. Sophieis morebeautiful.
b) Thisfilmis bad.The otherone is worse.
c) Londonis big.Tokyois bigger.
d) Tomis thin.Billis thinner.
e) Piccadilly
Circusis large.Trafalgar
Squareis larger.

UNIT2: LUXURY
AND ROMANCE 67
3) Severqlmedal verbs expressilg gp:femic or
extrinsiemodalitY qppecrr in fhe text with the
following meonings
-possibility-
,,...the gentleman
knewhe could lookforward...to an eveningto
remember"
-probability-
"...anylastminuteworrythatthe limousine
may be late."
remotepossibility politeness-
withexcessive
"l felt the roseswere perhapsnot of the standardthey might have
begn".

GRAMMARCAPSULE: Modql ouxilqries: mayf


might/canf could

arespecialverbs
Modalauxiliaries whichbehavein somewayslike
the primaryauxiliariesbe, have and do, but which have certain
are:
Theirmaincharacteristics
peculiarities.

1. They form the negativeand interrogative accordingto the


norralauxiliary (e.g.:
paftern He could not speakto his boss;
May I askyou a questionl'
primaryauxiliaries,contractionof these verbs is
2. As with 'in
possible the negative(e'g': can't; mustn't; couldn't;
needn't;etc.\.
3. Theycan be usedto formtag questions(e.9.:Youcan'tswim,
can you?).
4. Theycan be usedin shortanswers(e.9.:A:Canyou swim?B:
No,I can't.),
5. Theycanreplacea verbor clausethathasbeenreferredbefore
and,therefore, avoidredundancy(Shecan'tswim,but I can)'
theyhaveno infinitive
6. In contrastwithprimaryauxiliaries, and
thereforethey cannot be precededby to.
7. They do not add an -s to the third personsingularin the
presenttense.

8 STRANDS (Bl-PART
oF LANGUAGE D
8 . All modalverbsare followedby the bare infinitive,
exceptfor
ought to and used to (Shemight wantto seeyou).
Theseverbsare defective becausetheyonlyhaveone or two
forms.Theyusuallylacka formfor ths futuie,the conditional
and an -ing form.

After readingthe grammarcapsuleand more informationabout


modal verbs in your grammarbook, do the following exerciseby
adding may,might, can or could in the blank spaces:

a) You usemy classnotesif youarecarefulnotto


losethem.
b) H e stillcome,it'snottoo lateyet.
c) I borrowyourpen?
d) You be right.l'm in no position
to judge.
e) The chairmanaskedpolitelyif he interrupt
his
colleague.
f) The childrenshouldhavebeenmorecarefulwhentheycrossed
the street,they havegot runover.
s) l ' msu reI paintthe roomin two days.
h) You keepyourrooma littlemoretidy.
i) I speakFrenchfluentlywhenI wasyounger.
i) Long it last!

4) Answerthe following quesfonsu$inglhe words


in brqekefs

. E.g':whyisn'the home?(mayrgo cinema)He mayhavegoneto the


cinema.

a) Whydidn'the writeto us?(could/ forget)

b) Howdid he knowaboutourplans?(couldi guess)

c) Whyisn'tshewaitingat the busstop?(mayldelay)

UNIT2: LUXURY
AND ROMANCE 69
d) Whydidn'the cometo visitus?(might/ busy)

e) Whyis he in bed?(might/ ill)

qnd
5)' Notice fhe use of the prepostionson, in, of
for, which qppeqr frequently in this text' qnd
qft'erreviewing them, fill in the blonks with fhe
oppfopfiote one
a) I hopeto be withmYdaughter her birthday.

b) She lives the third floor of that building


a big apartment.
c) Theyalway s get up earlY them or ning.
d) She was not sufficiently dressed the
occasion.
e) Thepaint thewallis stillwet.
f) We knocked thedoorbutnobodY answered.

s) Germanytheyusuallyopentheirpresents
Eve.
Christmas
h) They had a quick mea thetrain.
i) He has worked France
two years.
j' ) T h e p r o b l e m w i t h | i v i n g t h e c o a s t i s t h
therearetoo manytouristsduringthesummer'
k) Theysaythatcrimedoesn'tPaY theend.
t) We can meet Wednesday,
frontof youroffice.
m) Theywentoff to the mountains theweekend.

"Hoving given his.


)' Noticethe sentence:
nslructonsothe genllemon knew..."In lhe first
clouse of ftrisexmple,the speoker/wtitet
expressessomethingthol is finished.In the
seondclouse onotheroctivity is storted,in
which cose the Post simPleis used

70 oF LANGUAGE
STRANDS l)
(Bl-PART
GRAMMARCAPSULE:
Tenseond time

. In mostlanguages, includingEnglishand spanish,verbaltense


doesnotnecessarily coincidewithrertime.Teneis the grammatical
ggleggry (linguisticexpression)that we can identifyas verbal
inflection.
In English,for example,we can distinguish two tenses;
presentand past (Englishhas no futureinflectedform of the verb),
whereaswe, as humans,can identifyeventsoccurringin the pasi,
presentor future.Inthesameway,we canusedifferent tnsesto'refer
to variousmomentsin time; for instance,we can use the simple
presentformsto referto a timedifferent
fromthe momentof speaking.
E.g.: Thenthe FrenchinvadeEngland. presenttense
(Historic
- pasttime)
I hear she has been givenan award.(presentusedwith
verbsof communication- pasttime)
Derekleavesfor Rometomorrow. (presenttense- future
time)
lf Sallywere here today,she wouldbe sad. (past tense
- presenttime)

After studying the different tenses and their relationshipto


aspectin your grammarbook,put the followingsentencestogeiher,
as the exampleshows:

E.g.: He finished
hislunch. He wentoutto play.
Havingfinished
hislunch,he wentoutto play.

a) | wonthe firstprize.I receiveda sportscar.


b) He finishedreadingthe book.He gaveit to hissister.
c) | studieduntilverylate.ThenI wentto bed.
d) He lostthe keysto his apartment.
He spentthe nightat a friend's
house.
e) Shefinished
lunch.Shewentoutfora walk.

UNIT2: LUXURY
AND ROMANCE 7l
- Note the use of the definiteqnd indefiniteorlcle
7>
in the text, ond fhen include eilher o(n), the'
ot O (no orticle) in the blunk spoces

a) Heonlyhad hard-boiled eggand


applefor lunchbecausehe is on diet.
b) Theymade bedsandcleaned
room.
c) We livedin countryfor
coupleof years.
d) Do youplay piano?No,but l'mverYfondof
music and I play -
guitar bir.
e) What daylYes, it'scertainlybeen
dayto remember.
0 Japaneseis language
difficult to learn.
g) firstthingtheydidwhentheygotto - Madrid
wasvisii Pradomuseumbecause theywanted
to see Meninas.
h) 'Wouldyou prefer "-orange bananaor -'-
orangeor dessert?" please,I love
oranges".

E: TIMETO RELAX:Now,let'srelax,sit down,andwatchsome


\P interesting withthe topicof thisunit:
videosin connection
?v=4caOwK7Vq2
http:i/www.youtube.com/watch E&feature=relaled
com/watch/
metacale.
http://www. r
165312/this*is_realy*good-for-you
_perfomanees/

72 (Bt-PART
oF LANGUAGE
STRANDS l)
$elf-Froluation LlnitZ
Do the followinoexercises
and thencheckyouranswersin the KEy
TO EXERCTSES A-ND|ASKSi i" ."0 of rhebook:

t ) Choosethe opposteor neEr opposleof lhese


w0rds
1. false a/ skill
2. unstylish b) suitable
3. inappropriate c) true
4. obviously d) fashionable
5. inability e) clearly
f) unfalse
g) mysteriously
h) clearly

2> Choosethe correcf opfion to complete


- the
meqningof lhe followingsenteneds
1. I thinkhejustwantedto us by spending
muchmoney. so
a) impact b) impress c) impressing d) impression
2. Tom'sgradeswon't if hedoesn'tworkmuch
harder.
a) ensure b) improve c) good d) to improve
3 . This medicinewill youa goodnight'ssleep.
a) improved b) ensured c) ensure d) assured
4 . What he said was
_as a joke,buttheytookit
seriously
andwereveryangryat hirn
a) intented b) intended c) intent d) intending

UNIT2: LUXURY
ANDROMANCE 73
5. Harryhas John as caPtainof the football
team.
a) substitute b) respondedc) respond d) replaced

3) Chooselhe correcl opton fo complete ihe


meoningof the followingsenfences
1. Youcanphonehimnow,he'salwayshome
the evening.
a) on b) in c) for d) at

2. Do you know when the train Segovia


arrives?
a) at b) for c) o n d) in

3. We can meet Tuesdayif You'refree.


a) at b) in c) for d) on

4. Mary has alwaYsworked her father,who


ownsa big clothingcompany.
a) for b) on c) in d) at

5. Hesaidhewouldwaitforus theairportuntil
we arrived.
a) at b) in c) on d) for

4> Choosethe correct option to complete fhe


followingsentences
1. I lovewatching television.
a) a b) an c) the a
in
doctorsaysyoushoulddo moreexercise
2.
orderto keePfit.
a)a b)an c) the d)a

74 (Bl-PART
oF LANGUAGE
sTRANDS l)
mathematics
is my favouritesubjectthis
Year.
a) a b) an c) the d)@

4. MyfriendJohnSmithwasbornin
a) a b) an c) the a
5. Theysay applea daykeepsthe doctoraway.
a ) a b) an c) the a

UNIT
2: LUXURY
ANDROMANCE75
t NIT3: TEALOVER$
A) WARMINGUP
1) Whatdo you usuallyhavefor breakfast, tea or coffee?
2) Do y_ouhavepreference for any kindof tea (green,black,white,
etc.)?
3) Do youthinktea is goodfor yourhealth?lf so, in whatrespects?

B) ORAI DISCOURSE:
PUTTING
A CASE
(rN A CONVERSATION)
CAN DOs: 1 ) Briefly give reasons and explanations for
opinionsand/oractions.
2l Developan argumentwell enoughto be followed
without difficultymost of the time.

o) Lisfenlo Tony ond Shqron's conversqlion:

Wl *

(Tonyand sharon are working,and it is now time for a break)

Ughl l'm overwhelmed


--Ton_V: withso muchwork.I needa cup of
coffeefor energy.
sharon:coffee?oh prease,Tony,you shourdbe more hearth-
conscious. Coffeeis not...

UNIT3: TEALOVERS79
T:Well,whatdo youwantme to drinkinstead? | needsomekind
of invigorating stuff.
S: TEA is your bestoption.lt's invigorating AND healthyat the
s a m eti me A . n d ,i f p o ssi b l e ...
dr inkGREEN TEA... Youcan' timagine
all the goodproperties thisbeverage has.
T: Tea?No way! No! | find it disgusting, sorry.Thankyou very
much.
S:Well,it'sincredible youdon'tliketea,considering yourEnglish
o r i g i n s...
T:Yes,I'mtheblacksheepof theU.K.I knowit.l'vealwaysrebelled
against traditions andconventions. I don'tthinkI shouldliketeajustfor
themerefactof beingBritish.... l'venevergonealongwiththecrowd...
It'sa question of principle.
S: I seeyourpoint,butif whattheydo is goodforyourhealth,you
shouldat leastconsider it, don'tyouthink?... Look,l'llgiveyoumany
reasons whyyoushoulddrinkgreentea...Andyes,don'tdrinkit like
yourfellowcountrypeople, becausein factyoushouldn't putanymilk
i n i t ....l t h a sto b e d ru n kw i thNO milkandNO SUGAR....That' thes
r i g h th
t i n gto d o ...
T: Oh Sharon,youmustbe bonkers. Youwantme to drinktea,and
on top of that you're I
tellingme shouldn't putsugarin it??!!.Howon
earthwill I be ableto swallow then? it, At leastI shouldbe allowedto
coverup the disgusting taste with somesweetness!
S: Look,sweetie,youtakeit or you leaveit, but if youdo whatl'm
tellingyou,youwillbe protected againsta longlistof incurableand/or
unwanteddiseases,such as cancer,heartdisease,arthritis,tooth
decay...AND,besides, youwillloseweight!Because... -FYl- green
tea raisesyour metabolismand causesthe body to burn more
calories... Canyouthinkof a betterdrink?
T: I sureCAN'T,Sharon.HowcouldI everhavethoughtthatI could
c o n tra d iyo ct u ?Y OUWl N ,S H ARON, YOUW IN!!l!!

b) Now discuss lhe following wth your lutor or


cossmqles in the forum/virtuql closs
1) Why does Sharonthink tea is betterthan coffee?Wouldyou
agree?

80 (Bt-PART
oF LANGUAGE
STRANDS t)
2) H.owwouldyou describeTomaccordingto what he says about
himself?
3) Whatkindof personis Sharon?
4) Whatdo youthinkconvinces Tomto drinktea at the end?
5) \gry lt'rgt_Vou
knowall aboutthe benefitsof greentea,wouldyou
drinkit? Saywhyor whynot.

c) MUrT|-TASKING
ACTTVITIES
DRINKINGTEA IN BRITAIN:
WATCH,READ,LISTEN,STUDY
and WRITE

stgp 1. Go on the internetand wATcH the followingvideosabout


drinking
tea in England
youtube.com/watch?v=qiqEp RkLbck
http://www.
http://www.
youtube.com/watch?v=GFqJOxJseTe
step 2. READthe relatedtextand LlsrEN to its spokenversionto make
sureyouknowhowto pronounce andgivethe correctintonation to it.

"n,:l5i,1iJ".":iiJ;,il:,li3lilfl
q3oe complicated
biological
l3!;iLiJ;,?ilElf.::lff
experiments
lh:l
3n! to finda wayof s-poiting
it.To the eternalgloryof Britishsciencetheirlabourborfruii.The
suggested that if you do not drinkit clear,or with lemonor rum an
sugar,butpoura fewdropsof coldmilkintoit, and no suoarat all.the
desiredobjectis achieved.once this refreshing, aromtic,oriental
beverage was successfully transformed intocolourless and tasteless
gargling-water, it suddenlybecamethe nationaldrnkof GreatBritain
and lreland- stillretaining,indeedusurping, the high-sounding titleof
tea.
Therearesomeoccasions whenyoumustnotrefusea cupof tea,
othenryise you are judgedan exoticand barbarousbirdwithoutany

UNIT3: TEALOVERS8l
hopeof everbeingableto takeyourplacein civilisedsociety.lf you
are invitedto an Englishhome,at fiveo'clockin the morning youget
a cup of tea.lt is eitherbroughtin by a heartilysmilinghostessor an
almostmalevolently silent maid.When you are disturbedin your
sweetest morning sleepyoumustnotsay:"Madame (orMabel),I think
you are a cruel,spitefuland malignantpersonwho deservesto be
shot".On the contrary, you haveto declarewithyourbestfiveo'clock
smile:"Thankyou so much.I do adorea cup of earlymorningtea,
especially earlyin the morning". lf theyleaveyoualonewiththeliquid,
you maypourit downthe washbasin.
Then you havetea for breakfast; then you havetea at eleven
o'clockin themorning;then afterlunch;thenyouhaveteafortea;then
aftersupper;andagainat eleveno'clockat night.
Youmustnot refuseanyadditional cupsof tea underthe following
circumstances: if it is hot;if it is cold;if youaretired;if anybodythinks
you mightbe tired;if you are nervous;if you are gay*;beforeyou go
out;if you are out;if you havejust returnedhome;if youfeellikeit; if
youdo notfeellikeit;if youhavehadno teaforsometime;if youhave
just hada cup.
Youdefinitely mustnotfollowmy example. I sleepat fiveo'clockin
the morning;I havecoffeefor breakfast; I drinkinnumerable cupsof
blackcoffeeduringthe day;I havethe mostunorthodox and exotic
teasevenat tea-time. The otherday,for instance -l jusi mentionthis
as a terrifying
exampleto show you howlowsomepeoplecansink-
I wanteda cup of coffeeand a pieceof cheesefor tea. lt was one
of those exceptionally hot days and my wife (once a good
Englishwoman, now completelyand hopelesslyled astrayby my
wickedforeigninfluence)madesome cold coffeeand put it in the
refrigerator,
whereit frozeand becameone solidblock.On the other
hand,she leftthe cheeseon the kitchentable,whereit melted.So I
hada pieceof coffeeand a glassof cheese.

GeorgeMIKES,Howto be an Alien
- Note
that this text was written in 1946, when the modern use of gay (meaning
homosexual)was not known. In this text gay is used as an adjectiveand it means
"happy".Gay meaninghomosexualis
consideredto be a neologism,and can also be
useo as a noun.

82 STRANDS (Br-PART
oF LANGUAGE r)
Step3. DO the following
exercises:

I ) soy whetherthe following siofemenlsore frue or


fqlse qccordngto the possqge;when folse,gve
lhe correcl verson
a) Teawasoriginally an unpleasantdrink.
b) A groupof Britishscientists
decidedto makeit better.
c) Theysuggested you shouldput a sliceof lemonin it to makeit
drinkable.
d) Teais the national
drinkof GreatBritainand lreland.
e) Peoplewho are not fond of tea are considered*exotic,,and
"barbarous,,by the British.
f) The writer loves being woken up early in the morningby
somebody whooffershima hotcupof tea.
g) TheBritishdrinknumerous cupsof teaat anytimeof theday.
h) The author'swife, as a good Engrishwoman, arwaysrespects
nationalcustoms.
i) Thewriterhasleftasidehis pernicious foreignhabitsand hasgot
usedto the Englishwayof life.

2, order the followilg elemenfsto form meqningful


senlencesqccording to the pqssoge
a ) t h e r e/ c up /o f /o cca si o n/w
s h e n/ r efuselnoV some/ must/you
/arelaltea.
b) tea/ morning/ adoreI do I I I cupI a I earlyI ot.
c) definitely
I you lnot / must/ example / follow/ my.
d ) i n n u m e ra b lbel/a ck/co ffe/ er /cu ps/dr inkI of I dayI r heldur ing.
e) refrigerator / coffeeI theI andI frozeI it I in I theI put / we.
f ) u n o r t h o d /olx/ t e a s/ e x o t i c /m o s tl t h el h a v e l a n d .

UNIT3; TEALOVERS83
Answerlhese queslions
3) ORALPRODUCTION:
a) DoyouthinkBritishscientists evermadebiological experiments in
order to tell peoplehow they shoulddrink tea? Explainyour
answer.
b) Do you believethe authorexaggerates when he quotesthe
innumerableoccasionson which British people drink tea
throughout the day?Givea reasonfor youranswer.
c) The bookfromwhichthispassagehasbeentakenwaswrittenin
1946by a Hungarian authorafterhe hadlivedin England forsome
years. Do you know if Englishpeople'scustomshave now
changedin thisrespect?lf so, howhavetheychanged?
d) Canyoufindanyironicstatements in thetext?Quoteat leastthree
of them.
e) Whichis, in youropinion,the funniestparagraphin thistext?

D) TACKLINGVOGABUTARY
BUILD UP YOUROWN GLOSSARYOF TERMSFOR UNIT3: LooK
up the tollowing words in a monolingual (English-English)
dictionary, as well as any others you find difticult to understand in
the text:

a) spoil(v) (adj.)
d) high-sounding g) spiteful
(adj.)
b) drop(n) (adv.)
e) otherurise h) sink(v)
c) achieve(v) f) heartily(adv.) i) wicked(adj)

| ) Fill in the gops using fhe following verbs in fhe


oppfopriule form

achieve refuse disturb


deserve suggest sporl

84 STRANDS (Bt-pART
oF LANGUAGE D
a) He is an honestman. He doesn't such
treatment.
b) Lastyear'sorangecropwas by hail.
c) Don't them.Theyhavehada verytiringday.
d) He will never successif he behavesso
timidly.
e) Whydid you theirinvitation?
f) She thatwe shouldwalkfasterif we wanted
to reachthe top beforedark.

2) Gomplelethesesenlenceswthlhe expressions
in fhe box

a) You can't rely on her;the otherday, , she


hadan important appointment
and shedidn'tturnup.
b,) "Shallwe go to the cinema""No,I don't it."
c) He didn't acceptthe other'sopinion. he
maintained thathe was notto blame.
d) Mrs.Martin,for havingpostedthe letters
for me.
e) I don'tfeelwell;l'llhave food
f) Youcan'treallysay he is a hardworker,but
he is alwaysreadyto help.

UNIT3: TEALOVERS85
3) The words motching the definilions qre hdden in
the word squore; lhey moy hove q horizonfo,
verticql, or dqgonol position (the firsl one hos
been done to show you)

S F T L I N F o
T R z P o U R X H
F E T o M S E L o
A E D R o P A o S
M z W E o W N I T
R E M H M U J L E
V T A W E S B W S
o c I R L A P L S
U c D M T P A A E

a) Go downbelowa surface,fallto a lowerlevelor position.


b,) Hardenintoiceas a resultof greatcold.
c) The expectation
of somethinghappening
as onewishes.
d/ Causeto flowsteadilyand rapidly.
e) Femaleservant.
f) Worry,annoyance,risk.
g) Theamountof liquidthatfallsin oneroundmass.
h/ A womanwho receives guests.
i) Becomeliquid.

8 STRANDS (Br-PART
oF LANGUAGE D
4) Decide which of fhese odjectives from the text
ccn modily the tollowingnouns.Someof the
udjecfivescon suif more lhon one noun
E.g.:civilised society,civilised customs.

ADJECTIVES

civfised foreign
smiling sm ile
silent witch
spiteful laughter
malignant society
gay customs
unorthodox prayer
wicked look
child
reading
colours
ideas
expressions

See the use of bring rn in the text.

ln os on odverbiol porlicle
GRAMMARCAPSULE:
gl
particle
ln usedas an adverbial canhavethefollowing
meanings:
Usedwithverbsof movement it means"enter"(comein. drivein.
rush in, walk in).
Usedwithverbswitha directobjectit canmean"help"or "inviteto
enter"(askin, bringin, carryin, let in).

UNIT3: TEALOVERS87
Be at home(be in, stay in).
Keepinside(fastenin, shut in).
Visit (cal/in, drop in).

5) Jrlo* complete the sentencesby using one of


fhese verbs in the qppropriofe form: sk, lef,
shut,drive, drop, be
a/ Don't the childrenin yet.Dinnerisn't
ready.
b) He usually in for a coffeeafterwork.
c) lf the dog is too noisy, h i mi n .
just
d) Youneedn'tparkyourcaroutside, In.
e/ Aren'tyou yourfriendin?
f) Stevein?

E) NOW HOW'S YOUR SPELING?

