You are on page 1of 4

BIAK Nominal Morphology: Pronouns Krystel Ballo July 12, 2010 Functions of Pronouns • to situate a given participant within discourse

, by indicating their relative discourse or spatial (directional, motional) status • They share their main distributional properties with nouns, appearing as complement of a predicate or a preposition but they are not attested in subject position. Free Personal Pronouns • • The distribution of the free personal pronouns is more restricted than that of nouns. Can appear as the complement of prepositions and verbs

1. Singulars are used for reference to single entities 2. Duals for reference to two entities 3. Paucal for small groups - reference to three entities or more, as long as a group is considered 'relatively small'. 4. Plural is used for larger groups 5. Inclusive pronouns include the addressee 6. Exclusive pronouns refer to the speakers only Personal Pronouns Chart 1st 2nd aya aw ku (inclusive) mu nu (exclusive) ko (inclusive) inko (exclusive) mko 3rd i su sko si (animate) na (inanimate)

Singular Dual Paucal Plural

Biak and PAN:  The dual forms all end in u, which can be traced back to proto-Austronesian (PAN) *Du(S)a.  The paucal and 1st and 2nd plural forms all end in ko, which can be traced back to PAN *telu. Indefinite Pronouns These pronouns cannot be contrasted with definite pronouns, the term 'indefinite' is chosen to express that these pronouns usually refer to entities whose precise identity is irrelevant for communicative purposes (van den Heuvel, 2006: 71) Specific and nonspecific indefinite pronouns: Free pronouns + -ya (marker for specificity) Singular set 1: + specific, - definite i-ya '(some) one' / '(the) other' set 2: ± specific, -definite oso '(some) one'

Dual Trial Plural (animate) Plural (inanimate)

su-ya 'some two persons' / '(the) other two' sko-ya 'some few persons' / '(the) other few' si-ya 'some' / 'others' na-ya 'some' / 'other'

(n)ono 'some'

 Indefinite nonspecific pronouns are predominantly used as independent pronouns, possibly in apposition to a full NP.  All of the indefinite pronouns can be used pronominally, only oso is also used adnominally (as an article), but its use is restricted mainly to the fixed expression ras oso 'one day'.  The meaning difference between the two sets is subtle, and can only be described tentatively, thus in many contexts the two pronouns can be used interchangeably. Ex. where siya can be interchanged with (n)ono without any observable change in meaning.

Saroya simar.
saroi=ya whale-3SG.SPC

dorn
d-orn 3SG-swallow

siya,
si-ya 3PL.AN-SPC

siya
si-ya 3PL.AN-SPC s-inm 3PL.AN-drink

sinm
only monda until

monda ra
ra si-mar 3PL.AN-die

'The whale ate some, others drank until they died.' [TWbt] Interrogative Pronouns 1. mansei – used for questioning both male and female persons 2. insei – used for questioning female persons 3. rosai – used for questioning other referents, including animals  These pronouns are all built up of two morphemes: o the morphemes man 'male person' o in 'female person' o ro 'non-human entity' in combination with the question word sai or sei.  Mansei 'male-which' and in-sei 'female-which' should be considered compounds, because the nouns man 'male person' and in 'female person' are not attested as independent nouns elsewhere, but only as first part of nominal compounds such as man-is 'male-creep' > 'lamb', and in-sos 'female-sos' > 'unmarried girl'.  Possible combinations of man 'male': and in 'female' with sai 'which' and sei 'which' mansei 'male-which', *bird-which man sai 'bird which', *male which ínsei 'female-which', *fish-which

 Interrogative pronouns cannot be used as overt subject of a verbal predicate, as

verbal subjects cannot be focused and interrogatives have focus by definition.
Reflexive Pronouns and Reciprocity

Reflexivity in Biak is shown by using either the bare free pronoun or an

emphatic pronoun. Ex. the pronoun i is used reflexively and coreferential with the subject infix <y> in kyikr. Kyikr k<y>ikr <3SG>shake i i 3SG ri ri LOC karui nanya karui an-ya stone GIV-3SG.SPC bori. bo-ri upside- POS.3SG

'It shook itself on top of the stone.' Reciprocity is more explicitly expressed, however, by the verbal suffix -yáe. Ex. Sfaduruyáe si. ‘ They took care of each other.'
Possessive pronominals
Possessed > Possessor: Singular (a)ye=d-i/=dya be=d-i/=d-ya v<y>e=di/=d-ya ku-ve=d-i/=dya nu-ve=d-i/=dya mu-ve=di/=d-ya su-ve=d-i/=dya sko-ve=di/=d-ya ko-ve=d-i/=dya (i)nko-ve=di/=d- ya mko-ve=di/=d-ya se=d-i/=d-ya nbe=d-i/d-ya

Dual
(a)ye=su-ya/-i be-=su-ya/-i v<y>e=suya/-i ku-ve=su-ya/-i kunu-ve=su-ya/-i mu-ve=suya/-i su-ve=su-ya/-i susko-ve=suya/-i ko-ve=su-ya/-i ko(i)nko-ve=suya/-i mko-ve=suya/-i se=su-ya/-i nbe=su-ya/-i

Trial
(a)ye=skoya/-i be=sko-ya/-i v<y>e =skoya/-i ve=sko-ya/-i kunu-ve=skoya/-i mu-ve=skoya/-i ve=sko-ya/-i susko-ve=skoya/-i ve=sko-ya/-i ko(i)nkove=sko-ya/-i mko-ve=skoya/-i se=sko-ya/-i nbe=sko-ya/-i

Plural (AN)
(a)ye=s-ya/-i be=s-ya/-i v<y>e =sya/-i ve=s-ya/-i kunu-ve=s-ya/-i mu-ve=s-ya/-i muve=s-ya/-i susko-ve=s-ya/-i ve=s-ya/-i ko(i)nko-ve=sya/-i mko-ve=s-ya/i se=s-ya/-i nbe=s-ya/-i

Plural (INAN)
(a)ye=na be=na v<y>e =na ve=na nu-ve=na ve=na ve=na sko-ve=na ve=na (i)nko-ve=na mko-ve=na se=na nbe=na

1SG 2SG 3SG 1DU.INC 1DU.EXC 2DU 3DU 3PC 1PL.INC 1PL.EXC 2PL 3PL.AN 3PL.INAN

Pronominals consists of two parts.  The first part is a form of the possessive marker ve, inflected for number and person of the possessor. (indicates person, number and gender of the possessor)  The second part is the pronominal article found at the end of most noun phrases (indicates number and gender of the possessed)
Partitive pronouns: min

 The noun min is used in the sense of 'member of the (same) group'. Ex.

Isrow min vyedi.

'He met his friend.'

 When the noun is directly preceded by one of the dual or trial free pronouns,

Ex.

and closed off by a pronominal article, it functions as what can be called a partitive pronoun.
1DU.INC kuMin =ya~ i 1PL.EXC (i)nko- min =ya~-I one of the two of us one of us

Source: van den Heuvel, W. (2006). Biak: Description of an Austronesian Language of Papua. Netherlands: LOT. Retrieved June 24, 2010, from LOT Publications: http://www.lotpublications.nl/publish/articles/001950/bookpart.pdf