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Alphonse Bertillon - was a French criminologist and anthropologist who

created the first system of physical measurements, photography, and
record-keeping that police could use to identify recidivist criminals.

Ancient Babylon - fingerprints were used in clay tablets for business

transactions. 1000 - 2000 BC

Anthropometry - the first system of personal identification.

Azizul Haque and Hem Chandra Bose(1897) - Two Indian fingerprint

experts credited with primary development of the Henry System of
fingerprint classification (named after their supervisor,
Edward Richard Henry).

Bertillon System - a system of identification which focuses on the

meticulous measurement and recording of different parts and components
of the human body.

Chiroscopy It is the examination and thorough study fo the palms of

the human hand as a point indentifying persons.

Core - 1. Approximate center of the pattern

2. It is placed upon or within the innermost sufficient recurve.

Delta - 1. point on a ridge at or nearest to the point of divergence

of two typelines and
2. is located at or directly in front of the point of

Dr. Henry P. DeForrest - he accomplished the first fingerprint file

established in the United States, and the first use of fingerprinting
by a U.S. government agency.

Dr. Nehemiah Grew - in 1684, he was the first European to publish

friction ridge skin observations.

Edgeoscopy the study of the morphological characteristics of

friction ridges; shape or contour of the edges of friction ridges.

Edmond Locard - informally referred to as the Sherlock Holmes of France,

he developed the science of poroscopy, the study of fingerprint pores
and the impressions produced by these pores. He went on to write that
if 12 specific points were identical between two fingerprints, it would
be sufficient for positive identification. This work led to the use of
fingerprints in identifying criminals being adopted over Bertillon's
earlier technique of anthropometry.

Fingerprint - is an impression of the friction ridge of all or any

part of the finger. Fingerprint ridges are formed during the third
to fourth month of fetal development.
Fingerprint Classification Systems

1. The Henry Classification System developed by Henry in the

late 1800s.
2. Icnofalangometric System the originalname of the system
developed by Vucetichin 1891
3. Dactiloscopy the new name of the systemdeveloped by Vucetich.
4. The Oloriz System of Classification developed by Oloriz.
Identakey developed in the 1930s by G. Tyler Mairs.
5. The American System of FingerprintClassification developed
by Parke in1903.
6. The Conley System. The Flack-ConleySystem developed in 1906
in New Jersey,an improved Conley System.
7. NCIC Fingerprint Classification System.
Collins System a classification system forsingle
used in Scotland Yard inthe early 1900s.
8. Jorgensen System a classification systemfor single
used in the early1900s.
9. Battley System a classification system forsingle
fingerprints used in the 1930s

Gilbert Thompson - He used his thumb print on a document to prevent

forgery. First known use of fingerprints in the U.S.

John Evangelist Purkinje - anatomy professor at the University of

Breslau, in 1823, he published his thesis discussing nine fingerprint
patterns but he made no mention of the value of fingerprints for
personal identification.

Juan Vucetich - In 1892, two boys were brutally murdered in the

village of Necochea, near Buenos Aires, Argentina. Initially,
suspicion fell on a man named Velasquez, a suitor of the children's
mother, Francisca Rojas. Investigators found a bloody fingerprint at
the crime scene and contacted Juan Vucetich, who was developing a
system of fingerprint identification for police use. Vucetich compared
the fingerprints of Rojas and Velasquez with the bloody fingerprint.
Francisca Rojas had denied touching the bloody bodies, but the
fingerprint matched one of hers. Confronted with the evidence, she
confessedthe first successful use of fingerprint identification in a
murder investigation.

Loop - 1. One or more ridges enter upon either side

2. Recurve
3. Touch or pass an imaginary line between delta and core
4. Pass out or tend to pass out upon the same side the ridges

Three Loop Characteristics

1. A sufficient recurve
2. A Delta
3. A ridge count across a looping ridge
Marcelo Malpighi - in 1686, an anatomy professor at the University of
Bologna, noted fingerprint ridges, spirals and loops in his treatise.
A layer of skin was named after him; "Malpighi" layer, which is
approximately 1.8mm thick.

Mark Twain - author of the novel Pudd'nhead Wilson where one of the
characters has a hobby of collecting fingerprints.

Paul-Jean Coulier - of Val-de-Grce in Paris, published his observations

that (latent) fingerprints can be developed on paper by iodine fuming,
explaining how to preserve (fix) such developed impressions and
mentioning the potential for identifying suspects' fingerprints by
use of a magnifying glass.

Poroscopy refers to the examination of the shape,size and

arrangement of the small opening on friction ridge through which body
fluids are secreted or released.

Podoscopy a term coined by Wilder and Wentwrth which refers to the

examination of the soles and their significance in personal identification.

Ridgeology describes the individualization process of any area of

friction skin using allavailable detail.

Ridge Characteristics
1. Ridge Dots - An isolated ridge unit whose length approximates
its width in size.
2. Bifurcations - The point at which one friction ridge divides
into two friction ridges.
3. Trifurcations - The point at which one friction ridge divides
into three friction ridges.
4. Ending Ridge - A single friction ridge that terminates within
the friction ridge structure.
5. Ridge Crossing - A point where two ridge units intersect.
6. Enclosures (Lakes) - A single friction ridge that bifurcates and
rejoins after a short course and continues as a single friction
7. Short Ridges (Islands) - Friction ridges of varying lengths.
8. Spurs (Hooks) - A bifurcation with one short ridge branching off
a longer ridge.
9. Bridges - A connecting friction ridge between parallel running
ridges, generally right angles.

Sir Edward Richard Henry - he was appointed Inspector-General of Police

of Bengal, India in 1891, he developed a system of fingerprint
classification enabling fingerprint records to be organised and searched
with relative ease.

Sir Francis Galton - He devised a method of classifying fingerprints

that proved useful in forensic science. He pointed out that there were
specific types of fingerprint patterns. He described and classified
them into eight broad categories: 1: plain arch, 2: tented arch,
3: simple loop, 4: central pocket loop, 5: double loop,
6: lateral pocket loop, 7: plain whorl, and 8: accidental

Sir Henry Faulds - his first paper on the subject of fingerprint

was published in the scientific journal Nature in 1880. Examining his
own fingertips and those of friends, he became convinced that the
pattern of ridges was unique to each individual.

Sir William James Herschel - was a British officer in India who used
fingerprints for identification on contracts.

Time Line - Fingerprints

1000-2000 B.C. - Fingerprints were used on clay tablets for

business transactions in ancient Babylon.

3rd Century B.C. - Thumbprints begin to be used on clay seals

in China to sign documents.

610-907 A.D. - During the Tang Dynasty, a time when imperial

China was one of the most powerful and wealthy regions of the
world, fingerprints are reportedly used on official documents.

1st Century A.D. - A petroglyph located on a cliff face in

Nova Scotia depicts a hand with exaggerated ridges and finger
whorls, presumably left by the Mi'kmaq people.

14th Century A.D. - Many official government documents in

Persia have fingerprint impressions. One government physician
makes the observation that no two fingerprints were an exact

1686 - At the University of Bologna in Italy, a professor

of anatomy named Marcello Malpighi notes the common
characteristics of spirals, loops and ridges in fingerprints,
using the newly invented microscope for his studies. In time,
a 1.88mm thick layer of skin, the Malpighi layer, was named
after him. Although Malpighi was likely the first to document
types of fingerprints, the value of fingerprints as
identification tools was never mentioned in his writings.

1823 - A thesis is published by Johannes Evengelista Purkinje,

professor of anatomy with the University of Breslau, Prussia.
The thesis details a full nine different fingerprint patterns.
Still, like Malpighi, no mention is made of fingerprints as
an individual identification method.

1858 - The Chief Magistrate of the Hooghly district in Jungipoor,

India, Sir William Herschel, first used fingerprints to sign
contracts with native Indians. In July of 1858, a local
businessman named Rajyadhar Konai put his hand print on the
back of a contract at Herschels request. Herschel was not
motivated by the need to prove personal identity; rather, his
motivation was to simply frighten (Konai) out of all thought
of repudiating his signature. As the locals felt more bound to
a contract through this personal contact than if it was just
signed, as did the ancient Babylonians and Chinese, Herschel
adopted the practice permanently. Later, only the prints of the
right index and middle fingers were required on contracts. In
time, after viewing a number of fingerprints, Herschel noticed
that no two prints were exactly alike, and he observed that
even in widespread use, the fingerprints could be used for
personal identification purposes.

1880 - Dr. Henry Faulds, a British surgeon and Superintendent

of Tsukiji Hospital in Tokyo, published an article in the
Scientific Journal, "Nautre" (nature). He discussed fingerprints
as a means of personal identification, and the use of printers
ink as a method for obtaining such fingerprints. Faulds had
begun his study of what he called skin-furrows during the
1870s after looking at fingerprints on pieces of old clay
pottery. He is also credited with the first fingerprint
identification: a greasy print left by a laboratory worker on
a bottle of alcohol. Soon, Faulds began to recognize that the
distinctive patterns on fingers held great promise as a means
of individual identification, and developed a classification
system for recording these inked impressions. Also in 1880,
Faulds sent a description of his fingerprint classification
system to Sir Charles Darwin. Darwin, aging and in poor health,
declined to assist Dr. Faulds in the further study of
fingerprints, but forwarded the information on to his cousin,
British scientist Sir Francis Galton.

1882 - Gilbert Thompson, employed by the U.S. Geological Survey

in New Mexico, uses his own fingerprints on a document to guard
against forgery. This event is the first known use of
fingerprints for identification in America.

1883 - Life on the Mississippi, a novel by Mark Twain, tells

the story of a murderer who is identified by the use of
fingerprints. His later book "Pudd'n Head Wilson includes a
courtroom drama involving fingerprint identification.

1888 - Sir Francis Galtons began his study of fingerprints

during the 1880s, primarily to develop a tool for determining
genetic history and hereditary traits. Through careful study of
the work of Faulds, which he learned of through his cousin Sir
Charles Darwin, as well as his examination of fingerprints
collected by Sir William Herschel, Galton became the first to
provide scientific evidence that no two fingerprints are
exactly the same, and that prints remain the same throughout
a persons lifetime. He calculated that the odds of finding
two identical fingerprints were 1 in 64 billion.

1892 - Galtons book Fingerprints is published, the first of

its kind. In the book, Galton detailed the first classification
system for fingerprints; he identified three types
(loop, whorl, and arch) of characteristics for fingerprints
(also known as minutia). These characteristics are to an extent
still in use today, often referred to as Galtons Details.

1892 - Juan Vucetich, an Argentine police official, had recently

begun keeping the first fingerprint files based on Galtons
Details. History was made that year when Vucetich made the
first criminal fingerprint identification. A woman named Rojas
had murdered her two sons, then cut her own throat to deflect
blame from herself. Rojas left a bloody print on a doorpost.
After investigators matched the crime scene print to that of
the accused, Rojas confessed. Vucetich eventually developed his
own system of classification, and published a book entitled
Dactiloscopa Comparada ("Comparative Fingerprinting") in 1904,
detailing the Vucetich system, still the most used system in
Latin America.

1896 - British official Sir Edward Richard Henry had been living
in Bengal, and was looking to use a system similar to that of
Herschels to eliminate problems within his jurisdiction. After
visiting Sir Francis Galton in England, Henry returned to Bengal
and instituted a fingerprinting program for all prisoners. By
July of 1896, Henry wrote in a report that the classification
limitations had not yet been addressed. A short time later,
Henry developed a system of his own, which included 1,024
primary classifications. Within a year, the Governor General
signed a resolution directing that fingerprinting was to be the
official method of identifying criminals in British India.

1901 - Back in England and Wales, the success of the Henry

Fingerprint Classification System in India was creating a stir,
and a committee was formed to review Scotland Yard's
identification methods. Henry was then transferred to England,
where he began training investigators to use the Henry
Classification System after founding Scotland Yard's Central
Fingerprint Bureau. Within a few years, the Henry Classification
System was in use around the world, and fingerprints had been
established as the uniform system of identification for the
future. The Henry Classification System is still in use today
in English speaking countries around the globe.

1902 - Alphonse Bertillon, director of the Bureau of

Identification of the Paris Police, is responsible for the first
criminal identification of a fingerprint without a known suspect.
A print taken from the scene of a homicide was compared against
the criminal fingerprints already on file, and a match was made,
marking another milestone in law enforcement technology.
Meanwhile, the New York Civil Service Commission, spearheaded
by Dr. Henry P. DeForrest, institutes testing of the first
systematic use of fingerprints in the United States.

1903 - Fingerprinting technology comes into widespread use in

the United States, as the New York Police Department, the New
York State Prison system and the Federal Bureau of Prisons begin
working with the new science.
1904 - The St. Louis Police Department and the Leavenworth State
Penitentiary in Kansas start utilizing fingerprinting, assisted
by a Sergeant from Scotland Yard who had been guarding the
British Display at the St. Louis Exposition.

1905 - The U.S. Army gets on the fingerprinting bandwagon, and

within three years was joined by the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps.
In the ensuing 25 years, as more law enforcement agencies
joined in using fingerprints as personal identification methods,
these agencies began sending copies of the fingerprint cards
to the recently established National Bureau of Criminal

1911 - The first central storage location for fingerprints in

North America is established in Ottawa by Edward Foster of the
Dominion Police Force. The repository is maintained by the Royal
Canadian Mounted Police, and while it originally held only 2000
sets of fingerprints, today the number is over 2 million.

1924 - The U.S. Congress acts to establish the Identification

Division of the F.B.I. The National Bureau and Leavenworth are
consolidated to form the basis of the F.B.I. fingerprint repository.
By 1946, the F.B.I. had processed 100 million fingerprint cards;
that number doubles by 1971.

1990s - AFIS, or Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems,

begin widespread use around the country. This computerized system
of storing and cross-referencing criminal fingerprint records
would eventually become capable of searching millions of
fingerprint files in minutes, revolutionizing law enforcement

1996 - As Americans become more concerned with the growing missing

and abducted children problem, and law enforcement groups urge
the fingerprinting of children for investigative purposes in
the event of a child becoming missing, Chris Migliaro founds
Fingerprint America in Albany, NY. The company provides a simple,
at-home fingerprinting and identification kit for parents,
maintaining the familys privacy while protecting and educating
children about the dangers of abduction. By 2001, the company
distributes over 5 million Child ID Fingerprinting Kits around
the world.

1999 - The FBI phases out the use of paper fingerprint cards with
their new Integrated AFIS (IAFIS) site at Clarksburg, West Virginia.
IAFIS will starts with individual computerized fingerprint records
for approximately 33 million criminals, while the outdated paper
cards for the civil files are kept at a facility in Fairmont,
West Virginia.

Typelines - 1. Two innermost ridges that start or go parallel

2. Diverge and surround or tend to surround the pattern
Types of Fingerprints
1. Visible Prints
2. Latent Prints
3. Impressed Prints

Visible Prints - also called patent prints and are left in

some medium, like blood, that reveals them to the naked eye
when blood, dirt, ink or grease on the finger come into
contact with a smooth surface and leave a friction ridge
impression that is visible without development.

Latent Prints - not apparent to the naked eye. They are

formed from the sweat from sebaceous glands on the body or
water, salt, amino acids and oils contained in sweat.
They can be made sufficiently visible by dusting, fuming or
chemical reagents.

Impressed prints - also called plastic prints and are

indentations left in soft pliable surfaces, such as clay,
wax, paint or another surface that will take the impression.
They are visible and can be viewed or photographed without

Types of Patterns
1. Arch a. Plain Arch
b. Tented Arch
2. Loop a. Radial Loop
b. Ulnar Loop
3. Whorl a. Plain Whorl
b. Central Pocket Loop
c. Double Loop
d. Accidental Whorl

Plain Arch - 1. Ridges enter upon one side

2. Make a rise or wave in the center
3. Flow or tend to flow out upon the
opposite side.

Tented Arch - Possesses an 1. Angle

2. Upthrust
3. Two of The Three basic
characteristics of the loop

Ulnar loop - flow toward the little finger - ulna bone.

Radial Loop - flow toward the thumb - radius bone.

Plain Whorl - 1. Consists of one or more ridges which make

or tend to make a complete circuit
2. With 2 delta's
3. Between which, when an imaginary line is
drawn, at least one recurving ridge within
the inner pattern area is cut or touched.
Central Pocket Loop - 1. Consists of at least one recurving
ridge or
2. An obstruction at right angles to
the line of flow
3. With 2 delta's
4. Between which, when an imaginary
line is drawn, no recurving ridge
within the inner pattern area is
cut or touched.