I ) Fillin the gops wth one of lhe vowel


combnqlions-ieo -ei
consultyourEnglish
dictionary
wherenecessary;
usearsoa phonetic
to checkpronunciation.
dictionary

ach ve o c e conc___ve c_ling


rec_ve bel f s_ze rel f
dec___ve c h f th f f_td

88 sTRANDS (Bt-nART
oF LANGUAGE D

I
?) Decide whetherthe followngwords from fhe lexl
crrespelt eitherwth singleor wilh u double
consonnl;includethe second consonnfwhen
necessfy

sug_est suc_es_ful_y
stif_ sud_enl_y
colourles_ oc_as_ion
heartil_y hos_tes_
especial_y sup_er (themeal)
ad_it ional fol_ow
ter_ifying cof_ee

F) AND...H(}W'SYOURFOnMATION ll thing 2 dol

OFWORDS? [i tr'J,l

GRAMMAR CAPSULE:
-less I -lul
Adjective formqtion: g
a) Abstractnounsreferto a qualityor idearatherthanto a physical
object.The suffix-ful is usuallyaddedto abstractnounsmeaning
"havingthequalityof" or "fullof":
E . g . : s p oo n spoonfu/
beauty beautiful
b) The suffix-/esscan be addedto nounsto formadjectives
with
the meaning of "nothavingthequalityof":
E . g . : p e nn y penni/ess
spot spot/ess
wotethatwhilesomenounscantakebothendings,
othersaddeitheroneor the
other.

UNIT
3:TEALOVERS89
I ) Turnthe followng nouns into odiectives qnd
ploce them under one of lhe heodings in the
toble below. Mqke qny chonges in spelling you
find necessofy
help harm meaning fright breath
rest sleep pain colour thought
heart hair success penny revenge

-less/ -ful -less -ful

2> Look ot lhe following odverbs in lhe texl


SuccessfuIIy, suddenly, heartiIy, especially, definitely,
excepti onalIy, comp leteIy, hopeI essly.
Theyhaveall beenformedby addingthesuffix-ly to an adjective,
this
beinga commonwayof formingadverbsof manneror viewpoint. ln some
hasalsobeenmadefroma noun:
casesthe adjective

E.g.: success- successful- successfully


heart- hearty- heartily
exception- exceptional- exceptionally
hope- hopeful
- hopefully

90 (Br-PART
oF LANGUAGE
STRANDS t)
Adverb formqlion: -ty
GRAMMARCAPSULE:

Adverbsin Englishcanbe formedby addingthederivationarsuffix


-ly to adjectives.
In mostcases,the resultingadverbis an adverbof
manner:

E.g.: kind kindly


legal legally
Someadverbsof time (frequency adverbs)can also end in -ly:
monthly,weekly,hourly.
This type of adverbcan be placedin almostany positionin the
sentence.lt cango in initialposition:
E.g.: Slowly,Jessydroveto herdestination.
Middleposition:

E.g.: Jessyslowlydroveto herdestination.


Finalposition:

E.g.: Jessydroveto herdestination


slowly.

Now give the noun and adjectivefrom which theseadverbshave


beenformed:

NOUN ADJECTIVE ADVERB


personally
carelessly
fashionably
dirtily
faithfully
noisily
endlessly

UNIT
3:TEALOVERS9l
confidentially
funnily
contemptuously
intentionally

G) US|NGENGUSHAPPROPRTATETY
AND PUTTING
IT INTOMOTON

I ) After reqdng lhe grommor copsule, do fhe


exercise below

GRAMMARCAPSULE:
Somef Any E
The use of some:
Thepartitivesome,as opposedto any,is markedaffirmatively
and
has the meaningof an indefinitequantity"a certainnumberor
amount".lt canmodifybothcountable
anduncountable nouns.

Examplein the text:/.../ to showyou how low somepeoplecan


sink.

Someis usedwhenyou are interested in the quantitybut you do


notwant(or need)to be veryspecific.lt is pronounced /snm/.
livein Sydney.
E.g.: Someof my relatives

Somecanalsobe usedwhenyouareinterested in theobjectitself


ratherthan in the quantity.
In this caseit wouldbe the pluralformof
a/an and one with the meaningof "a numberof" or "a few of". lt is
pronounced isEm/.
please.
E.g.: Giveme somecookies,

92 sTRANDS (Br-PART
oF TANeUAGE r)
As a rule,some is used in: a) affirmative
sentences(e.g.:He
wantedsomesugar;b) offersandrequests (e.9.:Would
youlike-some
wherethe answer"yes"is expected(e.g.:Why
wine?);c) questions
don'tyoubuysome of thosepastries?)

The use of any:

Thewordany is alsousedlo referto an indefinite


quantityand is
not markedaffirmatively
or negatively.
As a rule, we use any in
negativesentences:

Therearen'tany peoplein the street.

We use any in normalunemphatic questionswhere both an


affirmative
anda negativeanswerare possible.
Arethereany newbooksto buy?
We can also use any in affirmative sentencesas a determiner
referring
to something or someonewhoseexactidentityor natureis
irrelevant.
In this case,any will havethe meaningof cuatquier(a)in
Spanish.
E.g.: Any personcando thsjob.

Nowput in someor anyto complete


the sentences:
a) "Can I offeryou morecake?""No,thankyou, I
don'twant more."
b) He wasworkingfor firmin Sheffield.
c) There'shardly milk left.
d) lf I couldfindmy records,
l w o u l dl e ndyou
a) He nevershowed consideration
forourfeelings.
f) We gottherewithout trouble.
s) Youcanvisitus time.We are alwaysat home.
h) Theremustbe placeto leavemy luggage.

UNIT
3:TEALOVERS93
Why don't you invite friendsto your country
house?
"Whichdo youprefer?"" willdo."
D

2> fncfudeone of fhe compoundsof some,dny, no,


ot every (nobody, no one, crnybody,everybody,
nowhere, crnywhere,everywhere, anything,
nothng,dnd everylhing) to complete the
meonngof thesesenlences
a) I waitedfor a longtimebut came.
b) Thegameis veryeasy; can playit.
c) We are going nextweekend.We are stayingat
h o me .
d) yousay maybe usedagainstyou.
e) shesaidwastrue.
f) There was _ in the theatre. had
alreadyleft.
g) The weatherhere is hotterthan else in the
country.
h) Yourtoysare lying ; pickthemup,please.

3) Note lhe superlqfivesin the lext


"...agroLtpof the mosteminent..."
"...in your sweetestmorningsleep" "...withyour best five o'clock
smile"
"...themost unorthodoxand exoticteas"

Now translate into English:

a) Se pusosu mejorvestidoy se fue a la fiesta.


b) Es el niomsaltode la clase.
c) Es el mssimptico
de lostreshermanos.
d) Creoque haselegidoel peorregalo.

94 sTRANDS (BI-PART
oF LANGUAcE r)
e) Es la msinteligente
de la familia.
f) EsMoscla capitalmsfrade Europa?
g) Porqute compraste el trajemscarode la tienda?
h) Es unode los pasesmspequeos del mundo.

4> After reodngfhe grommqr point, do ihe exercise


below

GRAMMARCAPSULE:
Some spqce preposifions

In front of / behind:
Bothin front of andbehindexpressrelative
positionin a horizontal
way {in contrast,above and below are exampiesof verticalrelative
position).
Thesetwo prepositionscanbe seenas converse opposites:
Peteris sittingin frontof Mary= Maryis sittingbehindpeter
(Noticethatin thiscasewe cannottranslate
in front of intoSpanish
as en frentede.The appropriate
translation
wouldbe delanted.

Out ofl into


Out of can be seenas the converse
of into.
E.g.: Shesteppedout of the car// Shesteppedinto the car.

out of can alsosignifymaterialor constituency


as in the following
example:
E.g.: Theymadea modelout of clay.

Outside/Inside

lnsidecan be saidto havethe samemeaningas in, and outside


can substitutefor out (of). Both prepositions
aie usedwith stative
verbs,butcanaccompany a dynamicverbas well.
E.g.: He wentoutsidethe room.(= outof)
I havemy cellularphoneinsidemy pocket.(= in)

UNIT3:TEALOVERS95
Now,fill in the gaps with one of the prepositionsstudiedin the
GrammarCapsule:
a) Whenshe heardthe telephonering,she ran
the house.
b) The puppyis sitting you;be carefulnot to
stepon it.
c) He was standingright me but I hadn'tseen
him.
d) His letteris thatdrawer.
e) She took her glassescalmly her bag and
inspected
the newcomer.
f) Don'tstay ; it'sverycold.

5) Putfhe frequencyodverbsin the correct plqce:


a) He kepton promising he wouldcomeand see us but he did
(never).
b) | go for a walkafterlunchbut Marydoes(often,hardlyever).
c) She lovesgoingto the theatrebut she is free in the evenings
(seldom).
her beauty(always).
d) | shallremember
e) Haveyouwrittena poem?(ever).
f) They have lunch at work but they have it in a restaurant
(sometimes,
generally).

) Sfudy the use of these lime phroses (Noie thct


they generollyoccur at the end of the sentence)
at five o'clock in the morning early ln the morning
after supper at eleven o'clock at night
during the day at tea-time the other day
after lunch

96 sTRANDS (BI-PART
oF LANGUAGE r)
Now translate into English:

a) Voya cogerlasvacacionesen septiembre.


b) Vamosa ver a Helenpasadomaana.
c) Porla nochesiemprevenla televisin.
d) Mi cumpleaos
es el 10 de noviembre.
e) Me gustahacerla compratempranoporla maana.
f) Terminarn la nuevaestacindentrode unosmeses.
g) Ayerpor la tardefuimosal cine.
h) Anteayerrecibimos unacartasuya.
r) Nosllamaron
portelfono
haceunosdas.

-,F.-, TIMETO RELAX: Now, let'srelax,sit down, and watch some


interesting with the topicof this unit:
videosin connection
Y

youtube.comiwatch
http:/lwww. rCn49
?v=vnvYym
http.//www.youtube.com/watch Hl3mks&featu
?v=2ooT1 re=related
youtube.com/watch
http:/iwww. ?v=BpWqCzru5zk&featu
re=reIated
http://www.youtu ?v=|UcH5lSVTCg
be.comiwatch re=related
&featu

UNIT3: TEALOVERS97
Sel-EvaluotionUnit 3
__ D_othe followingexercises
and thencheckyouranswersin the KEy
TO EXERCISES ANDTASKS at theendof the-book:

| ) Circle fhe correcf onswer


1. Therewas hardly in town becauseit was a
holiday.
a) nobody b) none c) anybody d) everybody
2. Sherefusesto have to do withherex-boyfriend.
a) nothing b) everythingc) anything d) anywhere
3. There's I cantalkto becausetheydon'tspeakmy
language.
a) nobody b) everybody c) nothing d) nowhere
4. His parentsreallyspoiledhim;theygavehim he
wanted.
a) nothing b) everything c) anywhere d) everywhere
5. He was very depressedand claimedthat cared
a b o uh
t i m.
a) anybody b) everybody c) nobody d) nothing

2> Circle lhe letferwilh the correcl spellingof the


followingwords
1. a) succesfuly b) sucessfuly c) successfully
d) successfuly
2. a) sudenly b) suddenty c) suddenlly d) cudenly
3. a) aditional b) adicionat c) additionat d) addisional
4. a) occasion b) ocassion c) occassion d) ocasion
5. a) terifing b) terrifyng c) terrifying d) terryfying

98 sTRANDS
oF LANGUAGE
(Bt-IART
t)
3) Choose lhe suffix thqt ctln be qppled lo the
following nouns lo turn lhem inlo odjeclves
1. harm
a) -less/-ful b) -less c) -ful
2. meaning
a) -less/-ful b) -less c) -ful
3. breath
a) -less/-ful b) -less c) -ful
4. revenge
a) -less/-ful b) -less c) -ful
5. colour
a) -lesslful b) -less c) -ful

4> Choosethe correct oplion


1 . T o mw i l ln e ve r hisgoalunlesshe worksharder.
a) reached b) achieve c) gets d) access
2. He askedherto marryhim,butshe
a) denied b) deny c) refused d) disagree
3. 1 we finishthisreportbeforegoingoutfordinner.
a) suggest b) want c) believe d) desire

4. She to win becauseshewasthe best.


a) merit b) denied c) deserve d) deserved
5. Theconstant
noiseof thecarswasmost
a) disturbing b) bother c) disagree d) bothered

UNIT3: TEALOVERS99
AND COMPOSITIONI
TRANSTATION
(Units I - 3)
Do exercisesI and 2,andthen handthem in or sendto yourTutor
for correction:

I ) Trqnslotefhe following senlences nfo English


vecinos;es
a) Esteno es el perrode nuestros el de Juany Mara.
l mismola cartani dejaraquela escribiese
b) Dijoqueni escribira
Laura.
c) Llevatrabajandoen Zaradesdehacemsde dosaos'
d) Es muchomsdelgadaquesu hermana peronotanguapacomo
ella.
e) Recibidosdocenasde rosasrojaspor su cumpleaos'
f) se lavlas manos,se peiny se miren el espejoantesde salir
de casa.

2> Composition
what do you think of the text in unit 3 (Tea)?ls it funny?old
fashioned?Tobstereotyped? Doesit representEnglandtoday?Utq g
shortessay(about150words) givingyouropinion of thetextandof British
peoplein general.

100 STRANDS (Bl-PART


oF LANGUAGE D
UNIT4:
CRIMEAND DANGER
WARMINGUP
Do you reador watchthe newsaboutcrimein yourcity?
ls thereanyproblemwiththesecurityin yourneighborhood?
Whal
aboutyourcity/town?
Areyou interested
in crimestories?
Whatdo youknowaboutSherlock Holmes?

B) ORArDTSCOURSE
CANDOs: 1) Exchangeideas.
2) Give opinions on the meaningsof certainwords
or expressions.

t) Lislento the conversqfion between Fred qnd Jqck

Fred:My goodness!Life is gettingmoreand moredangerous


sedays.
Jack:Why?Whatmakesyousaythat?

4: CRIME
UNIT ANDDANGEB 103
F:Whatmakesme say that???Don'tyou reador watchthe daily
newsaboutcrimein ourcitY?
J:AhlThat'swhatyoumeant.Yeah, you'reright".That'sprecisely
webinaron...
thisveryinteresting
whyl'm attending
F:An interestingwhat?
webinar.
J: An interesting
F:Whaton earthis that?
J:Youdon'tknowwhata webinaris???Well,you needto learn
moreaboutmodernwebresources... but
A webinaris likea seminar,
on the web.So that thousandsof peoplefromdifferentspotsof the
planetEarthcan be connectedat the sametime,attendinga given
beminaron whatevertopicsthey are interestedin, just by sitting
comfortably at theircomputer desk.'..
F : M m m mI s e e . . .
J: Andof coursetheyareableto interact withthewebinarlecturers
or organizers. Wonderiul, isn't it? Ahh...The marvelsof the new
technological world!

J: lt's aboutcrimeand how to protectyourselffrom impending


dangersin yourcommunity, by simplybeingalertandawareof thefact
thatthesedangersexist.
F: And havetheytoldyou whatthe crimerateis likein our city?
I don'treferto pick-bocketing or pursesnatching, or evenburglary...
I meanmurder, childabuse,rapeor serialkillersin thisarea...
J: Notyet,buttheyare goingto presentthe statistics of the main
citiesin th'eUS and urop n tne nextsession, so I think theywill
includeSan Franciscoas one of them. l'll let you know after the
session...
F:O.K.
J: Or...maybe youwouldpreferto joinus!Yousimplyhaveto fill
in an electroni torniwithyourpersonal dataandtheywillgiveyouthe
password to accessthewebinar'
F:Yeah,right...but I'msureit alsocostsa lotof money"'lt'snot
j u s tfi l l i n go u ta fo rm...

104 STRANDS (BI-PART


oF LANGUAGE D
J: Don'tworryaboutthe money.Be my guest!!!
F:Oh,no...Undernocircumstances willI acceptthat...NO,NO...
J:Oh, comeon, Fred.Be reasonable.You'vealwaysbeenmy best
friend...WHATARE FRIENDS FOR?| WON'TTAKE'NO' FORAN
A N S W ER ! ! !

b) Now discussfhe followngwilh your fulor or


clqssmqfesin lhe forum/virtusl clqss
1) Whyis Jackattending
the webinar?
2) Whatarethe differences between_a webinaranda seminar?
3) Do they give practicaltips on how to protectyourselfand your
familyat thiswebinar?
4) In generalterms,howwouldyoudescribethe kindof crimeFredis
mainlyinterestedin?
5) Whatdo the expressions: be my guestandI won'ttake"no"for an
answermean?

c) MULTI.TASK|NG
ACTMTIES
READ,LISTEN,STUDYand WRITE

StepL READsomeof the information


aboutSherlockHolmesandcrime
in generalon the web:

http://en.wikipedia,org/wiki/Sherlock_Holmes
http://wwwsherlockian.
neV
. http://en.wikipedia.orglwiki/Crime

Step2. READthe relatedtextand LISTENto its spokenversionto make


sureyou knowhowto pronounce andgivethe correctintonationto it.

UNIT4: CRIMEAND DANGEn | 05


Lastyear'sriotsat Broadwater Farmmarkedthe firsttimein living
memorythatfirearms havebeenusedagainst thepolicein a mainland
civil disorder.Accordingto ScotlandYard,weaponsdealersin that
areahavehada bonanza sincethen.Andit is notonlythere.Shotgun
licencesare this yearbeingdemanded and issuedin Londont a
fasterrate than ever.All over the countrythe Britishare arming
themselves, with a startlingvarietyof weapons.Much of it is
happening in the nameof a cultcalledSurvivalism. I havea friendin
Hampstead, as middle-class an area as you can get. He and his
childrenhavebeenattacked by groupsof youths,his househasbeen
burgled, and to his own dismayhe foundhimselfpickingup a knife
whenhe wentoutfor a walkon the Heathoneday.Myfriendwentinto
one of thosehomesecurityshopswhereyou buy burglaralarms,
windowlocksand everyotherpieceof steelwithwhichpeoplehope
(oftenvainly)to securetheir goods.The shop assistantwas also
frightenedand observedrather ruefully,"Your burglarsare my
neighbours". He livedin northLondonon the sort of estatewhere
televisionsaresometimes dropped fromhigh-risewindows, on carsif
noton heads.He hadbeenmugged threetimesandhiscarhadbeen
continuallytrashed.ln despairratherthanwithgleehe had bought
himselfa powerfulair gun and stoodwith it at the windowof his flat.
When he saw a kid muckingaroundhis car, he shot him, ran
downstairsand found the car spatteredwith blood.My friend
expressed somehorror,but the assistantshruggedand askedwhat
elsehe coulddo to protecthimselfandhisthngs.
Sometimes it seemshardto find someonewho has not been
mugged,robbed,threatened in somewayor another-or at leasthad
it happento a closefriend.(lronically, I was burgled, for the second
timein a fewmonths, whilewritingthisarticle.)As a resultpeopleare
buyingweapons. Britainis notlikethe UnitedStateswhereweapons
are accumulated with an obscenityalmostbeyondimagination, but
moreand moreof a fortressmentality appearsto be developing. lt is
anotheraspectof Victorian values;a hundredyearsagopeoplereally
fearedto walkmoststreetsof London,and it is startingagain.
The Spectator
i

l0 sTRANDS (Bt-pART
oF LANGUAGE t)
Sfep3. DO the followingexercises:

I ) Ghoosefhe correci onswer


1. Theriotsof Broadwater
Farmwere...
a) theonlyonesin whichthe policeusedfirearms.
b) thefirstonesin whichfirearmswereusedagainstthe police.
c) lhe lastonesin whichthe policeusedfirearms.

2 . A l lo v e rt heco u n try
th e B ri ti sh ...
a) arelosingtheirarms.
b) areusingtheirarms.
c) arearmingthemselves.

3. Thecultis calledsurvivalism
because...
a/ it hassurvived
a longtime.
b,) it hasto do withpeoplesurvivingattacks.
c) it is impossible
to survivein London.

4. Theauthor's
friendpickedup a knifebecause...
a) he hadbeenattackedbeforeandwasfrightened.
b) he wantedto attacksomeone.
c) he hadseena biganimalnearhishouse.

5. Hisfriendwentintoa security
shopto buy...
a) an insurance
for hishouse.
b) aweaponto defendhimself.
c) thingswithwhichto protecthishouse.

6. Wheredidtheshopassistant live?
a) ln a housewithburglars.
b) ln a houseprotected
by alarms.
c) In a flatin northLondon.

UNIT
4: CRIME
ANDDANGEB | 07
a gunbecause
7 . He boughthimself he wantedto...
a/ defendhis property.
b) shoothimself.
c/ trashhiscar.

8 . Theauthor
thinksthatit is har d...
a,) to findsomeoneto attack.
b,) notto attacksomeone.
c) to findsomeonewho hasn'tbeenattacked.
o Peopleusedto be afraidto walkthe streetsbecause...
a) theywereafraidof QueenVictoria.
b/ Londonwas alsodangerous.
c) theirvalueswereimmoral.

2)' Join these sentencesby usngone of the


connectorssnd includingthe necessory
punctuofion
a) May shotgunlicensesare beingdemanded. The Britishare
armingthemselves. (because
/ with)
b) lt is happeningin the nameof a cult calledSurvivalism.Some
peopleseemto enjoyit. (with/ although)
c) He pickedup a knife.He wentout for a walk.(and/ but)
d) He went to a securityshop.You buy burglaralarmsand locks.
(where/ that)
e) He boughthimselfan air-gun.He had beenburgled.
(because
/
therefore)
f) My friendexpressedsome horror.The assistantshrugged.(if /
when)He askedwhatelsehe coulddo.(and/ so)
g) | wasburgled.
I waswritingthisarticle.
(since/ while)
h) He lived in an estatein the north of London.Televisions
are
sometimes droppedfromwindows. (where/ because)

| 08 sTRANDS (Bt-pART
oF LANGUAGE t)
3) O_RALPRODUCTION: After reoding the text,
discussthe onswersfo fhese quesfionswith your
Tutorond clqssmoles
a) Whyare the Britisharmingthemselves nowadays?
b) why do youthinkthe writer's
friendwasdismayed to findhimself
pickingup a knifewhenhe wentoutfora walk?
c) Whydoesthe authoradd in brackets the words,,often vainly,,?
d) wouldyousaytheshopassistant livedin a friendly
neighborhood?
Giveyourreasons.
e) Whywasthe car spattered withblood?
f) Whatdo youthinkthe authormeansby a ,,fortress mentality,,?

4> WRITTEN PRODUCTTON: Writeo shorf teer


-
(100 150words)to Mr.Jennings,edilor of o
locql newspoper,comploiningqbout the lqck
of securityin your neighborhood
CANDOs:

a) Writea formalletterof complaint.


b) write straightforward,
connectedtexts on a range of familiar
subjects.
c) Linka seriesof shorterdiscrete
elements
intoa linearsequence.

