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Abby Glaubit

Annotated Bibliography

Aday, S., Farrell, H., Lynch, M., Sides, J., & Freelon, D. (2012). New media and conflict after

the Arab Spring. United States Institute of Peace, 80.

This source discusses the role of new media specifically new media that relies on links
during the Arab spring. It concludes that largely, new media did not appear to play a significant
role collective action and that the revolution would have happened anyway. It
does not entirely discredit the ability to the internet to affect political conflict, but it did say that
it plays a larger role in disseminating information outside of the country than organizing action
within. This source will be useful in providing context, outside of China, for collective action
and the internet.
Chen, F. (2000). Subsistence crises, managerial corruption and labour protests in China. The

China Journal, (44), 41-63.

This source discusses the history of labor protests in China and the threat they pose to social and
political stability. It does not address the Internet; rather, it focuses on a group who, even in
2017, do not have widespread access to the Internet. Although this does not relate to censorship
or the Internet, it does provide context for collective action in China and what prompts this. This
article could potentially be useful in defining collective action and why the Chinese government
is so fearful of it.
Drezner, D. W. (2004). The global governance of the Internet: bringing the state back in.

Political Science Quarterly, 119(3), 477-498.

This article discusses the Internet and global governance, something not directly related to
Chinese censorship. However, it did briefly discuss how the way a country uses the internet can
be seen as a larger test for "global civil society arguments" and "state-centric theories of
international relations." This article assumed that the goals of censorship was to prevent
"political criticism" something that has been widely discussed and even disputed. However,
this article could potentially be helpful in understanding an early interpretation of the Internet in
authoritarian regimes
King, G., Pan, J., & Roberts, M. E. (2013). How censorship in China allows government

criticism but silences collective expression. American Political Science Review, 107(02),


This source argues that the purpose and function of censorship in China is not to prevent
criticism against the government, but to break social ties and "reduce the probability of collective
action." The researches conducted a study analyzing censorship trends in China and concluded
that regardless of whether or not a a post is supportive and critical of the regime, if it possesses
the potential to cause collective action there is a high likelihood it will be taken down. This
source provides rather recent data and a well-supported conclusion on the purpose of censorship
in China, how censorship is executed by the government, and how censorship helps bolster
regime legitimacy, making it incredibly useful for understanding censorship in china
MacKinnon, R. (2008). Flatter world and thicker walls? Blogs, censorship and civic discourse in

China. Public Choice, 134(1-2), 31-46.

Although this article is dated almost exclusively relying on data from 2005 it does
comprehensively analyze the impact of the 2005 explosion of the Chinese Blogosphere. It
heavily cites data from the 2005 Chinese Academy of Social Science study and looks at the
suppression of specific internet voices in China. This article will be helpful in creating a timeline
of the Internet, censorship in China.
Mason, E. (2013). Shaking up the anaconda: the new face of censorship in China. Index on

Censorship, 42(2), 43-45.

This article is a brief, general analysis of the current state of censorship in China. Mason argues
that although censorship and self-censorship once dominated China's freedom of expression,
with the explosion of social media, commercial interests, and the rise of a large middle class, the
Chinese "feel largely free to say what they want." This generally agrees with the 2012 study that
found censorship in China is aimed to prevent collective action, not critique, but fails to address
the still present climate of self-censorship and limitations to freedom of expression. Although
this article does not provide much, if any, concrete evidence, it does list some causes of the shift
in censorship as well as give an example of a protest that occurred because of censorship (the
January 2013 Southern Weekly incident).
Mou, Y., Atkin, D., & Fu, H. (2011). Predicting political discussion in a censored virtual

environment. Political Communication, 28(3), 341-356.

This source argues that Chinese netizens online participatory behaviors are determined by their
political attitudes, trust in the media, and chiefly, trust in the social system. It looks into the
notion of a public sphere, the utopian view that the internet would create one, and the high
likelihood that it is not. This source cites a number of studies on the use of the internet of China
for political purposes and analyzes the effects of apathy and self-censorship on the amount of
opinions posted online. It also proposes its own study and analysis, concluding that Chinese
students, despite their historical leading role in creating reform, are largely apathetic towards
politics. Overall, this source will be extremely helpful, not only as a jumping off place, but for
empirical data on the ability of the internet to bring change to China.

Liang, B., & Lu, H. (2010). Internet development, censorship, and cyber crimes in China.

Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 26(1), 103-120.

Although this article is placed in the context of, or centered around, cyber crimes, the majority of
the article focuses on the development of Internet censorship in China. This source highlighted
on the vague language in censorship law as well as the correlation between free speech and the
demise of authoritarian regimes. This article provided a lot of context for censorship in China,
before and after the internet, and will be useful in establishing a timeline of censorship.
Longanecker, M. K. (2009). No room for dissent: China's laws against disturbing social order

undermine its commitments to free speech and hamper the rule of law. Pacific Rim Law

& Policy Journal Association, 18, 373.

This source provided an incredibly comprehensive, informative analysis of Chinese law and free
speech. This source looks at China's Constitution Articles 35 and 41 protecting the freedom of
"speech," "press," "assembly," "association," "procession," and "demonstration," and the right to
criticize that state and officials as well as the LAPD and RCLV, statute that supposedly
reinforces these Constitutional rights. The rise of the Internet and the unique problems it brings
to censorship are mentioned, although the source largely focuses on Chinese law. The source also
discusses the process for obtaining a protest permit, specifically during the Beijing Olympics,
and how the guarantees of China's Constitution and the RCLV are being denied. This source
seems like it will be incredibly useful, not only as a reference for Chinese Law but as a
foundation for an argument for why free speech might be important to a government that has a
long history of censorship. Although the argument is not entirely convincing, it is an interesting
perspective to further research.
United Nations Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. (2015). Country Reports on

Human Rights Practices for 2015: China (includes Tibet, Hong Kong, and Macau).

Retrieved from organization/252967.pdf

This report provides relatively current information from the UN regarding censorship and free
speech in China. It discusses the suppression of speech in China in the context of the internet,
providing specific examples of individuals who have been convicted for posting content on the
internet, such as Pu Zhiqiang who was sentenced to three years in prison picking quarrels and
provoking troubles" an accusation based off of seven posts made on the social media platform
Wiebo. This source will be incredibly useful in providing more current information on the state
of censorship in China and specific examples of this suppression taking place.