Double Loop - 1. Consists of two separate loop formations

2. With two separate and distinct set of
shoulders and
3. Two delta's

Accidental Whorl - 1. Consists of a combination of two

different types of patterns with the
exception of the plain arch
2. With 2 or more delta's or
3. A pattern which possesses some of the
requirements for 2 or more different
types or a pattern which conforms to
none of the definitions.


Alhazen (Ibn Al-Haytham) - a great authority on optics in the Middle

Ages who lived around 1000 AD, invented the first pinhole camera,
(also called the Camera Obscura } and was able to explain why the
images were upside down.

Angelo Sala - a self educated chemist, he discovered that when paper

contained powdered silver nitrate it would react with sunlight, causing
it to darken. These pioneering experiments with silver salts were a
crucial step towards the later invention of photography. He published
his findings in a pamphlet in 1614.

Anna Atkins - (1799- 1871) an English Botanist, she is considered

to be the first female photographer.

Aristotle - he observed and noted the first casual reference to the

optic laws that made pinhole cameras possible, around 330 BC, he
questioned why the sun could make a circular image when it shined
through a square hole.

Arthur Fellig - (Weegee) became famous because of his frequent,

seemingly prescient arrivals at scenes only minutes after crimes,
fires or other emergencies were reported to authorities.

Carl William Scheele - (1742-1786) Swedish scientist, self-educated.

He used to work as an assistant in pharmacies and showed a talent in
chemistry from a very young age. In spite an offer made to him to
study in London or Berlin, he operated a pharmacy in Kping where he
spend the rest of his life and made all his important inventions.
He was especially interest on chemical analysis and worked particularly
with the chemical reactions between silver nitrate and sunlight,
therefore making a break through in the chemistry of photography.
The records from his experiments were of a great importance for the
next generations of scientists.

Digital photography - uses an array of electronic photo detectors to

capture the image focused by the lens, as opposed to an exposure on
photographic film.

Emulsion - is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally

immiscible (nonmixable or unblendable). Emulsions are part of a more
general class of two-phase systems of matter called colloids.

Exposure - is the amount of light per unit area (the image plane
illuminance times the exposure time) reaching a photographic film,
as determined by shutter speed, lens aperture and scene luminance.

Film Speed - is the measure of a photographic film's sensitivity

to light, determined by sensitometry and measured on various
numerical scales, the most recent being the ISO system.

Forensic Photography - (forensic imaging)(crime scene photography)

it is the art of producing an accurate reproduction of a crime scene
or an accident scene using photography for the benefit of a court or
to aid in an investigation.

Frederick Scoff Archer - an English sculptor who invented the wet

plate negative in 1851. Using a viscous solution of collodion, he
coated glass with light-sensitive silver salts. Because it was glass
and not paper, this wet plate created a more stable and detailed negative.

Gelatin - It is used to hold silver halide crystals in an emulsion in

virtually all photographic films and photographic papers.

George Eastman - he invented in 1889 a film with a base that was

flexible, unbreakable, and could be rolled. Emulsions coated on a
cellulose nitrate film base, such as Eastman's, made the mass-produced
box camera a reality.

Hamilton Smith - he patented in 1856 the Tintypes, another medium that

heralded the birth of photography. A thin sheet of iron was used to
provide a base for light-sensitive material, yielding a positive image.

Tintypes - are a variation of the collodion wet plate process.

The emulsion is painted onto a japanned (varnished) iron plate,
which is exposed in the camera.

Heliographs - (sun prints) were the prototype for the modern photograph.

Henry Fox Talbot - an English botanist and mathematician and The

inventor of the first negative from which multiple postive prints
were made.

Hercules Florence - (1804-1879) Few details are known for his life.
In 1824 goes to Brazil and takes part in a scientific mission at the
Amazon, where he becomes preoccupied with the idea of recording images
from his trip. From 1830 devotes himself to research and
experimentation for photography. The above, gives Brazil the ability
to claim that is one of the places in the world, where photography
was found.

Hippolyte Bayard - (1807-1887) The most unfortunate from the pioneers

of photography. Discovered one direct positive photographic method.
He was the first person to hold a photographic exhibition (for
humanitarian reasons) and the first who combined two negatives to
created one print (called Combination Printing). As a civil servant
and with five hundred franks that received as financial help from
Arago for improving his method, prevented him from presenting the
discovery of photography at the French Academy of Sciences.

History of Photography - Timeline

Ancient Times: Camera obscuras used to form images on walls in

darkened rooms; image formation via a pinhole

16th century: Brightness and clarity of camera obscuras improved by

enlarging the hole inserting a telescope lens

17th century: Camera obscuras in frequent use by artists and made

portable in the form of sedan chairs

1727: Professor J. Schulze mixes chalk, nitric acid, and silver in

a flask; notices darkening on side of flask exposed to sunlight.
Accidental creation of the first photo-sensitive compound.

1800: Thomas Wedgwood makes "sun pictures" by placing opaque objects

on leather treated with silver nitrate; resulting images deteriorated
rapidly, however, if displayed under light stronger than from candles.

1816: Nicphore Nipce combines the camera obscura with

photosensitive paper

1826: Nipce creates a permanent image

1827: Joseph Nicephore Niepce made the first known photographic

image using the camera obscura. The camera obscura was a tool
used by artists to draw.

1834: Henry Fox Talbot creates permanent (negative) images using

paper soaked in silver chloride and fixed with a salt solution.
Talbot created positive images by contact printing onto another
sheet of paper.

1837: Louis Daguerre creates images on silver-plated copper, coated

with silver iodide and "developed" with warmed mercury; Daguerre is
awarded a state pension by the French government in exchange for
publication of methods and the rights by other French citizens to use
the Daguerreotype process.

1841: Talbot patents his process under the name "calotype".

1851: Frederick Scott Archer, a sculptor in London, improves

photographic resolution by spreading a mixture of collodion
(nitrated cotton dissolved in ether and alcoohol) and chemicals on
sheets of glass. Wet plate collodion photography was much cheaper
than daguerreotypes, the negative/positive process permitted unlimited
reproductions, and the process was published but not patented.

1853: Nadar (Felix Toumachon) opens his portrait studio in Paris

1854: Adolphe Disderi develops carte-de-visite photography in Paris,

leading to worldwide boom in portrait studios for the next decade

1855: Beginning of stereoscopic era

1855-57: Direct positive images on glass (ambrotypes) and metal

(tintypes or ferrotypes) popular in the US.

1861: Scottish physicist James Clerk-Maxwell demonstrates a color

photography system involving three black and white photographs, each
taken through a red, green, or blue filter. The photos were turned
into lantern slides and projected in registration with the same color
filters. This is the "color separation" method.

1861-65: Mathew Brady and staff (mostly staff) covers the American
Civil War, exposing 7000 negatives

1868: Ducas de Hauron publishes a book proposing a variety of methods

for color photography.

1870: Center of period in which the US Congress sent photographers

out to the West. The most famous images were taken by William
Jackson and Tim O'Sullivan.

1871: Richard Leach Maddox, an English doctor, proposes the use of

an emulsion of gelatin and silver bromide on a glass plate, the
"dry plate" process.

1877: Eadweard Muybridge, born in England as Edward Muggridge,

settles "do a horse's four hooves ever leave the ground at once"
bet among rich San Franciscans by time-sequenced photography of
Leland Stanford's horse.

1878: Dry plates being manufactured commercially.

1880: George Eastman, age 24, sets up Eastman Dry Plate Company in
Rochester, New York. First half-tone photograph appears in a daily
newspaper, the New York Graphic.
1888: First Kodak camera, containing a 20-foot roll of paper, enough
for 100 2.5-inch diameter circular pictures.

1889: Improved Kodak camera with roll of film instead of paper

1890: Jacob Riis publishes How the Other Half Lives, images of
tenament life in New york City

1900: Kodak Brownie box roll-film camera introduced.

1902: Alfred Stieglitz organizes "Photo Secessionist" show in

New York City

1906: Availability of panchromatic black and white film and

therefore high quality color separation color photography. J.P.
Morgan finances Edward Curtis to document the traditional culture of
the North American Indian.

1907: First commercial color film, the Autochrome plates,

manufactured by Lumiere brothers in France

1909: Lewis Hine hired by US National Child Labor Committee to

photograph children working mills.

1914: Oscar Barnack, employed by German microscope manufacturer Leitz,

develops camera using the modern 24x36mm frame and sprocketed 35mm
movie film.

1917: Nippon Kogaku K.K., which will eventually become Nikon,

established in Tokyo.

1921: Man Ray begins making photograms ("rayographs") by placing

objects on photographic paper and exposing the shadow cast by a
distant light bulb; Eugegrave;ne Atget, aged 64, assigned to
photograph the brothels of Paris

1924: Leitz markets a derivative of Barnack's camera commercially as

the "Leica", the first high quality 35mm camera.

1925: Andr Kertsz moves from his native Hungary to Paris, where he
begins an 11-year project photographing street life

1928: Albert Renger-Patzsch publishes The World is Beautiful,

close-ups emphasizing the form of natural and man-made objects;
Rollei introduces the Rolleiflex twin-lens reflex producing a 6x6
cm image on rollfilm.; Karl Blossfeldt publishes Art Forms in Nature

1931: Development of strobe photography by Harold ("Doc") Edgerton

at MIT

1932: Inception of Technicolor for movies, where three black and

white negatives were made in the same camera under different filters;
Ansel Adams, Imogen Cunningham, Willard Van Dyke, Edward Weston,
et al, form Group f/64 dedicated to "straight photographic thought
and production".; Henri Cartier-Bresson buys a Leica and begins a
60-year career photographing people; On March 14, George Eastman,
aged 77, writes suicide note--"My work is done. Why wait?"--and
shoots himself.

1933: Brassa publishes Paris de nuit

1934: Fuji Photo Film founded. By 1938, Fuji is making cameras and
lenses in addition to film.

1935: Farm Security Administration hires Roy Stryker to run a

historical section. Stryker would hire Walker Evans, Dorothea Lange,
Arthur Rothstein, et al. to photograph rural hardships over the next
six years. Roman Vishniac begins his project of the soon-to-be-killed
-by-their-neighbors Jews of Central and Eastern Europe.

1936: Development of Kodachrome, the first color multi-layered color

film; development of Exakta, pioneering 35mm single-lens reflex
(SLR) camera
World War II: Development of multi-layer color negative films
Margaret Bourke-White, Robert Capa, Carl Mydans, and W. Eugene
Smith cover the war for LIFE magazine

1940s - in the early 1940's commercially viable color films

(except Kodachrome, introduced in 1935) were brought to the market.
These films used the modern technology of dye-coupled colors in
which a chemical process connects the three dye layers together
to create an apparent color image.

1947: Henri Cartier-Bresson, Robert Capa, and David Seymour start the
photographer-owned Magnum picture agency

1948: Hasselblad in Sweden offers its first medium-format SLR for

commercial sale; Pentax in Japan introduces the automatic diaphragm;
Polaroid sells instant black and white film

1949: East German Zeiss develops the Contax S, first SLR with an
unreversed image in a pentaprism viewfinder

1955: Edward Steichen curates Family of Man exhibit at New York's

Museum of Modern Art

1959: Nikon F introduced.

1960: Garry Winogrand begins photographing women on the streets of

New York City.

1963: First color instant film developed by Polaroid; Instamatic

released by Kodak; first purpose-built underwater introduced, the

1970: William Wegman begins photographing his Weimaraner, Man Ray.

1972: 110-format cameras introduced by Kodak with a 13x17mm frame

1973: C-41 color negative process introduced, replacing C-22

1975: Nicholas Nixon takes his first annual photograph of his wife
and her sisters: "The Brown Sisters"; Steve Sasson at Kodak builds
the first working CCD-based digital still camera

1976: First solo show of color photographs at the Museum of Modern

Art, William Eggleston's Guide

1977: Cindy Sherman begins work on Untitled Film Stills, completed

in 1980; Jan Groover begins
exploring kitchen utensils

1978: Hiroshi Sugimoto begins work on seascapes.

1980: Elsa Dorfman begins making portraits with the 20x24" Polaroid.

1982: Sony demonstrates Mavica "still video" camera

1983: Kodak introduces disk camera, using an 8x11mm frame (the same
as in the Minox spy camera)

1985: Minolta markets the world's first autofocus SLR system (called
"Maxxum" in the US); In the American West by Richard Avedon

1988: Sally Mann begins publishing nude photos of her children

1987: The popular Canon EOS system introduced, with new

all-electronic lens mount

1990: Adobe Photoshop released.

1991: Kodak DCS-100, first digital SLR, a modified Nikon F3

1992: Kodak introduces PhotoCD

1993: Founding of (this Web site), an early Internet online

community; Sebastiao Salgado publishes Workers; Mary Ellen Mark
publishes book documenting life in an Indian circus.

1995: Material World, by Peter Menzel published.

1997: Rob Silvers publishes Photomosaics

1999: Nikon D1 SLR, 2.74 megapixel for $6000, first ground-up DSLR
design by a leading manufacturer.

2000: Camera phone introduced in Japan by Sharp/J-Phone

2001: Polaroid goes bankrupt

2003: Four-Thirds standard for compact digital SLRs introduced with

the Olympus E-1; Canon Digital Rebel introduced for less than $1000

2004: Kodak ceases production of film cameras

2005: Canon EOS 5D, first consumer-priced full-frame digital SLR,

with a 24x36mm CMOS sensor for $3000; Portraits by Rineke Dijkstra

Infrared Photography - the film or image sensor used is sensitive to

infrared light.

Johann Heinrich Schulze - (1687 - 1744) he was a German professor at

the University of Altdorf. He was the first person to produce
Photograms, which were created by using paper masks in direct contact
with a jar containing a mixture of silver nitrate powder and chalk.
Schulze proved that the darkening of silver nitrate was caused by light
and ruled out the possibility of the change being caused by temperature,
by observing no tonal change to silver nitrate when heated in an oven.

Joseph Nicephore Niepce - made the first photographic image with a

camera obscura.

Latent Image - is an invisible image produced by the exposure to

light of a photosensitive material such as photographic film.

Louis Daguerre - a Frenchman and A professional scene painter, was

able to reduce exposure time to less than 30 minutes and keep the image
from disappearing afterwards. He was the inventor of the first practical
process of photography.

Mugshot - (police photograph)(booking photograph) is a photographic

portrait typically taken after a person is arrested.

Negative - is an image, usually on a strip or sheet of transparent

plastic film, in which the lightest areas of the photographed subject
appear darkest and the darkest areas appear lightest.

Parallax - is a displacement or difference in the apparent position

of an object viewed along two different lines of sight, and is
measured by the angle or semi-angle of inclination between those
two lines.

Photography - It is a method of recording images by the action of light,

or related radiation, on a sensitive material.

Photographic Film - (Film) is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic

film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing
microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals.

Point-and-Shoot Camera - (compact camera) is a still camera designed

primarily for simple operation.[1] Most use focus free lenses or
autofocus for focusing, automatic systems for setting the exposure
options, and have flash units built in.

Rogues Gallery - is a police collection of pictures or photographs of

criminals and suspects kept for identification purposes.

Shutter Lag - is the delay between triggering the shutter and when
the photograph is actually recorded.

Shutter Speed - (exposure time) is the length of time a camera's

shutter is open when taking a photograph.

Silver Halides - The light-sensitive chemicals used in photographic

film and paper.

Single-Lens Reflex Camera (SLR) - typically uses a mirror and prism

system (hence "reflex", from the mirror's reflection) that permits
the photographer to view through the lens and see exactly what will
be captured, contrary to viewfinder cameras where the image could
be significantly different from what will be captured.

Sir Humphry Davy - (1778-1829) Chemistry genius, friend and assistant

of Wedgwood in his experiments whose results were published at Royal
Society, in 1802 by Davy. The problem of "fixing" the images remained
in spite of Davy's breakthroughs in chemistry.

Sir John F.W. Herschel - a scientist who first used the word photography
in 1839. The word photography was derived from the Greek words Photos,
which means light and Graphein, which means to draw.

Snapshot - is popularly defined as a photograph that is "shot"

spontaneously and quickly, most often without artistic or
journalistic intent.

Thomas Wedgwood - (1771 - 1805) an Englishman who made good ground

creating Photograms and recording images from his Camera Obscura
or pinhole camera, However, he never overcome the problem of fixing
the image and therefore the prints produced had to be viewed for very
short periods of time in a darkened environment.

Twin-Lens Reflex Camera (TLR) - is a type of camera with two objective

lenses of the same focal length.