7/fn, /t t'rg 7Vfr. /4r4S,4rUEz'Ktal rno


23, S(Aa",Saa 7.4*"zn 9, ?a4oeaa
0afu(/,Orca 0a^fu//.Orca
?/ie"t4en23, 2010

Deaz 7Vln, /t4ztzr,

1 aw u*an?. ta qna f/ p44k tt al ,/<bk/4N


ca ozn t4414//a4iio,
"e//r4r?,

UNIT
4: CRIME
ANDDANGER | 09
1/tart rr4r/r(q,
Bqr4arrlie)

D) TACKLING
VOCABULARY
BUILD UP YOUROWN GLOSSARYOF TERMSFOR UN|T4: Look
up the following words in a monolingual (English-English)
dictionary, as well as any others you find difficult to understand in
the text: .

a) mainland (n) i) mug(v)


b) weapon(n) j) trash(v.)
c) dealer(n) . k) despair(n)
d) issue(v) t) glee(n)
e) startling(adj.) m/ spatter(v)
0 burgle(v) n) shrug(v)
g) dismay(n) o) beyond(prep.)
h) ruefully(adv.)

t ) Findthe opposifesor neor oppostesof the


following words in the texf

I l0 STRANDS (Bt-pART
oF LANGUAGE t)
d) pickup
e) hope
t) weaK
g) easy

2> Findfhe expressonsor phrqsesin the text fhqt


meqn the followng

a) whatthoselivingcanremember
b) in theopinionof
c) dueto
d) in whatevermanner
e) increasingly

3) Complefethesesenlencesusingfhe qpproprqle
verb from those listed below:

mark observe develoo


issue express

a) She her desirefor privacyby leavingthe


roomandshutting thedoor.
b/ Overthe lastfew months,this childhas
enormousappetitefor sweets;he neverlikedthembefore.
c) Thefireworks thebeginning
of theNewYear
celebrations.
d) Whenshe arrivedin Spain,she that the
weatherwascolderthanshe hadexpected.
e) TheGovernment hasstarted leafletsforthe
peoplewhosmoke,warningthemaboutthe riskof lungcancer.

UNIT
4: CRIME
ANDDANGEB I | |
4> Gompletethesesenfencesusngthe qpproprqte
nounflom thosein the box

dealer Iicence variety article


area rate lock youth

a/ Therewassucha of clothesto choosefrom


that I couldn'tdecidewhatto buy.
b) The policesaidthat a with dark hair and a
moustache wasseencommitting the crime.
c,) This of Madridis reallywonderful to livein;
thereare so manygoodbarsandcafs.
d) Afterhishousewasburgledforthesecondtime,he decidedto put
a stronger on thedoor.
e/ | recentlyread an in the newspaper about
howbadit is for one'shealthto drinkalcohol.
f) He is workingso slowlythat at this he will
neverfinishthejob in time.
g,) | didn'tknowwhichcar I shouldbuy,so I askedthe
to showme the bestmodelhe had.
h) lf you don't have a for your hunti ng
weapons,you can be fined a great deal of money by the
Government.

5) Find lhe words in lhe text thql meon the


following
a,) principallandof a country
b/ disturbances,
disruptionof normalstate
c) instruments
for fighting
d) devicefor fastening
or securingdoors
e,) allowto fall
f) hopelessness

l12 STRANDS (Bt-pART


oF LANGUAGE t)
) Gompletefhe following senfencesusing the
qppfopriofe expressonor phrqsefrom those in
fhe box

sincethen if ,not
..
thanever : at

a) lf you go to a foreigncountry,you shouldbe able to speak


a fewwordsof the language.
b/ | startedworkingas a teachermanyyearsago,and
I havestayedat the sameschool.
c/ She alwayslooksbeautiful,but last night I thoughtshe looked
morebeautiful
d) Whenhe movedto the new house.h e decidedto join the local
socialclub,and he madenewfriends.
e) lf you want to be healthy,you shouldtry to take half an hour's
exerciseeveryday, more.

7> Solvelhe crosswordusngfhe clues below.


Discussthe meqningswith your clqssmotes

DOWN
1. district,
zone. 10. be afraidof.
2. hopelessness. 13. strongfastening.
3. disturbance,turmoil. 1 5. youngman.
4. stateintentionto hurt. 19. businessman,personwho
8. exceeding. sellsgoods.
9. numberof different
things,
assortment.

UNIT
4: CRIME
ANDDANGEp I l3
ACROSS
2. evolve,grow. 14. strong,forceful.
5. defend,guard. 16. r emar k.
6. statesomething,
make 17. allowto fall.
known.
18. assault
violently.
7. equipwithweapons.
20. difficult.
1 1 . official
document
or
permission. 21. instrumentsforfighting.
12. pieceof writingfor
magazine, newspaper.

114 STRANDS (Bt-PART


oF LANGUAGE D
s) Now How'sYouRSPELUNG? efuG

: ) Thesound I s / is sl fimes spelled er, os in


writer,qnd olher fimes, or, os in burglar. Fill in
fhe blonk spoceswfh eifher e or d

schol_r mast r
begg_r flatt_r
coll_r particul_r
dscov_r must_rd
vineg_r muscul_r
groc_r wiz_rd
regul_r plast r
peculi_r dang_r

2, Add E letfer ln fhe blonk spclces (only when


necessqfy) fo complele lhese wofds fsken from
ihe fext

fir_arms ptc_tng hor_or


ac-ording _nife rob-ed
we_pon ste_l thre-ten
de'-ler as_istant hap_en
Iicen_e netgnoo_rs ironical v
is-ued drop_ed burg_led
mid_le continual_y writ-ing
at-ack blo_d bu_ing
expres_ed fortres_ ac-umulate
ob cenitv f e r develop_ing

UNIT
4: CRIME
ANDDANGEB | | 5
3)' The word "flue" oppeols in the firsi porogroph of
the lexl. Notice thqf fhis ending, -ue, mqy
somefimes be confused with -ew. wtite either 'ue
ot -ew io complete lhese words. Donnfforget -to
look up the pronunciqtion in your dictionory if
necessqfy

1-- ::'- l;=


:,-- "'_-- I=
f_ purs- tiss_

::',.- :1,-
iss
h
gr-
cr

F) AND... HOW'SYOURFORMATION
OF WORDS?

ComPound words
GRAMMARCAPSULE:

In the firstparagraph of the text,we findcompound wordssuchas


Broadwater,'fireirm's,mainland,or shotgun. Broadwater and
mainfand are exampiesof the Adi. + Nouncombination, while
firearmsand shotgun displaythe Noun+ Nounone'
Examples of the Adi.+ AdJ.combination: red'hot;bittersweet
compound
Inthiscasetheresulting nota noun'
wordis an adjective,
and the syntacticrelations
Thereare variousothercombinations,
of the compounding elements may be indicatedby paraphrases, as
can be seenin theseexamPles:
daydreamer -+ X dreamsduringthe day
hardworking -+ X workshard

I I STRANDS (Bl-PART
oF LANGUAGE D
C3 Some compound words Eppedr in the firsl
pcrsgroph of the fext: firesrm$! mdnsnd,
shotgun. Put the words that sppeqr in lhe two
columns iogether to form compound words ond
fhe*l include thern under fhe oppropriafe
heading below

table brush
news speaker
loud black
blue cloth
bitter hand
short paper
book face
tooth weight
heavy case
pale hot
red stick
lip sweet

NOUN+ NOUN ADJ.+ NOUN ADJ.+ ADJ.

UNI4
T: C R I M A
E N DD A N G E BI l 7
2> On line 3 of the lexl, the negotive prefix -drs hos
been qdded to the word order lo form disordeq
it could qlso be odded to drming lo form
disarming. Add either dis-, un-, irr.,ot im- to fhe
following lerms lo mqke lhem negqlve

intentional -.ui.
forqettable
scientific
appropriate -fair
-*L"
loval orooer
like
credible conscious
-favour
obev
reoard pack

c) usrNc ENGLISHAPPROPRIATEIY
AND PUTTINGIT INTOMOTION

I ) Afler reodnglhe grommor cqpsule,do lhe


exefcse below

The Pqst Perfecf tense


GRAMMARCAPSULE:

Thereare manyinstances of the useof the pastperfectin thetext.


The Past Perfectindicatespast in the past; it goes back to a
remote,previous time.In thetext,the actionsof beingmugged,being
trashedand buying a gun happenedsometimebeforethe pointin the
pastwherethenarrator placesthe mainactionof thestory.Theactions
in the PastPerfectexpressseveraldegreesof remoteness. Thus,the
PastPerfect refers to a timefurther in the pastas seenfrom a definite
viewpointin the past.

I l8 (Br-eART
oF LANGUAGE
STRANDS r)
Pastsimple/ past perfect

Comparebothtenses:
1) WasTomtherewhenSusanarrivedat the party?
No,he hadalreadyleft.
But:

WasTomtherewhenSusanarrivedat the party?


Yes,but he didn'tsee her.

. Ascanbeseen,yg usgthe simplepastto referto a givenpointof


time in the past,whilethe past perfectrefersto soiething that
happened before
thatpointof time.

Now,join the followingpairsof sentencesusingthe connectorin


bracketsand putting the appropriateverb into the-pastperfect.

E.g.: I saw the firm.I didn't go to the cinemawith them.(so)


I had seenthe film, so I didn't go to the cinemawith them.

a/ | recognized
himat the party.I methimoncebefore.(because)
b) He atea big lunch.He wasn'thungryat suppertime.(so)
c) | spoketo the director.The meetingbegan.(before)
d,) | lookedin my bag.I rearized
someonestoremy purse.(and)
e/ she was ill for a longtime.she wentto the doctor's.
(before)
f) | wentout.He arrived.(bythetime)
g) Theywereat homeail day.Theywantedto go for a wark.(so)
h) we drankthreebotilesof wine.we arrivedat the partyrathertipsy.
(so)

UNIT
4: CRIME
ANDDANeEn I l9
2, In eqch sentenceihere qre fwo verbs in
brqckefs;include one in fhe po$f simpleqnd lhe
oher in lhe palsl prtecf fense:
a) Allthe stores(close) by the timewe (arrive)
in town.
b) A lady (come) in with a dog that (justbe)
run overby a bicycle,
c) He (keep) staringat me wonderingwhere
he (see) me before.
d) They(finish) all the drinksby the timeI
(arrive) at the party.
e) Whenthepolice(come) the bandits(already
escape)
D He (no finish) eatingwhen we (arrive)

g,) When we (get) home we found a note


sayingthatthey(go) for a walk.
h) She (notfinish) writingthe articlebut she
(decide) to stopfor a rest.

3) Notice fhe use ol wherein lhese relqtive clduses


"... homesecurityshopswhereyou buyburglaralarms..."
"... thesortof estatewheretelevisions
aresometimesdroppedfrom..."

Writeother sentenceslike theseby combiningthe followingpair


of clauses using either when, where,or why. Makethe necessary
changesas in the examplebelow:
E.g.: I visitedthe hospital.
My sisterworkedthere.
I visitedthe hospitalwheremy sisterworked.

a) | neverlikedthe house.I wasbornin it.


b/ Thatis the reason.
Theyleftearly.

l2O STRANDS (Br-PART


oF LANGUAGE D
c) | boughtthiscoatlastmonth.I was in Germany.
b/ | met her at the pub.She wasworkingas a waitress.
c) We all lookedat the house.Shakespeare had livedin it.
d,) | sawhimthismorning.He wasgoingto the office.
e/ YesterdayI wentto a bookshop.I met Elizabeth.
f) Thisis the house.He liveshere.
g) Theyarrivedyesterday. We hadgoneout for a walk.

4> Ditferenfusesof personolpronouns(subjective,


objecfive,possessiveqnd reflexive)bnd-
possessive odjeclivesqppeor in thb pqssqge
subjective:
He livedin NorthLondon
objective:he shothim
reflexive:armingthemselves
he had boughthimself a powerfulairgun
possessiveadjectives: his childrenhavebeen attacked
to his own dismay

Read about the use of pronouns in the grammar capsule


and then choose the appropriateone to compltethe sentences
below:

GRAMMAR CAPSULE:Pronouns:subjeclive,
objective, possessive,reflexive. possesive
odjeclives

pronouns:Th:eyreBlacea nounor a nounphrasein a


. P.ersonal.
neighboring(usuallypreeeding)
clause:
E.g.: Jackwentto the bankbeforehe leftthe town.

. Personalpronounshavetwo setsof case-forrns:'a)


the subjective
formsand b) the objectiv,forrns,

UNIT
4: CRIME
ANDDANGER l2l
a) Thesubjectiveforms are usedas subjectsof finiteverbsand
oftenas subjectcomplement:E.g.:She is my friend.(Subject)
b) The objective forms are used as objects and/or as
prepositionalcomplements.E.g.:I saw her walkingin the street.
(object)

Reflexivepronouns:We use the reflexivepronounswhen the


subjectand the objectof an actionare the same, i.e., reflexive
pronounsreplacea co-referential
noun phrase,normallywithinthe
samefiniteverbclause:

E.g.: Suecut herselfwitha cookingknife.

Emphatic Reflexive pronouns: Reflexivepronouns are


sometimes placedin apposition for the sakeof emphasisand/orend-
focus.In thiscase,and fromthe discoursepointof view,theycannot
be saidto be reflexiveproper,for theydo not fulfillthe objectfunction
and convey a differentmeaning.They are used emphaticallyto
indicatethat someone,and not someoneelse,did something. This
couldbe translatedintoSpanishas uno mismo,en persona.

E.g.: I myselfpaintedthe living-room.

Possessiveadjectivesand possessivepronouns: Possessives


in Englishmay functionas determinersbeforenoun headsor as
independent nounphrases.The firstfunctioncan be fulfilledby any of
the possessiveadjectives(m your, his,her, its,our, your, theif and
the secondone by the possessivepronouns(mine,yours, his,hers,
ours,yours, theirs)

E.g.: Thatis his bike.(Determinerfunction,possessive


adjective)
Hersis the bag I found. (Subject
function,independent
NP,
possessivepronoun)

1 . I havegiven(a) my / (b) mineopinionbutthe finaldecisionis (a)


their/ (b)theirs.
2 . Youshouldbe ashamedof (a)yourselves/ (b)yourownfor making
so muchnoisewheneveryone is sleeping.

122 sTRANDS (Br-PART


oF LANGUAGE D
3 . (a) My / (b) Mine parentssay they want to take a trip by (a)
themselves / (b)theirselves.
4 . My brotherand (a) me / (b) | havealwaysgottenalongverywell
with(a)ourselves / (b) eachother.
5 . Wouldyoudo allthistyping(a)yourown/ (b)yourself if youwere
(a)me/ (b)myselft (c) | ?
6 . l'm surethisdrinkis (a) mine/ (b) my becauseI prepared it (a)
myself/ (b)my own.
7 . Johnand (a) me / (b) | livedon (a) our own/ (b) ourselvesfor a
week.Thenthe restof thefamilyarrived.
8 . (a) He/ (b)Himandhiswifearegoodfriendsof (a)us / (b)ours/
(c)ourselves.
He wantsto writeall the invitations
(a) himself/ (b) his own/ (c)
him,so a) we / (b)ourselves/ (c)us havenothing to do.

5) Noticethqf the followingsenlencebeginswth


the prepositionfo
Tohis own dismayhe foundhimselfpickingup a knife ...
Changethe followingsentencesto makethem start in the same
way:

E.g.:

He was amazedthattelevisions
weresometimes
droppedfromhigh-
risewindows."
To his amazement,
televisions
weresometimes
droppedfromhigh-
risewindows.

a) Hewasastonished
to seethe increase
in demandforweapons.
the demandfor weaoonshad increased.
b) He was irritated
to seea kid muckingaroundhiscar.
a kidwasmucking aroundhiscar.
c) He was horrifiedto find the car spatteredwith blood.
, the carwasspattered withblood.
d) He wassurprised
to seethatthesituation wasgettingworse.
, the situation
was getting
worse.

UNIT
4: CRIN/E
ANDDANeEn | 23
Hg WaS qlsgUSteU tU UEIJ Ftlllvllt/dllD r''uyrrrV Yveqyvrre'
werebuYingweapons.
Americans

) Reported speech is used in the senlence


... but the assistantshruggedand asked what else he could do to
protecthimselfand his things.
. The direct question would be= what else can I do to prgtect_
.ysf 2nd my iningsZ (Noticethat both the tense and the order of
words change).

Direcl qnd indirecl speecl


GRAMMARCAPSULE:

In the case of direct speech the words of a speaker are


incorporated withinthe reportigsentenceand retainthe statusof an
indefendentclause.In writing,directspeechis identifiedbetween
quotationmarks.
Direct speech may be introducedby different.verbs, such as: a)
verbs of saying (say,'tetl,ask, gasp, cry, b)
etc-); verbs of thinking
(think,ponder,reflect, wonder, etc.).
There are a series of formal characteristics that distinguish
reported(indirect)speechfrom.directspeech'. All.deiclicelements
(i..pointrs:elem'ent-sthatsignala personor thingto whichtheyare
related)are shifted,therefore:

a) Firstpersonpronouns(referring to the speaker)arechangedto


thirdperson,and scondpersonpronbunsare shiftedto firstor third,
depending on the identityof the listener:
"l don'tlikeher",shesaid-+ She saidshedidn'tlikeher
"Willyoupleaselisten?"-+ Sheaskedif I wouldpleaselisten

b) Deictic adverbs such as here, there o now, as well as


(fhrb,these,etc.) are replacedby other -generally
demnstratives
more remote- iorms (that, those,there, then),but, again,the shift
dependson whereandwhenthe speakeris reporting:
"Weare fine here"+ She saidtheywerefinethere

124 STRANDS (BI-PART


oF TANGUAGE D
c) As can be seen in the above examples,verb tenses
generally
back-shifted,
i.e.theychange,from
presentto past:
Present-+ Past
Past
PresentPerfect ,*, perrect
PastPerfect ]
-+
Presentcontinuous Pastcontinuous

. After readingmore informationabout direct and indirectspeech


in your grammarbook,do the exercisefollowingthe example:
E.g.: "l willstayat yourhousefor a fewdays',,saidJohn.
Johnsaid (that)he wouldstayat my housefor a fewdays.
a) "l can'lspeakltalianfluently," saidmy friend.
b,) "His exerciseis fullof spellingmistakes,"
saidthe teacher.
"l
c/ wentskiingyesterday", saidSusan.
"l
d/ mustgo outto buysomefoodfor the children," saidMrs.smith.
e) "l'll meetyou at PizzaHutat two o'clock,"said Mary.
f) "My friendsarearrivingtomorrow," saidllcm.
"l
g) have a reservationat the hotel for my wife and myself,,, said
Mr.Brown.

7> Look qt lhe following segmenlsfrom lhe text:


... he foundhimself pickingup ...
... he had boughthimselfa powertdair gun.
... to protecthimself...
There isn't an exact correspondencebetween the use of the
reflexiveform in Spanishand English:
E.g.: Me lavel pelo -+ I washedmy hair.
Deberanlevantarse antes-+ Theyshouldget up earlier.

UNIT
4: CRIMEAND DANcEn | 25
Se pusoel abilgo-+ He put on hiscoat.
Se resfri+ He got a cold.

the followingsentencesfrom Spanishinto English:


Translate

a) (Ella)Se pusolosguantes.
b) 1tSe miren el espejo.
c) Pinateantesde salir.
todoel trabajode la oficinanosotrosmismos.
d) Hacemos
e) 1tSe hizodaoen la pierna.
f) Marase comitodoel pan.
s) Se hacetodoslosvestidosellamisma.
h) (Ella)Se divierte
mucho.
t) 1tSiemprehablasolo.

TIMETO RELAX:Now,let'srelax,sit down,andwatchsome


interesting withthetopicof thisunit:
videosin connection

youtube.com/watch?v=08W
http:/iwww. RuGZja2E
youtube.comiwatch
http://www. ?v=4s4M9-J
kako&featu
re=related

126 sTRANDS (Br-pART


oF LANGUAGE r)
Self-EvqluotionUnit 4
Do the following
exercises
andthencheckyouranswersin the KEy
TO EXERCISES ANDTASKS at the endof the book:

1) Choose the besf oplion lo complete fhe


meonng of fhe following senlences
1 . I l i v ei n a n e i g h b o u r h o o d housesare often
burgled.
a) when b) because c) where d) although
2 thepolicefinallyarrivedtheywererelieved.
a) if b) so c) although d) when

3 . H e h a da g u n he wasscaredto shootit.
a) but b) then c) because d) where
4. Marywalkedhomeby herself, she knew
thatit wasdangerous.
a) if b) although c) so d) that

5. I have been attackedtwice l i v i n gi n t h i s


neighbourhood.
a) while b) since c) where d) therefore

2> Choosethe opposleor neor opposifeof the words


in the left column from those in fhe right one
1. weak a) youth
2 . p i c ku p b) elderly
3. hope c) drop
4 . p e n s i on e r d) despair
5. easy e) powerful
f) weakless
g) hard

UNIT
4: CRIME
ANDDANGE? 127
3) Choosethe correct negofive prefix for eoch of
these words
1. air
a) dis- b) un- c) in d) im-

2. appropriate
a) dis- b) un- c) in- d) im-

3. regard
a) dis- b) un- c) in- d) im-

4. pack
a) dis- b) un c) in- d) im-

5. polite
a) dis- b) un- c) in- d) im-

4> Ghoosefhe correct option to complele the


meqningof lhese senlences
1. Thisis notmy coat,it mustbe
a) your b) them c) yours d) yourself

2. Hecut withthebigknifehe hadjustbought.


a) his own b) his c) him d) himself

3. I willwaitherefor untiltheyarrive.
a) they b) them c) themselves d) theirown

4. Justhelp restaurant.
:thisis a self-service
a) yours b) yourself c) yourown d) you

aregoodfriendsof
5. Ourneighbours
a) ours b) us c) ourselves d) ourown

128 (Br-pART
oF LANGUAGE
STRANDS r)
,, r;,1,'
,
't.i)i,;ffi}trffiFe$#ii

w' ' "


I
A) WARMINGUP
1) Wouldyou liketo livein the countryside?
2) Areyoukeenon wildanimals?
3) Have you had any wildlife experiences?lf so, tell your
tutor/classmatesaboutit.
4) wouldyougo on a safariif youhadthechance,or is thatreallynot
"yourcup of tea"?

B) ORALDISCOURSE: Nqrrqtionqboul
wildlife experences
CAN DOs: 1) Narratea story.
2) Write/givean oraldescriptionof an eventand/ora
recenttrp (realor imagined)relatedto wild life.

