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EQ; Basic Aspects

Lecture #1 vers.1

Moulton Drawings -

EQ Parametric - center Fq

EQ low Fq Shelving

EQ Hi fq Shelving

EQ range of center Fq

EQ 5 Band
Graphic EQ

EQ ranges on 10 band EQ

EQ Fq Response curve graphic EQ


EQ first 10 Harmonics

EQ First 16 harmonics Low C to High C

EQ the fist 32
harmonics of
lo C with Fq
and note name


EQ Power Distribution of 1st verse over

EQ Power in Chorus over spectrum

About EQ Craig Anderton
Equalization (EQ) is the key to altering your tone
electronically; its probably the most important studio
effect. The term "equalization" refers to the concept that
an audio system should reproduce all frequencies
equallyin other words, it should have a flat frequency
response. For example, if a speaker cabinet has an
annoying midrange peak, you could reduce the response
at that frequency by an equal and opposite amount to
obtain a flat, or equalized, response. But even if you
dont have problems with your sound, EQ can open up
new tonal possibilities.

Basic EQ Types.1
Basic EQ Types
The simplest equalizer is the standard tone control found on most basses.
This typically is a passive circuit (meaning it requires no power) that can cut highs for a
"rounder" sound.
An active equalizer, on the other hand, can amplify as well as cut. Some basses have
onboard active EQs.

The shelving EQ, the kind found on stereos and simple amps, offers two knobs: one to
boost or cut bass, and another to boost or cut treble. While a shelving EQ doesnt allow
for precise sound shaping, it can correct broad deficiencies like lack of high-frequency
sparkle or excessive boominess.

More advanced types include two more controls that set the upper and lower
frequencies at which boosting/cutting occurs.

Basic EQ Types.2
A graphic EQ splits the audio spectrum into several bands, with an individual
boost/cut slider control for each. The sliders positions create a graphic representation
of how the sound is being shaped. The important specs for a graphic EQ are the
number of bands and each bands boost/cut capabilities (specified in dB). A graphic
EQs number of bands affects the units resolution, or ability to make precise
frequency-response changes. A 5-band graphic, for example, is adequate for general
sound shaping. Top-of-the-line models can have several dozen bands, each one-third
of an octave apart, which is very precise.

A parametric EQ's effect depends on three parameters: frequency, bandwidth,

and boost/cut. Unlike the graphic EQ, which boosts/cuts at specific fixed
frequencies, a parametric equalizer (the best EQ for most studio applications) can
boost or cut over a continuously variable frequency range, as set by a frequency
control. In addition, a bandwidth control sets the range of frequencies affected by the
boosting or cuttingfrom broad (a few octaves) to sharp (as narrow as one-twelfth of
an octave). Many parametric EQs contain multiple stages so you can process several
frequencies at once. Furthermore, some graphic and parametric EQs offer a shelving
option on the highest and lowest bands for shaping the lows or highs in a more
general way. Semi-parametric or quasi-parametric EQs include frequency and 18
boost/cut controls but no bandwidth control.
Basic EQ Types.3 parametric PARAMTERS

A parametric EQ's effect depends on three

parameters: frequency, bandwidth, and boost/cut.
Applying EQ: A Few Tips

Excessive boost can lead to distortion. To boost the lows and highs, try
cutting the mids instead. This minimizes the chance of distortion.

Constantly compare the EQd and non-EDd sounds. A situation you dont
want: You boost the treble a lot, which makes the bass seem thin, so you
boost thatwhich then makes the midrange seem weak, so you boost that.
Eventually everything is turned up to 11.

Even small EQ changes have significant impact. Boost or cut a few dB at a

time and get used to the sound before making further changes.

For solving specific response problems, go for the parametric. Suppose

you want to get rid of 60-cycle hum. With a graphic EQ, one band had better
be at exactly 60Hz if you want to solve the problem; with a parametric, simply
adjust one of the low-frequency band controls to a precise 60Hz, and go for
minimum bandwidth with maximum cut. A parametric can also help
compensate for low-end dead spots. 20
Applying EQ: A Few Tips CONT

Use EQ to create space for different instruments. For example, if the bass
and kick drum interfere, pull some bottom from the kick and increase the
upper mids to bring out the beater "thock." This gives a solid rhythmic accent
but concedes most of the low end to the bass. Conversely, you could trim the
lows from the bass and accent the highs to bring out snapping and pick
sounds, thus giving it more definition and making it stand out compared to the

When mixing, avoid using EQ until you start setting levels. Since EQ is all
about changing levels (albeit in specific frequency ranges), any EQ changes
will alter the overall instrumental balance. Also, instruments equalized to
sound great by themselves may not sound wonderful when combined. If every
track is equalized to leap out at you, theres no room left for a track to breathe.