Viewfinder - is what the photographer looks through to compose,

and in many cases to focus, the picture.


ACP - Automatic Colt Pistol

Action - the working mechanism of a firearm. An action is the physical

mechanism that manipulates cartridges and/or seals the breech.

Air Gun - a gun that uses compressed air or gas to propel a projectile
also called air rifle, pellet rifle, pellet gun and gun.
Air Resistance - (Drag) decelerates the projectile with a force
proportional to the square of the velocity.

Ammunition - shall mean loaded shell rifle, muskets, carbine, shotguns,

revolver and pistol from which a bullet, ball, shot, shell or other
missiles may be fore by means of a gun powder or other explosives.

Anvil - An internal metal component in a boxer primer assembly

against which the priming mixture is crushed by the firing pin blow.

Anvil Marks - A term generally used by the military for a cartridge

with a full metal jacketed bullet or solid metal projectile.

Armalite occasionally, the home of manufacturing company becomes

almost a generic term. It happens with the colt produced M16, which
has been designed and develop at Armalite. The Armalite business was
form by Charles Dorchester and George Sullivan in 1950. Armalite
employed Eugene Stoner, Chief Engineer and one of the top designer
of the country.

Automatic - when the mechanism is so arrange that it will fire

continuously when the trigger is depressed.

Automatic Action Type a firearm design that feeds cartridges fires

and ejects cartridge cases as long as the trigger is fully depressed
and there is cartridge available in the feed system.

Barrel - metal tube through which the projectiles travel.

Berthold Schwartz - the inventor of gunpowder. His real name is

Constantin Anklitzen, a Franciscan monk in the town of Freiberg
in Germany.

Blowback - In firearm, an automatic and semi-automatic firearm design,

that directly utilizes the breech pressure exerted on the head of the
cartridge cases to actuate the mechanism. In ammunition, a leakage
of gas re-ward between the case and chamber wall from the mouth of
the case.

Bolt Action Type a firearm in which the breech closure is

(1) in line with the bore at all times,
(2) manually reciprocated to load, unload and cock
(3) and is locked in place by breech bolt lugs and engaging abutments
usually in the receiver.

Bore - the interior of the barrel of a gun or firearm.

Breechface - is the front part of the breechblock that makes contact

with the cartridge in a firearm. The breech block (or breechblock) in
a gun is what holds a round in the chamber, and absorbs the recoil
of the cartridge when the round is fired, preventing the cartridge
case from moving.

Broach Cutter - used to create a rifling impressions on a barrel.

Broach, Gang A tool having a series of cutting edges of slightly
increasing height used to cut the spiral grooves in a barrel. All
groves are cut with a single pass of the broach.

Broach, Single a non-adjustable rifling cutter which cuts all the

grooves simultaneously, and is in a series of increasing dimensions
until the desired groove depth is achieved.

Browning, J.M. - born in 1855. Started the production of single shot

rifle that was adopted by Winchester.

Buckshot - coarse lead shot used in shotgun shells. Lead pellets

ranging in size from .20 inches to .36 inch diameter normally
loaded in shotshells.

Buffer - in a firearm, any part intended to absorb shock and check


Bullet - a projectile propelled from the firearm. A metallic or non

metallic cylindrical projectile. Originated from the French word
BOULETTE, a small ball. In common police par lane, a bullet maybe
called SLUG.

Two Basic Types of Commercial Bullets in Common Used Today.

1. Lead Bullets - are used in almost all revolver ammunition
and in some low or medium powder rifle cartridges.
Are produced in automatic swedging machine from extruded wire
containing the proper percentage of tin and antimony for
2. Jacketed Bullets - are used for automatic pistols ammunition
and medium and high power rifle ammunition. The most common
are those from the blowback- .25 ACP, .380 ACP, 9mm luger,
.45 ACP (Automatic Colt Pistol) and several types of high
velocity .30s. These are all made automatically by swedging
a cup of metal around a lead core.

Armor-Piercing Bullets - is pointed flat base bullet with

gliding metal jacket. The core is of pointed, boat-tailed shape
and is made of harden tungsten, chrome steel and has a blackened
tip. Used to penetrate armored cars and vehicles.

Tracer Bullet - when fired, emit a light red flame from its base,
there by showing the gunner the trace of flame, the path as well
as the striking point of the bullet, the flame continuing to burn
and trace for about 600 yards. These are intended primarily for
machine gun use and can be seen by day and night. The point of
the bullet colored red is for identification. These are used only
in the military service, and were never sold to individuals.
Should an individual obtain one or more of these cartridges,
he should at once return it to military control or else dispose
of these by throwing into a deep river or lake, as they are
exceedingly dangerous to have around. This should never be
Monkeyed with, and particularly no attempt should be made to
unload them for examination, as these may ignite and cause
exceedingly serious burn or fire. The ingredients used in tracer
and igniter mixtures are confidential.

Incendiary Bullet - is similar in construction to a tracer bullet,

but the composition contained in the cavity burns fiercely impact
with a very hot flame which will quite reliably ignite anything
that the bullet strikes. For identification purposes the
incendiary bullet has a light blue color. The same precaution
should be observed as with tracer cartridges.

Dum-Dum Bullet - this word and type of bullet were invented by

British Ordinance force stationed at their arsenal at Dum-Dum,
India. The British army was engaged in extensive Punitive
expedition on the Northwest Frontier of India, fighting against
Afghan and Pathan tribesmen. It soon develop that such a full
jacketed bullet was of no practical effect against primitive
natures. So the English made some of these bullets expanding
by grinding of the nose of the jacketed bullet. These are now
known as Hallow Point bullet and Soft Point Bullet.

Gas Check Bullet - to prevent the melting of the base, lead

bullets intended to be fired at higher velocity have their gases
protected with a small copper cups. The bullet is casts with a
slightly tape-ring base, and the copper gas chock is then pressed
lightly on the bore, the cup remaining on the bullet when it
is fired.

Wad Cutter Bullet - a cylindrical bullet design having a sharp

shouldered nose intended to cut target paper clearly to
facilitate easy and accurate soaring.

Wax Bullet - a bullet made from paraffin and other wax

preparation usually used for short range indoor target shooting.

Marks Found Of Fired Bullets

1. Landmarks - depressed portion caused by the lands.
2. Groove Marks - raised on elevated portions caused by the
3. Skid Marks - when the bullet enters the rifled bore from
a stationary position and is forced abruptly into the
rifling, its natural tendency is to go straight toward
before encountering the regular rifling twist.
4. Slippage Marks - bullets fired from a worn-out barrel,
oily barrels and slightly oversized bullets.
5. Shaving Marks - most commonly these marks are found on the
bullets fires from a revolver due to a poor alignment of
the cylindrical with the bore.

Identification of a Bullet - Principles

1. No two barrels are microscopically identical as the surfaces
of their bores all possess individual and characteristics
on their own.
2. When a bullet is fired from a rifled barrel, it becomes
engraved by the riflings and this engraving will vary in
its minute details with every individual bore. So it happens
that the engravings on the bullet fired from one barrel will
be different from that on a similar bullet fired from another
barrel. And conversely the engraving on bullets fired from
the same barrel will be the same.
3. Every barrel leaves its thumb marks on every bullet which
is fired through it, just as every breech face leaves its
thumb marks on the base of every fired cartridge case.

Test Bullet - a bullet fired from a bullet recovery system for

comparison analysis.

Bullet Recovery System - Any method which will allow the undamaged
recovery of a fired bullet. Differing systems are needed for different
cartridges depending upon bullet composition, jacket thickness, and
velocity. Water tanks and cotton boxes are most commonly in use.

Bullet Splash - The spatter and fragmentation of a bullet upon

impacting a hard surface.

Bullet Wipe - The discolored area on the immediate periphery of a

bullet hole, caused by bullet lubricant, lead, smoke, bore debris,
or possible jacket material. Sometimes called "Burnishing" or
"Leaded Edge".

Button a hardened metal plug, called a button, with a rifled cross

section configuration. It is pushed or pulled through a drilled and
reamed barrel so as to cold form the spiral grooves to the desired
depth and twist. When the carbide button was first introduced it was

Caliber - the diameter of the bore of a rifled firearm. The caliber is

usually expressed in hundredths of an inch or millimeters.

Land to Land - the way to determine the caliber of a gun is to

measure the diameter of the bore from land to land.

Cane gun, Knife pistols - many devices primarily designed for another
purposes will have a gun mechanism incorporated in them.
(also known as FREAKISH DEVICE)

Cannelure - a circumferential groove generally of a knurled or plain

appearance on a bullet or cartridge. These three uses including
crimping, lubrication and identification.

Cartridge - a term to describe a complete un-fired unit, consisting

of bullet, primer, cartridge case and gunpowder.

Test Cartridge Case - a cartridge case obtain while test firing

a firearm in a laboratory to be used for comparison or analysis.

Function Of Cartridge Cases

1. It holds the bullet gunpowder and primer.
2. It serves as a water proof container for the gunpowder.
3. It prevents the escape of gases to the rear.

Marks Found on Cartridge Cases

1. Firing pin impression the indentation in the primer of a
tentative cartridge case or in the rim of a rimface
cartridge case cause when it is struck by the firing pin.
2. Breechface Markings negative impression of the breechface
of the firearm found on the head of the cartridge case
after firing.
3. Chamber Marks individual microscope marks placed upon a
cartridge case by the chamber wall as a result of any of
the following:
a. Chambering
b. Expanding during firing
c. Extraction
4. Extractor Marks toolmarks produced upon a cartridge case
form contact with the extractor. These are usually found on
or just ahead of the rim.
5. Ejector Marks toolmarks produced upon a cartridge or
cartridge case on the head, generally at or near the rim,
form contact with the ejector.

Cape Gun a doubled-barreled shoulder arm with barrel side by side :

one being smooth bore and the other being rifled.

Case Head - The base of the cartridge case which contains the primer.

Cast-Off - the off-set of the butt of a firearm to the right handed

shooter and to the right for a left-handed shooter.

Cast-On - the offset of the butt of a firearm to the left for a

right-handed shooter and to the right for a left handed shooter.

Chamber - the rear part of the barrel bore that has been formed to
accept a specific cartridge. Revolver cylinders are multi-chambered.

Cock - place a firing mechanism under a spring tension. Raise the cock
of (a gun) in order to make it ready for firing.

Full Cock - the position of the hammer or strike when the

firearm is ready to fire.

Compensator - (MuzzleBrake) a device attached to or integral with the

muzzle end of the barrel to utilize propelling gases for counter-recoil.

CETME - Centro dos Studios Technicos de Materiales Especiales. This

is Spanish government weapon development agency, based in Madrid.

Class Characteristics - Are those characteristics which are determinable

only after the manufacture of the firearm. They are characteristics
whose existence is beyond the control of man and which have random
distribution. There existence in the firearms is brought about by
the tools in their normal operations resulting through wear and tear,
abuse, mutilation, corrosion, erosion and other fortuitous causes.

Classification of Cartridge According to Rim

1. Rimmed Type - the diameter of the rim is greater than the
diameter of the body of the cartridge case. e.g. caliber
.38 and caliber .22.
2. Semi-Rimmed Type- the diameter of the rim is slightly
greater than the diameter of the body of the cartridge case.
e.g. caliber .25. 32 auto. Super .38.
3. Rimless Type - the diameter of the rim is equal to the body
of the cartridge case. e.g. caliber .5.56mm, .30, .9mm, .45.
4. Rebated Type- the diameter of the rim is smaller than the
body of the cartridge case. e.g. caliber 8mm x 59.
5. Belted Type - there is a protruding metal around the body
of the cartridge case near the rim. e.g. caliber 338 magnum
13.9 x 39

Colt - Samuel Colt was born on July 1814 in was to be instrumental

in making the revolver a practical type of pistol.

Cylinder - storage for ammunition in a revolver, the cylinder rotates

as the action is cocked.

DAMSCUS - an obsolete barrel making process the barrel is formed by

twisting or braiding together steel and iron wires or bars. Sometimes

Derringer, Henry - born in the beginning of 19th century. Worked at

Philadelphia where he manufactured Pocket Pistol.

Drilling - refers to a combination gun that has three barrels.

Ejector Rod - metal rod used to help with the removal of the cartridges.

Energy Bullet - the capacity of a projectile to do work.

Firearms Identification - a discipline mainly concerned with determining

whether a bullet or cartridge was fired by a particular weapon.

Firing Pin - is a lightweight part, which serves to transfer energy

from a spring-loaded hammer to the primer, while a striker is
usually heavier, and is directly connected to the spring providing
the energy to impact the primer.

Flare guns - used in cases such in sending signals and enabling to

see enemies in the dark.

Forensic Ballistics - A scientific study of firearm identification

with the use of laboratory examination. The subject gives emphasis
on the study of ammunitions, projectiles, gunpowder, primer and
explosives, including the use of the bullet comparison microscope.
It also deals with the principles in the microscopic and
macroscopic examination of firearm evidence and the preparation of
reports for legal proceedings in the solution of cases involving

Types of Problems in Forensic Ballistics

1. Given a bullet to determine the caliber and type of firearm
from which it was fire.
2. Given fired cartridge case, to determine the caliber and
type of firearm from which it was fired.
3. Given a bullet and a suspected firearm, to determine whether
or not the bullet was fired from the suspected firearm.
4. Given a fired cartridge case a suspected firearm, to determine
whether or not the cartridge was fired from the suspected
5. Given two or more bullets, to determine whether or not they
were fired from only one firearm.
6. Given two or more cartridge cases, to determine whether or
not they were fired.

Equipments used In A Ballistics Laboratory

1. Comparison Microscope - This valuable instrument is specially
designed to permit the firearm examiner to determine the
similarity and dissimilarity between two fired bullets or
two fired cartridge cases by simultaneously observing their
magnified image. It is actually two microscope couple together
with a single or two eye piece, so that when one looks through
this comparison eye piece, he is seeing one half of what is
under the other in other words, half of the evidence bullet
and half of the test bullet.
2. Stereoscope Microscope - This is generally used in the
preliminary examination of fired bullets and fired shells.
To determine the location of the extractor marks and ejector
marks for orientation purposes. It can be used also in one
close-up examination of tampered serial numbers of firearms.
3. Comparison Projector - CP6 This is generally used in the
preliminary examination of fired bullets and fired shells.
To determine the location of the extractor marks and ejector
marks for orientation purposes. It can be used also in one
close-up examination of tampered serial numbers of firearms.
4. Bullet Recovery Box - For obtaining best fired bullet or
test fired cartridge cases from the suspected firearms
submitted to the ballistics laboratory. In test firing
suspected firearms, it is standard procedure to used
ammunition that are of the same caliber, make or brand and
manufactured in the same year with that of the evidence
bullet or shell.
Water is one of the means to obtain test bullets and test
shells because the microscope marks on the cylindrical or
peripheral surface of the bullets are preserved for good
used. The same is true with cotton.
5. Measuring Projector - MP6 This projector determines the
width of the lands, width of grooves, diameter and twist
of fired bullets.
6. Verneir Caliper - This instrument determines the bullet
diameter and barrel length.
7. Analytical Balance - This more or less determines the weight
of the bullets, shots and pellets for possible type, caliber
and make for firearm from which they were fired.
8. Taper Gauge - Used for determining the diameter of the bore
of the firearms.
9. Onoscope - For examining the interior surface of the barrel.
10.Helixometer - For measuring the pitch of the rifling. Pitch
of rifling is the distance advanced by the rifling in one
complete turn or a distance traveled by the bullet in one
complete turn.
11.Chronograph - For determining the speed of the bullet or
the muzzle velocity of the bullet.

Fouling - the residual deposits remaining in the bore of a firearm

after firing.

Garand, John C. - was born in North Carolina in 1818. Developed the

hang-ranked machine gun. A development of Duver Gatling type of
machine gun.

Gas Guns these will be found in all shapes and sizes and used for
firing tear gas and other forms of disabling gases.

Gas Operated - an automatic or semi-automatic firearm in which the

propellant gases are used to unlock the breech bolt and then to
complete the cycle of extracting and expecting.

Gas Port - an opening in the wall of a barrel to allow gas to

operate a mechanism or reduce recoil.

Grip - handle of the handgun.

Gunpowder - any of the various powder used in firearms as propellant


Types of Gunpowder
1. Black powder - consists of the jet black and rather shiny
grains. Although black powder has been in used for about
six centuries, and although methods of manufactured are
naturally led to greater efficiency in action, its
composition has remained practically the same in all
2. Smokeless Powder - a mixture of nitrocellulose 60 parts,
nitroglycerine 35 parts and Vaseline 5 parts. These
substances are almost entirely smokeless in action. They are
all given the generic term of nitro powders and are legion in
number. All nitro powders used 2. in rifles, pistols, and
revolvers are a gelatinized powder that is they are made by
forming dough into sticks or grains. The identification of
partially burnt powder grains may become a matter of vital
importance, since such grains maybe found around the entrance
hole of a wound, and it will obviously help if the type of
powder can be identified from these unburnt grains.