<r) Lislento Kevinqnd Tom,sconversqtion:

(Thomashasjust returnedfroma safariexperience


in Africaand
comesacrosshisfriendKevinat the club)

UNIT
5: WILDLIFE
EXPERIENCE
l3l
Kevin:Lookwho'sthere!Tom!Howniceto seeyou'reback,man.
HowwasyourAfricanadventure?
Tom:Woo,fantastic,man,FANTASTIC! lt was a totallynew and
-literallyWILD-experience... Youcertainlyrealizehowinferiorwe are
in manyrespects to the restof the animalworld...howdetached we
havebecomefromthe wiselessonsof nature,and howbadthiscan
beforthefutureof thehumanrace... Wearedeafto nature's warninqs.
butironically we thinkwe'reveryclever...
K: Yeah,you'reright...lt's ironicto see that we thinkwe'reso
superiorand intelligent whenall we are doingis destroyour planet
littleby little,in sucha pitifulway...
T: Yeah,true.Nexttime you shouldcomewith me to Africa,I
assureyouit willchangeyourperspective of lifeand it willmakeyou
a betterperson...
K: No doubtaboutthat,but no,man,no.I lovenaturebut I don't
havethe gutsto get intothe jungle,wherea lionor any otherwild
a n i malcouldtur n me intotheirlunchor dinner ... Not for m eee!!lI
preferto watchwildlife documentary filmsinstead...
T:Yeah, butit'snotthesame,bigguy.Therealexperience is much
moreexciting andit makestonsof adrenaline runthroughyourveins...
K: I see,butI stillpreferto be sittingcomfortably
in mycouchwhile
I contemplate all thesemagnificent animalson the screen.Haveyou
seenlhe T.V.seriesentitledPlanetEarth?lt is narratedby Richard
Attenborough, masterof masters... whata greatguy!
T: No,as a matterof fact,I haven't...
K :Andthisotherone....uhm m what'
.. sitsname....Ah,y es !M ar c h
of the Penguinsl
lt wassooootouchingto seewhatthe penguinsare
capableof doingjust for the sakeof protecting
theiroffspring...
You
shouldseethisfilm,man.Antarctica if you've
is alsoa wildterritory...
onlyseenAfrica,youhaven't gotthecomplete picture....
T: Oh,well,let'smakeour nexttripto Antarctica,then!Youknow
l'm a sportfor everything!
K: Yes,but I am NOT!!...I told you, I preferthe documentary
films....Sorry...
HAVEA GOODTRIPTO ANTARCTICA, TOM!!

132 STRANDS (Br-pART


oF LANGUAGE r)
b) Now discussfhe followngwth your fulor or
clossmqfesin the forum/virtuolcloss
1) Wouldyousaythetripto Africahaschanged Tom?lf so,howhas
i t c h a n ge hd i m?
2) Do you thinkhe has enjoyedthe ',African experience,,?Explain
whatmakesyouthinkso.
3) Whydoesn'tKevinwantto go to Africa?
4) ls Kevinnotas interested in natureas Tomis?
"l
5) Whatdo the expressionsdon'thavethe guts,'and ,,1'ma sport
foreverything" mean?

c) MUITI-TASKING
ACTIVIT|ES
WATCH,
WRITE,READ,LTSTEN
and STUDy

step 1' wRlrrEN PRoDUcloN: Go on the internetand wATCHany


of the wildlifevideos availableon the following you Tubewebpag
andthenwRlrE a summary(100-120 wordsapprox.)of whatyou sa:
www.youtube.com/resu
lts?search*Quer!=ryi
ldlife&search*type=&aq=
0s&oq=!i/lD+LIFE

SUMMARY:

step2. READthe relatedtextandLlsrEN to itsspokenversionin thecD


to makesureyouknowhowto pronounce andgivethe correctintonation
to it.

UNIT
5: WILDLIFE
EXPERTENCE
133
;; ";o t*goi,
*' 0". rir;;;;,, u,."i n t r e p i d ,i n g e n i o u s ,
resourceful and patient-allqualities thatare regularly testedby the
locations thattheyhaveto operatein andthewildlife thattheytry to
photograph. Sincethe firstwildlifefilm was made,a successio of
cameramen havesoughtto getthemselves or theircamerasintothe
mostunlikely situations, and in doingso, theyhaveinevitably come
across(and,withluck,filmed)behaviour andevenspeciesthatwere
previously unknownto science.Manyanimalsseem to spendan
inconveniently largeproportion of theirtime hiddenin setts,earths,
dens,holts,lairsandotherassorted holes.Sincewhattheydo in their
va ri oushomes can be of key im por tancein a wi l dl i fefi l m ,
photographers havehadto devisewaysof gettingtheircamerasinto
theseplaces, andwhentheyhavesucceeded, theresulting filmsoften
containnewbiological insights. In 1953,HeinzSielmann persuaded a
pairof woodpeckers to accepta nestholewhichhada glassplateat
the back,and throughthis he witnessedfor the first time their
behaviour in the nest.At the time,it was certainlyfascinating for
ornithologists, but it alsogrippedthe public's imagination -an hour
aftertransmission the switchboard of the BBCwasstilliammedwith
ca l l s.
Sincethen,similartechniques havebeenusedmanytimes,with
different species in different situations, andeachtimetherehavebeen
newglimpses intoanimalbehaviour. The privatelifeof the kingfisher
becamea littlemorepublicwhenRonEastman contrivedto installa
cameraat theendof a nesting tunnel,andshotthefirstfilmevermade
of kingfisher chicksbeingfed.lt had alwaysbeenassumedthatthe
parents mustfeedtheirchicksonfishthathadbeenbrokenintopieces
or was partially digested, but the film revealed thatthe youngbirds
weregiventhe impossible-looking taskof swallowing the fishwhole.
Foxeshavealsorevealed a fewof theirfamilysecrets,and notjustto
a singlecameraman. In this case,millionsof viewersacrossthe
countrywitnessed intimate moments of an urbanvixenwithhercubs
in the liveseriesFoxwatch, Thevixen'searth,an oldcellarln Bristol,
wasbuggedwithmicrophones andinfrared cameras, andsoundand
picturewere transmitted back to a mobilestudio,wherezoologist
StephenHarriswaswaitingto describe andinterpret whatwasbeing
seen,including theactualbirthof thecubs.Sincesuchyoungcubsare
notableto regulate theirbodytemperatures, it wasassumed thatthe
vixenwouldstaycloseto themat thisstage,andthecontinuous watch

134 STRANDS (Br-pARi


oF LANGUAGE r)

I
Step3. DO the following
exercises:

I ) Choosefhe correcf qnswerfollowing the


contenls of the texl
1. Wildlife musthavespecialqualities
filmmakers because...
a) Iheyare ingenious, and patient.
resourceful,
b) theyhaveto workin difficultlocations.
c/ animalsdon'tliketo be photographed.

havegot theircamerasintounlikelysituations
2. Whencameramen
they...
previously
a) havemadediscoveries unknownto science.
b) havebeenunableto get out.
c) haveusedtoo muchtapefilmingthe animals.

3. Thetimeanimals
spendin theirhomesis inconvenient
because
...
a) theirhomesare uncomfortable.
b) theirhomesaretoo dangerous
for cameramen.
c) it is difficultfor cameramen
to filmthemthere.

UNIT5: WILDLIFE
EXPERIENCE
| 35
4 . HeinzSeilman
witnessed
thewoodpecker's
behaviour
by...
a) livingwiththemin theirnests.
b/ persuading themto accepta specialnest.
c,) givingthemthefoodon a glassplate.

5 . We knowthe publicwasinterested
in thisdiscovery
because...
a) agreatnumberof peoplecalledthe BBC.
b) lheywerefascinated
by ornithologists.
c) theyjammedthetransmitterof the programme.

publicised
6 . RonEastman the lifeof the kingfisher
by...
a/ shooting
the kingfisher's
chickswhiletheywereeating.
b) introducingfoodat theendof thefilm.
c) puttinga camerain its nesting
tunnel.

7 . Thefilmrevealed
that...
a) the parentsfed smallfishto theirchicks.
thefishin onepiece.
b/ thechickshadto swallow
c,) thefishwasonlypartially
digested.

8 . Thevixen's
earthfilmedby Foxwafch
wasin...
a) an oldcellarin the middleof a town.
b,) a mobilestudio.
c) an oldcellarin thecountry.

9 . The Foxwatch
camerasdiscovered
thatthe doo fox...
a/ keptawayfromthe earthand cubs.
b) wenthungryuntilthevixenleftthecubs.
c/ occasionally
leftfoodfor the vixenandcubs.

l3 sTRANDS (Bt-eART
oF LANcUAGE i)
2> Reorderlhe elemenfsgiven below so ds lo form
meonngfulsentences
a) new/ often/ biological
I the I insights/ films/ contain.

with/ switchboardI of I transmission


I anl was/ hour/ the/ still/
the/calls/ BBCI afler/ jammed.

c/ time/ it / was/ ornithologists


/ theI forI certainly
/ at /, / fascinating.

d) tew/ of / foxeslfamily/ also/ their/ secrets/ have/ revealed


/ a.

e / b a c k /s ou n d/w e re /to / p i ctu re


/ and/tr ansm itted
/studio/ a/
mobile.

f) being/what/ stephenHarris/ was/ waiting/to / seen/ zoologist


I was ldescribe.

g) able/body/ cubsI notI such/ regulate


/ temperatures
/ their/ yet
I a r el t o / yo u n g .

h / v i x e n/ c l o s e/ w a s / t h a t / s t a yl t h e l w o u l d/ a s s u m e dl t o l i l l
them.

3) ORALPRODUCTION:
Answerlhe following
quesfons
a) Why do wildlife film-makersneed to be "intrepid,ingenious,
resourceful,
and patient"?

UNIT
5: WILDLIFE
EXPERIENCE
137
b) Whydo photographers haveto gettheircamerasintothe animals'
homes?
c) Howinterested is the publicin seeingwildlifeprograms? Explain
youranswer.
d) Whattechniques wereusedto recordthe behaviorof foxes?
e) Whatdid theyfind out aboutthe behaviour of the vixentowards
hercubs?
f) Do you think wildlifeprogramsare worthwhile, or are they an
intrusion
on nature?

D) TACKHNGVOCABUTARY

1) Findthe words or phrosesn fhe iext thqf me<rn


the followng

138 sTRANDS (Br-nART


oF LANGUAGE r)
2> Now find the oppostesor neqr oppostesof
lhese word$ in the texf

a) probable
b) failed
c) reject
d) boring
e) completely
0 prerecorded
g) attic
h) constantly

3) Completefhese$enlencesby filling in lhe


blonkswifh one of the followingverbsin the
qppfoprisfe fense:

test succeed accept gnp


persuade witness jam swallow
interpret install digest operate

d/ Theyreallydidn'twantto go out,butfinallyhe
themto.
b) As shewastheonlypersonto- thecrime,the
policequestioned herfor hours.
c) Becauseof the bad weather,the roads were completely
withcars.
d) He ate so quicklythat he couldn't his food
afterwards.
e) Wejustcan't in thisoffice;it is toosmalland
dark.

UNIT
5; WILDLIFE
EXPERIENCE
139
f) H e his umbrellatightlybecausehe was
afraidit wouldblowawayin the wind.
g) Shefoundit verydifficult
to thepoem,as the
language andimageswerequitecomplex.
h) After they boughtther computer,a man came the next day to
it in theirhouse.
i) Shecouldhardly the medicine,
il tastedso
disgusting.
i) He refusedto the moneyI offeredhim;he
saidthathe neverborrowed
fromotherpeople.
k) He in passingthe firstexam,but then he
failedthesecond.

4> Complefe these senfencesusing lhe opproprote


noun from lhose listed below

qualities task
behavior nest
proporton stage

a) H i s at the partywasreallyembarrassing; he
arguedwitheverybody all the time.
b) I was so latethat I missedalmostall of the play;I onlycaughta
of thefinalscene.
c) In springtime,the birdsalwaysbuild on the
roofof our house.
d) H i s on the piano is quite extraordinary;
I
haveneverseenanybodyplayso fast.
e) The of a good teacherincludepatience,
intelligence,
andcreativity.
f) Because sherarelyusedthetelephone, herbillwasmuchsmaller
to theirs.
s) Her was to washall the dishes.and it was
veryhardwork.

140 STRANDS (Bt-pART


oF LANGUAGE t)
h) They thought he would never be a famous singer,but the
_ lovedhimand boughtall his records.
i) In orderto escapefromprison,he decidedto dig a
underneaththe wall.
At the final of hisjourney,
hewasso tiredhe
thoughthe wouldnevergethome.

5) Try io explon lhe ditference in meqning belween


the followng groups of phroses.(Noie the
qdverbs ond odeclves ore oll from lhe fext)
1. a) an unlikely
success
b) a partialsuccess

program
2. a) a fascinating
b) alive program

happy
3. a) occasionally
b) partiallyhappy

4. a) an unlikelyevent
d an occasional
event

) Give synonymsfrom lhe fext for the words ol


phrssesin brtrckets.The lines included of the
end of eoch senlencewll help you find fhem
nowwhy I saidI wouldgo on holidaywiththem,
a) | can'lunderstand
but (at that moment) it seemedlikea good
idea.
b) He didn'thaveenoughmoneyto buy food,so he had to (noteat)
untilhe was paid.
c) Manypeoplethinkthat learningEnglishis (extremely
important)
for beingsuccessfulat work.
d) | don't know what the weatherwill be like for the party,but
(hopefully) it won'train.

UNIT
5:WILDLIFE
EXPERIENCE
l4l
e/ The scene(finishing) the filmwas so sad,
thatshewasstillcryingwhensheleftthecinema.
f) | don'talwaysenjoymyjob,but(generally speaking)
I am happywithit.
g/ Whenhe droppedthevase,it (cameapartintobits)
andhe couldn't fix it.
h) Theysat (atthe rear) of thetheatrebecause
theycouldn'tget ticketsanyfurtherfonruard.
i) | mightdecidein the futureto buya newcar but (at thispointin
ti me) I can'taffordit.
j) lt was sucha beautifulday that he took his videocamerato the
park and (tookpictures) of the trees and
flowers.

7, $olve lhe crosswordusnglhe clues below.


Discussfhe meqnngswilh your clossmofes

DOWN

2. examine, try. 6. share,part.


3. partof a housebelow 8. takein downthethroat.
groundlevel.
13. methodof doingsomelhing,
4. not probably. technical
skill.
5. be presentandsee. 15. underground passage.

ACROSS

1 . processfood in the 10. nowandthen,som eti m es .


stomach.
11. veryinteresting,
captivating.
partly.
6 . not completely,
12. vigilant
observation.
7 . job,commitment.
14. bir d' shom e.
9 . direct,broadcast
at the
samemoment. 16. time,phase.

142 STRANDS (Bt-pART


oF LANGUAGE t)
U N I T5 : W I L D L I FEEX P E R I E N C E
E) NOW HOW'SYOURSPEIUNG?
r ) Thegroplgme ou such qs we find if in ingenious,
resourceful,behaviaurot previouslycon qsily be
confused with oril, qs n showed. Do you know
which of lhese words toke oul ow? Fll in fhe
blqnk spqces with fhe correct form. look up ihe
pronunciolionin your dictionofywherenecessory

br_
s-r
t e r
-n,r,
sh_lder
t-el
s_p
c r n
tl-er

2> Thehomophoneof the word n,hole"


is o'whole".In lhe fext lhey qre bofh used

...a nest hole which had a glass plate at the back...; ...the
impossible-lookingtask of swallowingthe fish whole .
Althoughthesewordsare pronounced the same,the spellingand
meaningare absolutelydifferentso it is important
notto confusethm.

144 STRANDS (Bt-pARTD


oF LANGUAGE
Now,lryto find the homophones
of the followingwordsand write
them in the correspondingbox:

WORD HOMOPHONE WORD HOMOPHONE


flee aloud
steel stationery
pail principal
here veil
atr whether
find groan
tail hour

t) AND... HOW'$YOURFORMATON
OF WORD$?
t ) Mcny compound word$ oppeqr in fhis texlnsuch
o s " w i l d l i f e " , ' nifl m m o k e f s n n ou ' c d m e f o m e n " ,
"swifchboord". Put the words f rom the fwo
columns fogefher to form compound nouns nd
lhen include fhem undr the Eppropriqte
heoding; check your dictionsry f necesscry

traffic end
well meant
week coming
self lights
green house
wndow glasses

UNIT
5: WILDLIFE
EXPERIENCE
| 45

ff,'f

'*
:
short shopping
sun looking
wide going
black spread
easy board
good control

NOUN + NOUN + (VERB)


ADJ./ADV. ADJ.+ NOUN

GRAMMARCAPSULE:
Abstrqcl Nouns

Abstract nouns ending in: -(a)tion| -ment

Abstractnounsdescribequalities or ideas,as opposedto concrete


nouns,whichdescriberealthings.Thesuffixes-(a)tion/ -mentcanbe
addedto adjectives,nounsor verbsto formabstractnouns.
The suffix -(a)tion is added to verbs to expressthe action or
condition
of.Noticethe following
examples.

146 STRANDS (Br-pART


oF LANGUAGE t)
Verb Abstractnoun
imagine imagination
assume assumption

The suffix-ment is addedto verbsto expressthe actionor result


of something. Noticethe following
examples:

Verb r Abstractnoun
excite I excitement
indict I indictment

2) Affer reqdingfhe grommqr cqpsule obove,


provdethe sbslrqcf noun of fhe verbs in lhe
tsble

VERB ABSTRACT ABSTRACT


NOUN VERB
NOUN
explore inform
arrange excite
amaze promote
fix judge

embody define

ratify argue
organrze starve

UNIT
5: WILDLIFE
EXPERIENCE
| 47
c) USINGENGTISH APPROPRIATETY
AND PUTTINGIT INTOMOTION
I ) The word since oppeqrs severql fimes in fhe lexf.
In some cqses it meons becsuse
E.g.:

Sincewhattheydo in theirvarioushomescanbe of keyimportance....


Since such young cubs are not yet able to regulate their body
temperatures,it wasassumedthat...
Yet,in otherexamplesit refersto a pointin time:
Since then,similartechniqueshavebeen usedmany times....
ln thissense,sinceshouldnot be confusedwith for.
After readingthe grammarcapsule,do the exercisebelow:

GRAMMARCAPSULE: Timeprepostions/
conuncfions:sincef for

Since: When used as a preposition, ,since occurs almost


exclusivelyas a preposition
of time.Time adverbialsintroduced by
since normallyrequirethe PresentPerfect(perfective
aspect)in the
verbof the mainclause.

E.g.: I havebeenrunningmy own companysince 1996

Sincemaybe followedby:

a) a nounphrase:since last year, sincethe 2008tinancial crisis


-ing clausewithoutsubject:sincemoving to Rome
b) a non-finite
c) a finiteclause:sincethe crisis began

Sincemaymeaneithera) durationor b) time-when,


dependingon
the kindof verbusedin the mainclause:

a) I haveremained in the same educationalsystem(ever)since


I was3 yearso/d.(stativeverb-+ duration)

148 STRANDS (Bt-pART


oF LANGUAeE t)
b) They have travelled to Australia ten times since 2000.
(Dynamicverb-+ time-when)
Since can also be a conjunction(i.e.a connectorof structure
meaning"because" or "consideringthat")and,therefore,it is important
to payattentionto its functionwithinthe sentence.In the textwe can
findsomeinstances of the useof since as a conjunction:
Since what they do in their various homes can be of key
importance[...]
Since such young cubs are not yet able to regulate their body
temperatures, it was assumedthat[...]
For:Thepreposition
for is used:
a) To referto a periodof time E.g.:for threeweeks,for ages,ehc.
b) To indicatepurpose.E.g: He did it for the loveof money.
c) To indicatedestination. E.g.: Weheadedtor the LakeDistrict.
d) To indicatesupport.E.g: I'm for the new HealthReformlaw.

Now,fill in the blankspaceswith eitherfor or since=

a) He hasn'ttelephoned Monday.
b) Petercookedthe meat fiveminutes.
c) The weatherreportsaid it mightrain three
moredays.
d/ Suehasbeenrunningthe business
ever her
fatherdied.
e) Thisis a veryold car,l'vehadit ages.
0 lastmonthwe haven'tbeenallowedto enter
thisbuilding
because i t is beingdecorated.
s) It'sbeena longtime I lastsawJim.
h) I haven'tgoneto the theatre a longtime.
i) Hehasbeencomplaining
ever hegotupthis
morning.

UNIT5: WILDLIFE
EXPERIENCE
149
i) I canonlystay tenmoreminutes.
k) Theyhaveworkedtogether 1990.

2> Somewords usuqllylqke q cerfoin preposilionto


form expressionssuch qs: or/r/syffom, pieeesot
Match the following list of words with the appropriate
preposition:

WORD PHEP..

3) Exqminefhe use of ihe qusnlifiers a liltle snd d


few wilh mqss qnd counl nouns
"Theprivatelifeof thekingfisher
becamea littlemorepublicwhen...
"Foxeshavealsorevealed a few of theirfamilysecrets...".

GRAMMARCAPSU LE:Quonlifiers:
(a) IiIIte / (o) ew ffi
Thereare mass and count nouns.The typeof quantifier
we use
withthe noundependson thisgeneralcharacteristic. Few anda few
are usedwith countnounswhereaslittle anda littleare usedwith
massnouns.
The distinction
betweenone or the otherwithinthesetwo pairs
is based on the speakers'positiveor negativeway of lookingat
th i n gs:

150 sTRANDS (Bt-pART


oF LANGUAGE t)
a) Theindefinitedeterminersa tew anda littleareusedwhenthe
froma positivepointof view:
speakerseesthe situation
E.g.: We have run out of apples, but we still have a tew
bananasto makeshakesfor all the children (= several)
Youstill have200 this month,so you have a little money
to cope withany unexpectedevents.(= some)
b) Conversely, few and little are used when the speaker
perceives froma negativepointof view:
the situation

E.g.: Few peoplecan livelikeyou.(= almostno one)


Since I have to work so much, I have little time for
(= hardlyanYtime)
socializing.

Someexpressionswith (a) little and (a) fevn


little or nothing(hardlyanything)
everyfew days(oncein a fewdays)
little by little (slowly)
nota little (a greatdealof)
a goodfew / quitea few (a considerable
number)

After reading the grammar capsule, complete the following


sentencesby adding little, a little, few, a few in the blank spaces
below:
a) | haveto givethetaxi-drivera tip,do youhave
coins?
b) Thereare only peoplein the living-room.
c) I'm afraidthereis the doctorscando since
it is a terminal
disease.
d) Until July there are very touristson the
beachesof Alicante.
e) Thereis very sugarin thisdrink,wouldyou
pleaseaddsomemore?

