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CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT DIVISION MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIA

**PROJECT WORK 4 STATISTICS
**

NAME : ABDUL MAJID BIN ABD AZIZ CLASS : 5 SCIENCE 1 IC NUMBER : 930206-08-5689 SUBJECT TEACHER : SIR RAFHAN BIN AHMAD SEKOLAH MENENGAH RAJA DR NAZRIN SHAH KG GAJAH

INTRODUCTION

We students taking Additional Mathematics are required to carry out a project work while we are in Form 5.This year the Curriculum Development Division, Ministry of Education has prepared four tasks for us.We are to choose and complete only ONE task based on our area of interest.This project can be done in groups or individually, and I gladly choose to do this individually.Upon completion of the Additional Mathematics Project Work,we are to gain valuable experiences and able to :

Apply and adapt a variety of problem solving strategies to solve routine and non-routine problems Experience classroom environments which are challenging, interesting and meaningful and hence improve their thinking skills Experience classroom environments where knowledge and skills are applied in meaningful ways in solving real-life problems. Experience classroom environments where expressing ones mathematical thinking,reasoning and communication are highly encouraged and expected Experience classroom environments that stimulates and enhances effective learning. Acquire effective mathematical communication

through oral and writing,and to use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas correctly and precisely

Enhance acquisition of mathematical knowledge and skills through problem-solving in ways that increase interest and confidence Prepare ourselves for the demand of our future undertakings and in workplace Realise that mathematics is an important and powerful tool in solving real-life problems and hence develop positive attitude towards mathematics Train ourselves not only to be independent learners but also to collaborate, to cooperate, and to share knowledge in an engaging and healthy environment Use technology especially the ICT appropriately and effectively Train ourselves to appreciate the intrinsic values of

mathematics and to become more creative and innovative Realize the importance and the beauty of mathematics

**A BRIEF HISTORY OF STATISTICS
**

By the 18th century, the term "statistics" designated the systematic collection of demographic and economic data by states. In the early 19th century, the meaning of "statistics" broadened, then including the discipline concerned with the collection, summary, and analysis of data. Today statistics is widely employed in government, business, and all the sciences. Electronic computers have expedited statistical computation, and have allowed statisticians to develop "computer-intensive" methods. The term "mathematical statistics" designates the mathematical theories of probability and statistical inference, which are used in statistical practice. The relation between statistics and probability theory developed rather late, however. In the 19th century, statistics increasingly used probability theory, whose initial results were found in the17th and 18th centuries, particularly in the analysis of games of chance (gambling). By 1800, astronomy used probability models and statistical theories, particularly the method of least squares, which was invented by Legendre and Gauss. Early probability theory and statistics was systematized and extended by Laplace; following Laplace, probability and statistics have been in continual development. In the 19th century, social scientists used statistical reasoning and probability models to advance the new sciences of experimental psychology and sociology; physical scientists used statistical reasoning and probability models to advance the new sciences of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The development of statistical reasoning was closely associated with the development of inductive logic and the scientific method. Statistics is not a field of mathematics but an autonomous mathematical science, like computer science or operations research. Unlike mathematics, statistics had its origins in public administration and maintains a special concern with demography and economics. Being concerned with the scientific method and inductive logic, statistical theory has close association with the philosophy of science; with its emphasis on learning from

data and making best predictions, statistics has great overlap with the decision science and microeconomics. With its concerns with data, statistics has overlap with information science and computer science.

STATISTICS TODAY

During the 20th century, the creation of precise instruments for agricultural research, public health concerns (epidemiology, biostatistics, etc.), industrial quality control, and economic and social purposes (unemployment rate,econometry, etc.) necessitated substantial advances in statistical practices. Today the use of statistics has broadened far beyond its origins. Individuals and organizations use statistics to understand data and make informed decisions throughout the natural and social sciences, medicine, business, and other areas. Statistics is generally regarded not as a subfield of mathematics but rather as a distinct, albeit allied, field. Many universities maintain separate mathematics and statistics departments. Statistics is also taught in departments as diverse as psychology, education, and public health.