Hammer - part that strikes the primer to cause ignition.

Hammerli, Johann Ulrich - hammerli weapons has always been the
epitome of Swiss precision Engineering ability.

Handgun - a revolver or a pistol.

Harpoon Guns - barbed spear in hunting large fish.

Headspace - is the distance measured from the part of the chamber

that stops forward motion of the cartridge (the datum reference) to
the face of the bolt.

Headstamp - numerals, letters and symbols stamped into the head of

the cartridge case or shotshell to identify the manufacture caliber
gauge or give additional information.

Heckler and Kock Edmond Heckler has been a plant manager with
Mauser, and Alex Siedel a designer with Mauser.

Hook a cutting tool which cuts has hook shape and only cuts one
grooves at a time.

Keyhole - an oblong or an oval hole in a target that is produced by

an unstable bullet striking the target at an oblique angle to the
bullets. Longitudinal axis.

Leading - the accumulation of lead in the bore of a firearm from the

passage of lead shot or bullet. Also called METAL FOULING.

Lever Action Type a design wherein the breech mechanism is cycled

by an external lever generally below the receiver.

Liberator made by the US government for use in occupied countries

in Europe during the recent war and fired the .45ACP cartridge,
single shot and smooth bore.

Lubaloy - is a wrought copper alloy that is composed mainly of copper

and zinc. In 1922, the Western Cartridge Company introduced a
copper-washed bullet jacketing called Lubaloy which stands for
lubricating alloy. Lubaloy replaced standard bullet jacketing which
had been cupro-nickel coated steel or solid cupro-nickel.

Luger, George - was born in Australia in 1849. he did lasting designed

work in connection with 9mm Parabellum cartridge.

Machine Gun Type primarily used only in military combat and will
seldom be encountered by the firearms technician.

Machine Markings - a cross section of a gun barrel will show small

grooves or striations all along the lands and grooves.

Marlin, John Mahlon - New Haven, Connecticut manufacturer of lever

action rifle, 1800s.
Mauser - Paul and Wilhelm brothers produced parts of the rifle which
had been adopted by the German government in 1871.

Mossberge, Oscar - born in Sweden in 1866 and went to the United

States. The maker of high quality .22 rifles. Sporting rifles and
pump action shotguns.

Mossin, Sergei - Colonel of Russia Army. Designated in Russian Service

Rifle in 1891.

Multi Barreled guns in particular one will find guns having the
three or four barrels are mounted in one receiver. Some may have
a combination of several different gauges of shotguns, or a
combination of shotgun barrels and rifle barrel.

Muzzle - the end of the barrel through which the bullet exits.

Muzzle Energy - is the kinetic energy of a bullet as it is expelled

from the muzzle of a firearm. It is often used as a rough indication
of the destructive potential of a given firearm or load.

Nambu, Kijiro - an army gun officer designer. His first design was
produced by the Kayoba Factory in 1904.

Paradox - an obsolete barrel designed in which the major length of

the barrel is smooth and last few inches are rifled.

Pen Gun - a small caliber firearm shaped like a pen or pencil.

Powder - commonly used term for the propellant in a cartridge or


Pressure - in a firearm, the force developed by the expanding gasses

generated by the combustion of the propellant.

Primer - The ignition components of cartridge primers are used for

igniting prominent. A blow from the firing pin of the firing cup
compresses the priming composition to detonate. This detonation
produces a flame which passes through the vent of flesh hole in the
cartridge case, igniting the gunpowder.

Composition of a Primer
1. Potassium Chlorate - 45%
2. Antimony Sulfide - 23%
3. Fulminate of Mercury - 32%

Proofmark - a distinctive symbol stamped into the metal of the barrel

or other part of a firearm to indicate that testing of the part bearing
the stamp by firing proof loads has been carried out.

Proof Test - is a form of stress test to demonstrate the fitness of a

load-bearing structure. The firing of a deliberate overload to test the
strength of a firearm barrel an action.
Rachet - a notched wheel on the rear of a revolver cylinder to rotate
when a force is applied by a level hold a hand.

Recoil - (often called knockback, kickback or simply kick) is the

backward momentum of a gun when it is discharged. In technical terms,
the recoil caused by the gun exactly balances the forward momentum of
the projectile and exhaust gases (ejecta), according to
Newton's third law.

Reload - a cartridge, which have been reassembled with a new primer,

powder and or other components.

Repeating Arms this type is loaded with more than cartridge into
the chamber when it is fired rather having to perform this operation
by hand.

Resizing - the reduction in diameter of a fire cartridge case to

unfired diameter by forcing it into die of smaller size than the
fired case.

Ricochet - is a rebound, bounce or skip off a surface, particularly in

the case of a projectile.

Rifling - refers to helical grooves in the barrel of a gun or

firearm, which imparts a spin to a projectile around its long axis.

Types of Riflings
1. Steyr Type - four lands, four grooves, right hand twist and
lands or equal widths ( 4-R-G=L) used in earlier
self-loading pistols.
2. Smith and Wesson Type - five lands and five grooves, right
hand twist and lands of equal width (5-R-G=L)
3. Browning Type- six lands, six grooves, right hand twist,
narrow lands and broad grooves. (6-R-G-2x)
4. Colt Type- six lands and six grooves, left hand twist, narrow
lands and broads grooves. (6-L-G-2x)
5. Webley Type- seven lands, seven grooves, right hand twist,
narrow lands and broad grooves. (7-R-G3x)
6. Army Type- four lands and four grooves, right hand twist,
narrow lands and broad grooves. ( 4-R-G3x)

Round - a military term for a cartridge.

Scrape a cutting tool which cuts two opposing grooves at a time.

Shocking Power - the ability of a projectile to dissipate its kinetic

energy effectively in a target.

Shot - a small ball or pellet of lead, a number of which are loaded

in a cartridge and used for one charge of a shotgun.

Birdshot - the smallest size of shot for sporting rifles or

other guns.
Shotshell - a cartridge containing projectile designed to be fired
in a shotgun. The cartridge body maybe metal, plastic or paper.

Semi-Automatic Type A firearm requiring a separate pull of the

trigger for each shot fired, and which uses the energy of discharge
to perform a portion of the operating or firing cycle.

Serial Number - a number applied to a firearm in order to identify the

individual firearm.

Shell - an explosive artillery projectile or bomb.

Identification of Shells - Principles

1. The breech face and striker of every single firearm leave
microscopically individualities of their own.
2. The firearm leaves its fingerprints or thumb mark on
every cartridge case which it fires.
3. The whole principle of identification is based on the fact
that since the breech face of every weapon must be
individually distinct, the cartridge cases which it fires are
imprinted with this individuality. The imprint on all cartridge
cases fired from the same weapon are always the same, those
on cartridge cases fired form different weapons must always
be different.

Shotgun - a smooth-bore gun for firing small shot at short range.

a. Single Barreled shotgun it is loaded with a single shotgun
cartridge, closed. Fired and then re-loaded by the shooter.
b. Double barreled shotgun the two barrels may be side by side
or they may be one over the other. Each barrel may have its
own trigger.
c. Pump action shotgun - operates in the same manner as a slide
action rifles, by means of sliding lever under the barrel.
d. Auto loading shotguns - these are the same as auto-loading or
self-loading rifles in that the recoil action reloads the gun
form the magazine without any effort on the part of the shooter.


government as their standard service weapon. The company started to
produced railway engines and carriage in 1853.

Sidelock A design in which the firing mechanism is attached to a

sideplate rather than being integral with the frame.

Sight - device used for aiming.

Silencer - a device attach to the barrel of the firearm to reduce

the noise of discharge. Also called SOUND SUPPRESSOR.

Single Shot Firearms those type of firearms that is designated to

shoot only one shot.

Slide Action Type a firearm which features a movable forearm which

is manually actuated in motion parallel to the barrel by the shooter.
Forearm motion is transmitted to a breech blot assembly which performs
all the function of the firing cycle assigned to it by the design.
Also known as PUMP ACTION.

Sling - a strap fasten to a firearm to assist in carrying or to

steady it during firing. A sling may also refer to a projectile
weapon typically used to throw a blunt projectile such as a stone,
clay or lead "sling-bullet".

Slug - a projectile generally fired from a shotgun either one large

piece of lead or several smaller caliber pieces.

Rifled Slug - a simple projectile in spiral grooves and hollow

base, intended to use in shotgun. The slug will rotate, and
thus, reach its target much more accurate.

Smith and Wesson - Horace Smith and Daniel B. Wesson formed a

partnership in 1852. They manage by producing what is probably the
best double-action revolver in the world. (Daniel Wesson left the
company to set up his own firearm business).

Smoke Ring - the circular gray deposits around the face of the chamber
of a revolver produce by gun powder residues upon discharge.

Stock - also known as a shoulder stock, a buttstock, or simply a

butt is a part of a rifle or other firearm, to which the barrel and
firing mechanism are attached, that is held against one's shoulder
when firing the gun.

Striations - (Striae) When a bullet is fired through a rifled barrel,

the raised and lowered spirals of the rifling etch fine grooves called
"striations" into the bullet.

Characteristics of Striations Depend Upon The ff: Factors

1. The size and shape of the microscopic irregularities on
the acting tool.
2. The original surface smoothness of the object acted upon.
3. Relative hardness of the two materials.
4. Speed of application or rate of relative motion.
5. Pressure areas involved
6. Texture and uniformity of material acted upon.

Submachine Type is alight, portable machine gun which uses pistol

size ammunition. It differs from a pistol in it that has a shoulder
stock which may or may not fold but is designed to be fired by the
use of both hands.

Swage an internal mandrel with rifling configuration which forms

rifling in the barrel by means of the external hammering. Also known

Tattoing - small hemorrhagic marks on the skin produce by the impact

of gun powder particles also called STRIPPLING.
Thompson, John - born in 1860 in Newport, Kentucky. Designed the
Thompson submachine gun in 1920.

Thumb Rest - a ledge in the grip area of a rifle or hand gun in which
to rest the thumb of the trigger hand.

Trailing Edge - the edge of a land or groove impression in a fire

bullet which is opposites the driving edge of the same land or
groove impressions.

Trajectory - the curved path of a projectile from muzzle to target.

Trap Door An action in which a top hinged breechblock pivots up

and forward to open. Locking on this action is accomplished by a
cam located at the rear of the breechblock that fits into a
mating recess. Also known as a CAM LOCK.

Trigger - is a mechanism that actuates the firing of firearms.

Trigger Guard - trigger guard is a loop surrounding the trigger of

a firearm and protecting it from accidental discharge.

Trigger Pull - the amount of force, which must firearm to cause sear

Tokarev, Fedor - born in Egorlikshaya in 1971. Designed the service

pistol of the Soviet forces.

Tool Marks Identification - is a discipline of forensic science which

has, as its primary concern to determine if a tool mark was produced
by a particular tool.

Two General Type of Tool Marks

1. Impression Type - which as its name implies a little more than
a bent. A pry-bar may leave an impression type-mark on a window
frame to which is applied. The shape and the size of the mark,
plus irregularities cause by nicks or breaks in the pry-bar,
may be such as to permit a positive statement as to its source.
2. Striated Tool Mark- is left by a tool scrapping over an object
or surface softer than him. Thus, a pry-bar which slips during
the application may scraped over the jamb of a door, leaving
striate. Tin Snips or Bolt Cutter have blades which frequently
leave striate on the edges of metal cut. An axe will leave
striate on wood chips, as well as the auger or blade of a
plane. Mechanical tool as a planner, joiner, and lathe all
have blades and edges which leaves striate on chips, shaving
and stock being worked. Many examples should be given but
these are typical if the tool most commonly encountered in
the criminal investigations. Striated marks are often referred
to a friction marks, abrasion marks or scratched marks.

Tools there are a number of tools using cartridges which are

designed to drive studs, punch holes or cut tables. Such tools may
be encountered in the investigation of an accident.
Traps these are designed to be set in the woods and left where
animals will encounter them. They may fire a bullet or a poison
charge, depending on their construction.

Trigger - small lever that is pulled or squeezed to start the firing


Trigger Guard - piece that surrounds the trigger to protect it from

being accidentally squeezed or bumped.

Velocity - the speed of the projectile at a given point along its


Vierling - A four-barreled gun, typically with two identical shotgun

barrels and with two rifle barrels of differing calibres. Built
primarily in Germany and Austria.

Walther, Carl - developed a reliable small caliber automatic pistol

in 1866.

Walker Test - the original chemical test for the detection of spatial
distributions of nitrites in gun powder residue.

Winchester, Oliver - he led the formation of the Winchester Company.

Types Of Cartridge Case According To Location Of Primer

1. Pin-Fire Cartridge - the pin extent radially through the bead of
the cartridge case into the primer. This type of cartridge is no longer use.
2. Rim-Fire Cartridge- the priming mixture is place in the cavity
formed in the rim of the head of the cartridge case.
3. Center-Fire Cartridge- the primer cup is force to the middle
portion of the head of the cartridge case.
4. Percussion - a means of ignition of propellant change by a
mechanical blow against the primer or percussion cap.
a. Low Power - a cartridge giving a muzzle velocity of less
than 1850 ft/sec.
b. High Power- a cartridge giving a muzzle velocity of between
1925 and 2500 ft/sec.
c. High Intensity- a cartridge giving a muzzle velocity over
2500 ft/sec.

Yaw - the angle between longitudinal axis of a projectile and the

line of the projectile trajectory.

Zip guns - these may be in any form, since the name has been applied
to all homemade guns. A great many of this class will be found to
be exceedingly clever mechanisms and most effective weapon.

Zwilling - European term for a double barreled shoulder arm with one
rifle and one smooth bore barrel.

Abortion - is the termination of pregnancy by the removal or expulsion

from the uterus of a fetus or embryo before viability.

Algor mortis (Latin: algor - coldness; mortis - death) is the reduction

in body temperature following death.

Rigor mortis (Latin: rigor - stiffness, mortis - death") is one

of the recognizable signs of death, caused by chemical changes
in the muscles after death, causing the limbs of the corpse to
become stiff and difficult to move or manipulate.

Importance Of Rigor Mortis

- Rigor mortis is utilized to approximate the time of death.
Generalized muscular contractionsoccur from 3 to 6 hours
until 36 hours.

Autopsy - a post-mortem examination to discover the cause of death or

the extent of disease. Autopsy is derived from the Greek word
"autos" - oneself and "opsis" - sight/view.

Who are authorized to perform autopsy

1. Health officers
2. Medical officer of law enforcement agencies
3. Members of the medical staff of accredited hospitals

When Autopsy performed

1. Written request of nearest kin to ascertain cause of death
2. Order of competent court, mayor, prosecutor
3. Written request of a law enforcement officer
4. When required by special law
5. Solgen, prosecutor to determine cause of death

Principal Aim Of An Autopsy

1. To determine the cause of death
2. To determine the state of health of the person before he or
she died,
3. To determine whether any medical diagnosis and treatment
before death was appropriate.

Types of Autopsies
1. Medico-Legal Autopsy or Forensic or coroner's - autopsies
seek to find the cause and manner of death and to identify
the decedent.
2. Clinical or Pathological autopsies are performed to diagnose
a particular disease or for research purposes.
3. Anatomical or Academic Autopsies - are performed by students
of anatomy for study purpose only.
4. Virtual or Medical Imaging Autopsies - are performed utilizing
imaging technology only, primarily magnetic resonance
imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT).

Forensic Autopsy - is used to determine the cause and manner

of death.

Anatomy - the branch of science concerned with the bodily structure

of humans, animals, and other living organisms, especially as revealed
by dissection and the separation of parts.

Biochemistry - the branch of science concerned with the chemical and

physico-chemical processes and substances which occur within living

Cadaveric Spasm - also known as postmortem spasm, instantaneous rigor,

cataleptic rigidity, or instantaneous rigidity, is a rare form of
muscular stiffening that occurs at the moment of death, persists
into the period of rigor mortis and can be mistaken for rigor mortis.

Cadaveric spasm occurs immediately after death and is useful

to ascertain the circumstances of death.

Cerebral Concussion there is a brief loss of consciousness and

sometimes memory after ahead injury that doesnt cause obvious
physical damage.

