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What is Infrastructure?

Infrastructure is the basic physical systems of a business or nation; transportation,

communication, sewage, water and electric systems are all examples of
infrastructure. These systems tend to be high-cost investments; however, they are
vital to a country's economic development and prosperity.

Infrastructure in India

Construction is the second largest economic activity in India after agriculture, and
has been growing rapidly. Indian economy is still expanding significantly, and
substantial investment in infrastructure continues to be required in order to sustain
Indias economic progress.Power and road projects top the list, and other
transportation sectors such as railways, ports, and airports are also targeted for
major investments.One of the worlds fastest growing economies and growth
expected to continue at 7-7.5% despite the global downturn.

Supply chain management

Supply Chain Management (SCM) is a concept that has flourished in manufacturing,

originating from Just- in-time (JIT), production and logistics. It is evident that the well
planned operational SCM in Infrastructure construction enables the cost reduction upto
20% of the total project cost by reducing the wastage and unnecessary transportation of
materials, fuel expenses, equipment cost, indirect cost which forms the major cause for
the project cost over-runs. It is also observed that the big players of the construction
industry are also unable to employ full-fledged integrated SCM in their organizations
due to the absence of the real time information from the project stakeholders.

The basic objectives of construction SCM are:

- -Focusing on the impact of the Supply chain (SC) at the construction site
activities and aims to reduce the cost and duration of those activities. The
primary concern, therefore, is to establish a reliable flow of materials and labor to
the site,
- -Focusing on the SC itself and aims to reduce the costs, especially those related
to logistics, lead time and inventory,
- -Focusing on transferring activities from the site to earlier stages in the SC,
- -Focusing on the integrated management and improvement of the SC and site
production, that is, site production is subsumed by SCM.

Project Life-cycle
- Project conceptualization
A complete definition of scope of project and also the technical and financial
vialibility of project.
- Engineering and Design
Geo technical and site exploration, alongwith appropriate design information and

- Procurement of materials and services (Contractor, Subcontractors, consultants

Selection of suppliers, contractors and sub contractors for supply of machinery
and raw materials.

- Construction and Project Implementation

Preparation of project in planned time limit maintaining all quality standards.

- Project Utilization
Avoiding delays and overcost due to project.

Location Planning

Site surveys survey the viability and feasibility of site for the project.

Consent and planning plan the project with proper consent and ideas of top

Design and engineering architect will design and look after the engineering
requiremrnts of the project.

Commercial and legal work the legal team will look after all the legal formalities of the

DMAIC Analysis

Contractor generated Overrun cost.
Exceeding customer expectations.

Performance of key personnel in organization.
Performance of critical subcontractors.
Performance of projects for different owners.
Profit margin of different owners.

Constant self evaluation using statistical tools.
Follow process based instead of product based for continuous
Stay competitive.
Implement Six Sigma to make performance based environment

Contractors control performance and performance information.
Clients use performance based system to minimize risk of non-
performing risk.

Quality Certifications

ISO/TC 21, Equipment for fire protection and fire-fighting

ISO/TC 71, Concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-stressed concrete
ISO/TC 74, Cement and lime
ISO/TC 77, Products in fibre reinforced cement
ISO/TC 89, Wood-based panels
ISO/TC 92, Fire safety
ISO/TC 98, Bases for design of structures
ISO/TC 138, Plastics pipes, fittings and valves for the transport of fluids
ISO/TC 160, Glass in building
ISO/TC 162, Doors and windows
ISO/TC 165, Timber structures
ISO/TC 178, Lifts, escalators and moving walks
ISO/TC 189, Ceramic tile
ISO/TC 218, Timber
ISO/TC 219, Floor coverings
ISO/TC 221, Geo-synthetics.