UNIT
5: WILDLIFE
EXPERIENCE
l5l
f) Wouldyoulike moremilkin yourtea?
s) Waita minute!There arequite t h i n g sl w a n t
to talkto youaboutbeforeyou leave.
h) He knowsvery aboutthe accidentbecause
he wasn'ttherewhenit happened.
i) Couldyou wait minutesun ti lI fi ni s hthi s
report?
i) Whathe sayscan do us harmbecauseno
onepaysmuchattention to himanymore.
k) peoplestudyGreeknowadays.
t) Wouldyoulike potatoeswithyourmeat?
m) Thereis still wineleftin thebottle.
n) peoplewerewaitingat thedoorto meetthe
president.

4> Severol<rdverbsof frequencyqppeor n the text


such ds often,dlwdys, never, occasionally
Rewrite these sentences including an adverb from those in
bracketsin the correctplace:

a) Maryis chattingon MSNinsteadof doingher homework;


thatis
why she is doingso poorlyat school(seldom,always,hardly
ever).

b/ I normallyleavethe gymnasium beforehe arrives,so I see him


there(sometimes,hardlyever,usually).

c,) We go outfor lunchon Sundaysbecausemy motherdoesn'tlike


to cook(always,never,seldom).

d) | phoneher nowthat she is abroadbecauseit is too expensive


(never,
usually,
occasionally).

152 STRANDS (Bt-pARTt)


oF LANGUAGE
e) We go on vacationbecausewe can'l affordit (seldom,usually,
frequently).

I didn'twatchlhe sciencefictionfilmbecauseI enjoythiskindof


films(hardlyever,always,often).

g) | havecomplained to themanager buthedoesn'tseemto bedoing


anythingto solvethe problem(frequently,
never,seldom).

h) My parentscometo my houseon Sundayafternoons whenthey


are in town(nearlyalways,seldom,hardlyever).

5) Nofice lhe relsfive clouse in the texl


"...thelocationsthat they have
to operatein".
The prepositioncan never precedethe pronounthat but it can
precedewhich, who, or whom.

E.g.: Thelocationsin which theyhave to operate.

Butthisis a moreformalstyleusedmainlyin writtenlanguage.

Rewritethe followingsentencesso that the prepositiondoes not


appearin front of the relativepronoun and leavethe pronoun out
wheneverpossibleto makeit more informal:

E . g . : T h a t'sth ema nw i th w h o m l w or k.
That'sthe manI workwith.

a) Thisis thepainting
forwhichtheyhavepaidso muchmoney.

b/ Thisis thestorein whichI boughtall ourfurniture.

UNIT
5: WILDLIFE
EXPERIENCE
153
c/ Johnis the neighbour
withwhomI wenton holiday.

d) Mr.Smithis the teacherfromwhomI borrowed


the book.

e) Thepubin whichwe metdatesfrom1865.

0 Thetownin whichhe wasbornis in the Northof England.

g) The manto whomI spokewasveryhelpful.

h) The companyfor whichwe workis verysmall.

i) The personfromwhomhe heardthe newswas hissister.

j) The knifewithwhichhe cut himselfwasverysharp.

) Noticethe expressionat the time,Includeone of


lhe followng possibltiesin fhe blonk spqces
below (check your dicionoryf needed)

on time

a) Thechildren
werestillsleeping I arrived.
b) Pleasebe becauseI'm in a hurry.
c) I thinkI wouldliketo find a newjob.
d) lf you leavenow you'll arrive to see the
of the filmno matterhowmuchtrafficthereis.
beginning
e) manybusesin Spainhadtwofloors.

154 STRANDS (Br-pART


oF LANGUAGE r)
7, lnserlfhe followngprepositionsfrom fhe texf in
fhe blonks belowi o,bout,wilh, by, an, after, for,
rom, unlil

a/ Wait me at the airport

b) Thisstoreis open ninea.m.to sixp.m .


c) l'vehearda lot thenewdoctor
my friends.
d) John went a walkin the woods
allthedogs.
e,) Youwill haveto wait if you
this afternoon
wantme to go youto thechemist.
f) | expect to have f i n i s h e d tho ir oning
fouro'clock.
g) | hope you are not counting stayingout
yourfriends m idnight.
h) youfinishyourworkwe cango out
a whileto do somejogging.
i) l a m a l w a ysu p nineo'clock.
i) He wasso absorbed his work that he didn't
realizeI was in the room I spoke.
k) For once,try to be time.You are always
ten or fifteenminutes
late.
l) He is to arrive. Can you wait
a fewminutes?
m/ She receiveda lovelypresent her friends
herbirthday.

TIMETO RELAX:Now,let'srelax,sit down,andwatchsome


interesting
videosin connection
withthetopicof thisunit:
http://www.youtu be.com/watch
?v=ujN4osR022E&featu
re=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qDvHlSztj6M&feature=channel
http://www.yout ube.com/watch?v=B71T*G pA2AM&feature=channeI

UNIT
5: WILDLIFE
EXPERIENCE
155
Self-EvaluationUnit 5

| ) Choosethe besf opfion to complete the


meonngof lhe following sentences
1. Youshouldchewvourfoodwellbefore
a) eating b) to swallow c) swallowing d) to digest

2 . He the crimebut was afraidto callthe police.


a) witnessed b) looked c) seen d) to see
3. lf she doesn't want to go to the party, nothingyou say
her.
a) convincingb) willaccomplish
c) willassure d) will
persuade

4. The show was very interesting


and it really the
attention
of the spectators.
a) accomplishedb) gotten c) gripped d) to get
5. lf he doesn'tstudymore,I don'tthinkhe i n the
finals.
a) will b) would c) willapprove d) would
succeed succeed accomplish

2> Choosethe corfecl pfeposfon for eoch of these


words
1. familiar
a) with b) of c) for d) from
2. tired
a) with b) of c) for d) from
3. grateful
a) with b) of c) for d) from

l5 STRANDS
oF LANGUAGE
Gt-PART
t)
4 . different
a) with b) of c) for d) from
5 . disappointed
a) with b) of c) for d) from

3) Chooselhe eorrecf option to complete fhe


meonngof lhese sentences
1. Therewereonly peoplein the roomby thetime
we arrived.
a) little b) a little c) few d) a few

2. Very of whatMarysaidmadeanysenseto us.


a) little b) a little c) few d) a few

3. I knowquite parentswho havemadethe same


mistake.
a) little b) a little c) few d) a few

4. Johnis amongthe friendsI can relyon in this


matter.
a) little b) a little c) few d) a few

5. lf we hurryit willonlytakeus whileto cleanup


allthismess.
a) little b) a little c) few d) a few

4> Ghoosethe correcf option to complete fhe


me(Iningof these senfences
1. He'snever we alwayshaveto waitfor him.
a) on time b) in thetime c) at thetime d) at times
2. thisjob becauseI don'tagree
I feellikequitting
withmy boss.
a) At onetime b) In time c) At thetime d) At times

UNIT5: WILDLIFE
EXPERIENCE
157
just
3. He arrived to catchthe 6 o'clocktrain.
a) at onetime b) in time c) at thetime d) at times
4. Stayingwith them seemedlikethe rightthingto do
a) on time b) in time c) at thetime d) in thetime
5. Picasso livedin thishousein Mlaga.
a) At onetime b) In thetime c) At thetimesd) On time

| 58 STRANDS (Bt-PART
oF LANGUAGE D
UNIT6=
TANDSCAPEAND THEARTS
A) WARMINGUP
1) Areyoufondof art in general?
What'syourfavoritetypeof arI?
2) Do you likepainting?
Who is yourfavoriteartist?
3) Have you ever painted a landscape?lf so, describethe
experience.

B) ORAI DISCOURSE:EXPRESSIN9
PERSONAT
OPINIONS.GIVINGDETAILS
ABOUTFAMOUS
PEOPTE'SBIOGRAPHIES
GANDOs: l) Speakabout likes and distikes.
2) Describelandscapes/seascapes/skyscapes.
3) Answer questions related to your (or other
people's)life.

q) Lisfento fhe following conversqton befween


Julie qnd Williqm

(Williamis paintingusing an oil-on-canvass


technique.
mother's
friend,Julie,comesintohisstudio)

UNIT: LANDSCAPE
ANDTHEARTS I I
Julie:Hi Will,I just wantedto say helloand...(She
looksat his
p a i n ting) ......
W ow!!lLookat that!W hat
a beautiful
landsc ape!
| di dn't
knowyouweresucha goodartist,yousneakyboylThiswas indeed
a hiddenaspectof yourpersonality!
Well...I don'tgo aroundbragging
William: aboutmy talents,you
know...
J: I see,butyoumusthavestudiedat a verygoodschoolor witha
verygoodteacher...
W: No,no,as a matterof fact,I haven'tgoneto anyschoolof arts.
I'velearnedfromtheT.V.lessons givenby BobRoss.
J: BobRoss?Who'sBobRoss?
W:Youdon' tknowhim ??W ell,in myopinion, he is oneo f thebes t
landscapepaintersin this country,yu know,and an even better
person.I havenotonlylearntto paintlandscapes withhim,butalsoto
approachlife from a different,better, calmer, and healthier
perspective...
J:Well,thatsoundsfantastic! | wishI hada teacherlikethat!What
channelis hisshowon? l'd loveto seeit!
W: Uhh...he'son PublicTelevision,andhisprogram is called"The
joy of painting".lt's reallya pleasureto see him paintingand
simultaneouslymakingyoufeelgoodby givingyouadviceaboutthe
painting
techniques, ANDaboutlifein general...
J: Wow,l'm curiousaboutthis.Whatkindof advicedoeshe qive
youaboutlife?
W:Well,he alwayssaysthingslike:"lfyoufeelgoodaboutyourself
or "lf it' snotfun,then
a n dthe wor ld,it willshowin yourpainting"...
yo u 'redoingthewr ongthing"....
J: I see...I couldn'agr
t eemor ewithhim .
W: Also,he neverwantsyouto consideryou'vemadea mistakeif
your resultsare not perfectat the beginning: He sayswe should
considermistakes as "happyaccidents" fromwhichwe can learn...
l sn 'tthatenlightening?
J: lt sureis!Where'sBobRossfrom?
W: Well,he was bornand raisedin Florida, butthenhe livedfor
manyyearsin Alaska. yes....that
Alaska... washisfavourite
landscape
inspiration....He alwayssaidthat"Godwas havinga gooddaywhen
he madeAlaska", and l'velearntto loveAlaskathroughhiseyes,you

162 STRANDS (Bt-pARTt)


oF LANGUAGE
know,in spiteof thefactthatI'veneverhadthe opportunity to visit
state.
J:Well,it'sfascinating
to seehowan art instructor hashadsucha
positiveinfluence on hisdisciples...
ls he stillalive?
W: No,no,unluckily, he isn't.He diedof cancerin 1995...But he
hasleftan artisticand humanlegacythatwillmakehimremainalive
in the heartof everyone who was fortunate enoughto knowhimor
learnfromhim...Andnow,throughhisvideos,thankGodtheyounger
generations of artistsarestillableto receive hislegacy...
J:Well,it'sa verytouchy-feely story...
You'vemademydaywithit!

b) Now discussthe followingwith your fufor or


clossmtrlesin lhe forum/virfuqlclEss

1) Do youthinkWillconsidershimselfa goodpainter?
2) Wouldyou liketo havea teacherlikeBob Ross?Explainwhyor
whynot.
3) Howwouldyoudescribe Julie?
4) Whatdo youthinkBobRossmeantwhenhe saidthat"Godwas
havinga gooddaywhenhe madeAlaska"?
5) Explainwhatthe following
expressions mean:"l don'tgo around
bragging";"it's
a touchy-feely
story";"you've
mademydaywithit!"

c) MUITI-TASK|NG
ACTtVtTtE$
LANDSCAPE:
WATCH,
WRITE,READ,LISTENand STUDY
AdditionalCANDOs:
1) readstraightforwardfactualnarrative
and descriptive
textswitha
satisfactory
levelof comprehension;
2) writea description
of a landscape/seascape/skyscape.

UNIT: LANDSCAPE
ANDTHEARTS I 3
Step1.WRITTEN PRODUCTION: Go on the internetand LOOKat the
landscapesby VanGogh in the followingwebpage,CHOOSEone of
them,andthenWRITEa descriptionof it. Explainthe reasonwhy you
chosethat one and not the others.
google.es/i
http:/iimages^ mages?hl=es&source-hp&q=landscapes+by
+Van+Gog h&btnG=Buscar+imo/"C3%Algenes&g
bv=!gq=fft
eq=

DESCRIPTION
OF MY CHOSENLANDSCAPE:

Step2. READthe relatedtextand LISTENto its spokenversionto make


sureyou knowhowto pronounce andgivethe correclintonationto it.

164 STRANDS (Bt-IART


oF LANGUAGE t)
UNIT: LANDSCAPE
AND THEARTS
Sfep3. DO the following
exercises:

| ) Ghoosethe option fhqt completes eqch


sentencemosf qccurotely occording to the
ideqs expressedin the texl
1 . Beaversbuilddamsbecause...
a) theyare goodfor fishing.
b,) they likecuttingtrees.
c/ theyneedthemto survive.
2 . Manaltershissurroundings...
a) tor economicreasons.
b) tor aestheticreasons.
c) as a wayof survival.

3 . Thisnonfunctional
conceptof nature...
a,) differentiates
humansfromanimals.
b) approaches humansto animals.
c) is nota characteristic
humanfeature.
4 . Manfindspleasures
in holidays...
a,) becausehe eatsmoreanddrinksmore.
b/ becausehe likescrowdedplaces.
c) becausetheymeana changein setting.

5 . Peoplenowadays do prefer...
a) a poorhousein goodsurroundings.
b) a goodhousein notso goodsurroundings.
c) flatsratherthanhouses.

2> Include lhe word thqt best fits the conlext


a) Man has deliberately
changedhis through
the ages.

166 STRANDS (Br-pART


oF LANGUAGE r)
b/ Human have a non-practical
conceptof
nature.Theyalterit for reasons.
c/ The mainreasonwhymanenjoysholidays
is becausehe likesto
experiencea different
d) lf man had a practicalconceptof holidays,he wouldn'ttravelto
placeswhichare usuallymuchless
thanhishouse.
e,) According a poorhousein goodsurroundings
to socialstandards,
is preferred
to a betterhousewithno

3) ORAI PRODUCTION: Tryfo complele -in youl own


words- fhe following sfqlemenlsoccording lo
the fexf
a) Man is the only specieswho
b,) Thisnon-practical
conceptof natureis oneof
c) Ourpleasurein holidays
is mainlybasedon
d/ Mostof whatwe do on our holidays
is
e) Wedon'tusuallylikeholidaysat homebecause
f) Environmentplaysan important
partin
g) We paya higherpricefor_ than

4> WRITTEN PRODUCTION: Write tr shoil fexf with the


help of fhe following noles
manalterenvironment,aesthetic
reasons,
onlyspecies.
pleasure
in holidays:
different
setting,
sameentertainments.
crowded,uncomfortable
places(worsethanhome).
valuesurroundings:
house/ flatwitha viewpreferred,
higherprice.

UNIT; LANDSCAPE
ANDTHEARTS 167
D) TACKLINGVOCABULARY

r) Nolice fhe similoritiesqnd dfferencesn


meonng belween the following verbs

prize valuehighly
value thepriceof something,
calculate considerto be of
judgement)
greatworth(it alwaysimpliespositive
evaluate the valueor degreeof
calculate
estimate calculate;form an opinionas to the degreeof
something from"esteem"
(different = respectand
admiregreatly)

E.g.: He estimates
hislossesat $ 2,000.
Theyestimated.
thatthe building
couldbe finished
withina
month.
Herpossessions
havebeenvalued"at ! 3,000,000.
As on old man he alwaysvaluedthe silentcompanyof his
dog.
Herteddybearwas her mostprizedpossession.
somepeople'shelp.
It'snot alwayseasyto evaluate
* observethat estimafeand valuecanappearin expressions
of the
type esfimatesomethingat and valuesomethingat.
* only estimatecanbe followedby a that-clause.

valuable wgrtha lot of money,havinggreatusefulness


or
vatue
valueless oino uu'u"
priceless of verygreatvalue
invaluable (of qualities)too valuablefor the worth to be
meaured
worthless of no value,(of a person)of badcharacter

I 8 sTRANDS (Br-pART
oF LANGUAGE r)
Fill in the gapswith one of the previousverbsor adjectives(more
than one adjectivecan be used in some of the sentences):
a) He wasveryhappyto get such information.
b) They that the value of the farm had
increased considerably
in the lastten years.
c) How do you the Government's refusalto
takepartin the conversations?
d) Shegaveme some helpl'll neverforget.
e) Mostof the drawerscontained collections
of cheap,
thingswhichshouldhavebeenthrownaway.
f) I t h i n kh e my adviceandwasreallygrateful.
s) Quitea few peopleseemto moneymore
highlythanlove.
h) He has a of old paintings
collection in his
countryhouse.

2> Fill in the crosswordusing lhe clues below

UNIT: LANDSCAPE
ANDTHEARTS 169
DOWN
2 . use of strength and 8 . a highdegreeof pleasure or
energy(todo something). satisfaction.
3 . degree of expense or 1 1 .notoften,rarely.
importance.
1 2 . givea newshape.
5 . rescue (someone)from
1 6 . a floorof a building,
usedas a
dangel store data in a
computer. home.
fullof people.
o . completely

ACROSS
1 . an area,surroundings. 1 4 . nothingmore than what is
4 . a large area of land specified.
coveredwithtrees. 1 5 .a placegivingprotection
from
7 . everything
aroundand in badweatheror danger.
a place. 1 7 . the surroundings
or conditions
in whicha person,animalor
9 . put in a different
order. plantlivesor operates.
1 0 . a wide view of country
scenery.
1 3 .the generalarrangement
or plan ( of a pictur e,
m achine) .
building,

3) Findwords in the pqssqgewhich qre smlsrin


meqnngfo the following

iillrffu"PuPeE
d) characteristic
e) evident

170 sTRANDS (Br-pART


oF LANGUAGE r)
f) cost
g) rarely
h) deeply

4> Lookqt the meqnngof fhe followingexpressons


in the text

apartfrom for instance


takefor granted by no means
afterall on noltday

Nowfill in the gaps usingthe expressionsin the box:

a) Theyare away.Theywent on August1st.


b) Youcan't that he is goingto lendyou the
money.
c/ Somedayshe getshomeverylate.LastTuesday
he arrivedat threein the mornino.
d) a suitableexercisefor old people,
thoughit'sbetterthantheotherone.
e) - Steve,I don'tcareaboutanyof them.
f) We havesolvedtheproblem;itwasn'tso difficult

5) Notice fhe use of the phrosol verbs wdlk about,


sit qbouf, ond travel aboul in the text
(Landscdpe)
The mostusualmeaningof the adverbial particleabout is hereand
there,in all directions,
on all sides;it generally
impliesa lackof purpose
or aimbothwithverbswhichexpress movement (driveabout,fly about,
moveabout,hangabout,travelabout,walk about,wanderabout)and
withverbswhichexpress no movement (lieabout,lookabout,sit about,
standabout,waitabout).lt canalsomeanintheopposite direction(turn
about).

UNIT
: LANDSCAPE
ANDTHEARTS 171
Make meaningfulsentenceswith the elementsbelow.The tense
of the main verb is given in brackets:

a/ she/ suddenly
/ turnabout/ and/ start/ run (pastsimple).

b) | lsee / them/ sit about/ on grass(present


perfect).

c) we / have/ nicetime/ walkabout/ in park(pastsimple).

d/ she/ tiredI seeI children


/ hangingaboutI allday(present
simple).

e) he / get up I lale ltomorrowI andI lie aboutI all day(future).

0 groupof people/ standabout/ at door/ shoppingcentre(present


continuous).

E) NOW HOW'SYOURSPELLING?
I ) Some words like design hqve o silenf g before n.
Wrile if in ploce of fhe dqsh when necessory

resl n campai-n
torr n rei n
pai n "n"in
soverei n mali-n

172 sTRANDS (Bt,pART


oF LANGUAGE t)
E) ReEd the pcssf,ge cgoin psying Ettention to
the double consondnts in it; lhen fill in the gops
doubling the consonants when necesssry

sur_oundings pot_ential gras_land


es_sence set_ing ar anoe
dif_erent ef_ort pref_er
prof_oundly comf ortable bet_er

F) AND... HOW'$YOURFORMATION
OF WORDS?
ReadtheGrammar
Capsule
andthendo theexercises:

GRAMMAR Noun-qnd qdecfive-


CAPSULE:
folmotion morphemes

Noun-formationmorphemes-al -age:TheLatinprefixes -al and


-agecanbe addedto verbsin orderto formabstractnouns.Generally,
they add the meaningof "the processor stateof" or "the actionor
resultof ."

deny-+ denial leak-+ leakage


refuse-+ refusal post-+ postage

The suffix-agecanalsobe addedto othernounsin orderto form


newnouns,as in:

store-+ storage

Adjectiveformation:-al: This derivational morphemehas two


morevariants:-ral -ical,Ihalcan be addedto nouns(notto verbs)to
formadjectivesmeaning "concerning".

magic-+ magical history-+ historical tutor-+ tutorial

UNIT: LANDSCAPE
ANDTHEARTS 173
I ) Turnlhese verbs into nounsby odding -al ol
-dgei mqke qny spelling chqnges you fnd
necessqry(such qs chongngy into i)

VERB NOUN VERB NOUN


marry break
refuse propose
deny store
arrive carry
pass renew
try revive
pack approve
recite post

2, Turn fhese nouns info odjeclives by qddin g -cili


mske sny necesssry chgnges

NOUN ADJETIVE NOUN ADJETIVE


practice nation
crme music
nature fate
conversation fiction
economy occasion
hypothesis colony
centre form
psychology phrase

174 STRANDS (Bt-pART


oF LANGUAGE t)
G) US|NGENGUSHAPPROPRTATETY
AND PUTTING
IT INTOMOTON
t ) Seethe use of the -eyercompounds in lhe lexf
...whateverwe like to call them.
Whereveryougo, l'll go withyou- Vayasdondevayas/ Dondequiera
que vayas...
Call me wheneveryou like= siempreque quieras.
Whoeverit is,tellhimto go = Seaquiensea...
Takesomeof these,whicheveryou like= los que te gusten.
He neverlikeswhatotherpeopledo, howeveryou do il = lo hagas
comolo hagas.
Thegeneralmeaning of thesecompound wordsis:

whatever -) no matterwhat
whoever --? no matterwho
whichever-+ no matterwhich
wherever -+ at / to anyplace/no matterwhere
whenever at anytimeat all/no matterwhen
however *) in whateve
r waylnomatterhow

Now,translateinto English:

a,) Seacuandosea,no podrir.

b/ Estdondeest,me gustar.

c) Fueraquienfuera,no te dijola verdad.

