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- HW 3
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Latent heat

Conduction

Convection

Radiation

Conduction

HOT COLD

(lots of (not much

vibration) vibration)

Heat travels

along the rod

Conduction: Fouriers Law

Cross-sectional area A

Q = heat transferred

k = thermal conductivity

Q =kA ( )t

T

L

A = cross sectional area

T = temperature difference

between two ends

L = length

What is the unit of k?

t = duration of heat transfer

Multilayer

Plane

Walls

The thermal resistance

network for heat transfer

through a two-layer plane

wall subjected to

convection on both sides.

THERMAL CONTACT RESISTANCE

Temperature distribution and heat flow lines along two solid plates

pressed against each other for the case of perfect and imperfect contact.

GENERALIZED THERMAL RESISTANCE NETWORKS

Thermal

resistance

network for two

parallel layers.

Two assumptions in solving complex

multidimensional heat transfer problems

by treating them as one-dimensional

using the thermal resistance network

are

1. any plane wall normal to the x-axis is

isothermal (i.e., to assume the

temperature to vary in the x-direction

only)

2. any plane parallel to the x-axis is

adiabatic (i.e., to assume heat transfer Thermal resistance network for

to occur in the x-direction only) combined series-parallel

Do they give the same result? arrangement.

HEAT CONDUCTION IN CYLINDERS AND SPHERES

Heat transfer through the pipe

can be modeled as steady

and one-dimensional.

The temperature of the pipe

depends on one direction only

(the radial r-direction) and can

be expressed as T = T(r).

The temperature is

independent of the azimuthal

angle or the axial distance.

This situation is approximated

in practice in long cylindrical

Heat is lost from a hot-water pipe to pipes and spherical

the air outside in the radial direction, containers.

and thus heat transfer from a long

pipe is one-dimensional.

A long cylindrical pipe (or spherical

shell) with specified inner and outer

surface temperatures T1 and T2.

A spherical shell

with specified

inner and outer

surface

temperatures T1

and T2.

for a cylindrical layer

The thermal resistance

network for a cylindrical (or

spherical) shell subjected

to convection from both the

inner and the outer sides.

Multilayered Cylinders and Spheres

network for heat transfer

through a three-layered

composite cylinder

subjected to convection

on both sides.

CRITICAL RADIUS OF INSULATION

Adding more insulation to a wall or

to the attic always decreases heat

transfer since the heat transfer area

is constant, and adding insulation

always increases the thermal

resistance of the wall without

increasing the convection

resistance.

In a a cylindrical pipe or a spherical

shell, the additional insulation

increases the conduction resistance

of the insulation layer but

decreases the convection An insulated cylindrical pipe exposed to

resistance of the surface because convection from the outer surface and

of the increase in the outer surface the thermal resistance network

area for convection. associated with it.

The heat transfer from the pipe may

increase or decrease, depending

on which effect dominates.

HEAT TRANSFER FROM FINNED SURFACES

Newtons law of cooling: The rate of heat transfer

from a surface to the surrounding medium

increase the rate of heat transfer are

To increase the convection heat transfer

coefficient h. This may require the

installation of a pump or fan, or replacing

the existing one with a larger one, but this

approach may or may not be practical.

Besides, it may not be adequate.

To increase the surface area As by

attaching to the surface extended surfaces

called fins made of highly conductive

materials such as aluminum.

The thin plate fins of a car

radiator greatly increase the

rate of heat transfer to the air.

HEAT TRANSFER IN COMMON CONFIGURATIONS

So far, we have considered heat transfer in simple geometries such as large plane

walls, long cylinders, and spheres.

This is because heat transfer in such geometries can be approximated as

one-dimensional.

But many problems encountered in practice are two- or three-dimensional and

involve rather complicated geometries for which no simple solutions are available.

An important class of heat transfer problems for which simple solutions are

obtained encompasses those involving two surfaces maintained at constant

temperatures T1 and T2.

The steady rate of heat transfer between these two surfaces is expressed as

k: the thermal conductivity of the medium between the surfaces

The conduction shape factor depends on the geometry of the system only.

Conduction shape factors are applicable only when heat transfer between

the two surfaces is by conduction.

Relationship between the conduction

shape factor and the thermal resistance

Once the value of the shape factor is known for a specific geometry, the

total steady heat transfer rate can be determined from the following

equation using the specified two constant temperatures of the two

surfaces and the thermal conductivity of the medium between them.

Example 1

An industrial furnace wall is constructed of 21 cm thick

fireclay brick having k = 1.04 W/m.K. This is covered on the

outer surface with 3 cm layer of insulating material having

k = 0.07 W/m.K. The innermost surface is at 1000oC and the

outermost surface is at 40oC. Calculate the steady state

heat transfer per area.

. Tin Tout

Q =

(x/kA)fireclay + (x/kA)insulation

Example 1 continued

. (1000 40) A

Q =

(0.21/1.04) + (0.03/0.07)

.

Q

= 1522.6 W/m2

A

Example 2

We want to reduce the heat loss in Example 1 to 960 W/m 2.

What should be the insulation thickness?

. Tin Tout

Q =

(x/kA)fireclay + (x/kA)insulation

.

Q (1000 40)

= = 960 W/m2

A (0.21/1.04) + (x)insulation /0.07)

(x)insulation = 5.6 cm

Conduction through

hollow-cylinder

ro

Ti

ri

T

L o

. Ti T o

Q =

[ln(ro/ri)] / 2kL

Conduction through the

composite wall in a

r3 hollow-cylinder

r2 T

o

Material A

Ti

r1

Material B

. Ti T o

Q =

[ln(r2/r1)] / 2kAL + [ln(r3/r2)] / 2kBL

Example 3

A thick walled tube of stainless steel ( k = 19 W/m.K) with

2-cm inner diameter and 4-cm outer diameter is covered

with a 3-cm layer of asbestos insulation (k = 0.2 W/m.K). If

the inside-wall temperature of the pipe is maintained at

600oC and the outside of the insulation at 100oC, calculate

the heat loss per meter of length.

. Ti T o

Q =

[ln(r2/r1)] / 2kAL + [ln(r3/r2)] / 2kBL

Example 3 continued

. 2 L ( 600 100)

Q =

[ln(2/1)] / 19 + [ln(5/2)] / 0.2

.

Q = 680

L W/m

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