Cerebral Contusion they are bruises to the brain, usually caused by

a direct, strong blow to the head. They are more serious than

Circulatory System - also called the cardiovascular system, is an

organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients
(such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide,
hormones, and blood cells to and from cells in the body to nourish
it and help to fight diseases, stabilize body temperature and pH, and
to maintain homeostasis.

Contempt of Court - any willful disobedience to or disregard of a

court order or any misconduct in the presence of a court action that
interferes with a judge's ability to administer justice or that
insults the dignity of the court. Punishable by fine or imprisonment
or both.

Contusion - also called a bruise, is a type of hematoma of tissue in

which capillaries and sometimes venules are damaged by trauma,
allowing blood to seep, hemorrhage, or extravasate into the surrounding
interstitial tissues.

Death - Complete cessation of all cardio- pulmonary (heart-lungs)

and/or cessation of brain activity.
Death is the termination of all biological functions that sustain a
living organism.

Kinds of Death
1. Somatic or Clinical Death - permanent cessation of all vital
bodily functions.
2. Molecular or Cellular Death - refers to the death of cells.
3 to 6 hours after cessation of life.
3. Apparent death or State of Suspended Animation - a state in
which the processes of the body (such as blood circulation)
stop or become very slow for a period of time while a person
or animal is unconscious.

Leading Causes of Death In The World

1. Ischaemic heart disease
2. Stroke (cerebrovascular diseases)
3. Lower respiratory infections
4. Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease

Signs Of Death
1. Cessation of heart action and circulation
2. Cessation of respiration
3. Cooling of the body (Algor Mortis) - The temperature of
1520 degrees Fahrenheit is considered as ascertain sign of
4. Loss of motor power
5. Loss of sensory power
6. Changes in the skin
7. Changes in and about the eye - There is loss of corneal reflex

Declaration of Tokyo - is a set of international guidelines for

physicians concerning torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading
treatment or punishment in relation to detention and imprisonment,
which was adopted in October 1975 during the 29th General assembly
of the World Medical Association.

Defloration - is the laceration or rupture of the hymen as a result

of sexual intercourse.

Dermis - the thick layer of living tissue below the epidermis which
forms the true skin, containing blood capillaries, nerve endings,
sweat glands, hair follicles, and other structures.

Digestive System - digestive system is a group of organs working

together to convert food into energy and basic nutrients to feed the
entire body.

Dr. Pedro P. Solis - Philippines father of Legal Medicine.

Ecchymosis - a discoloration of the skin resulting from bleeding

underneath, typically caused by bruising.

Endocrine System - refers to the collection of glands of an organism

that secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system to be
carried towards a distant target organ.
Epidermis - the outermost layer of the skin of a human or other
vertebrate animal.

Euthanasia - Meaning good death ( well or good ), Refers to the

practice of ending life in a painless manner. Deliberate intervention
undertaken with the express intention of ending life, to relieve
intractable suffering.

Excretory System - is a passive biological system that removes excess,

unnecessary materials from an organism, so as to help maintain
homeostasis within the organism and prevent damage to the body.

Homeostasis -means remaining stable or remaining the same.

Firearm identification - used to determine whether the gun that is

subject of the investigation has the same gun used or fired.

Forensic Medicine - application of medical science to elucidate

legal problems.

Forensic Science - involves the application of the sciences to answer

questions of interest to the legal system.

Four 4 Signs of Inflammation

1. Rubor - redness
2. Calor - heat
3. Tumor - swelling
4. Dulor - pain

Fracture - comes from the Latin word fractura which means a break in
the continuity of the bone. It is also a combination of a break in
the bone and soft tissue injury.

Frostbite - injury to body tissues caused by exposure to extreme cold,

typically affecting the nose, fingers, or toes and often resulting
in gangrene.

Frostnip - the initial stages of frostbite.

Gynecology - the branch of physiology and medicine which deals with
the functions and diseases specific to women and girls, especially
those affecting the reproductive system.

Hematoma - is a collection of blood outside of a blood vessel.

Incision - a surgical cut made in skin or flesh.

Injury - is the damage to a biological organism caused by physical


Coup Injury - injury at the site of application of force.

Contre-Coup Injury - injury opposite the site of application

of force.

Coup-Conre-Coup Injury - injury at the site and opposite the

site of application of force.

Locus Minoris Resistentiae - injury not at the site and not

opposite the site of application of force but at the site
offering least resistance.

Extensive Injury - injury on greater area more than the site

of application of force.

Integumentary system - is the organ system that protects the body

from various kinds of damage, such as loss of water or abrasion from
outside. The system comprises the skin and its appendages, including
hair, scales, feathers, hooves, and nails.

Laceration - a deep cut or tear in skin or flesh. A wound that is

produced by the tearing of soft body tissue. This type of wound is
often irregular and jagged.

Lazarus Syndrome - is also called Lazarus Phenomenon, is the

spontaneous return of circulation after failed attempts at
Lazarus Sign - or Lazarus reflex is a reflex movement in brain dead
patients, which causes them to briefly raise their arms and drop
them crossed on their chests.

Legal Medicine - Branch of medicine which deals with the application

of medical knowledge to the purpose of law and in the administration
of justice. Application of medicine to legal cases.

Livor Mortis - is a settling of the blood in the lower (dependent)

portion of the body, causing a purplish red discoloration of the skin.
From the latin word "livor" - bluish color and "mortis" - of death.
Also known as post-mortem lividity.

Mayhem - intentional maiming of another person.

Mechanical Trauma - is an injury to any portion of the body from a

blow, crush, cut, or penetrating wound.

Medical Evidence - is the means sanctioned by the rules of court of

ascertaining in a judicial proceeding the truth respecting a matter
of fact.

Types of Evidence
1. Real Evidence/Autoptic - made known to the senses
2. Testimonial Evidence - oral testimony under oath
3. Experimental Evidence
4. Documentary Evidence

Medical Jurisprudence - knowledge of law in relation to the practice

of medicine.

Medico-Legal officer - (medical examiner) a physician who determines

the cause of injury/death/disease by examining the patient/cadaver
and testify in court to aid in the administration of justice.

Mental Deficiency or mental retardation, is sub average intellectual

ability present from birth or early infancy. Intelligence is both
determined by heredity and environment. In most cases of mental
deficiency, the cause is unknown.
Classification of Mental Deficiency
1. Idiot The idiots intelligence never exceeds that of a
normal child over 2years old. The IQ is between 0 20.
This is usually congenital.
2. Imbecile the imbeciles intelligence is compared to a normal
child from 2 7 years old and the IQ is 20 40.
3. Feeble Minded his mentality is similar to that of a normal
child between 7 12 years old and an IQ of 40 70.

The Legal Importance of determining the persons state of mind

are the following:
1. In Criminal law, insanity exempts a person from criminal
2. In Civil law, Insanity is a restriction of the capacity of a
natural person to act as provided in Article 38 of the
Civil Code.
3. Insanity modifies or limits the capacity of a natural person
to act as provided in Article 39 of the Civil Code.
4. Insanity at the time of marriage of any or both parties is a
ground for the annulment of marriage.

Mental Health Disorders include disturbances in thinking, emotion,

and behavior. There is a complex interaction between the physical,
psychological, social, cultural and hereditary influences.

Factors that Contribute to the Development of Mental Disorders

1. Heredity the most frequent factor that contributes to
insanity and a good history will reveal the ascendants
afflicted with the same.
2. Incestuous Marriage The mental illness is accentuated when
they are blood relative.
3. Impaired Vitality Stress, tension, worry,grief may
predispose to insanity.
4. Poor Moral Training and Breeding Corrupt moral upbringing
in the family due to immorality of the parents.
5. Psychic Factors Factors like love, hate,rage, anger,
passion disappointments.
6. Physical Factors
a. Non toxic factors exhaustion resulting from severe
physical and mental strain and traumatic injuries
to the head.
b. Toxic factors drug addiction,infections of
the brain.

Kinds of Mental Health Disorders

1. Psychosomatic disorders physical disorders caused by
psychological factors.
2. Somatiform disorders encompasses several psychiatric
disorders in which people report physical symptoms but deny
having psychiatric problems.
3. Generalized Anxiety Disorders
4. Panic Attacks and Panic Disorder
5. Phobic Disorders
a. Agoraphobia
b. Specific phobias
c. Social phobia
6. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
7. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
8. Depression and Mania
9. Bipolar Disorder
10.Suicidal Behavior
11.Eating Disorders
a. Anorexia nervosa
b. Bulimia nervosa
c. Binge eating disorder
12.Personality Disorders
a. Paranoid
b. Schizoid
c. Histrionic
d. Narcissistic
e. Antisocial
f. Borderline
g. Avoidant
h. Dependent
i. Obsessive Compulsive
j. Passive Aggressive
k. Dissociative
13.Schizophrenia a serious mental disorder characterized by
loss of contact with reality(psychosis), hallucinations,
delusions (false beliefs), abnormal thinking, disrupted
work and social functioning.

Types of Schizophrenia
a. Paranoid - is a mental disorder characterized by
paranoia and a pervasive, long-standing
suspiciousness and generalized mistrust of others.
b. Hebephrenic - it is characterized by disorganized
behavior and speech, as well as disturbances in
emotional expression.
c. Catatonic - does not respond to external stimuli.
characterized by a marked lack of movement,
activity, or expression.

14.Delusional Disorder
15.Psychological Incapacity a waste basket diagnosis because
it is so broad a term, that it covers all possible Mental

Some Manifestations of Mental Disorders

1. Disorders of Cognition (Knowing)
a. Illusion
b. Hallucination
2. Disorders of Memory
a. Dementia
3. Disorders in the Content of Thought
A. Delusion
a. Delusion of grandeur
b. Delusion of persecution
c. Delusion of reference
d. Delusion of Self Accusation
e. Delusion of infidelity
f. Nihilistic delusion
g. Delusion of poverty
h. Delusion of control
i. Delusion of depression
B. Obsession
4. Disorders in the trend of thought
Types a. Mania
b. Melancholia
5. Disorders of Emotions or Feelings a disorder in the state
of mind, fervor, or sensibility, not in accord with reality.
6. Disorders of volition or conation (doing)

Conation - the mental faculty of purpose, desire, or will

to perform an action; volition.

Kinds of Conation
A. Impulsion or Impulse (Compulsion) a sudden and
irresistible force compelling a person to the conscious
performance of some action without motive or forethought.

Types of Compulsion
a. Pyromania - from the Greek word "pyr" - fire, is an
impulse control disorder in which individuals
repeatedly fail to resist impulses to deliberately
start fires in order to relieve tension or for
instant gratification.
b. Kleptomania - is the inability to refrain from the
urge to steal items and is done for reasons other
than personal use or financial gain.
c. Dipsomania - an uncontrollable craving for alcoholic
d. Homicidal impulse - occurs when one person kills
another suddenly and without premeditation or
e. Sex impulse - a sudden strong and unreflective urge
or desire to have sex..
f. Suicidal impulse - recurring thoughts of or
preoccupation with suicide.

Mortal Wound - capable of causing death.

Muscular System - is an organ system consisting of skeletal, smooth

and cardiac muscles. It permits movement of the body, maintains
posture, and circulates blood throughout the body.
Mutilation - or maiming is an act of physical injury that degrades
the appearance or function of any living body.

Nervous System - consists of the brain, spinal cord, sensory organs,

and all of the nerves that connect these organs with the rest of the

Obstetrics - branch of medecine that deals with pregnancy, childbirth,

and postpartum period, including care of the newborn.

Paraffin test or Dermal Nitrate test present on the skin of the

hand or site of the wound of entrance. This test is not
conclusive because fertilizers, cosmetics, cigarettes, urine and other
nitrogenous compounds with nitrates will give a positive reaction.
A negative test is also not conclusive . The test usually gives a
positive result even after a lapse of 3days or even if the hands
are subjected to ordinary washing.

Pathology - the science of the causes and effects of diseases,

especially the branch of medicine that deals with the laboratory
examination of samples of body tissue for diagnostic or forensic

Paulus Zacchias - (15841659) is the Father of Forensic Medicine.

Petechiae a circumscribe extravasation of blood in the subcutaneous


Physical Injury - is the effect of some stimulus on the body.

Physical injuries - include those caused by mechanical trauma, heat

and cold, electrical discharges, changes in pressure, and radiation.
Mechanical trauma is an injury to any portion of the body from a
blow, crush, cut, or penetrating wound.

Physics - The subject matter of physics includes mechanics, heat,

light and other radiation, sound, electricity, magnetism, and the
structure of atoms.
Physiology - the branch of biology that deals with the normal
functions of living organisms and their parts.

Post-Mortem - (meaning after death) internal examination of the

dead to determine the cause of death.

Ante-Mortem - before death.

Post-Mortem Caloricity - is the rise of temperature of the body after

death due to rapid and early putrefactive changes, usually in the
first two hours.

Post Mortem Lividity - it occurs in most extensive areas of the most

dependent portions of the body.

Puncture Wound - is usually caused by a sharp pointy object such as

a nail, animal teeth, or a tack. This type of wound usually does not
bleed excessively and can appear to close up.

Putrefaction - or decomposition is the final stage following death,

produced mainly by the action of bacterial enzymes, mostly anaerobic
organisms derived from the vowel. Other enzymes are derived from
fungi and sometimes from insects.

Kinds of Putrefaction:
1. Mummification - is the preservation of a body.
2. Saponification also called Adipocere Formation.
3. Maceration - Softening of the tissues after death by

Reproductive System - or genital system is a system of sex organs

within an organism which work together for the purpose of sexual
reproduction. Many non-living substances such as fluids, hormones,
and pheromones are also important accessories to the reproductive

Respiratory System - (or ventilatory system) is a biological system

consisting of specific organs and structures used for the process
of respiration in an organism. The respiratory system is involved
in the intake and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between an
organism and the environment.

Scald - is a type of burn injury caused by hot liquids or gases.

Sex Crimes - generally involve illegal or coerced sexual conduct by

one person towards another.

Chaste An unmarried woman who has had no carnal knowledge

with men or that she never voluntarily had unlawful sexual
intercourse. These also denotes purity of mind and innocence
of heart.

Virgin A woman who has had no carnal knowledge of man.

Her genital organs have not been altered by carnal connection.

Kinds of Virginity
1. Moral virginity the state of not knowing the nature
of sexual life and not having experience sexual
2. Physical Virginity A condition whereby a woman is
conscious of the nature of sexual life but has not
experienced sexual intercourse.
3. Demivirginity This term refers to a condition of
a woman who permits any form of sexual liberties as
long as they abstain from rupturing the hymen by
sexual act. The woman allows sexual intercourse, but
only inter femora or even inter labia, but not to the
extent of rupturing the hymen.
4. Virgo intacta A truly virgin woman. There is no
structural change in her organ,not withstanding the
fact of a previous sexual intercourse.

Carnal Knowledge - is the act of a man in having sexual bodily

connection with a woman. There is carnal knowledge if there
is the slightest penetration in the sexual organ of the female
by the sexual organ of the male.
Shrapnel - fragments of a bomb, shell, or other object thrown out
by an explosion.

Skeletal System - gives the body its basic framework, providing

structure, protection, and movement.

Subpoena - order issued by the court to a person to appear in court.

Subpoena ad Testificandum- is a court summons to appear and give

oral testimony for use at a hearing or trial.

Surgery - is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual

and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat
a pathological condition such as disease or injury, to help improve
bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.

Topinard and Rolet - two french anatomist who devised a formula for
the determination of the height for male and female.

Toxicology - the branch of science concerned with the nature, effects,

and detection of poisons.

Trauma - injury, a physical wound to the body caused by an external


Virginity - A condition of a female who has not experience sexual

intercourse and whose genital organs have not been altered by carnal
connection and whose hymen is still intact.

Virgo Intacta - literally the term refers to a truly virgin woman;

that there are structural changes in her organ to infer previous
sexual intercourse and that she is a virtuous woman.

Virtuous Female - If her body is pure and if she has never had any
sexual intercourse with another though her mind and heart is impure.

Vital Reaction - the response of living body tissues to injury.

Wound - in legal medicine,it means strictly a solution of continuity.

An injury to living tissue caused by a cut, blow, or other impact,
typically one in which the skin is cut or broken.

Open Wound - there is a break in the continuity of the skin.