UNIT: LANDSCAPE
ANDTHEARTS I 75
d,) Hagaslo que hagas,estarbien.

e) Yayacuandovaya,se alegrarn
de verle.

f) Compresel cochedondelo compres,


sercaro.

g/ Cuandoquiera
que ibaa la ciudadle traaun regalo.

h,) Llegues
cuandollegues,
llmame.

2> Affer reodingthe grommor cqpsule,do ihe


exercsebelow

GRAMMARCAPSULE: Use of preposilionol verbs


in defining relolive clouses

Relativeclauses:

Relative clauses are used as post-modif iers to provide


information abouta noun or a pronounwithina noun phrase.In
English,we can distinguish two typesof relativeclauses:defining
and non-defining.In defining relativeclausesthe subordinate
clause(introduced by a relativepronoun)is essentialto understand
the head becauseit identifiesor definesthe precedingnoun or
pronoun(E.9.:ls thisthe child(who/that)we met yesterdayfl.Non-
defining relativeclauses,however, are not essentialto identifythe
head,i.e.,theydo not definethe preceding nounbutjust addsome
information(E.9.:Theteacher,who didn'tknow the answerto the
question,opted to remain silent).
Which is a relativepronounwe use when the antecedent is a
thing,an animalor an entireclause. Thisrelative
pronoun canbe used
to linksentences and it can functionas the subjector the object of
the relativesentence.

176 STRANDS (Bt-pARTD


oF LANGUAGE
The 55 bus,which usuallylate,camesurprisingly early
today(subject).
The 55 bus.which I usuallytakein the mornings,
was on
timetoday.
Sometimesthe relativepronounis governedby a preposition
expressingplace,time, or cause.In those cases,the preposition
comesbeforethe relativepronoun(formalcontext)or at the endof the
clause(informal
contexts).
E.g.: Thatis the manfor whom we arewaiting.(formal)
Thatis the man(who)we arewaitingfor. (informal)

Sometimesthe prepositioncan be placedat the end or at the


beginningof an interrogative just like in
sentence(urh-question),
relativeclauses:

E.g.: Whoareyoutalkingto? (lnformal)


To whomare youtalking?(Formal)

Seethe examplein the text:


Onlyman deliberatelyrearrangesthe settinghe lives in...

Formdefiningrelativeclausesas in the example:

E.g.: That'sthe man.Yourbrother


wastalkingto him.
That'sthe manyourbrotherwastalkingto.

Thesearethe pictures.I wantto lookat them.


Thesearethe picturesI wantto lookat.

a) lsn'tthisthe bus?Areyouwaitingfor it?

b,) That'sthe lady.We havebeentalkingabouther.

UNIT: LANDSCAPE
ANDTHEARTS I77
c) Thosearetheories.
I willneverbelieve
in them.

d,) ls thisthe article?Wereyou interested


in it?

e) That'sthesamedisease.
Lesliesuffered
fromit.

f) lt is a possibility.
I had neverthoughtof it.

g) Thisis the kindof job.I willnevergettiredof it.

h,) Therewerea fewthings.He nevergot usedto them.

3) Review the compqrson of odeclves in your


grqmmqr book; see qlso lhe exqmples in fhe texl.
Then Iook oi the informotion given in fhe tqble
below obout some of the physcql ond
psychologcql feolures shown by three children
(AIice, Tom qnd Bll)

Alice Tom Bitl


height 1 , 5 0m 1 , 5 0m 1 , 6 0m
weight 40 kg 50 kg 55 kg
age 10 10 12

strength T

sl i mn ess T

liveliness T

i n te l l igence
creativity T

means average. + meansaboveaverage - meansbelow average.

178 STRANDS (Br-nART


oF LANcUAGE r)

I
Forexample, Billis stronger thanAlicebutlessstrongthanTom.
M a k e c o mp a ri so nfo
s l l o w i n gth e instr uctions
below as in the
exampres:
E. g . : A l i ce/T o m(stre n g th ).
Aliceis lessstrongthanTom.Aliceisn'tas/sostrongas Tom.
Tom/ Alice(age).
Tomis as old as Alice.

Q Bil / Tom(weight).

b,) Alice/ Bill(slimness).

c/ Tom/ Bill(liveliness).

d/ Alice/ Tom(height).

e,) Tom/ Alice(intelligence).

f) Tom/ Alice(creativity).

g) Tom/ Bill (age).

4> Seefhe exsmples of fhe second fype of


condifonsl seniencesin lhe lexf, ss well qs the
following
E.g.: lf lworkedharder,l'd be richer.
lf I werericher,l'd buya yatch.
lf I hada yatch,l'dsailroundthe Britishlsles.

UNIT: LANDSCAPE
ANDTHEARTS 179
Readthe informationin the grammarcapsuleand then do the
exercise:

GRAMMARCAPSULE: Condilionol sentences


(second fype)

In the text (Landscape) you can see an instanceof a conditional


sentenceof the secondtype:
[...] but if that wereall, thenholidaysat home woulddo us, and we
couldsaveourselvesallthe effortand expense[...] (lines14-15)
This type of conditionalclause is known as hypothetical
conditional,becausethe meaningof the sentenceexpressesa
hypothesis, i.e.,an ideaor a suggestion that is basedon knownfacts
butwhichis unlikelyto happen.Conditional sentences are composed
of a mainclause,whichtakesa modalauxiliaryin the past,and a
subordinate clauseintroduced by the conjunction if, whichtakesa
SimplePast.
Studythe following
examples:
youWould,finda job moreeasily.
E.g.: lf youstudiedEnglish,
PAST modalaux.in the past(WOULD)
lf I were you,I wouldn'tbuy thathouse
PAST modalaux.in the past(WOULD)

Writethe verbs in bracketsin the correctform:

a) You(notbe) so fat if you (noteat)so much.

b,) lf he (drink)lessbeer,he (feel)better.

c) lf he (take)the dog out,the pooranimal(notbe) so restless.

180 sTRANDS (Br-pART


oF LANGUAGE r)
d) Mr.Heaton(notget)crosswith her if she (notbe) alwayslatefor
work.

e/ lf they(pass)the exams,they(go)to university


nextOctober.

f) We (can)takethe 11.30trainif they(be)hereon time.

g) lf you(help)me,| (finish)
in abouthalfan hour.

h) Themilk(notturn)sourif you(keep)it in thefridge.

i) | (walk)morequicklyif | (nothave)to carrysucha heavysuitcase.

5) Give fhe correcf iense (PresentSimpleor Present


Confinuous)of lhe verbs in brqckels
a,) "Whereyou (go)?""1(go)to postthisletter".

(phone)hertwiceeverymorning.
b) Herboyfriend

c,) "Howlongyou (stay)in Rome?""1(comeback)on Wednesday.


I
never(stay)morethantwo or threedays".

d,) Humanbeings(alter)theirsurroundings
foraesthetic
reasons.

(leave)?
e) At whattimethe trainto Newcastle

UNIT: LANDSCAPE
ANDTHEARTS I8I
She(live)withsomefriendsat the momentbutshe(prefer)
to live
by herself.

g/ | (suppose)
she (notcome)to the partyon Saturday.

h) | (meet)Billtomorrow | (imagine)
evening. we'llgo to thecinema.

i) fodaythey(havelunch)at homebuttheyusually(eat)at school.

il He (have)a rest now.He always(lie down)for a whilein the


afternoon.

) Choose the qpproprqte preposlionfo fill in the


gops
a) Theyhavesomelovelyfurniture theirflat.
b,) | supposethey'll be waitingfor me the
station.
c) Thechildren shouldbe bed.Tomorrow they
mustbe schoolby eight.
d) fl waitfor you the busstop.
e) There'sa littlecottage the bottomof that
valley.
f) He spentfiveyears pflson.
g/ Mrs.Hallisn't home;she's
church.
h/ Shekeepsall herclothes thatcupboard.
i) Whyareyoustanding the door?
j) A supermarket has been recentlyopened
thecenterof thevillage.
k) Theylivein a smalltown thesouth.

182 sTRANDS (Br-pART


oF LANGUAGE r)
7> Nolice ihe omsson(becouse f is nol
necessqry)of the definiteqicle n some
sentences in the text (Landscdpe). Fll
in lhe gqps usngo definifeqrficle when
necesssfy

a/ Though I'm not fond of pets, I think


puppiesare lovely.
b) peoplein roombegan
clappingwhen he came in.
c) menhavealwayschanged_
naturefor economic or aestheticreasons.
d) richcountriesof world
don'tseemto caremuchabout hungry.
e) Eventoday lifeis reallyhardin someareas
of planet.
f) Theysay SovietUnionis holdinga secret
unofficialconferencewith UnitedStates.
s) O n l y manrearranoes
settinghe livesin becausehe prefers lookof
it.

H) TANGUAGE
AND LITERATURE:
THECONNECTION
Narrativesof personalexperience(with descriptivestructure)in
literaryworks.

CANDOs: a) ldentify the elements of the structure of


narratives.
b) ldentify elementsof descriptivestructurewithin
narrativediscourse.

UNIT
: LANDSCAPE
ANDTHEARTS I83
| ) Reqd fhe following norrolve by Mqrk Twclin,
where the norrolion of tr personol experience s
combined with description.As you wll notice, the
firsf fhree psrdgrqphs <rre merely descriplive,
while lhe fourth ond lost one is moinly nsrrative

It is peacefulhereand pleasantat lnterlaken. Nothinggoingon-


at leastnothingbut brilliantlife-giving sunshine.Thereare floodsand
floodsof that.Onemayproperly speakof it as "goingon,"for it is full
of the suggestion the lightpoursdownwith energy,with
of activity;
visibleenthusiasm. Thisis a goodatmosphere to be in,morally as well
as physically. [... 1
FromthisVictoriaHotelone looksstraightacrossa flatof trifling
widthto a loftymountain barrier,whichhasa gatewayin it shapedlike
an invertedpyramid.Beyondthis gatewayarisesthe vastbulkof the
Jungfrau,a spotlessmass of gleamingsnow,into the sky.The
gateway,in the dark-colored barrier,makesa strongframefor the
great picture.The somberframe and the glowingsnow-pileare
startlinglycontrasted.lt is this frame which concentrates and
emphasizes thegloryof theJungfrau andmakesit themostengaging
andbeguiling andfascinating spectacle thatexistson theearth.There
are manymountains of snowthatare as loftyas the Jungfrauand as
noblyproportioned, but theylackthe fame.Theystandat large;they
are intruded uponand elbowedby neighboring domesandsummits,
andtheirgrandeur is diminished andfailsof effect.
It is a good name,Jungfrau-Virgin.Nothingcould be whiter;
nothingcouldbe purer;nothingcouldbe saintlierof aspect.At six
yesterday eveningthe greatintervening barrierseenthrougha faint
bluishhazeseemedmadeof airandsubstanceless, so softandrichit
was,so shimmering wherethewandering lightstouchedit andso dim
wherethe shadowslay.Apparently it wasa dreamstuff,a workof the
imagination, nothingrealaboutit.Thetintwasgreen,slightly varying
shadesof it, but mainlyverydark.The sunwas down-as far as that
barrierwas concerned,but not for the Jungfrau,toweringinto the
llgaygnsbeyondthe gateway.She was a roaringconflagrationof
blinding white.

184 sTRANDS (Bt-pART


oF LANGUAGE t)
It is saidthe Fridolin
(theold Fridolin),
a newsaint,butformerly a
missionary, gavethe mountain itsgraciousname.Hewasan rrishmn,
son of an lrish king-there were thirtythousandkings reigningin
countycork alonein histime,fifteenhundredyearsag.tt got so ttrat
they could not makea living,therewas so muchcbmpetition and
wagesgot cut so.some of themwereout of workmonthsat a time,
withwifeandlittlechildren to feed,and nota crustin the place.At last
a particularlyseverewinterfelluponthecountry, andhundreds of them
werereducedto mendicancy andwereto be seendayafterdayin the
bitterestweather,standingbarefootin the snow,holdingot their
crownsfor alms.Indeed,theywouldhavebeenobligedto migrate or
starvebutfor a fortunate ideaof PrinceFridolin's,whostarted labor-
union,the firstone in history,andgot the greatbulkof themto join it.
He thus won the generalgratitude,and they wantedto mak-ehim
emperor-emperor over them all-emperorof CountyCork,but he
said,No,walkingdelegate wasgoodenoughfor him.-For beholdlhe
was modestbeyondhis years,and keen as a whip.To this day in
Germanyand switzerland, wherest. Fridolinis reveredand honored,
thepeasantry speakof himaffectionatelyas thefirstwalkingdelegate.
From"switzerlond,the Crodleof Liberty" by Mark Twain

'#3 ilm*k
#ffi h#ss,{#tr#ffi
H*e.sd#cru'
axm#*rs*mm#
$re
'fu*rs
Frur*m ffi#tr##r#hsEeru
# ffi#a"$#$Frrugwm$
#$*n*ru*#H gheseffiu*s*mrxm
#ffi# here#ffisqry#r
a) Whatis MarkTwainmainlydescribingin the first paragraph?
b) What are the adjectiveshe uses to describe it? Do these
adjectiveshavea positiveor a negativeconnotation?
c) Whatis describedin the secondparagraph?
d) what are the words or expressionsthat Markrwain uses in
orderto makethe landscapevivid to the reader?
e) Wouldyou like to visit the place?Why?
f) Whatkind of imagesdo we find in the third paragraph?
Which
wordsor expressionshelpedyou bestvisualizethe mountain?

&F
In the fourth and last paragraphMarkTwainnarratesthe story of
Fridolin.Broadlyspeaking,narrativesc ontain
a beginning,
a m iddleand

UNIT
: LANDSCAPE
ANDTHEARTS I85
an end,but if we studythemin detail,we shallfindall or someof the
following
elements (Labov,
1972,1997):
1. Abstract(oneor twoclausessummarizing thewholestory)
2. Orientation(identification
of thetime,place,persons, theiractivity
or thesituation)
3. Complicating action(clauses describing
differentevents)
4. Evaluation(themeansusedby the narrator to indicatethe point
of thenarrative:why
it wastold,andwhatthenarrator is aimingat)
5. Resultor resolution(theset of complicating actionsthatfollow
the mostreportable
event)
6. Coda(a freeclauseat the endwhichsignalsthatthe narrative is
finished)

Notall narratives containall six elements;the basiccharacteristic


of
narrativesis their temporalsequence,which is an importantdefining
propertyproceeding fromits referentialfunction.
ln the narrative aboutFridolin, all six elementsare identified,
which
themin perfectorder:
letsus illustrate

Abstract
"lt is saidthe Fridolin(theold Fridolin),
a newsaint,but formerlya
missionary,gavethe mountain itsgraciousname."

Orientation
"Hewasan lrishman, sonof an lrishking-therewerethirtythousand
kingsreigning
in CountyCorkalonein histime,fifteenhundred
yearsago."

Complicating
action
"lt got so that they couldnot makea living,therewas so much
competition andwagesgotcutso.Someof themwereoutof workmonths
at a time,withwifeandlittlechildrento feed,andnota crustin the place.
At lasta particularlyseverewinterfelluponthe country,and hundreds of
themwerereducedto mendicancy andwereto be seendayafterday in
the bitterestweather,standingbarefootin the snow,holdingout their
crownsfor alms."

l8 STRANDS (Br-pART
oF LANGUAGE t)
Evaluation
"lndeed,theywouldhavebeenobliged
to emigrateor starvebutfor a
fortunateideaof PrinceFridolin's,
whostarteda labor-union,thefirstone
andgotthegreatbulkof themto joinit."
in history,

Resolution
"He thuswon the generalgratitude,
and theywantedto makehim
emperor-emperor overthemall-emperorof CountyCork,buthe said,
No, walkingdelegatewas good enoughfor him. For behold!he was
modestbeyondhisyears,and keenas a whip."

Coda
"Tothisdayin Germany
andSwitzerland, whereSt.Fridolinis revered
and honored,the peasantryspeak of him affectionately
as the first
walkingdelegate."

4> o) Now,identify the elemenfs in the lollowing


ncrrrdtive
I wake up from the sweet sound of my music center playing
Beethoven. I openmy eyesandseea pictureof a girlstanding nearthe
piano.The eyesof the younggirl are full of happiness and I feel her
unconcealed delightand confidence.Whatcan I tell you aboutthisgirl
fromBucharest? Sheis veryenthusiastic andpassionate aboutwhatshe
is devotedto. Musichas changedher lifeeversinceshe turnedseven
when she impresseda musicteacherand successfully passesan
auditionto the musicschool. The soundsof pianopenetrated her mind
andsouland madethe girlperceive theworldtrulydeep.Sheneverhad
timeto playwithherfriendsas shewasalwaysnearher pianotryingto
playbetter, tryingto feeltheinstrument Thiswasthemoment
better. when
everybody realized thatsheis thetypethatneverleavesanything undone,
the type that strugglesand overcomes obstaclesthat preventher from
achieving hergoal.Shewasalwaystryingto improve andshe managed
it owingto heroriginality,imagination,creativity
and persistence.Playing
the pianowasnotenough- sheneededto singandthatis howshegot
to theNational Performing ArtsSchoolof Bucharest to studyvocalmusic.
Ever sincethat momentshe sang and playedwith a passioneven
strongerthansheshowedbefore.ShegotThe Romanian YouthAwardat

UNIT: LANDSCAPE
ANDTHEARTS 187
the "GoldenMusic Festival"in 2004,the PopularityAwardat "Radu
SerbanNational.

b) Can you ind ony descriptive strueturein this


narrdtive? I so, where?

TIMETO RELAX:Now,let'srelax,sit down,andwatchsome


interesting
videosin connection
withthetopicof thisunit:Bob
Rosson "TheJoyof Painting":

http://www.youtu
be.com/watch?v=i3RYOawN
lTs&featu
re=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wM
lzuSLx3kE&feature=relatd
http://www.youtu
be.com/watch
?v=YCZObxeLUSS&featu
re=related

| 88 STRANDS (BI-PART
oF LANGUAGE D
Eelf-EvaluotionUni| 6

I ) Choose lhe best oplon fo complete fhe meqnng


of fhe following senlences
1 . T h e wo rk sh e d o e s i s how could we
managewithouther?
a) priceless b) valueless c) price d) worthless
2. l'msurethisnecklace
is ; it looksabsolutely
fake.
a) priceless b) worthless c) invaluable d) valuable

3. At firsttheythoughtthe painting
was an originalPicasso,
but it
turnedoutto be a replica.
a) priced b) priceless c) valueless d) value

4. Thisjob experience
willbe forher ;shewill
learna lotandseethingsin a completely
newperspective.
a) valueless b) worthless c) of no value d) invaluable
5. Theseantiquesare extremely ; be careful
notto breakthem.
a) price b) valuable c) valueless d) worthless

2> Chosethe wordsin ihe righf columnwfhfhe mosf


similormeonnglo those in the left column
1. characteristic a) seldom
2. rarely b) frequently
3. on purpose c) distinctive
4. refuge d) obvious
5. evident e) shallow
f) deliberately
g) shelter

UNIT: LANDSCAPE
ANDTHEARTS I89
3) Choosethe correct option lo complele lhe
meqningof fhesesenfences
1. lf she speaksSpanishfluently,she the job.
a) get b) wouldhavegot c) willget d) got
2 . T h i s weekendthey ar e stayingin town, but they us ual l y
to the coast.
a) go b) went c) will be going d) will have
gone

3. lf I had won the lottery,I a newcar.


a) will buy b) had bought c) wouldboughtd)would
havebought
4. We out in the porchwhen the guests
arrived.
a) sit b) willbe sitting c) weresitting d) wouldsitting
5. lf youweremorepatient,you so manyproblems.
a) had b) wouldn'thave c) have d) willhave

4> Choosethe correct option lo competethe


meqnngof fhesesenfences
1 . Wh i c hpar t the bookdidyoulikebest?
a) in b) at c) on d) of
2. I havetalkedto him and he will be h o m ea l l
afternoon.
a) in b) at c) on d) of

3. He has been jail for a l o n g t i m e f o r h i s


ideas.
oolitical
a) in b) at c) on d) of
4. We willhavedinnertogether Fridaynight.
a) in b) at c) on d) of
5. I willseeyouearly themor ning.
a) in b) at c) on d) of

| 90 sTRANDS (Br-IART
oF LANcUAGE r)
TRANSTATION
AND COMPOSITION2
(Unifs4 - 6>
Thesetwo exercisesshould be sent to your Tutorfor correction.

t ) Trqnslqfethe following sentences nfo English


a) No queramos saberslocmoerael hotelsinocuntocostaba.
b) Estees el librodel quetantote he hablado.
c) Es muy peligroso conduciren el Cairo;no deberasconducir
t
mismo.
d) Si me hubiesesdicho que necesitabas
dinerote lo habra
prestado.
e) Mi hermana y yo vivimosaqudesdehacemsde dosaos.
f) Estees el compaero conel quetrabajoen la oficina.

2> Composilion
lmaginefor your vacationyou have bookeda hoterwith a travel
agencyandit is notat allwhatyouexpected;you havepaidtoo muchfor
what you are getting.write a letterof complaint(about150 words)
explaining
whyyouare unhappy withtheserviceyouarerecelving.

UNIT
: LANDSCAPE
ANDTHEARTS I9I
MODELEXAM
The followingis a model of the type of final exam the UNED
studentswill haveto sit for at the end of the course.For the learners
to checktheir performance, the correctanswershave been marked
in red.

I // LENGUAMODERNAI . LENGUA
INGLSINSTRUMENTAL
EXTRANJERA:
INGLS

Gradoen Estudios
Ingleses
ll Gradoen Lenguay Literatura
Espaolas
Name

(lnstrucciones:Responda en la hojade lecturapticalas preguntas


susdatospersonales
del 1 al 20.No olviderellenar y el tipode examen.
Responda a la partede traduccin,comprensinlectoray composicin
en el cuadernillo.No se permiteel uso de diccionario ni de ningn
material.Si es alumno de libre configuracinpor favor indique la
carreraa la que pertenece.)

| - Circlefhe correctoption
A. $pelling:(l point)
1. stor s
a)y b) i c) ie d) ei

2. la-
a) ch b) k c) ct{ d) c

3. fl ing
a) v b) i c) ie d) ei

4. loo_
a) ch b) k c) ck d) c

5. sunn_er
a) v b) i c) ie d) ei

MoDEL
EXAM 195
B. Verbs:(l point)
6. I thinkyoushould the mostof yourtripto
BilbaoandvisittheGuggenheim
Museum.
a) making b) make c) do d) did

7. Thepolicehas thatthe lawis obeyed.


a) to ensure b) ensuring c) assure d) reassure
8. The newdirectordid a lot conditions
for
the workersin the company.
a) could b) might c) would d) to improve
improve improve improve
9 . He'sverygenerous,
he'salways thingsfor
others.
a) hasmade b) to make c) doing d) to do
1 0 .Tourism agricultureas the nation'smain
industryin recentyears.
a) will be b) has c) could d) might
replaced replaced replace replace

(l point)
C. Prepositions:
1 1 . I ca n' tseewithoutglasses night.
a) in b) on c) at d) at the
12. The babywokeup at 4:00 themor ni ng?
a) of b) in c) on d) at
13. I haven'tany money me.Couldyou lend
me some?
a) inside b) in c) at d) on
1 4 . I th i nkther eis a spider theceiling.
a) at b) from c) on d) for
1 5 . Wh o' s r esponsible security in this
b u i l ding?
a) for b) in c) in the d) from

196 sTRANDS (Bt-pART


oF LANGUAGE t)
forms:( I point)
C. $omE,EnyEnd lhElrc-smBound
1 6 . S h a l lI b r i n gy o u to readwhileyouwait?
a) something b) anyone c) any d) some
policeofficerscarry guns, but most of
t h e md o n 't.
a) Some b) Any c) Someone d) A
18. They haven'tbeen able to find out about
the murderyet.
a) nothing b) anything c) something d) any

foodis scarcein someAfricancountries.


a) The qa c) Any d) Something
20. Thewalletmustbe in the housebecause
I saw it hereyesterday.
a) somebody b) anything c) anywhere d) somewhere

ll - Trunslqlefhe fallowngsnfnefr6m
$panishinto English:(E points)
a) No fuea la fiestani de Juanni de Mara;sequeden casa.
He/Shewentneitherto Juan'snorto Mara'sparty;he stayedAI
home(instead).
He/Shedidn'tgo eitherto Juan'sor Mara'sparty;he stayedat
n o me .
b) Puedequemetengaqueir de viajemaana. preparar
Podras la
comidat mismo?
haveto go on a triptomorrow.
I might/may Couldyouprepare
lunch
yourself
?
c) Juanes el hijomayory el msalto;esinclusomuchomsaltoque
su padre,
Juanis theeldest/oldest
sonandthetallest,he is evenmuchtaller
thanhisfather.

MoDELEXAN/ 197
d) l mismoconduce el cochenuevo,aunqueno deberaporquees
demasiado joven.
He himselfdrivesthe newcar,although
he shouldn't
becausehe
is tooyoung.

lll - Read the texl ond then trnswer the


quesionsbriefly (2 or 3 lines) in your
own words (no pontswll be given for
onswer$coped from the text):(2 points)

Drinkingthreeor morecupsof tea a day is as goodfor you as


drinkingplentyof waterand mayevenhaveextrahealthbenefits, say
researchers. The workin the European Journalof ClinicalNutrition
dispelsthecommonbeliefthatteadehydrates. Teanotonlyrehydrates
as well as waterdoes,but it can alsoprotectagainstheartdisease
and somecancers,UK nutritionists found.Expertsbelieveflavonoids
arethe keyingredient in tea thatpromotehealth.
Thesepolyphenol antioxidants arefoundin manyfoodsandplants,
includingtea leaves,and have been shownto help preventcell
damage.Publichealthnutritionist Dr CarrieRuxton,andcolleagues at
KingsCollegeLondon,lookedat published studieson the health
effectsof tea consumption. Theyfoundclearevidencethat drinking
threeto fourcupsof tea a daycancut the chancesof havinga heart
attack.Somestudiessuggestedtea consumption protectedagainst
cancer,althoughthis effectwas lessclear-cut. Otherhealthbenefits
seen includedprotectionagainsttooth plaqueand potentially tooth
decay,plusbonestrengthening.
There was no evidencethat tea consumption was harmfulto
health.However,researchsuggeststhat tea can impairthe body's
abilityto absorbironfromfood,meaningpeopleat risk of anaemia
shouldavoiddrinking teaaroundmealtimes. Dr Ruxtonsaid:"Drinking
tea is actuallybetterfor you thandrinkingwater.Wateris essentially
replacing fluid.Teareplaces so it'sgot
fluidsandcontainsantioxidants
twothingsgoingfor it."

198 STRANDS (Br-IART


oF LANGUAGE r)
a) What are some of the advantages
of drinkingtea that the text
Canyouthinkof anyothers?
mentions?

answer)
{Semi-open

b) Are there any disadvantages?

(Semi-open
answer)

lV - Composifion:(2 points)
foodand drinkin a shortessay(about80-
Writeaboutyourfavourite
100words).
Openanswer.

MODELEXAM I99
KEYTO EXERCI$ES
AND TASKS
A) WARMTNG
UP
withyourtutoror classmates.
Discuss

1) Openanswer.
2) Openanswer.
3) Openanswer.

B) ORALDTSCOUR8E
withyourtutoror classmates.
b) Discuss

1. Openanswer.
2. Openanswer.
3. Openanswer.
4. Openanswer.
5. Openanswer.

c, MULT|-TA$K|NG
ACTtVtTtES
$lep 3
r)
1. b
2 . a
3 . c
4 . c
5 . b

KEYTOEXERCISES - SOLUTIONS
ANDTASKS UNITl: SMlLEll 203
2'
a) Mona Lisa is a mysterybecauseher identityhas long puzzled
scholars.
b) WhileSchwartz wastestinga computerprogramshe compared the
two oictures.
c) She scaledthe two picturesbeforeshe matchedeachone on the
compuler.
d) Sincethe featuresmatchedprecisely
sheconcluded
thatMonaLisa
was Leonardo.
e) AlthoughSchwartz'sexplanationmakes sense many experts
disagree.
Schwartz'sexplanationmakes sense althoughmany experts
disagree.
f/ Leonardo tookthe picturewithhimwherever
he travelled.
g) Manyhistorians believethat Leonardowas probablyhomosexual,
therefore
the MonaLisamayhaverepresented "a sideof himselfthat
he treasured."
h) MonaLisamay be Leonardohimself;yet manyart expertsremain
unconvinced.

3) ORALPRODUCTIOf'|
withyourtutoror classmates.
Discuss

Ooenanswer.

4' WRITTEN
PRODUCTION
withyourtutoror classmates.
Discuss

a) Openanswer.
b) Openanswer.
c) Openanswer.

D) TACKLTHG
VOCABULAnY
r)
a/ obvious c) revealing
b) right d/ famous

2O4 STRANDS (Bt-pART


oFLANGUAGE t)
e) precisely h) similar
f/ smile I private
g) argues

2>
a) magazine e,) sensuality
b) nonsense f/ mind
c) identity g/ eatures
d) publisher

3)
a) concluded d) argueo
b) remained e) match
draw 0 carried

4>
a) At the end of e) partwith
b) upsidedown f) a matterof
c) makessense s) privatejokes
d) keepnotes

5)
'1.

a) obvious
b) striking
c) famed
d) apparently

2.
a) famed
b) obvious
al apparently
d) striking

KEYTOEXERCISES - SOLUTIONS
ANDTASKS UNITl: SMlLEll 2O5
)
Down
1. mistress, 6. argue,7. draw,9. publisher,
2. fool,3. conclude, 10.
mind,12.sensuality,14.record,
15.remain, 17.striking,
18.match.

Across
4. selfportrait,5. 11. painting,
famed,B. apparently, 13.duke,16.
features,
18.magazine,19.carry,20.
known,21. identity.

E) NOW HOW'SYOURSPELHNG?
r)
bucket emphatic knock
chemistry plastic psychology
look weak luck
fantastic stock lack

2>
oheled ehenies funnir sunnier
steadily flying worried studying
spies happily stories cries

F) AND...Hoylt'$YOURFORMATION
oFyttoRDs?
r)
difference convenience
efficiency consistence/consistency
dependence annoyance
assurance predominance

206 sTRANDS (Br-PART


oF LANGUAGE D
acquaintance absence
acceprance allowance
2)
disillusion unhappy
disorder ungrateful
unimportant disadvantage
disagree disloyal
UNWISE disapprove
unhealthy disobedient
3)

conceive/perceive infect/perfect concepVexcept conform/inform/perform


inject convert/inverVpervert permit
insisVconsist/exist/persist

G) USINGENGUSHAPPROPRTATELY
AND PUTTING
IT INTOMOTION
1)
a) Charles reign.
theSecond's
b) Tomand Mary'shouse.(lf it belongsto bothof them.)
Tom'sandMary'shouses.(lf eachonehashis/herownhouse.)
c) Milton's works.
andShakespeare's
d) Our neighbours'
backyard.
e) Bismarck's
Germany.
f/ Europe's
difficulties.
g) Bill'sfather's
friend.
h) Oneof John'snephews.
i) My smallsisters'toys.
j) Theladies'clothes.
k) My son-in-law's
bicycle.
/) JimandElisabeth's
children.

KEYTOEXERCISES - SOLUTIONS
ANDTASKS UNITl: SMlLEll 2O7
m) Verdi'sand Puccini's
operas.
n) Mr.Brown'sportrait.
(lf the portraitbelongsto Mr.Brown.)
Theportraitof Mr.Brown.(lf the portraitdepictshim.)

2>
a) A profitable
business.
A lot of business.
b) A glassusedfordrinkingwine.
A glasswithwinein it.
c) A dayon whichoneis paid.
A payof one day.
d) A racein whichhorsesparticipate.
A horsefor racing.
e/ A fieldwheresportsare practised.
Sportspractised
outof doors.
3)
a) for f) in/at k) for
b) on g) in l) atlon
c) for h) of m) on
d) in/at i) in n) atllor
e) on i) at

4>
a) doing f) do k) do
b) doing g) made l) do
c) made h) make m) do/ making
d) makes/made ) did
e) make j) do/ make

5)
Q fhe children quarrelled
neither norfought
b) Theexamwas neithershortnoreasy.

208 sTRANDS (Bt-pART


oF LANGUAGE t)
c) That old man can neitherread nor write.
d) Tom shouldneitherwork nor study.
e) She can neitherrun nor participatein sports.
f) They can eat neitherfish nor meat.

a) himself f) themselves
b) himself g) ourselves
c) myself h) yourself
d) herself i) herself
e) yourself j) themselves

KEYTO EXERCISES - SOLUTIONS


AND TASKS UNITl: SMtLEtt 209
A) WARMTNGUP
withyourtutoror classmates.
Discuss
1) Openanswer.
2) Openanswer.
3) Openanswer.

B) ORALDTSCOURSE
withyourtutoror classmates.
b) Discuss
1) Openanswer.
2) Openanswer.
3) Openanswer.
4) Openanswer.
5) Openanswer.

c) MUUT|.TASK|N9
ACTtVtTtES
Step 3
r)
1. c 5 . a
2. a 6 . b
3. b 7. a
4. b B . c

KEYTO EXERCISES - SOLUTIONS


AND TASKS UNIT2: LUXURY
AND ROMANCE 211
2'
a) Oncethe gentleman hadgivenhis instructions,
he thoughthe could
lookforwardto an evening
to remember.
b) Beforetheyenteredthe limousine
he ordereda bottleto be chilled.
c) EachGuy Salmonlimousineis the responsibility of one particular
chauffeur,
therefore
it is his dutyto maintain
it in perfectmechanical
condition.
thisparticular
d/ Although Daimlerhad madeonlyonetrip it hadto be
washed.
e) He brushedeveryinchof the upholstery
and he alsovacuumed
the
carpers.
f) He wantedto arrivewith enoughtimeso that his clientswouldnot
have to wait.
g) Oncehe hadplacedthechampagne
in the Daimlerhe set off.
h) He leftten minutesearlyso histimingwasperfect.
i) Heknocked at thedoorin orderto informthegentleman
hislimousine
hadarrived.
j) He waitedbecause theywerenotquiteready.
k) Sincethe roseswerenot of the standardtheymighthavebeenthe
chauffeur
hadto buysomenewones.

3) ORALPNODUCTIOhI
L Discusswilh your 1u1orot clolssmsles
a) Openanswer.
b) Openanswer.
c) Openanswer.
d) Openanswer.
e) Openanswer.

2, WRITTENPPODUCTION
Ooenanswer.

212 sTRANDS (Bt-pARTD


oF LANGUAGE
D) TACKUNGVOCABULARY
1)
a) true e) pleasant
b) strictly f) charming
c) fashionable 9) skill
d) suitably h) mysteriously

2'
a) polish/ wipe/ brush/ clean
b) wash
c) brushes
d) vacuum/ clean
e) wipe/ clean

3)
a) maintain g) impressed
b) improve h) mark
c) reserved i) mind
d) presented j) replace
e) intended k) ordered
f) ensured l) informed
4)
a) suitable e) particular
b) mysteriously f) pleasantly
c) accurate g) fashionable
d) charmingly h) strictly
5)
a) turnoff e) wearoff
b) be off f) putoff
c) takeoff g) putheroff
d) getoff

KEYTO EXERCISES - SOLUTIONS


AND TASKS UNIT2: LUXURY
AND RON/ANCE 213
6>
a) set out e) set off
b) set up D set in
c) set back s) set about
d) set down h) set aside

7'
Down
particular,4.
1.skill,2. accurate,6.
mysteriously,
10.improve.

Across
3.fashionable,
5.suitably,
6.mark,7.impress,
8.replace,
9.charming,
11.reserve, 14.present.
12.drop,13.inform,

E) NOU HOW'S
YOURSPEtuNo? #
rryi'

r)
return circus dirt
survive burst flirt
CIJI'V surprise purchase
sFrirt firm furnish
p[Jrpose circle murder
surface thirst birth
:
surgeon birth urgent

214 sTRANDS (Br-PART


oF LANGUAGE D
chauffeur accurate occasron
elegant dinner evening
bottle chilled remember
valeted perfection vacuumed
immaculate address arrive
worry timing informed
passengers charming impressed

ANtr..-FIOW'S
YOURFORMATION
SF WONDS?

prefer pretend provide


propel pre/ proscribe preserve
presume produce propose

a)
NOUN ADJECTIVE ADVERB

suit suitable suitably

mystery mysterious mysteriously

duty dutiful dutifully

skill skilful skilfully

beauty beautiful beautifully

responsibility responsible responsibly

mechanic mechanical mechanically

danger dangerous dangerously

KEYTO EXERCISES - SOLUTIONS


AND TASKS UNIT2: LUXURY
AND ROMANCE 215
c) usrNGENGUSHAPPROPRTATETY
ANDPUTTNG
ITINTOMOTION
r)
a) Threehundreddollars.
b) Fiftyeuros.
c) Hundredsof books.
d) Fivedozeneggs.
e) Eightthousand
threehundredpeople.
f) Dozensof flowers.
g) Fivemilloninhabitants.

2'
a) Sophieis evenmorebeautifulthanMary.
b) Theotherfilmis evenworsethanihisone.
c) Tokyois evenbiggerthan London.
d) Billis eventhinnerthanTom.
e) Trafalgar
Squareis evenlargerthan Piccadilly
Circus.
t)
a) can/ may
b) may/ might
c) May/ can
d) could/ may/ might
e) might/ could
0 might/ could
g) can
h) might(reproach
or irritation)
/ could
i) could
i) may
4'
a) He couldhaveforgotten.
b) He couldhaveguessed.

216 sTRANDS (Bt-pARr


oF LANGUAGE D
c) She may havebeen delayed.
d) He mighthave been busy.
e) He mightbe ill.

53
a) forlon h) on
b) on,in i) in, for
c) in i) on
d) for k) in
e) on l) o n ,i n
f) on m) for
g ) I n ,o n

*3
a) Havingwonthefirstprize,I received
a sportscar.
b) Havingfinishedreadingthe book,he gaveit to hissister.
c) Havingstudieduntilverylate,I wentto bed.
d) Havinglostthekeysto hisapartment,
he spentthe nightat a friend's
nouse.
e) Having
finished
lunch,shewentoutfora walk.

F)
a) a, an, a e) a,a
b) the,the f) a
c) the, a g) Ihe, A, the, the
d) the,O, the, a h) a, an, an,@

KEYTo EXERCISES - soLUTtoNSuNtT2: LUXURY


AND TASKS AND ROMANCE 217
A) WAnMINGUp
withyourtutoror classmates.
Discuss

1) Openanswer.
2) Openanswer.
3) Openanswer.

B) ORALDTSCOURSE
b) Discusswithyourtutoror classmates.
1) Openanswer.
2) Openanswer.
3) Openanswer.
4) Openanswer.
5) Openanswer.

c) MU$|-TASK|NG
ACTtVtTtES
Sfep 3
r)
a) False(seefirstparagraph)
b) False(seefirstparagraph)
c) False(seefirstparagraph)
d) True

KEYTOEXERCISES - SOLUTIONS
ANDTASKS UN|T
3:TEALOVERS219
e) True
f) False(seesecondparagraph)
g) True
h) False(seefifth(last)paragraph)
i) False(seefifth(last)paragraph)

2'
whenyoumustnotrefusea cupof tea.
a) Therearesomeoccasions
b) | do adorea cupof earlymorningtea.
c) Youdefinitely
mustnotfollowmy example.
d) | drinkinnumerable
cupsof blackcoffeeduringtheday.
e) We putthecoffeein the refrigerator
andit froze.
f) | havethe mostunorthodox
andexoticteas.

s, oRArpEoDUcTtoH
Discusswithyourtutoror classmates.
a) Openanswer.
b) Openanswer.
c) Openanswer.
d) Openanswer.
e) Openanswer.

E) TACKUHG
VOCABUTARY
r)
a) deserve d) achieve
b) spoiled e) refuse
c) disturb f) suggested

2'
a) for instance d) thankyouso much
b) feel like o\ n o . . .a t a l l
c) on the contrary f) on theotherhand

22O STRANDS (Br-nART


oF LANGUAGE r)
3)
a) sink f) trouble
b) lreeze g) drop
c) hope h) hostess
d) pour i) melt
e) maid

4'
a civilisedsociety;civilised
customs,ideas
a smilingwitch,child
a silentsmile,prayer;silentreading
a spitefulsmile,laughter,look,expression
a malignantwitch,smile,look
a gay society,child;gay colours
unorthodoxcustoms,ideas
a wickedwitch,child,smile,look
foreigncustoms

5)
a) let d) drive
b) drops e) asking
c) shut f) ls

E) NOW HOW'SYOURSPELUNG?
r)
achieve prece concerve ceiling
receive belief seize relief
deceive chief thief field

KEYTO EXERCISES - SOLUTIONS


AND TASKS UN|T3: TEALOVERS 221
2'
suggest successfully
stiff suddenly
colourless occasion
heartily hostess
especially supper
additional follow
terrifying coffee

F) AND...HOW'$YOURFOnMATION
OFWORDS?
r'
-less/-ful -less -ful

helpless
/ helpful heartlesss successful
restless/ restful leepless frightful
harmless
/ harmful hairless revengeful
meaningless
/ meaningful penniless
painless
/ painful breathless
colourless
/ colourful
thoughtless
/ thoughtful

222 (Br-pART
oF LANGUAGE
sTRANDS r)
E7

NOUN ADJECTIVE ADVERB


person personal personally
care careress carelessly
fashion fashionable fashionably

dirt dirty dirtily

faith faithful faithfully

norse notsy noisily

eno endless endlessly


confidence confidential confidentially

fun funny funnily


contempt contemptuous contemptuously
intention intentional intentionally

ffik #ffiEru#
ffih$#tuE#ffi
&ppffi#pffiE&YLY
effi# FwSggF#ggffig#ru#39#9.
,73
a) some- any any
b) some any
c) any some
d) some some
e) any any
++$

d) nobody/ no one
b) anybody- everybody/everyone

KEYTOEXERCISES - SOLUTIONS
ANDTASKS UNIT3: TEALOVERS223
c) anywhere/everywhere
d) anything
e) everything
f) nobody- everybody/
everyone
g) anywhere
h) everywhere

3)
a) Sheputon herbestdressandwentto the party.
b) He is thetallestboyin the class.
c) He is the nicestof thethreebrothers.
d) | thinkyouhavechosentheworstpresent.
personin thefamily.
e) Sheis the mostintelligent
0 ls Moscowthecoldestcapitalin Europe/European capital?
g) Whydidyoubuythe mostexpensive suitin theshop?
h) lt'soneof thesmallest
countries
in theworld.

4'
a) into d) in / inside
b) behind/ in frontof e) outof
c) in frontof f) outside

5)
a) He kepton promising
he wouldcomeandseeus buthe neverdid.
b) | oftengo for a walkafterlunchbutMaryhardlyeverdoes.
c) Shelovesgoingto thetheatrebutsheis seldomfreein theevenings.
d) | shallalwaysremember
herbeauty.
e) Haveyoueverwrittena poem?
havelunchat workbuttheygenerally
f) Theysometimes haveit in a
restaurant.

6'
a) l'lltakemy holidays
in September.
b) We aregoingto see Helenthedayaftertomorrow.

224 STRANDS (Br-PART


oF LANGUAGE D
c) Theyalwayswatchtelevisionin the evening.
d) My birthdayis on November
1Oth.
e) | likegoingshopping/to
do theshopping
earlyin the morning.
f) The newstationwillbe finishedin a few months/
Theywillfinishthe
newstationin a few months.
g) We wentto the cinemayesterdayafternoon.
h) We receiveda letterfromhimthe day beforeyesterday.
i) Theyphoned/called
us a fewdaysago.

KEYTO EXERCISES - SOLUTIONS


AND TASKS UN|T3: TEALOVERS 225
A) WARMTNGUP
withyourtutoror classmates.
Discuss

1) Openanswer.
2) Openanswer.
3) Openanswer.
4) Openanswer.

B) ORArDTSCOURSE
b) Discusswithyourtutoror classmates.
1) Openanswer.
2) Openanswer.
3) Openanswer.
4) Openanswer.
5) Openanswer.

c) MurTI-TASKTNG
ACTTVTTTES
Step 3
r)
1. b 3.b 5.c 7. a 9 . b
2 . c 4.a 6.c B.c

KEYTO EXERCISES - SOLUTIONS


AND TASKS UNIT4: CRIMEAND DANGER 227
2>
a) Manyshotgunsarebeingdemanded
because
theBritish
arearming
themselves.
b) Althoughit is happening
in the nameof a cultcalledSurvivalism,
somepeopleseemto enjoyit.
c) He pickedup a knifeandwentoutfor a walk.
d) He wentto a securityshopwhereyoubuyburglaralarmsand locks.
e) He boughthimself
an airgunbecause
he hadbeenburgled.
f) Whenmyfriendexpressed somehorrortheshopassistant
shrugged
andaskedwhatelsehe coulddo.
g) | wasburgledwhileI waswritingthisarticle.
h) He lived in an estatein north Londonwhere televisions
are
sometimes droppedfromwindows.