3)STATIONERY

012345

KOOP SARJANA

SHARPENER PENCIL (2B) 1 DOZEN PEN ERASER 012345

KOOP IUI

SHARPENER PENCIL (2B) 1 DOZEN PEN ERASER 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5

KIOSK PUM

SHARPENER PENCIL (2B) 1 DOZEN PEN ERASER

(d) Based on the graphical representation that you have constructed in Part 1(c), interpret,discuss and draw conclusions.Comments on your findings. Answer:

Based on the graphical representation that I have constructed in Part 1(c), it is shown that there are large and small differences among the pries of items in each category between the shops.In the food category, the smallest price difference are of those sugar, while the highest is the price of eggs.Besides food, detergent also shows a large price difference between its items.Among them is the price of liquid dishwasher and clothes detergent.On the other hand, stationery items doesn;t have any obvious price difference.The graph also show that most of the items that are high priced comes from the KOOP SARJANA, while the lowest price items come frm the KIOSK PUM.the graph 1(d) will show the conclusion of the difference among the shops based upon the shops grand total. Graph 1(d)

46 48 50 52 54 56 58 GRAND TOTAL KOOP SARJANA KOOP IUI KIOSK PUM

(e) Identify an item that has a large price difference among the shops. Calculate the mean and standard deviation of that particular item. Hence, suggest and discuss possible reasons for the price difference. Answer:

**Liquid Dishwasher Mean = 18.9+17+16.5 3 = 17.47 Standard Deviation =¥(x²)/N± (x)² =¥18.9²+17²+16.5² 3 = 0.97
**

The large price difference of clothes detergent among the shops maybe because of the standard of the shop.A high standard shop or supermarket, the items sold intend to be much more

expensive than a regular shop or supermarket.Also, the price difference of the items may also due to the quality of the item present.A better quality means a higher price.

(i) Calculate the price index for each of the ingredients in Table 2 for the year 2010 based on the year 2009 Answer :

INGREDIENT QUANTITY PER CAKE PRICE IN THE YEAR 2009(RM) PRICE IN THE YEAR 2010(RM) PRICE INDEX FOR THE YEAR2010 BASED ON THE YEAR 2009(I) Self-Raising Flour 250g 0.90 0.90 100 Sugar 200g 0.35 0.36 102.86 Butter 250g 3.30 4.30 130.30 Eggs (Grade A) 5 eggs (300g) 1.25 2.10 168

1.Self-Raising Flour I =0 .9 0.9 x 100 = 100 2.Sugar I =0 .36 0.35 x 100 = 102.86 3.Butter I =4 .3 3.3 x 100 = 130.30 4.Eggs (Grade A)

I =2 .1 1.25 x 100

= 168

(ii)

Calculate the composite index for making a butter cake in the year 2010 based on the year 2009.Discuss how you obtained your answers. Answer:

To calculate the composite index,weightage is needed (W),

INGREDIENT WEIGHTAGE (W) Self-Raising Flour

2501000

=14

Sugar

2001000

=15

Butter

2501000

=14

Eggs (Grade A)

3301000

=3

10

**Composite Index =14(100)+ 15(102.86)+ 14(130.30)+ 3
**

10(168)

1 = 128.54

x 100 = 128.54 x 15

(iii) In the year 2009,the butter cake was sold at RM15.00 each.Suggest a suitable selling price for the butter cake in the year 2010.Give reasons for your answer. Answer:

**On 2009,RM 15.00 On 2010, price =
**

15 x 100

= 128.54%

=1928 .1

100

= 19.30

Thus,the suitable price for the butter cake for the year 2010 is RM19.30.The increase in price is also suitable because of the rise in the price of the ingredients.