1. Abrasion - a wound consisting of superficial damage to
the skin. Scratch, friction mark.
2. Bruise - is a common skin injury that results from the
breakage of tiny blood vessels leaking under the skin. Blood
from damaged blood vessels beneath the skin collects near
the surface of the skin to appear as what we recognize as
a black and blue mark. Cause by a blunt injury to the
tissues which damage blood vessels beneath the surface,
allowing blood to extravasate or leak into the surrounding
3. Incised Wound - caused by a clean, sharp-edged object such
as a knife, razor, or glass splinter.
4. Stab Wound - is a specific form of penetrating trauma to
the skin that results from a knife or a similar pointed
object that is "deeper than it is wide".
5. Punctured Wound - is a deep wound caused by something sharp
and pointed, like a nail. The opening on the skin is small,
and the puncture wound may not bleed much. Puncture wounds
can easily become infected.
6. Perforating Wound - a wound with an entrance and exit opening.
7. Lacerated Wound - that occurs when skin, tissue, and/or
muscle is torn or cut open. Lacerations may be deep or
shallow, long or short, and wide or narrow. Most lacerations
are the result of the skin hitting an object, or an object
hitting the skin with force.
8. Bite - is a wound received from the teeth of an animal,
including humans.
9. Gunshot Wound (GSW) - (Ballistic Trauma) is a form of physical
trauma sustained from the discharge of arms or munitions.

Barotrauma - wound/injury caused by a change in atmospheric


Defense Wound - or self-defense wound is an injury received by

the victim of an attack while trying to defend against the
assailant. often found on the hands and forearms, where the
victim has raised them to protect the head and face or to fend
off an assault, but may also be present on the feet and legs
where a victim attempts defense while lying down and kicking
out at the assailant.


3rd Century A.D. - The earliest handwriting examination cases reported.

6th Century - the Roman Emperor Justinian dictated guidelines for the
use of handwriting comparisons in Roman courts.

1873 - the year in which the first commercially successful

typewriter was introduced.

Addition - inserting or modifying clause or sentence in a document

to alter its meaning.

Substitution - replacing original entries or writing with


Albert Sherman Osborn - became the pre-eminent American pioneer in

the field when he authored "Questioned Documents," a seminal work in
scientific document analysis that remains in print and in use. He
founded the American Society of Questioned Document Examiners in 1942.

Alfred Dreyfus - A French army officer, accused of treason through

letters found attempting to sell French secrets to Germany.
Later found that Dreyfus did not write the letters.

Alignment - relation of successive characters or letter of a word,

signature or line of writing to an actual or imaginary base line.

Alphabet - is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or

graphemes) which is used to write one or more languages based on the
general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic
significant sounds) of the spoken language.
Alteration - any change made on a document before, during, or after
its original execution.

Methods of Alteration
1. Mechanical
2. Chemical

Arrangement - habitual placing and positioning of letters and words.

Casting - was one method used to produce counterfeit coins in Britain

and America during the colonial period. Basically it consisted of
melting metal and then pouring the molten liquid into a mold having
a reservoir in the shape of a coin.

Class Characteristics - common to a group of people. Learned from

school or from an individual's parent or tutor.
Class Characteristics are similarities between individuals who learned
the same type of writing systems.

Individual Characteristics - highly personal or peculiar to a

particular writer. Influenced by habit, mindset, personal
preference. It identifies an individual from other writers.

Types of Individual Characteristics

1. Skill level - the way a writing looks.
2. Slant - is the angle of writing.
3. Form - is the way a writer makes a letter or movement of
letters. Most basic individual characteristic and is very
important to QDE.
4. Movement - is the way a pen moves in order to make a mark or
form a letter. This can help distinguish the difference in
form. 2 letters can be the same, but made in a different way.
5. Proportions - is the symmetry of an individual letter.
6. Height - is comparing the height of one letter to another.
Height, proportions are usually habits found in a
specific writer.
7. I Dot
8. t Crossing
9. Loops - are similar to proportions.
10.Pressure - is the difference in ink or pencil in width or
shade. Helps show direction of movement.
11.Baseline Alignment - The value of this show the questioned
writing in correlation to the baseline. Helps QDE examiners
determine whether the writing was altered or is consistent
with the rest of the writing or other examples.
12.Pen Lifts - Pen lifts are when the pen or pencil is lifted
from the paper and reapplied to finish a word or sentence.
13.Speed - The speed of a writer is a key indicator for QDE in
the examination process. Fast and slow speeds are difficult
to duplicate leaving behind inconsistencies in the writing.
14.Embellishments - decorate writing. Usually found in the
beginning of word, but can be seen other places.
15.Entry/Exit Strokes - is the way a writer begins certain
letter or words and can be very specific to an individual.
Also includes the idea of connecting stokes.
16.Retracing - is considered fixing a portion of writing that
is not readable or pleasing to the writer. In some cases,
this can indicate forgery but is very common in normal
handwriting to retrace letters or words.
17.Spelling - is an individual characteristic because of
education or habits and can be an easy fix to eliminate or
pin point suspects.
18.Spacing - is the area between letters or words and is usually
specific to the writer.
19.Format - is the habit in which a writer uses to depict simple
things like; Dates, numbers, abbreviations.
Example: The way people write checks
20.Case - is a characteristic of a writer who might use upper
case letters where a lower case should be present.

Coin Clipping - shaving off a small portion of a precious metal coin

for profit.

Coin Mutilation - cutting a portion of a coin.

Collected Standard - (Procured Standard)obtained from files executed

in the course of everyday routine.
Requested Standard - document requested by an investigator for
the purpose of comparative examination.

Color Shifting Ink - ink that changes color when viewed in different

Connections - links which connect a letter with the one following it.

Counterfeiting - imitate fraudulently for gain. To make a copy of,

usually with the intent to defraud; forge: counterfeits money.

Cuneiform - denoting or relating to the wedge-shaped characters used

in the ancient writing systems of Mesopotamia, Persia, and Ugarit,
surviving mainly on clay tablets.

Cutting - skillful cutting away of some portions and then inserting

new one to fill the gap.

Disguised Writing - is any deliberate attempt to alter one's

handwriting to prevent recognition.

Document - any material that contains marks, symbols, or signs either

visible, partially visible or invisible that may present or ultimately
convey a meaning or message to someone.

Document May Be Questioned With Respect To Its

1. Authenticity
2. Identity
3. Origin
4. Relation among its parts
5. Relation to other things

Types of Document Examination

1. Handwriting Comparisons
2. Ink Examinations
3. Indented Writing
4. Alterations
5. Paper Analysis
6. Photocopy Analysis
7. Typewriting

Instrument Used In A Questioned Document QD Laboratory

1. Stereo Microscope - The stereo or stereoscopic or dissecting
microscope is an optical microscope variant designed for low
magnification observation of a sample, typically using light
reflected from the surface of an object rather than
transmitted through it.
2. Light Microscope - light microscope works like a refracting
telescope except that the object is very close to the
objective lens.
3. Video Spectral Comparator (VSC) - is an apparatus which can:
a. Analyse and compare inks: reveal alterations on a document;
b. Visualize security features printed into papers;
c. Use the spectrometer and various built-in light sources for
U.V., visible spectrum and I.R. examinations of ink and
documents to visualise fluorescence; examination with
transmitted light or low angle light, and recording/comparing
differences in reflectance, and absorption under variable
wavelengths of light and with various filters which will
discriminate between different inks.
4. Electrostatic Detection Apparatus (ESDA) - is an apparatus
which can:
a. Produce an evidential record of any indentations (writing
impressions) which are present upon a page, resulting from
previous pages of over-writing in a writing pad, notebook,
or upon a letter placed inside an envelope which was
then addressed.
b. Visualise and record any other transmitted impression, such
as from a machine postal stamp upon an envelope; or
visualise and record any paper edge impressions of a
page-portion that was torn from a page within a note-pad,
even if the page was removed some time later.

Erasure - the removal of writing, recorded material, or data.

EURion Constellation - is a pattern of symbols incorporated into a

number of banknote designs worldwide since about 1996. It is added
to help imaging software detect the presence of a banknote in a
digital image.

Exemplars - Handwriting used as a standard for comparison with the

document in question. Known authentic writing samples.

Two Types of Exemplars

1. Requested Writings - (Dictated) are writing samples taken
from someone for the purpose of comparison with a questioned
2. Non-Requested Writings - (Undictated)(Collected) these are
examples of the subject's writings that are taken in the
normal course of business or personal transactions.

Forensic Document Examination - the practice of the application of

document examination to the purposes of the law.

Graphology - is the study of handwriting to identify the writer's

personality traits.

Graphologist - Profiles character or personality by drawing conclusions

from certain types of characteristics in the handwriting sample.

Handwriting - refers to a person's writing created with a writing

utensil such as a pen or pencil.

Handwriting Comparison Characteristics

1. Spacing between letters
2. Spacing between words
3. Relative proportions between letters and within letters
4. Individual letter formations
5. Formations of letter combinations
6. The overall slant of the writing
7. Connecting strokes
8. Pen lifts
9. Beginning and ending strokes
10.Unusual flourishes
11.Pen pressure
Character of handwriting
1. No single handwriting characteristic can in itself be taken
as the basis for a positive comparison.
2. The final conclusion must be based on a sufficient number
of common characteristics between the known and questioned
writing samples.
3. There are no hard and fast rules for a sufficient number of
personal characteristics; it is a judgment call made by the
expert examiner in the context of each case.

Henry Mill - was an English inventor who patented the first typewriter
in 1714.

Hieroglyph - (Greek for "sacred writing") is a character of the ancient

Egyptian writing system. Logographic scripts that are pictographic in
form in a way reminiscent of ancient Egyptian are also sometimes
called "hieroglyphs".

Hologram - a three-dimensional image formed by the interference of

light beams from a laser or other coherent light source.

Indented Writing - (second page writing), is the impression from the

writing instrument captured on sheets of paper below the one that
contains the original writing.

Electrostatic Detection - indented writing may be recovered

using this method.

Ink - a coloured fluid or paste used for writing, drawing, printing,

or duplicating.

Microspectrophotometer - A nondestructive approach to comparing

ink lines. It is accomplished with a visible-light

Thin-layer chromatography is also suitable for ink comparisons.

Interlineation - insertion between lines or paragraphs.

Juxtaposition - an act or instance of placing close together or side
by side, especially for comparison or contrast.

Lindbergh Baby Case - a sensational case of kidnapping for ransom

resulting in murder of a baby where questioned document examination is
the center piece of the investigation and the reason for the arrest
of the perpetrator.

Manuscript - is any document written by hand, as opposed to being printed

or reproduced in some other way.

Microprinting - is one of many anti-counterfeiting techniques used

most often on currency and bank checks, as well as various other
items of value. Microprinting involves printing very small text,
usually too small to read with the naked eye, onto the note or item.

Obliteration - obscuring a document by a series of x-types, haphazard,

lines, blots, and smears.

Offset printing - or web offset printing is a commonly used printing

technique in which the inked image is transferred (or "offset") from
a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface.

Letterpress printing - is a technique of relief printing using a

printing press. A worker composes and locks movable type into the
bed of a press, inks it, and presses paper against it to transfer
the ink from the type which creates an impression on the paper.

Pellegrino Turri - an Italian inventor, invented a mechanical typing

machine, one of the first typewriters in 1801 for his blind lover
Countess Carolina Fantoni da Fivizzano. He also invented carbon
paper to provide the ink for his machine.

Pen Lift - is the practice of lifting the tip of a pen from a writing
surface. It comes in the form of a disconnection between letters and
letter combinations.

Pen Pressure - the proportions of strokes to each other in width as

affected by shading and by unconscious emphasis.
Penmanship - is the technique of writing with the hand using a
writing instrument. The art or practice of writing with the pen.

Pictograph - a pictorial symbol for a word or phrase. Pictographs

were used as the earliest known form of writing, examples having been
discovered in Egypt and Mesopotamia from before 3000 BC.

Questioned Document - is any signature, handwriting, typewriting, or

other mark whose source or authenticity is in dispute or doubtful.

Most Common Questioned Document

1. Letters
2. Checks
3. Drivers License
4. Contracts
5. Wills
6. Voters Registration
7. Passports
8. Petitions
9. Threatening Letters
10.Suicide Notes
11.Lottery Tickets

Rules in Collecting Questioned Documents

1. Original Document Preferred
2. QDE must mark all evidence - initial and date.
If document cannot be marked it should be placed in enveloped
and sealed with initial and date.
3. Maintain chain of custody.

Questioned Document Examination - The scientific methods of

identification and examination of questionable documents, handwriting
examination, detection of forgery, falsification and counterfeiting of
documents which stress the procedures of restoring and deciphering
erasures and obliteration's; examination of documents by means of
visible light, ultra-violet light and ultra-red radiation and colored
powders; recognition and selection of standards; and examination of
questionable typewriting, computerized documents and other forms of
modern printing.

Retracing - any writing stroke which goes back over another writing

Rhythm - the balanced quality of movement, producing a natural result

not constrained nor artificial.

Rubric and Embellishment - the additional and unnecessary stroke

incorporated in writing for decorative or ornamental purposes.

Samuel Willard Soul - (January 25,1830-July 12,1875) along with

Christopher Sholes and Carlos Glidden invented the first practical
typewriter at a machine shop located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin,
in 1869.

Security fibers - are embedded in the paper during manufacture and

are non-reproducible.

Security Thread - is a security feature of many banknotes to protect

against counterfeiting, consisting of a thin ribbon that is threaded
through the note's paper.

Shading and Pen Position - the increase in width of stroke brought by

variations in writing pressure.

Sholes and Glidden Type-Writer - the first commercially successful


Signature - a person's name written in a distinctive way as a form of

identification in authorizing a cheque or document or concluding
a letter. From the latin word "signare" which means "to sign".

Kinds of Signature
1. Formal Signature - signature used on official documents such
as will or deed of sale.
2. Informal Signature - signature used in routine correspondence
such as personal letters and other documents where you want
the reader to recognize the signature but the exact spelling
of the name isnt important.
3. Stylistic Signature - signature used in signing checks, credit
card receipts, etc. This is also like the famous physicians
signature on a prescription. It is often highly stylistic
and looks like a scribble with little that would be
recognizable as a signature.

Signature Forgery - refers to the act of falsely replicating the

signature of another person.

Popular Methods of Forging Signature

1. Freehand Method - whereby the forger, after careful practice,
replicates the signature by freehand. Although a difficult
method to perfect, this often produces the most convincing results.
2. Trace-Over Method - the sheet of paper containing the genuine
signature is placed on top of the paper where the forgery is
required. The signature is traced over, appearing as a faint
indentation on the sheet of paper underneath. This indentation
can then be used as a guide for a signature.

Methods of Signature Tracing

1. Carbon Outline Method - carbon paper inserted between
original and false document.
2. Indentation Process - original document is placed over
false one under it, to be traced later using a pen or
3. Transmitted Light Process - a light source is placed
under a light, the original document is placed under the
false one. The light source will illuminate both
documents so that the writings on the original document
will be seen and traceable on the false one.

Characteristics That May Suggest Presence of Forgery

1. Shaky handwriting
2. Pen lifts
3. Signs of retouching
4. Letter proportions
5. Very close similarity between two or more signatures
Kinds of Forgery of Signatures
1. Simple Forgery - (spurious forgery) signing of a document in
his own or in a modified handwriting. Easy to detect once
standards of genuine signatures are obtained.
2. Simulated Forgery - (freehand forgery) the copying or imitation
of a signature.

Indicators of Forgery
1. Blunt starts and stops
2. Pen lifts and hesitations
3. Tremor
4. Speed and Pressure
5. Patching

Slant - slope of writing in relation to the base line.

Spacing - is a blank area devoid of content, serving to separate words,

letters, numbers, and punctuation.

Striking - (stamping) making an impression of a coin on a metal blank

by pressure using steel dies.

Superimposition - placing or laying of one document over another

in a way that it appears as a single image. The placement of an
image or video on top of an already-existing image or video, usually
to add to the overall image effect, but also sometimes to
conceal something.

Terminal - The end of a writing stroke.

Initial Stroke - the beginning of a writing stroke.

Tremor - deviation from uniform stroke brought about by lack of


Kinds of Tremors
1. Genuine Tremors - caused by age, illiteracy, weakness.
2. Tremor of Fraud
Typebar - one of the bars on a typewriter that bears type for printing.

Typewriter - is a mechanical or electro-mechanical machine for writing

in characters similar to those produced by printer's movable type
by means of keyboard-operated types striking a ribbon to transfer
ink or carbon impressions onto the paper.

Carriage Return - referred to a mechanism or lever on a typewriter.

It was used after typing a line of text and caused the assembly
holding the paper (the carriage) to return to the right so that
the machine was ready to type again on the left-hand side of
the paper (assuming a left-to-right language).

Typeface - the printing surface of the type block. The most

popular type are pica and elite.

Pica - 10 characters per inch

Elite - 12 characters per inch

Types of Typewriters
1. Keyboard typewriter - is the simplest kind of typewriter,
functioning from the QWERTY formation of letters and having
a type (a metallic cast with letters molded into it) that's
attached by a bar or rod.
2. Single-element typewriter - enable the user to print data in
different languages or fonts. Instead of using a bar mold for
the type (called a type bar), single-element typewriters use
type wheels, type sleeves or type shuttles for molds. The
most popular single-element was the Hammond type-shuttle
typewriter produced in 1884.
3. Type-bar typewriters, as the name suggests, use type bars,
or molds of iron shaped like bars, for their types. Type bars
are the most common kind of typewriter and the original
invented by Sholes, Glidden and Soule was a type-bar
4. Index typewriters - were far less costly in the pre-modern
era, but also less useful. An index typewriter required that
users first input what key they would like, and then perform
another action (usually pressing a lever) to print the letter
to a page. Usually these didn't use type bars, but instead
type wheels, type shuttles, type plates and even more novel
types. Examples of the index typewriter are the American
Visible, first manufactured in 1901, and the French Virotyp
of 1914.
5. Teletype Typewriters - (Teleprinters) came on the scene in
the mid-1950s and peaked in popularity in the 1960s. They
were used mostly for communicating information from point
to point, much as modern fax machines are used. Most non-IBM
computers had teletype terminals. Teletypes were completely
mechanical and thus required regular lubrication; they didn't
have type bars in the strictest sense and instead used
plastic gears to print messages.
6. Electric Typewriters - The most modern typewriter, still
used today, is the electric typewriter, most notably IBM
models such as the Selectric. The electric typewriter
minimized the force necessary to print out a message by
using a motor and type ball to print letters on paper.

Vignette - a small illustration or portrait photograph which fades

into its background without a definite border.

Watermark - a faint design made in some paper during manufacture that

is visible when held against the light and typically identifies
the maker.

Writing - is a medium of communication that represents language

through the inscription of signs and symbols.

Cursive Writing - also known as script, joined-up writing,

joint writing, running writing, or handwriting is any style of
penmanship in which the symbols of the language are written in
a conjoined and/or flowing manner, generally for the purpose of
making writing faster.

Writing Speed - Classified Into 4 Divisions

1. Slow and Drawn
2. Deliberate
3. Average
4. Rapid

Polygraphy (Lie Detection)

1875 - The earliest attempt at a scientific approach to the development

of diagnostic instrumentation for lie detection, when the Italian
physiologist, Angelo Mosso (1846-1910), began studies of fear and its
influence on the heart and respiration. The fear of being detected was
considered an essential element of deception. Through his research
Mosso demonstrated that blood pressure, blood volume, and pulse
frequency changed depending on changes in emotions of a tested
subject. From records of pulsation, Mosso was able to distinguish
persons who were afraid from those who were tranquil.

1915 - the year Dr.Marston developed the discontinuous systolic blood

pressure test which would later become one component of the modern

1992 - the polygraph made its official entrance into the computer age.

1997 - considered the year of birth of lie detection in Ukraine.

18th Century - the era conducive to developing technical means of

detecting deception, subsequently named: lie detector, variograph,
polygraph, emotional stress monitor, deceptograph, to name a few.

African Tribes - have utilized their own method of detecting a guilty

person. While performing a special dance around a suspected individual,
a sorcerer intensely sniffed him. The "investigator" made a conclusion
whether the suspect committed the crime based upon the intensity of
his body odor.

Alexander R. Luria - (1902-1977) a Soviet neuropsychologist, who

initiated the research on the psycho-physiological diagnostic
instrumentation methods in criminal investigations which began in
the 1920s. He used reaction time measures to study thought processes
and developed a psychodiagnostic procedure he referred to as the
"combined motor method" for diagnosing individual subject's thought
processes. He did not use an instrument in his study.

Ancient Methods of Lie Detection

Ancient Rome - bodyguard candidates were asked provocative

questions. Those who blushed were selected for the job. It was
believed that if a person blushed in response to provocative
questions, he would not participate in plots.

Ancient Sparta - Before being admitted to certain schools Spartan

young men were required to pass the selection criteria. The
young men were ordered to stand on the edge of a cliff, and were
asked if they were afraid. The answer was always negative;
however its integrity was determined by the mens complexion.
It was concluded that the pale young men lied and they were
pushed from the cliff.

Nervous Behavior - if the subject look down and moved his toe
in a circular motion while being interrogated, he was thought
to be deceptive. This was later diagnosed as nervous behaviorism.
Nervous individuals were stereotyped as being deceptive.

The Ordeal of Rice - was commonly utilized as a lie detector in

ancient China. Suspect was required to chew a mouthful of dry
rice and then spit it out. If the rice was moist, the suspect
was judged innocent. If the rice was dry, the suspect was judged
guilty. The tension of guilt supposedly caused a cessation of
salivary glands secretion of fluids.

The Ordeal of the Hot iron - in Africa, the suspect had a hot
iron placed on his tongue, if the suspect's tongue was not
burned, he was judged innocent, if the suspect's tongue was
burned, he was judged guilty. The tension of guilt supposedly
caused a cessation of salivary secretions which would allow the
tongue to be burned.

The Ordeal of the Sacred Donkey - around 1500 BC in India,

Indian priests paints a donkey's tail with carbon residue from
an oil lamp and placed the animal in a dark tent. The suspects
were sent into the tent and told that pulling the "magic"
donkey's tail would reveal the liar (if a guilty man pulls his
tail, the donkey will bray). When the suspects came out, the
priests examined their hands. Those with clean hands had not
touched the donkey's tail. It was assumed that this was due
to the suspects fear of their guilt being discovered, proving
they were liars.

Angelo Mosso - an Italian Physiologist, he used an instrument called

plethysmograph in his research on emotion and fear in subjects
undergoing questioning and he studied the effects of these variables
on their cardiovascular and respiratory activity.

Plethysmograph - from the Greek word "Plethysmos" - increase or

enlargement and "grapho" - write or record, is an instrument for
recording and measuring variation in the volume of a part of
the body, especially as caused by changes in blood pressure.

AntiClimax Dampening - The principle of psychological focus which

holds that a person will establish an emotional priority for that
stimulus which he perceives to represent the greatest threat to his
well being.

Anxiety - A state of mental uneasiness or concern. Abnormal apprehension

or fear, often accompanied by psychological signs, behavior symptoms or
doubt concerning the nature and reality of a threat; real or imagined.
Unfounded selfdoubt.

Apnea - The transient cessation of breathing which follows forced

breathing. On a polygraph chart, apnea is generally represented by
a blocking pattern in the pneumograph tracing.

Applied Stimulus - An intentionally applied external stimulus,

normally in the form of a question, directed to a person under going
a polygraph examination. An applied stimulus may be employed for the
purpose of demonstrating a persons response capabilities at the time
the stimulus is applied.

Associated Research Inc. - in Chicago, manufactured the 1st commercial

polygraph instrument for Leonarde Keeler.

Autonomic Nervous System - That part of the peripheral nervous system

consisting of the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous system.

Axon - The central core which forms the essential conducting part of
a nerve fiber. An extension from and a part of the cytoplasm of some
nerve cells.

Backster Zone Comparison Technique - a polygraph technique which

primarily involved an alteration of the Reid question sequencing.

Basic Polygraph Examination Requirements

1. The Examining Room - Polygraph examinations should be conducted in
a quiet. private room. Under normal circumstances only the
polygraphist and examines are permitted in the examining room.
2. Pre-Test Interview - The examination actually begins with the first
contact between the examinee and the polygraphist. The pre- test
interview is vital to a proper polygraph examination. and no
examination will be administered by any AzPa member without an
adequate pre-test interview.
3. Question Formulation - Question formulation should be conduced in
accordance with established standards and techniques. Unless
specifically required by the nature of the issue being resolved,
no questions regarding morals or the intimate details of a persons
personal life will be asked.
4. Test Construction - The use and placement of test questions within
the question sequence must adhere to and be in accordance with
those techniques generally recognized and widely accepted within
the polygraph profession.
5. Stimulation Test - The stim test is optional. It may be
conducted either as the first polygraph chart or inserted between
polygraph charts. The fact that an individual has been previously
examined, perhaps even by the same polygraphist], does not negate
the use of the stim test.
6. Review of Test Questions - Under no circumstances will any test
be administered without a prior, thorough review of all test
questions with the examinee.
7. Administering The Polygraph Charts
a. After applying pressure to the blood pressure cuff at the
time of the test, the polygraphist should be able to announce
the beginning of the test with minimum delay.
b. Test questions should be usually spaced at not less than
15 second intervals.
c. The administering of the polygraph examination shall be
conducted in accordance with established standards and
techniques which are taught by the accredited schools.
8. Chart Interpretation - Chart interpretation is the final key to
a valid polygraph examination. Under no circumstances is it
permitted that a AzPa polygraphist overlook or ignore the
established, basic concepts of chart interpretation taught in
all accredited polygraph schools.

Behavior Symptoms - Those subjectively observable non-verbal

manifestations of a person at the time of an applied stimulus which
may or may not be indicative of that persons veracity.

Blood Pressure Change - The visual representation of an increase or

decrease in blood pressure or volume on a polygraph chart by the
cardio component of a polygraph instrument.

Cardio-Sphygmo-graph - Heart/pressure/recording. The tracing on a

polygraph chart, made by a pen moved by a bellows device in connection
with a closed air pressurized circuit and an in-line
cardiosphygmomanometer, which reflects blood pressure and radial pulse
in response to an applied stimulus.

Cardiosphygmomanometer - An in-line pressure dial in a closed air

pressurized circuit capable of representing the pressure in that
circuit in units of millimeters of mercury.

Cardiovascular System - Those portions of an organism which contain

the heart, arteries, veins and capillaries. The functional means by
which blood is transported throughout the body.

Cerebellum - That portion of the brain which projects over the medulla
and is especially concerned with the coordination of muscular activity
and body equilibrium.
Cerebrum - The enlarged front and upper part of the brain which contains
the higher nervous centers.

Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909) was the first in 1895 to experiment with a

device, measuring blood pressure and pulse, to detect deception in
criminal suspects and noted increased blood pressure following
relevant questions when put to some subjects. He called it a

Chart - The graphic recorded representations of a persons

psychophysiological responses to a set of carefully controlled
stimuli presented to him in the form of a valid and reliable question

Christian Hans Stoelting - founded the stoelting company, now a

Manufacturer and distributor of research instrumentation including
physiology and biofeedback for scientific research plus psychological
and educational tests.

Stoelting Company - Stoelting invented the first modern

polygraph in 1935.

Chart Identification - Any information placed on a polygram which

identified the person examined, the polygraphist conducting the
examination as well as any other data, time and place of the
examination, including the signature of the examinee, if obtainable.

Cleve Backster - he founded the CIA's polygraph unit shortly after

World War II. He also founded the longest running polygraph school
in the world. He developed the Backster Zone Comparison Technique

Control Stimulation Test - A modified peak of tension test used to

relax the non-deceptive examinee and stimulate the deceptive examinee
by empirical evidence of the effectiveness of the polygraph technique.

Control Question - That question within a structured technique which

is broad in scope and depth, generally limited by mutually exclusive
time parameter, which relates to a wrong doing of the same general
nature as the one under investigation, and one to which the examiner
will, in all probability, lie or to which his answer will be of
dubious validity in his own mind.
- A question to which the examinees answer will be a known lie
or a probable lie. This question is similar in nature but not related
to the issue being resolved, and should be of slightly less weight
than the relevant questions.

Control Question Technique (CQT) - a polygraph technique that

incorporated control questions (comparison) which were designed to be
emotionally arousing for non-deceptive subjects and less emotionally
arousing for deceptive subjects than the relevant questions
previously used.

Counter Measures - Deliberate chemical, mental or physical, attempts

by an examinee to affect the polygraph tracings or the final outcome
of a polygraph examination.

Cuff pressure - The air pressure in the inflatable bladder in the

blood pressure cuff as indicated on the sphygmomanometer of the
polygraph instrument in units of millimeters of mercury.

Daniel Defoe - a British novelist who in 1730 wrote an essay entitled

"An Effectual Scheme for the Immediate Preventing of Street Robberies
and Suppressing all Other Disorders of the Night", wherein he
recommended that taking the pulse of a suspicious fellow was a
practical, effective and humane method for distinguishing truthfulness
from lying.

Deception - the act of making someone believe something that is

not true.

Dendrites - An extension or process of a neuron which serves to conduct

impulses toward the cell body.

Dick Arther - refined the Reid Control Question Technique with his
known Lie and Probable Lie Question Technique and the Guilt Complex
Question. This Became known as Arther's Technique.
Dicrotic Notch - graphic representation within the cardio tracing on
a polygraph chart caused by a backward surge of blood against the
semi-lunar valve in the left ventricle of the heart.

Distortion - change in polygraph tracings caused by artifact stimulus.

A disturbance of normal polygraph tracings not attributable to an
intended stimulus within a test structure.

Dr. Joseph F. Kubis - of Fordham University in New York City, was the
first researcher to use potential computer applications for the
purpose of polygraph chart analysis in the late 1970's.

Dr. Marie Gabriel Romain Vigouroux (1831-1911) a French electrotherapy

specialist was first to discover in 1879 the phenomenon we now know
as Electrodermal Response.

Electrodermal Response - human body phenomenon in which the body,

mainly the skin, involuntarily changes resistance electrically
upon the application of certain external stimuli.

Scientists Who Contributed to the electrodermal response research

1. Ivan R. Tarchanoff (1846-1908) Georgian
2. Charles Samson Fere (1852-1907) French
3. Georg Sticker (1860-1960) German
4. Otto Veraguth (1870-1944) Swiss

Dyspena - Abnormal breathing characterized by either labored breathing,

shortness of breath, suppression or serrated exhalation.

Efferent Nerve Fibers - Those neural fibers which carry impulses away
from the central nervous system.

Ego Defense Mechanism - Those psychological defenses used by a person

to shield himself against that which he perceives to represent a
threat to his immediate well-being.

Endocrine Glands - Those ductless glands which discharge their

secretions directly into the blood stream. In general, the endocrine
glands coordinate and control body activities at a slower rate than
the nervous system and thus promote long term adjustments.

Enveloping Question - A question used at the beginning and end of a

searching peak of tension test which deals with an issue or subject
which is beyond the realm of possibility of the information being

Eupnea - Regular or normal breathing.

Examinee - An individual who has volunteered for and undergoes a

polygraph examination.

Excitability - The potential ability of a neuron to respond to any

given stimulus.

Expert Opinion - A statement reflecting the results of the evaluation

of a polygraph chart.

Extrasystole - A premature contraction of the heart which is

independent of the normal rhythm and which arises in response to an
impulse in some part of the heart other than the sino-auricular node,
or from some abnormal stimulus. An extra systole appears in the cardio
tracing of a polygraph chart as a break in the normal rhythm of
the heart.

Fight or Flight Syndrome - The activation of involuntary sympathetic

neural activity upon conscious recognition of a threat to the
immediate well-being of an organism. A group of neural symptoms which
enable an organism to cope with a stressful or threatening situation
by taking that organism from a normal relaxed state to an emergency
state of preparedness for the sake of survival.

Forensic Psychophysiology - Modern term for polygraph examination.

Galvanograph - elecrtrical Current recording, known as the GSR, galvanic

skin response and galvanic skin conductance.

Galvanometer - measures the small differences in electrical

resistance and any shifts in a subjects anxiety.

Ganglia - Groups of nerve cell bodies found in the autonomic plexuses

composed primarily of sympathetic postganglionic neurons.

Guilt Complex - A group of associated ideas or attitudes which have a

common emotional tone of feelings of universal responsibility. these
ideas or attitudes may be conscious or unconscious; however, they
may significantly influence an individuals behavior or
psychophysiological responses when confronted with an accusation.

Guilt Complex Question - A question included in a structured

polygraph test designed to identify a person who may be
inappropriately responding to relevant and control questions
due to a guilt complex. This question is usually one which
concerns a nonexistent crime or circumstance which an examinee
is led to believe did exist in which he is suspect but which
he knows he could not have committed.

Guilt Complex Question - A question about a fictitious incident

of individual. and of a similar nature and weight as the issue
being resolved.

Sticker - one of the first to suggest the use of EDA, galvanic

skin response as an indicator of deception.

Hidden Key - An item of evidence known only to the victim, perpetrator,

investigator and polygraphist.

Homestasis - The tendency of an organism to maintain a state of

equilibrium between interrelated psychological and psysiological stimuli.

Hydrosphygmograph - (water pressure recording) a device consisting

of a cylinder containing water and connected with a registering tube,
used to record the amount of blood forced with each pulsation into a
limb in cased in the apparatus.

Hypnosis - alteration of consciousness and concentration, subject

manifest heightened suggestability, not admissible in court.
Hypothalamus - That portion of the brain which contains centers for
the regulation of body temperatures, sleep and water balance. It
also appears to be the center for the integration of emotions,
visceral activity and neural impulses which trigger the sympathetic
division of the autonomic nervous system.

Irrelevant Question - is intended to be an innocuous. harmless

question, having no particular relationship to the issue being
resolved and which can unequivocally be answered truthfully.

Primary Relevant Question - The key question regarding the direct

act of committing an offense.

Secondary Relevant Question - A question pertaining to pertinent

aspects of the issue. to which a guilty or knowledgeable person
would be expected to respond significantly.

Jacques-Arsne d'Arsonval (June 8,1851December 31,1940) was a French

physician, physicist, and inventor of the moving-coil D'Arsonval
galvanometer and the thermocouple ammeter. D'Arsonval was an important
contributor to the emerging field of electrophysiology, the study of
the effects of electricity on biological organisms, in the
19th century.

John Augustus Larson - was a Police Officer for Berkeley, California,

United States, and famous for his invention of modern polygraph used
in forensic investigations. He was the first American police officer
having an academic doctorate and to use polygraph in criminal

John E. Reid - a lawyer from Chicago, Illinois, developed the Control

Question Technique (CQT) in 1947. Also called the "father of Controls".

Reid Control Question Technique - inserted a surprise control

question in the relevant/irrelevant technique.

Keeler Polygraph - It became the most widely used polygraph in the

world for the next three decades.
Known Peak of Tension Test - This is a series of similar type questions
containing only one relevant question. known to the polygraphist.

Searching Peak of Tension Test - A series of questions wherein

the relevant questions are not known to the polygraphist.

Kymograph - An instrument for recording variations in pressure, as

of the blood, or in tension, as of a muscle, by means of a pen or
stylus that marks a rotating drum at a constant speed.

Lafayette Instrument Company - founded in 1947 by Max Wastl

(1915-1990), located in Lafayette, Indiana, USA, dominates the
international polygraph market. It is the unconditional global leader
in the manufacture and sale of lie detectors.

Leonarde Keeler - in 1926, modified the polygraph instrument designed

by John Larson by adding a device that measured electrical skin
conductivity or electrodermal response. He also founded the world's
first polygraph school, the Keeler Polygraph Institute in Chicago,
Illinois in 1948. Considered the father of modern polygraph.

Lie - is an intentionally false statement to a person or group made

by another person or group who knows it is not wholly the truth.

Kinds of Lie
1. White or Benign Lie - lie to preserve harmony of relationship.
2. Pathological Lie - can not tell right from wrong.
3. Red Lie - communist propaganda
4. Black Lie - lie to dishonor or to discredit
5. Malicious/Judicial Lie -misleading or lie to obstruct justice.
6. Fabrication - misrepresentation of truth
7. Bold-Face Lie - obviously lying
8. Lying by Omission - omission of important facts
9. Lie to Children - to gain acceptance to children
10.Noble Lie - to maintain law and order
11.Emergency Lie - to prevent harm to third party
12.Perjury - false testimony under oath
13.Bluffing - pretense of capability/intention one does not possess
14.Jocose Lie - meant to be jest, teasing and sarcasm
15.Contextual lie - stating part of truth out of context
16.Promotion lie - incredible advertisements

Type of Liars
1. Panic Liars
2. Occupational Liars
3. Tournament Liars
4. Psychopathic Liars
5. Ethological Liars
6. Pathological Liars
7. Black Liars

Luigi Galvani - an Italian Physician and Physiologist who in 1791,

accidentally discovered that a dissected frog leg would twitch and
contract at the touch of a scalpel charged with electricity. He
discovered that current or galvanic electricity flowed through animal

Mechanical Adjustment - The manual centering of the ink pens on a

polygraph instrument in order to maintain the individual component
tracings within their appropriate physical parameters.

Medula Oblongata - The lowest or hindmost part of the brain continuous

with the spinal cord. Contains centers of respiratory, cardio inhibitory,
cardio acceleratory, vasoconstrictor, vasodilator, swallowing, salivary
and vomiting.

Midbrain - The middle segment of the brain containing the centers for
certain visual and auditory reflexes.

Middle Ages - a suspect's pulse rate readings were collected for

determining his or her guilt. This method was employed for exposing
unfaithful wives and their lovers. The testing technique was very
simple. A trained individual placed a finger on a wrist of a woman
suspected of infidelity, while mentioning names of the men, who could
have had an intimate relationship with her. The examinee's pulse
accelerated when she heard and, consequently, reacted to the name
of her lover.
Name Test - A controlled peak of tension test utilized to establish
an examinees response capability to a known lie in which the name
of a person upon whom the examinee places emotional significance is
used as a known peak of tension.

Nerves - Those strands of tissue which specialize in the transmission

of impulses to and from the brain and spinal cord and all parts of
the body.

Neuron - A single nerve cell.

Neutral Question - A question which does not pertain to the issue under
investigation the answer to which recognized as universally correct
by both the examinee and the polygraphist. A neutral question is
intended to elicit a minimal response from the examinee and provide
the polygraphist with a valid graphic representation of the
examinees non-stress response patterns.

Numerical Evaluation - A valid and reliable system of numerical

evaluation which employs a consistent set of values to describe the
observable physiological responses graphically represented on a
polygraph chart.

Opinion - The expert conclusion expressed by a qualified polygraphist

concerning the veracity of the statements made by examinee.

Otto Veraguth - was a Swiss neurologist. In the 1900s he published a

study of a phenomenon he called "psychogalvanic reflex" associated
with observed changes in the electrical properties of the skin. In
his research he noticed that emotional stimuli caused greater
deflections (higher readings) on a galvanometer that was connected
to the skin via electrodes than did neutral stimuli. He used the
galvanomenter in conjunction with word-association tests.

Psychogalvanic Reflex - also called galvanic skin response, a

change in the electrical properties of the body following noxious
stimulation, stimulation that produces emotional reaction and to
some extent, stimulation that attracts the subject's attention
and leads to an aroused alertness.

Outside Issue - A circumstance unrelated to the primary issue which

poses a greater threat to the immediate well-being of the examinee
than does the primary relevant issue.

Padding Questions - Those questions placed before and after the known
relevant question in a known peak of tension test. Padding questions
are similar in nature to the known relevant question and fall within
the realm of possibility of the information being sought.

Parasysmpathetic Nervous System - That part of the autonomic nervous

system which tends to induce secretion, to increase the tone and
contractibility of smooth muscle and to channel the dilation of
blood vessels. That division of the autonomic nervous system
responsible for the normal house keeping functions of the body;
i.e. digestion and body temperature.

Peripheral Nervous System - That portion of the nervous system lying

outside the central nervous system.

Plethsysmograph - The tracing on a polygraph chart made by a pen moved

by a photo-optical system controlled by an examinees
psychophysiological responses to controlled stimuli.

Pneumograph breathing/recording, from the Greek word "Pneuma" - air

or breath and "Grapho" - write or record, a device that recorded a
subject's breathing patterns.

Polygram - One or more polygraph charts. The cumulative recorded

representations of an examinees psychophysiological responses to a
set of controlled stimuli presented to him in the form of a properly
constructed question technique upon which an expert opinion is formed.

Polygraph - a machine designed to detect and record changes in

physiological characteristics, such as a person's pulse and breathing
rates, used especially as a lie detector.

Polygraph Machine Measure and Record the ff:

1. Blood Pressure
2. Heart Rate
3. Respiration
4. Skin Conductivity

Polygraphist - An individual who, by virtue of his education, training

and experience, is capable of conducting a valid and reliable
polygraph examination for the purpose of determining whether or not
an examinee honestly believes that his own statements and answers
concerning a questioned issue are in fact truthful.

Polygraph Examination - The entire environment within which a

qualified polygraphist renders an expert opinion as to the veracity
of an examinees statements concerning the primary issue of the
matter under investigation.

Polygraph Examiner - interpret the charts generated by the polygraph

machine. Polygraph came from the Greek word "polys" - many writings
and "grapho" write.

Polygraph Chart - is one continuous set of test questions recorded on

paper by the polygraph instrument.

PolyScore - a software program which used a sophisticated mathematical

algorithm to analyze the polygraph data and to estimate a probability
or degree of deception or truthfulness in a subject.
- is a computerized polygraph chart scoring algorithm that uses
statistical probability to arrive at truthfulness or deception. It
has been shown that validated algorithms have exceeded 98 percent
in their accuracy to quantify, analyze and evaluate the physiological
data collected from polygraph examinations administered in real
criminal cases.

Dr. Dale E. Olsen and John C. Harris - statisticians at Johns

Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, in Maryland,
completed a software program called PolyScore in 1993.

Pons - A band of nerve fibers in the brain connecting the lobes of the
cerebellum, the medulla and the cerebrum.
Pre-Employment Examination - An examination in which an individual is
tested regarding the truthfulness and accuracy of an employment
application. along with other background areas, which aids the
employer in selecting the most qualified individual for a position
within the organization.

Pre-Examination Interview - That portion of a polygraph examination

during which information is obtained by the polygraphist from the
examinee regarding the facts and circumstances which from the basis
of the examination and from which the polygraphist develops
appropriate questions for the polygraph technique to be employed.

Psychogalvanic Skin Response - The recordable changes of body tissue

polarization (neural discharge), sweat gland activity or circulatory
variations which occur as the result of work, emotion or a combination
of either. In polygraphy, these changes are recorded on a polygraph
chart by a pen attached to a galvanometer driven by the variations
of electrical conductivity introduced into a Wheatstone Bridge by
the body tissues of an examinee.

Psychogalvanometer a component that measured changes in a subject's

galvanic skin resistance during questioning, and in doing so, thus
signaling the birth of the polygraph as we know it today.

Psychological Set - The theory which holds that a persons fears,

anxieties and apprehensions will be directed toward that situation
which presents the greatest immediate threat to his self-preservation
or general well-being; generally to the exclusion of all other less
threatening circumstances within his environment.

Psychosis - A form of sever personality disorder involving loss of

contact with reality, generally characterized by delusions and

Question Spacing - The elapsed time (not less than 15 seconds) between
an answer given by an examinee and the following question asked by
the polygraphist during a polygraph test.
Receptors - Those specialized cells sensitive to incoming stimuli.

Reflex Action - The cumulative product of stimulus, receptor, afferent

nerve, connecting neuron, efferent nerve and effector action. A simple
reflex arc.

Refractory Period - That period of time in which a neuron is unable

to conduct an impulse.

Reid Polygraph - was the first instrument to use a movement sensor to

detect subject movement during the examination. Besides recording
blood pressure, pulse, respiration, and GSR, this new polygraph
recorded muscular activity in the forearms, thighs, and feet thanks
to metal bellows placed under the arms and seat of the polygraph

Relevant Question - That question within a structured polygraph test

which pertains directly to the matter under investigation.

Irrelevant Question - is intended to be an innocuous, harmless

question, having no particular relationship to the issue being
resolved. and which can unequivocally be answered truthfully.

Primary Relevant Question - The key question regarding the direct

act of committing an offense.

Secondary Relevant Question - A question pertaining to pertinent

aspects of the issue. to which a guilty or knowledgeable person
would be expected to respond significantly.

Control Question - A question to which the examinees answer will

be a known lie or a probable lie. This question is similar in
nature but not related to the issue being resolved, and should
be of slightly less weight than the relevant questions.

Guilt Complex Question - A question about a fictitious incident

of individual. and of a similar nature and weight as the issue
being resolved.
Relevant/Irrelevant (R/I) questioning - a mixture of questions relevant
to the crime (for example, Do you own a knife?) and irrelevant questions
are asked (for example, Are you twenty years old?). The basis for this
type of questioning was that an innocent person has a similar physiological
response to both types of questions, but a guilty person would react
more strongly to the crime-relevant questions.

Residual Air - That volume of air which remains in the lungs after the
deepest possible exhalation.

Sacrifice Relevant Question - A question used in the Zone comparison

Test designed for the intended to dissipate initial tension
anticipated by an examinee in response to the target issue.

Searching Peak Of Tension Test - a polygraph test in which a series

of questions, usually similar in nature and scope, are asked and in
which the answer to only one of them may evoke a response from the

Screening Examination - is one in which, without any specific

allegation, an individual is examined to verify his/her honesty,
integrity and conduct as an employee.

Specific Examination - is one in which there is one specific issue to

be resolved, ex. theft, burglary, robbery murder, etc.

Sensor - Any attachment made to the human body for the purpose of
measuring and/or recording a psychophysiological response during a
polygraph test.

Specific Response - A deviation from an examinees normal state of

homeostasia as evidenced by the tracings on a polygraph chart.
Consideration must be given to overall chart interpretation with
emphasis on the nature of the questions asked, the sequential
position of the question within the structure used and the manner in
which the question was presented to the examinee.

Sphygmomanometer - or blood pressure meter (also referred to as a

sphygmometer) is a device used to measure blood pressure, composed of
an inflatable cuff to restrict blood flow, and a mercury or mechanical
manometer to measure the pressure.

Spot Analysis Technique - A system of chart interpretation whereby

analysis of response capability may be made at each location on a
polygraph chart wherein a relevant question is either preceded by
or followed by a control question.

Super Dampening - The principle of psychological focus which holds

that if a person considers an outside issue to be a greater threat
to his well-being than the main relevant issue, and that if he
anticipates an unreviewed question concerning this outside issue,
he may tune out all relevant and control questions by forcing his
psychological set on the outside issue. The presence of an outside
issue usually results in poor responses or no responses.

Stimulation Test - Verifies for the examiner that the examinee is

testable. and aids in convincing the examinee that the polygraph
instrument works, and will work on him.

Suppression - An involuntary reduction in the amplitude of the

pneumograph and cardiograph tracings in response to a stressful

Sympathetic Nervous System - That part of the autonomic nervous

system which tends to depress secretion, decrease the tone and
contractibility of muscle not under direct voluntary control, and
cause the contraction of blood vessels.

Symptomatic Question - A question contained within a structured

question technique which is designed to identify the presence of
an outside issue upon which a person may be focusing during the
course of a polygraph examination.

Symptomatic Question - A question use to determine it some

outside issue is of such concern to the examinee that it
tends to damage expected responses to relevant questions.

Synapsis - The chemical junctions where nerve impulses pass from one
neuron to another.

System - A group of body organs which combine to form a whole and to

cooperate for the purpose of carrying on some vital function.

Test Technique - A valid and reliable question structure employed

by a qualified polygraphist for the purpose of verifying an
examinees statements or answers during a polygraph examination.
The sequential order in which questions are asked during a polygraph
examination. The foundation of expert opinion.

Thalamus - The middle part of the brain through which sensory

impulses pass to reach the cerebral cortex.

Tidal Volume - The volume of air moved in or out of the lungs with
each respiratory cycle.

Veraguth - was one of the first to make word-association tests with

the galvanometer.

Vittorio Benussi - an Italian Psychologist who in 1914 discovered a

method for calculating the quotient of the inhalation to exhalation
time as a means of verifying the truth and detecting deception in
a subject. Benussi measured and recorded breathing by means of an
instrument known as the Pneumograph. He concluded that lying caused
an emotional change within a subject that resulted in detectable
respiratory changes that were indicative of deception.

West Africa - persons suspected of a crime were made to hold and pass
a bird's egg to one another. The person breaking the egg was considered
guilty, based on the notion that his or her tremor-eliciting
nervousness was to blame.

Wheatstone Bridge - A specially devised electronic circuit for the

measurement of electrical resistance in a conductor. The conductor
of unknown resistance is included in the circuit with three known
resistances. when the unknown resistance (RX) is balanced with three
known resistances (R1, R2, R3) it can be calculated mathematically
since it becomes one term in a proportion.
William Moulton Marston - was an American psychologist and the creator
of the systolic blood pressure test, which became one component of
the modern polygraph invented by John Augustus Larson in Berkeley,
- an American attorney and psychologist, is credited with
inventing an early form of the lie detector when, in 1915, he
developed the discontinuous systolic blood pressure test which would
later become one component of the modern polygraph.

Word Association Test - questions answerable by yes or no, concerned

with time of response. Quick answer, no relation to investigation.
Delayed answer, has relation to investigation.