3) ORAr PRODUCTTON
withyourtutoror classmates.
Discuss

a) Openanswer.
b) Openanswer.
c) Openanswer.
d) Openanswer.
e) Openanswer.
f) Openanswer.

4) WRTTTEN
PRODUCTTON
withyourtutoror classmates.
Discuss

Openanswer.

D) TACKUNGVOCABUTARY
r)
a) disorder e) dispair
b) issue f) powerful

228 sTRANDS (Bt-pART


oF LANGUAGE t)
c) youth g) hard
d) drop

2'
a) in livingmemory
b) accordingto
c) in the nameof
d) in some way or another
e) more and more

3)
a) expressed
b) developed
c) mark
d) observed
e) issuing/ to issue

4>
a) variety e) article
b) youth f) rate
c) area g) dealer
d) lock h) licence

5)
a) mainland d) lock
b) riots e) drop
c) weapons f) despair

6>
a) at least
b) sincethen
c) thanever
d) as a result
e) if not

KEYTO EXERCISES - SOLUTIONS


AND TASKS UN|T4: CRTME
AND DANGER 229
7'
Down
1. area,2. despair,3.disorder,4.threaten,L beyond,9. variety,10.
'13.
fear, lock,15.youth,19.dealer.

Across
5. protect,
2. develop, 6. express, 12.arlicle,
7. arm,11.licence,
'16.
14.powerful, observe, 20.hard,21. weapon.
17.drop,18.attack,

E) NOW HOW'SYOURSPELING?
r)
scholar master
beooar flatter
collar oarticular
discsver mustard
vrnegar muscular
grocer wizard
regular plaster
peculiar danger

2>
firearms picking horror
according knife robbed
weapon steal threaten
dealer assistant happen
licence neighbours ironically
issued dropped burgled
middle continually wntrng
attack blood buying
expressed fortress accumulate
obscenity fear developing

230 sTRANDS (Br-pART


oF LANGUAGE r)
3)

clue value rescue


Jew drew threw
STEW avenue statue
few pursue tissue
glue chew KneW
continue virtue view
crew issue grew

ry AND...HOW'SYOURFORMATTON
OFWORDS?
r)
NOUN + NOUN ADJ.+ NOUN ADJ.+ ADJ.
tablecloth shorthand blue-black
lipstick paleface red-hot
toothbrush heavyweighl bittersweet
newspaper loudspeaker
bookcase

2)

unintentional unforgettable
unscientific tnsane
inappropriate unfair
disloyal improper
unwise dislike
incredible unconscious
disobey disfavour
disregard unpack

KEYTO EXERCISES - SOLUTIONS


AND TASKS UNIT4: CRIMEAND DANGER 231
G) USINGENGUSHAPPROPRIATETY
AND PUTTING
IT INTOMOTION
r)
himat the partybecauseI hadmethimoncebefore.
a) | recognized
b) He hadeatena biglunch,so hewasn'thungryat suppertime.
c) | hadspokento thedirectorbeforethe meetingbegan.
someonehadstolenmy purse.
d) | lookedin my bagand I realized
e) Shehadbeenill for a longtimebeforeshewentto thedoctor's.
0 | hadgoneout by thetimehe arrived.
g) Theyhadbeenat homeall day,so theywantedto go for a walk.
h) We haddrunkthreebottlesof wine,so we arrivedat the partyrather
tipsy.
2>
a) hadclosed,arrived
b) came,hadjustbeen.
c) kept,hadseen.
d) hadfinished,
arrived.
e) came,hadalreadyescaped.
f) hadnotfinished,
arrived.
g) got,hadgone.
h) hadnotfinished,
decided.
3)
a) | neverlikedthe housewhereI was born.
b) Thatis the reasonwhytheyleftearly.
c) | boughtthiscoatlastmonthwhenI was in Germany.
d) | metherat the pubwhereshewasworkingas a waitress.
hadlived.(or...that
e) We all lookedat the housewhereShakespeare
Shakespeare hadlivedin.)
f) | sawhimthismorningwhenhe wasgoingto the office.
g) Yesterday
I wentto a bookshop
whereI metElizabeth.
h) Thisis the housewherehe lives.
i) Theyarrivedyesterdaywhenwe hadgoneoutfor a walk.

232 STRANDS (Br-pART


oF LANeUAGE r)
4l
1 . a ,b 6. a,a
2 . a 7. b,a
3. ?,d B.a,b
4. b,b 9. a,a
5. b,a
5)
a) To his astonishment
b) To his irritation
c) To his horror
d) To his surprise
e) To his disgust
)
a) My friendsaid (that)he couldn'tspeak ltalianfluently.
b) The teachersaid (that)his exercisewas full of spellingmistakes.
c) Susansaid (that)she had gone skiingyesterday/ the day before/the
previousday.
d) Ms. Smith said (that) she had to go out to buy some food for the
children.
e) May said (that)she would meet us at PizzaHut at two o'clock.
f) Tom said (that)his friendswere arrivingthe next/followingday.
g) Mr. Smithsaid (that)he had a reservationfor his wife and himselfat
the hotel.
7)
a) She put on her gloves.(Non-reflexive)
b) He lookedat himselfin the mirror.(Reflexive)
c) Comb your hair beforeyou leave.(Non-reflexive)
d) We do all the officework ourselves.(Emphatic)
e) He hurt his leg.(Non-reflexive)
f) Mary ate all the bread.(Non-reflexive)
g) She herselfmakesall her dresses.(Emphatic)
h) She enjoysherselfa lot (Reflexive)
/ She has lots of fun.
i) He's alwaystalkingto himself.(Reflexive)

- SOLUTIONS
AND TASKS
KEYTO EXERCISES UNIT4: CRIMEAND DANGEB 233
h, wApMrNGuP
withyourtutoror classmates.
Discuss

1) Openanswer.
2) Openanswer.
3) Openanswer.
4) Openanswer..-

B) ORAr DSCOURSE
b) Discusswithyourtutoror classmates.

1) Openanswer.
2) Openanswer.
3) Openanswer.
4) Openanswer.
5) Openanswe.

ACTIVIilES
c) MULil-TASKING
Sfep I
Openanswer
Summary:
WRITTENPRODUCTION.
withyourtutoror classmates).
(Discuss

- SOLUTIONS
AND TASKS
KEYTO EXERCISES EXPERIENCE235
UNIT5: WILDLIFE
$tep 3
r,
1. b 3.c 5 . a 7. b 9.c
2 . a 4.b 6.c B . a

2'
a) Thefilmsoftencontainnewbiological
insights.
b) An hour aftertransmission
the switchboard
of the BBC was still
jammedwithcalls.
c) At thetime,it wascertainly
fascinating
forornithologists.
d) Foxeshavealsorevealed
a fewof theirfamilysecrets.
e) Soundandpictureweretransmitted
backto a mobilestudio.
f) Zoologist
Stephen
Harriswaswaiting to describe
whatwasbeingseen.
g) Suchyoungcubsarenotyetableto regulatetheirbodytemperatures.
h) lt wasassumed
thatthevixenwouldstaycloseto them.

3) OpAr pRODUCTTON
Discusswithyourtutoror classmates.

a) Openanswer.
b) Openanswer.
c) Openanswer.
d) Openanswer.
e) Openanswer.
f) Openanswer.

Dt TACKilNGVCABUTARY
r'
a) by andlarge f) gripped
b) soughtto g) glimpse
c) assorted h) task
d) devise i) mobile
e) persuaded j) watch

236 sTRANDS (Bt-eART


oF LANGUAGE t)
2'
a) unlikely e) partially
b) succeeded 0 live
c) accept g) cellar
d) fascinating h) occasionally

3)
a) persuaded g) interpret
b) witness h) install
c) jammed i) swallow
d) digeSt j) accept
e) operate k) succeeded
D gripped
4'
a) behaviour D proportion
b) glimpse g) task
c) nests h) public
d) technique i) tunnel
e) qualities j) stage

5)
1.
a) a successthat isn'tprobable.
b) a successthat is incomplete.

2.
programme.
a) a very interesting
broadcastas it takesplace.
b) a programme

3.
a) happyfromtimeto time.
happy.
b) notcompletely

KEYTO EXERCISES - SOLUTIONS


AND TASKS UNIT5: WILDLIFE
EXPERIENCE237
4.
a) an eventthatprobably
won'toccur.
b) an eventthatoccursfromtimeto time.

)
a) at thetime D by and large
b) go hungry g) brokeintopieces
c) of keyimportance h) at the back
d) withluck i) at thisstage
e) at the endof j) shota film

7>
Down
2. test,3.cellar,4.unlikely,5. 6. proportion,
witness, 8. swallow,
13.
technique, 15.tunnel.

Across
1. digest,6. partially,
7. task,9. live,10.occasionally,
11. fascinating,
12.watch,14.nest,16.stage.

E) NOW HOW'SYOURSPETLNG?
r)
round powder brow
endow owl sour
sound clown tower
dr-own sour coufllry
amount wound shoulder
account crowd towel
power pound soup
allowed hound crown,
shower shout flower

238 sTRANDS (Bt-PART


oF LANGUAGE D
a3
WORD HOMOPHONE WORD HOMOPHONE

flee flea aloud allowed

steel steal stationery stationary


pail pale principal principle

here hear veil vale

arr heir whether weather

find fined groan grown

tail tale hour our

F3 Ail... F*W'SYSURFORIVIATISN
F lfSRnS?
r>
N O U N+ N O U N + (VERB)
ADJ.iADV. ADJ. + NOUN

trafficlights easy-gorng blackboard


sun glasses good-looking greenhouse
week-end widespread
self-control well-meant
window-shopping
shortcoming

KEYTO EXERCISES - SOLUTIONS


AND TASKS UNIT5: WILDLIFE
EXPERIENCE239
2>
VERB ABSTRACT ABSTRACT
VERB
NOUN NOUN
explore exploration inform information
arrange arrangement excite excitement
amaze amazement promote promotion
fix fixation judge judgement

embody embodiment define definition


ratify ratification argue argument
organrze organrzalron starve starvation

G) USINGENGUSHAPPROPRTATETY
AND PUTTING
IT INTOMOTION
r)
a) since g) since
b) for h) for
c) for i) since
d) since j) for
e) for k) since
f) since

2>
consciousof concernedwith/ about convenient
for
qualified
for capableof absentfrom
patientwith graleTutTor differentfrom
familiar
with guiltyof responsible
for:
tiredof fond of disappointed
with

240 sTRANDS (Br-PART


oF LANGUAGE D
3)
a) a few h) little
b) a few i) a few
c) little j) little
d) few k) few
e) little l) a few
f) a little m) a little
g) a few n) afew/few

4)
on MSNinsteadof doingherhomework,
a) Maryis alwayschatting that
is whysheis doingso poorlyat school.
beforehe arrives,so I hardlyever
b) I normallyleavethe gymnasium
seehimthere.
becausemy motherdoesn't
c) We alwaysgo out for lunchon Sundays
liketo cook.
d) I neverphonehernowthatsheis abroadbecauseit is tooexpensive.
e) We seldomgo on vacationbecause
we can'taffordit.
f) I didn'twatchthe sciencefictionfilmbecauseI hardlyeverenjoythis
kindof film.
s) I havefrequentlycomplained
to the managerbuthe doesn'tseemto
to solvetheproblem.
be doinganything
h ) Myparents
(nearlyalways/seldom/
hardlyever)cometo myhouseon
whentheyare in town.
Sundayafternoons

5)
a) This is the painting(which)they havepaid so much moneyfor.
b) This is the store(which)| boughtall our furniturein.
c) John is the neighbour(whom)| wenton holidaywith.
d) Mr. Smithis the teacher(whom)I borrowedthe book from.
e) The pub (which)we met in datesfrom 1865.
f) The town (which)he was born in is in the Northof England.
g) The man (who) | spoketo was very helpful.
h) The company(which)we workfor is very small.

- SOLUTIONS
AND TASKS
KEYTO EXERCISES EXPERIENCE241
UNIT5: WILDLIFE
i) The person(whom)he heardthe newsfromwas his sister.
j) The knife(which)he cut himselfwithwas verysharp.
Note: the relativesin brackets are often omitted in spoken English.

)
a) at the time d) in time
b) on time e) at onetime
c) at times
7>
a) for,until h) after,for
b) from i) bv
c) about,from j) with,until
d) for,with k) for,on, about
e) until,with l) about,for
f) with,by m) from,on/for
g) on,with,until

242 sTRANDS (Bt-pART


oF LANGUAGE D
A) WARMINGUP
withyourtutoror classmates.
Discuss

1) Openanswer.
2) Openanswer.
3) Openanswer.

B) ORALDTSCOURSE
b) Discusswithyourtutoror classmates.

1) Openanswer.
2) Openanswer.
3) Openanswer.
4) Openanswer.
5) Openanswe.

ACTTVTTTES
c) MULil-TASKTNG
Step I
WRITTENPRODUCTON.
Ooenanswer
withyourtutoror classmates).
(Discuss

KEYTOEXERCISES - SOLUTIONS
ANDTASKS UNIT: LANDSCAPE
AND.. 243
Slep 3
r)
1. c 3.a 5.a
2 . b 4.c
2>
a) surroundings
/ environment
/ setting.
b) beings;aesthetic.
c) environment
/ setting.
d) crowded;comfortable.
e) view.

3) ORALPRODUCTTON
Openanswers.(DiscusswithyourTutorand/orclassmates)

4) WR|TTENPRODUCTTON
Openanswer.

D) TACKLINGVOCABUL/ARY
r)
a) valuable/ invaluable
b) estimated
c) evaluate
d) valuable
/ invaluable
e) worthless
D valued
g) value
/ priceless
h) valuable

244 sTRANDS (Bt-pART


oF LANGUAGE D
2'
Down
2. eftort,3. value,
reshape, 16.flat.

Across
1.setting, 4. forest,7. surroundings, 9. rearrange, 10.landscape,
13.
d e s i g n1, 4 .m e r e1, 5 .s h e l t e 1
r ,7 .e n v i r o n m e n t .

3)
a) deliberately e) obvious
b) incidental f) expense
c) shelter g) seldom
d) distinctive h) profoundly

4>
a) on holiday
b) takeforgranted
c) for instance
d) by no means
e) Apartfrom
f) afterall

s)
a) Shesuddenly turnedaboutandstartedrunning/
to run.
b) | haveseenthemsittingabouton thegrass.
aboutin thepark.
c) We hada nicetimewalking
d) She'stiredof seeingthechildrenhangingaboutthestreetsall day.
e) He'llgetup latetomorrow
andwilllieaboutallday.
f) A groupof peopleare standingaboutat the doorof the shopping
centre.

KEYTOEXERCISES - SOLUTIONS
ANDTASKS AND.. 245
UNIT: LANDSCAPE
E) NOW HOW'SYOURSPEIL|NG?
r)

2>

F) AND... HOW'SYOURFORMATTON
OF WORDS?
r)
marriage breakage
refusal proposal
denial srorage
arrival carriage
passage renewal
trial revival
package approval
recital postage

246 sTRANDS (Bt-pARTD


oF LANGUAGE
2>
practical national
criminal musical
natural fatal
conversational fictional
economical occasional
hypothetical colonial
central formal
psychological phrasal

G) USrNGENGUSHAPPROPRIATELY
T INTOMOTION
AND PUTTING
r)
it is, I won'tbe ableto go.
a) Whenever
it is, l'lllikeit.
b) Wherever
c) Whoeverit was,(s)hedidn'ttellyouthetruth.
youdo,it'llbe all right.
d) Whatever
he goes,they'llbe gladto seehim.
e) Whenever
youbuythecar,it'llbe expensive.
f) Wherever
he wentto town,he broughthera present.
g) Whenever
youarrive,callme up/phone
h) Whenever me.

2>
a) lsn'tthis the bus you are waitingfor?
b) That'sthe lady we have been talkingabout.
c) Thoseare theoriesl'll neverbelievein.
d) ls this the articleyou were interestedin?
e) That'sthe same diseaseLesliesufferedfrom.
f) lt is a possibilityI had neverthoughtof.
g) This is the kind of job I will neverget tired of.
h) Therewere a few thingshe nevergot used to.

KEYTOEXERCISES - SOLUTIONS
ANDTASKS UNIT: LANDSCAPE
AND.,. 247
3)
a) Billis heavierthanTom.
b) Aliceis slimmer
thanBill.
c) Tomis as livelyas Bill.
d) Aliceis as tallas Tom.
e) Tomis as intelligent
as Alice.
f) Tomis lesscreative
thanAlice.
Tomisn'tas creative
as Alice.
g) Tomis younger thanBill.
4)
a) wouldn't
be;didn't
eat
b) drank,wouldfeel
c) took;wouldn't
be
get;weren't
d) wouldn't
e) passed;would
go
f) could;were
g) helped;would
finish
h) wouldn't
turn;kept
i) wouldwalk;didn't
have
5)
a) areyougoing;l'mgoing.
b) phones.
c) areyoustaying;
I'mcomingback;stay.
d) alter.
e) doesthetrainto Newcastle
leave.
f) is living;prefers.
g) suppose; isn'tcoming.
h ) a mm e e t i n g ; i m a g i n e .
i) arehavinglunch;eat.
j) is having;
liesdown.

248 sTRANDS (Bt-pART


oF LANcUAGE t)
)
a) in e) at ) at
b) at f) in i) rn
c) in, at / in g) at, in k) tn
d) at h) in

7'
a) A,A e) @, the
b) the,the f) the,the
c) b,@,a g) O, the,the
d) the,the,the

H) TANGUAGE
AND TITERATURE:
THECONNECTION

a) Mark Twain describes the atmosphereat Interlakenin the first


paragraph,
and he placesemphasison the greatamountof sunshine
and energy-giving
lightof the place.
b) Adjectives:peaceful,pleasant,brilliant,life-giving,good.All of them
havea positiveconnotationattachedto their meanings.
c) He describesthe view from his room at the VictoriaHotel.
d ) Loftymountainbarrier;invertedpyramid;a spotlessmassof gleaming
snow; the dark-coloredbarrier; the glowing snow-pile;the most
engagingand beguilingand fascinatingspectaclethat existson the
earth;noblyproportioned;
etc.
e) Openanswer.
f) Mainlyvisualimagesof color(Nothingcouldbe whiter/Thetint was
green,slightlyvaryingshadesof it,but mainlyverydarkl faintbluish
hazel a roaringconflagrationof blindingwhite etc.).Also a religious
image(saintlier).
All theseimagesalsohelpvisualize the mountain,
as wellas thedescriptionof the positionof thesun.
3)
a) Elementsof the narrative:
Thereis no abstractin thisnarrative.

KEYTOEXERCISES - SOLUTIONS
ANDTASKS UN|T: LANDSCAPE
AND ,. 249
Orientation:

I wakeupfromthesweetsoundof mymusiccenterplayingBeethoven. I open


myeyesandseea pictureof a girlstanding nearthepiano.Theeyesof theyoung
girlarefullof happiness
andI feelherunconcealed What
delightandconfidence.
can I tell you aboutthis girl from Bucharest?She is very enthusiasticand
oassionate aboutwhatsheis devoted to.

Complicatingaction:

Musichaschangedherlifeeversincesheturnedsevenwhensheimpressed
a musicteacherand successfully passesan auditionto the musicschool.The
soundsof pianopenetrated her mindand souland madethe girl perceive the
worldtrulydeep.Sheneverhadtimeto playwithherfriendsas shewasalways
nearherpianotryingto playbetter,tryingto feelthe instrument better.Thiswas
the momentwhen everybody realizedthat she is the type that neverleaves
anythingundone,the typethatstruggles and overcomes obstacles thatprevent
herfromachieving hergoal.Shewasalwaystryingto improve andshemanaged
it owingto her originality,
imagination, and persistence.
creativity Playingthe
pianowas not enough- she neededto sing and that is how she got to the
NationalPerforming ArtsSchoolof Bucharest to studyvocalmusic.

Evaluation:

There is an explicit evaluationof the girl from Bucharestin the


Orientation(Sheis veryenthusiastic andpassionate aboutwhatshe is devoted
tol.And thereis also an implicitpositiveevaluationof her work and human
traits afl along the narrative (e.9. She'sthe type that neverleavesanything
undone,the type that strugglesand overcomesobstaclesthatpreventher from
achievingher goal.She wasalwaystryngto improveand she managedit owing
to her originality,imagination,creativityand persistence)

Resolution:

ShegotThe Romanian YouthAwardat the "GoldenMusicFestival"


in 2004,
the Popularity
Awardat "RaduSerbanNational.

Coda:

Eversincethat momentshe sangand playedwitha passionevenstronger


thansheshowedbefore.

250 sTRANDS (BrPART


oF LANGUAGE r)
b) Thereis a lot of descriptivestructurein this narrativeo
that hasto do
with the descriptionof both the physicaland personalitycharacteristics of
the girf from Bucharest.E.g. Theeyesof the younggirl are fultof happiness
and I feelher unconcealeddelightand confidence;She is veryenthusiastic
and
passionateaboutwhatshe is devotedto.

KEYTOEXERCISES - SOLUTTONS
ANDTASKS UN|T: LANDSCAPE
AND .. 251
Solutionslo Self-Evslustion(Unit | )
I)
1. f 3.c 5 . b
2 . d 4.9

1. a 3.c 5.a
2 . d 4.b

3)
1. a 3.a 5.c
2. b 4.c

4'
1. d 3.b 5 . d
2 . c 4.c

KEyTo EXERCISES - soLUTtoNS


ANDTASKS To sELF-EVALUATIoN
UNITS
t- 2S3
Solulionsfo Self-Evoluolion(Unif 2)
r)
1. c 3.b 5 . a
2 . d 4.9

1. b 3.c 5.d
2 . b 4.b

1. b 3.d 5.a
2 . b 4.a

4>
1. d 3.d 5.b
2 . c 4.c

254 sTRANDS (Br-IART


oF LANcUAGE r)
Solutionsto Self Evqluolion Unil 3

5.a

1. b 5 . a
2 . c

KEyTo EXERCISES - soLUTtoNS


ANDTASKS To sELF-EVALUATIoN
UNITSI - 255
$olulionsfo Self EvqluqtionUnit 4
r)
1. c 3.a 5.a
2 . d 4.b

2>
1. e 3.d 5.9
2 . c 3.a

3)
1. b 3.a 5.d
2 . c 4.b

4)
1. c 3.b 5.a
2 . d 4.b

256 STRANDS (Br-PART


oF LANGUAGE D
$olutionsto SelfEvalustionUnit5

e . l 5.a
4 . c

A A

KEyTo EXERCTSES
AND TASKS UNITSr - 257
- soLUTroNSTo sELF-EVALUATIoN
Solulions lo Self Evoluofion Unil

258 sTRANDS (Br-PART


oF LANGUAGE D