(c) (i) Find out from reliable source how to determine suitable Capacity of air conditioner to be installed based on the volume/size of a room. Answer: For common usage, air conditioner is rated according to horse power (1HP), which is approximately 700W to 1000W of electrical power. It is suitable for a room size 1000ft³ which is around 27m³ of volume. (ii) Work in group to estimate the volume of your school Library.Explain how you arrive at your answer.Hence, determine the number of air conditioners with the appropriate capacity required for your library. Answer: By using a measuring tape,the dimension for the library is: Height

= 3.6m Width = 9.17m Length = 20.12m Volume of the room = 3.6 x 9.17 x 20.12 =664.20m³ 1 unit of air conditioner is for 27m³ For 664.20m³ =664 . 20

27

= 24.6 That means our school library needs 25 unit of air conditioner

iii) If your the

class intends to sponsor one air conditioner for

School library, how many butter cakes must you sell in order to buy the air conditioner Answer: 1 unit of 1HP air conditioner =RM700 Cost for a cake = 0.9 + 0.36 + 4.3 + 2.1 = RM 7.66 Selling price = RM19.30

Profit = 19.30 7.66 = RM 11.64 Number of cakes =700 11.64 to buy 1 unit of = 60.13 air conditioner = 60 cakes

PART 3 As a committee member for the carnival, you are required to prepare an estimated budget to organize this year s carnival. The committee has to take into the consideration the increase in expenditure from the previous year due to inflation. The price of food, transportation and tents has increased by 15%. The

cost of games, prizes and decorations remains the same, whereas the cost of miscellaneous items has increase by 30%. QUESTION (a) Complete Table 3 based on the information given above

EXPENDITURE AMOUNT IN 2009 (RM) AMOUNT IN 2010 (RM) FOOD 1200.00 1380.00 GAMES 500.00 500.00 TRANSPORTATION 300.00 345.00 DECORATIONS 200.00 200.00

PRIZES 600.00 600.00 TENTS 800.00 920.00 MISCELLANEOUS 400.00 520.00

(b) Calculate the composite index for the estimated budget of the carnival in the year 2010 based on the year 2009. Comment on your answer. Answer: EXPENDITURE AMOUN T IN 2009 (RM) AMOUN T IN 2010

(RM) PRICE INDEX ,I I= 1 0X 100% WEIGHTAG E, W FOOD 1200.00 1380.00 115 12 GAMES 500.00 500.00 100 5 TRANSPORTATIO N 300.00

345.00 115 3 DECORATIONS 200.00 200.00 100 2 PRIZES 600.00 600.00 100 6 TENTS 800.00 920.00 115 8 MISCELLANEOUS 400.00 520.00 130

4 Composite Index I =

= 115 12 +100 5 +115 3 +100 2 +100 6 +115 8 +130(4) 12+5+3+2+6+8+4 = 4465 40 = 111. 625

The total price for the year 2010 increase by 11.625%.This is because some price in the year 2009 increased in the year 2010

FURTHER EXPLORATION

Index numbers are being used in many different daily situations, for example air pollution index, stock market index, gold index and property index. Obtain information from the internet or other reliable sources on the importance of two different types of index number of your choice. Elaborate the use and the importance of these index numbers in daily life.

REFLECTION Adter spending countless hours,days and night to finish this project and also sacrificing my time video games and mangas in this mid year holiday,there are several things that I can say... Additional Mathematics... From the day I born... From the day I was able to holding pencil... From the day I start learning... And... From the day I heard your name... I always thought that you will be my greatest obstacle and rival in excelling in my life... But after countless of hours... Countless of days... Countless of nights... After sacrificing my precious time just for you... Sacrificing my Computer Games...

Sacrificing my Video Games... Sacrificing my Facebook... Sacrificing my Internet... Sacrifing my Anime... Sacrificing my Manga... I realized something really important in you... I really love you... You are my real friend... You my partner... You are my soulmate... I LOVE U ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS..

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