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BIAK Nominal Morphology: Nouns Krystel Ballo July 5, 2010 NOUN CLASSES • proper nouns – are names that

are used to address or refer to particular persons or places. – In the Biak language, they are often not combined with any adnominal markers. • common nouns – + / - count • The only differences between count and mass nouns are that the latter cannot be combined with numerals, and that number marking has a different function compared to count nouns. – + / - alienable – inalienable nouns are not attested – + / - animate Free pronoun Animate Inanimate AFFIXATION: si na Marker of plurality in noun phrase =si =na Inflection on the verb s- / sin-/ na

 Biak has little derivational morphology; most of its affixes are inflectional.  The language makes use of prefixes and infixes, and a reciprocal suffix yáe  In addition to the real affixes, the language has a rich set of affix-like bound
morphemes that attach to a directly neighboring morpheme. 1. Derivational Prefixes – k-, m- and r- are petrified derivational prefixes added to roots to form clusters. These clusters are not used in the present day anymore. –k and –m were said to be related to Proto Austronesian *ka and *ma, while the origin of – r is unclear. Ex. Root + (petrified) derivational prefixes kpéf 'burst' mkák 'afraid', realized as [mgák] rbór 'satisfied'

2. Inflectional Affixes - They are found in combination with certain CV-initial stems, s- '3PL.AN' n- '3PL.INAN' Ex. Root + inflectional prefix / infix s-pon '3PL.AN-first' n-pon '3PL.INAN-first', realized as [npon] s-káf '3PL.AN-hang' n-káf '3PL.INAN-hang', realized as [ŋgáf]

the prefix ák 'join' – is a prefix that 'attracts stress' Body part nouns involving infelctions: affixes o -ri - possessive suffix, generalizes all singular possessors

o si - we-si 'leg- 3PL.AN is reanalysed as wes-i 'leg -3SG suffix -n that is used in the forms for nonsingular possession may refer to the nonsingularity and inanimateness of the possessor.

3. Pronominal prefixes (y, w, d, nuy, kuy, muy, suy, sk, nk, k, mk, s, n) • Special pronominal prefixes that lengthen verb-initial vowels: o When these prefixes combine with verbs of the form VC, then, the result is a verb that ends in a sequence of a long vowel plus a consonant. o Analysed by van den Heuvel as prefixes that ends in a floating mora (µ). o The mora docks on the first vowel of the verb and makes it bimoraic or long o the prefixation with one of these prefixes leads also to epenthesis in I-final position. Ex. an ‘eat’ 3pc sk µ -an [skán] ['skáne] 1plexcl nk µ -an [nkán] ['nkáne] 1plinc k µ -an [kán] ['káne] 2pl mk µ -an [mkán] ['mkáne] DERIVATION The Biak language has two main strategies of noun formation. • reduplication of verbs. • language has different types of nominal compounding. 1. Nominal Compounding ( 1 ) [N X]N, X = N, V, or not attested as an independent lexeme (but also not an affix) ( 2 ) [N ve V]N ( 3 ) [N ve N]N 1.1 Left-headed and right-headed compounds of the form [N X] N : noun + bound morpheme Four larger subgroups of left-headed N-X compounds are those headed by: • man 'bird‘ • man 'male person‘ • ín 'fish' • in 'female person.' • Left-headed [N-N]N compounds Ex. korwar 'ancestor statue' + brawn 'gold' > statue' • • Left-headed [N-V] N compounds Ex. ro 'thing' + fan 'feed' -> rofan 'dog' Left-headed compound nouns with in as their head o [[in]N X ] 'female (-like entity) or fish (-like entity) of the type X‘ Ex. in 'bird, female‘ + sár > insár 'old woman' + arar > inarar ‘fish’ korwar brawn 'golden ancestor

Left-headed compound nouns with man 'male' or man 'bird' as their head o [[man]N X ] 'male (-like entity)' or 'bird (-like entity) of the type X' + sár > mansár 'old man' + kroder >

Ex. man 'bird(-like)' / man 'male' mankroder 'frog' •

Left-headed nominal compounds of the form [NveV]N o noun with the formative ve followed by a verb o Semantically, the noun refers to the same entity as the entire compound, while the verb expresses an event that somehow characterizes or modifies the entity. Ex. in 'fish' + ve + rap 'roast' > imberap 'roasted fish' wáwbei 'turtle shell'

• •

Right-headed [NN]N compounds Ex. wáw 'turtle' + bei 'shell' >

Body parts as a special type of right-headed compounds Ex. vra 'arm' + mpin > vrampin 'finger'

1.2 Exocentric Compounds: Nouns of the form NveN are exocentric, as it is not possible to consider one of the two members as the formal or semantic head. Ex. in 'female person' + ve + swa 'spouse' > imbeswa 'wife and husband‘ 2. Reduplication In Biak full reduplication is attested while partial reduplication is far more frequent. 2.1 Full Reduplication Ex. • ras ‘day’ rasras ‘daily’ • numerals: oser ~ eser ‘one > oser-oser ‘each’ – distributive function > eser-eser ‘several’ - plural indefinite 2.2 Partial Reduplication In Biak, most roots are verbs that become nouns when reduplicated • Base reduplication Ex. monosyllabic: ba 'big' > baba 'bigness' polysyllabic: fawi 'know' > fawawi 'knowledge' • Ca-reduplication Ex. Fasos 'prepare' > fasasos 'preparation' msór 'angry' > masasór 'anger' • CaC-reduplication Ex. sun 'enter' > sansun marisn 'happy' > marasrisn

'clothes' 'happiness'



> kawánwán


• Other reduplication patterns Ex. vak 'pay' > vavyak 'payment' fár 'tell' > fa(r)fyár 'story'

PLURALIZATION 1. Plural possessors are primarily signaled by prefixes. • • • -m ‘2nd dual’ and ‘2nd plural’ reflects second person possessor suffix –s can be analyzed as a reflection of the non-singularity and animateness of the possessor The final –na found in the nonsingular forms in the examples below expresses both plurality and inanimateness of the possessum. This is clear from the fact that these nouns trigger plural inanimate agreement on the verb. However, no glossing were provided by van den Heuvel

Ex. vru ‘head’ ko-vru-s-na 1pl.ex nko-vru-s-na 2pl mko-vru-m-s-na 2. Full Reduplication to indicate plurality Ex  movo ‘place’ > movo movo “other places  Malay influenced noun reduplication: o wos ‘word’ > woswos ‘different words or languages’ o avyair ‘sign’ > avyairavyair ‘signs’  numerals: oser ~ eser ‘one > eser-eser ‘several’ - plural indefinite  other numeral reduplication indicates groupings o suru ‘two’ > surusuru ‘two by two’ NOMINALIZATION 1) Nouns typically appear as (head of an) argument of a predicate. 2) Nouns can appear as (head of the) complement of a preposition. 3) As the head of the noun phrase, the noun may be modified by a relative clause. In Biak, reduplicated verbs appear to obey all of the three mentioned criteria, which show that they can be considered nouns. Ex.

Fawi ‘know’ > fawawi ‘knowledge’ • reduplicated verbs as nominalizations referring to the Event, or Event-nominalizations. Ex. farvuk ‘marry’ > farvakvuk ‘marrying’

Source: Online Publication: van den Heuvel, W. (2006). Biak: Description of an Austronesian Language of Papua. Netherlands: LOT. Retrieved June 24, 2010, from LOT Publications: