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HRM Q. 9 What is a grievance? Why do grievances arise?

Explain in brief the procedure handling grievances in business world Ans : Grievance is a si gn of employee's discontent with job and its na dissatisfaction or feeling of injustice in conne brought to the mana gement." Jucius defines, "an y discontent or dissatisfac tion, whe ther exposed or not, ether valid or not, arising out of anything connected with the company wh believes or even fe els to be unfair, unjust or inequitable. According to Kieth Davis, Grievance is any real or imagined feeling of personal injustice which an employee has concerning his employment relationship. The International Labour Organisation (ILO) defines a grievance as "a complaint of one or more workers in respect of wages, allowances, conditions of work and interpretation of service stipulations, covering such areas as overtime, leave, transfer, promotion, seniority, job assignment and termination of service". From the above-mentioned definition following features can be derived:(a) A grievance refers to any form of discontent or dissatisfaction with any aspect of the organization. (b) The dissatisfaction must arise out of employment and not from personal or family problems. (c) The dissatisfaction may be expressed or implied. (d) The discontent may be valid, legitimate and rational or untrue and irrational or completely ludicrous. (e) A grievance is traceable to perceived non-fulfilment of one's expectations from the organization. (f) A grievance arises only when an employee feels that injustice has been done to him. (g) Grievances, if not redressed in time, tend to lower morale and ·productivity of employees. N ature and C auses Grievances of : If a problem is related to all or majority of employees or if the trade union submits a problem as a general claim, it falls outside the scope of grievance procedure and falls under the purview of collective bargaining. Thus, an the grievance machinery. Causes of grievances relate to interpretation of all personnel policies and areas like placement, transfer, promotion. Causes of grievances are classified as :issue is wider in scope, it will be outside ich an employee thinks, ture. It is caused the

difference between emp loyee expectation and management practice. Beach defines, "any ction with one’s employment situation that is

(A)

Grievance resulting from working conditions: Improper matching of the worker with the job Changes in schedulesor procedures Non-availability of proper tools, machines and equipment Tight production standards Bad work place conditions Failure to maintain proper discipline Poor relationship with the supervisor

(B)

Grievance resulting from management policy: Wage paymentand job rates Leave Overtime Seniority Transfer . Promotion. demotion and discharges Lack of career planning Hostility toward a labour union.

(C)

Grievance resulting from alleged violation of: The collective bargaining agreement Central or State laws Past practices Company rules Management's responsibility

(D)

Grievance resulting from personal maladjustment: Over-ambition Excessive self-esteem Impractical attitude to life

Grievance Handling Procedure Grievance handling is a formal process which is preliminary to an arbitration which enables the parties involved to attempt to resolve their differences The HR manager should help the top management and line managers in the formulation and implementation of the policies, programmes and procedures which would best enable them to handle employee grievance. In
India, there is a Model Grievance Procedure, which was adopted by Indian Labour Conference in 1958 . At present, Indian industries are adopting the Model Grievance Procedure or procedure formulated by themselves with modifications.

The steps are as follows: Step I The aggrieved employee verbally explains his grievance to his immediate supervisor or in a conference or a discussion specifically arranged for the purpose. The employee seeks satisfaction from his supervisor. The supervisor must give his answer within forty-eight hours of the presentation of the complaint. Step II The second step be gins when t e grievance is not settled by the super isor. The emplo h v yee does not receive an answer within the stipulated time or if he is not satisfied with the answer, he shall either in person or with his departmenal representative present has grievance to the head of the t department designated for this purpose. Step III If the employee is not satisfied with the answer, he can approach the Grievance Committee which shall evaluate the case and make its recommendations to management within seven days of presentation of the case. The Grievance Committee is composed of some fellow employees, the shop steward or a combination of union and management representatives. The committee may suggest possible solutions Step V

If the employee is unsatisfied with the management's decision, union and management may refer the grievance to voluntary arbitration within a week of the receipt of management's decision by the aggrieved employee. The parties may agree beforehand that the arbitrator's award will be final and binding on both the parties.

____________________________________________________________________________ Q. 1 Describe the essentials of performance appraisal. Discuss various conventional and modern methods of performance appraisal. Ans Performance appraisal is the s ystematic e valuation of the i ndividual w ith resp ect to his or her performance on the job and his or h er pot ential for development. Major comprehensi ve definiti on is as follows: Performance Appr aisal is a formal structured s ystem of measu ring and e valuatin g an employee's job r elated beh aviors and outcomes to d iscover how future so that the emplo yee, o rganization a nd society all benefit. Essentials of performance appraisal A sound appraisal system should comply with the following (a) Reliability and Validity The system should be both valid and reliable.. Appraisal system should provide consistent, reliable information and data which can be used defend the organization-even in legal challenges. (b) Job Relatedness The evaluators should focus on job-related behaviour and performance of employees. It is also necessary to prepare a checklist so as obtain and review job performance related information. Ratings should be tied up with actual performance. (c) Standardization Well-defined performance factors and criteria should be developed. Appraisal forms, procedures, techniques, ratings etc., should be standardized. It will help to ensure uniformity. (d) Practical Viability The techniques should be practically viable to administer, possible to implement economical to underta ke. (e) Training to Appraisers why the employee is presentl y performing on the job and how the employ ee can perform mo re effecti vely in the

The evaluators or appraiser should be provided adequate training in evaluating the performance of the employees without any bias. Evaluators should also be given training in philosophy and techniques of appraisal. They should be provided with knowledge and skills (f) Open Communication The system should be open and participative. Not only should it provide feedback to the employees on their performance, it should also involve them in the goal setting process. (g) Employee Access to Results Employees should receive adequate feedback on their performance. If the result of appraisal is negative and goes against the employee, it should, be immediately communicated to him so that he may improve his performance. (h) Clear Objectives The appraisal system should be objective oriented. It should fulfil the desired objectives The objectives should be relevant, timely and open. The appraisal system should be fair so that it is beneficial to both the individual employee and the organization. (i) Post Appraisal Interview After appraisal, an interview with the employee should be arranged. It is necessary to supply feedback, j) Periodic Review The system should be periodically evaluated to be sure that it is meeting its goals as there is the danger that the system may become rigid in a tangle of rules and procedures many of which may no longer be useful. (k) Not Vindictive Nature It should be noted by the executives of the organizations that the aim of performance appraisal is to improve performance, organizational effectiveness and to accomplish organizational objectives and not to harass the employees and workers of the organizations who are the vital human resource. Conventional and modern methods of performance appraisal: A number of different performance appraisal methods or techniques are available for evaluating the performance of the employees. These methods try to explain how management can establish standards of performance. There is no fool proof method of evaluating the performance of employees. Every method suffers from certain drawbacks in spite of some merits. The methods can broadly be divided into traditional and modem methods.

1.

Rating scale: The t ypical rating sc ale syste m consists of severa l numerical s cales, each r epres enting a job -related performanc e criterion such as dependabilit y, initiati ve, output, attendance, increase . attitude, cooperation et c., each scale ranges f rom excel lent to poor the nu mber of poi nts attached to t he scale ma y be linked to salar y

2.

Checklists: Under this method, a che cklist of statements on statements on the traits of the emplo yee and his or her job is prepared in two columns - 'YES' column and 'NO' column . The rater is to do is to ti ck the 'YES' if the answer is posit ive and tick 'NO' if the answer is 'NO' . The H R dept. gives point for e very "YES' when poi nts are allotted the tech nique be comes a we ighted checklist .

3.

Forced choice method: The rater is given a series of statement about the emplo these are arranged i n the blocks of two or more, and the rater indicates wh statement is most or least descriptive of the emp loyee . For e xamp le ( a) Learns fast - -------------------- ------------------works hard . (b) Absent often ------------ -------------- ----------others usuall y tardy.

yee ich

The HR depa rtment does actual assessment .

4.

Critical Incident method: It focuses on certain critical behavio urs of an emplo yee that make all the difference between effe ctive and no n-effecti ve performance of a job . Such incidents are recor ded by the superiors . as and w hen t hey occur.

5.

Annual confidential report

: ACR is mostly used in government departments like

military organizations etc. It has 14 items, twelve of these are filled on a four-point scale.

6.

Field review method : This is an appraisal by someone outside the assessee's own
department. Two disadvantage of this are: (a) An outsider is not familiar with conditions in an employee's work environment. (b) He does not have an opportunity to observe employee behaviour of performance over a period of time.

7.

Performance test : With a limited number of jobs, employee assessment may be
based upon a test of knowledge and skills. The test may be paper demonstration of skills the test must be reliable
& pencil or an actual & validated to be useful .

8.

Behaviorally anchored rating scales

: In this the scale represents a range of

descriptive statements of behaviour varying from the least to the most effective. A rater must indicate which behaviour on each scale best describes an employee's performance.

9.
are

MBO Technique : The MBO are based on the concrete performance targets. which usually established by superior and subordinates jointly. Peter Drucker (1954) described MBO in 1954 in the Practice of Management. Drucker pointed to the importance of managers having clear objectives that support the purposes of those in higher positions in the organization.

10 .

360 Degree Appraisal

It is a method of appraisal in which employees receive their performance feedback from their boss. colleagues. customers. peers and their own subordinates in the organisation. This form of performance evaluation can be very beneficial to managers because it typically gives them a much wider range of performance-related feedback than a traditional evaluation.

___________________________________________________________________________ Q7 Discuss the need of Human Resource Planning. Give steps involved in HRP.
ANS.

Human resource planning is th e process by which a m anagement determin es how an organizati on should m ove from its current manpower posi tion to its desired manpower position . Through planning, a management stri ves to h ave the right number and the right kinds of people at the right places , at the right time to do things for recei ving the maximum long-r ange benefits. Coleman has defin ed human resource or manpower plannin requirements in order to c arry out the inte grated plan of the organization" . Need For Human Resource Planning Human resourc e plannin g is practically useful at different levels. At the national level : It is generally done by the government and c overs it ems like popul ation projections, pro gramme of economic de velopment, educ ational facili ties, and geographical mobilit y of personnel . g as, "the se process of determina tion of manpower requirements and means of meeting tho

1.

At the sector level

: It ma y be done b y the government - centr al or stat e - and m ay

cover manpower needs of agricultur al, industri al and ser vice sector.

2.

At the industry level indus tries etc.

: It may cover manpower forecast for the specific industries,

such a cem ent, engine ering, heavy industrie s, consume r goods and p ublic utility

3.

At the level department s.

of Individual unit : It may relate to its manp ower needs for various

Human resource plannin g is deemed nece ssary for all organizations for one or the other of the foll owing reasons:

1.

HR plannin g is need ed to identify areas of surplus p ersonnel or areas in which there is shorta ge of personn el.

2.

To meet the chall enges of a new and ch anging technology a nd new technique s of producti on, existing employees need to be t rained or new people to be brought to the organization .

3.

To carry on its work, ea ch organization needs personnel wi th necessary qualificati ons, skills, knowledge, work experience and aptitude for wo rk. These are provided through effective manpower planning.

4.

Human resource pl anning is necessary for meeting frequent labour turn over which is unavoidable.

5.

In order t o meet the de mand s for expansion pr ogrammes, there will be requirement of human resources in the or ganization.

larger

Steps in HRP

F o re c a s tin g

In v e n to ry

A u d it

H R R e s o u rc e P la n

A c ito n in g o f Pla n

1 . F o re c a s tin g
HR plannin g requir es data on the or ganizational goals objecti ves. On e should under stand where the orga nization wants to go a nd how it wants to get to that point. The needs of the empl oyees ar e deriv ed from the corporate objecti ves of the organization.

2.

In v e n to ry

After knowing what human resources are re quired in th e organization, the next step is to take stock of the curre nt emplo yees in the or ganization. The HR in ventory should not only relate to data concerning numb ers, ages, an d loc ations, but also an analysis of individu als and skill s. Skill s inventory provides valid informati on on professional and t echnical skills and other q ualifications pro vided in th e firm. I t reveals what skill s are immediat ely availabl e when c ompar ed to the forecasted HR requirements.

3 . A u d it
HR inven tory calls for collection of data, the HR audit requires s ystematic examinati on and analysis of th is data. The audit looks at w hat had occur red in the past and at present in terms of labour t urnover, age and sex g roupi ngs, training costs and absence. Based on this information, one can then be a ble to pre dict what will happen to HR in the fut ure.

H R R e s o u rc e P la n
People are the gre atest ass ets in any orga nization. The organization is at li berty to develop its staff at full pa ce in the way i deally suited to their individua l capacities. The main reaso n is that the o rganization's o bjectives shou ld be aligned as near as poss ible, or matched, in order to give optim um scope for t he develo ping potential of its e mployees. Therefore, career plan ning or su ccessio n planning is must.

A c ito n in g o fla n P
There are t hree fu ndame ntals necessary for th is first step:

1. 2. 3.

Know where organisation is goi ng. There mu st be acceptance and backing from top management for the There m ust be k nowledge of the availab le resources planning.

Once i n action, the HR plans become corporate p lans. Havi ng been made and concurred with top management , the plans become a part of the to achieve the HR plans due to the long -range p lan. company's long range plan . Failure cost, or lack of k nowledge, may be a serious constrai nt on

_________________________________________________________________________ Q. 10 Write short note on any three Q.10 (5). Line and Staff Organisation: Organizational structure involves the designation of

jobs within an organization and the relationships among those jobs. There are numerous ways to structure jobs within an organization, but two of the most basic forms include simple line structures and line-and-staff structures. In a line organization, top management has complete control, and the chain of command is clear and simple. Examples of line organizations are small businesses in which the top manager, often the owner, is positioned at the top of the organizational structure and has clear lines of distinction between him and his subordinates. The line-and-staff organization combines the line organization with staff departments that support and advise line departments. Most medium and large-sized firms exhibit line-and-staff organizational structures. The distinguishing characteristic between simple line organizations and line-and-staff organizations is the multiple layers of management within line-and-staff organizations. Advantages and Disadvantages : Several advantages and disadvantages are present within a line-and-staff organization. An advantage of a line-and-staff organization is the availability of technical specialists. Staff experts in specific areas are incorporated into the formal chain of command. A disadvantage of a line-and-staff organization is conflict between line and staff personnel. Q.10 (4). Leadership Styles: There are many ways to lead and every leader has his or her own style. Some of the more common styles include autocratic, bureaucratic, democratic, and laissez-faire.

1. Autocratic Leadership Style : This is considered the classical approach. It is one in
which the manager retains as much power and decision-making authority as possible. The manager does not consult employees, nor are they allowed to give any input. Employees are expected to obey orders without receiving any explanations. The motivation environment is produced by creating a structured set of rewards and punishments. Gen X employees are highly resistant to this management style. These studies say that autocratic leaders:

2. Bureaucratic Leadership Style : Bureaucratic leadership is where the manager
manages by the book. Everything must be done according to procedure or policy. If it is not covered by the book, the manager refers to the next level above him or her. This manager is really more of a police officer than a leader. This style can be effective when: a) Employees are performing routine tasks over and over b) Employees need to understand certain standards or procedures c) Employees are working with dangerous or delicate equipment that requires a definite set of procedures to operate.

3. Democratic Leadership Style : The democratic leadership style is also called the
participative style as it encourages employees to be a part of the decision making. The democratic manager keeps his or her employees informed about everything that affects their work and shares decision making and problem solving responsibilities. This style requires the leader to be a coach who has the final say, but gathers information from staff members before making a decision. Democratic leadership can produce high quality and high quantity work for long periods of time. The democratic style is not always appropriate. It is most successful when used with highly skilled or experienced employees or when implementing operational changes or resolving individual or group problems.

4. Laissez-Faire Leadership Style : The laissez-faire leadership style is also known as
the “hands-off¨ style is one in which the manager provides little or no direction and gives employees as much freedom as possible. All authority or power is given to the employees and they must determine goals, make decisions, and resolve problems on their own. This is an effective style to use when a) Employees are highly skilled, experienced, and educated b) Employees have pride in their work and the drive to do it successfully on their own. Q.10 (2). Maslow's theory Abraham Maslow developed a hierarchic theory of needs. All of basic needs are instinct or equivalent of instincts in animals. Humans start with a very weak disposition that is then fashioned fully as the person grows. If the environment is right, people will grow straight and

beautiful, actualizing the potentials they have inherited. Maslow set up a hierarchy of five levels of basic needs. Beyond these needs, higher levels of needs exist. In the levels of the five basic needs, the person does not feel the second need until the demands of the first have been satisfied, nor the third until the second has been satisfied, and so on. Maslow's basic needs are as follows 1. Physiological Needs These are biological needs. They consist of needs for oxygen, food, water, and a relatively constant body temperature. They are the strongest needs because if a person were deprived of all needs, the physiological ones would come first in the person's search for satisfaction. 2. Safety Needs When all physiological needs are satisfied and are no longer controlling thoughts and behaviors, the needs for security can become active. Adults have little awareness of their security needs except in times of emergency or periods of disorganization in the social structure. Children often display the signs of insecurity and the need to be safe. 3. Needs of Love, Affection and Belongingness When the needs for safety and for physiological well-being are satisfied, the next class of needs for love, affection and belongingness can emerge. Maslow states that people seek to overcome feelings of loneliness and alienation. This involves both giving and receiving love, affection and the sense of belonging. 4. Needs for Esteem When the first three classes of needs are satisfied, the needs for esteem can become dominant. These involve needs for both self-esteem and for the esteem a person gets from others. When these needs are satisfied, the person feels self-confident and valuable as a person in the world. When these needs are frustrated, the person feels inferior, weak, helpless and worthless. 5. Needs for Self-Actualization When all of the foregoing needs are satisfied, then and only then are the needs for selfactualization activated. Maslow describes self-actualization as a person's need to be and do that which the person was "born to do.. An artist must paint, and a poet must write. If a person is hungry, unsafe, not loved or accepted, or lacking self-esteem, it is very easy to know what the person is restless about. It is not always clear what a person wants when there is a need for self-actualization _____________________________________________________________________

Q. 6 Explain briefly the concept of morale. Discuss the relationship between morale and motivation Concept of morale : Morale is a state of individual psychological well-being based upon a sense of confidence and usefulness and purpose. The theory of morale comes from B Flippo. Morale is defined as “a mental condition or attitude of individuals and groups which determines their willingness to co-operate. Good morale is evidenced by employee enthusiasm, voluntary conformance with regulations and orders, and a willingness to co-operate with others in the accomplishment of an organization’s objectives. Poor morale is evinced by surliness, insubordination, a feeling of discouragement and dislike of the job, company and associates.” Professor Ralph C. Davis thinks about morale as good organizational morale is a condition in which individuals and groups voluntarily make a reasonable subordination of their personnel objectives of their organization. Morale is whether the people in the work environment are happy. Morale is important for

realization of common objectives. Morale is also depends on the reality and material background. It depends upon the relations between expectations and reality. Effects of Low Morale The most significant effects of low morale are: (a) High Rate of Absenteeism, (b) Tardiness, (c) High Labour. Turnover, (d) Strikes and Sabotage, (e) Lack of Pride in Work, (f) Wastage and Spoilage.

Motivation and Morale:

Motivation is whether the people in the work environment have

enough incentive to do their jobs. Typically, a salary is a good motivation, and being paid well leads to higher morale. Even in a well-paid environment there are other things that companies can do to improve morale, including assisting employees with work-/life balance, providing good insurance benefits, a healthy work environment, and positive feedback when jobs are well done. Motivating employees sometimes depends on the individual or generational differences, but typically offering food or monetary incentives for higher performance works well, or negative

things can work as well, though they typically lower morale. such as threatening a person's job if performance isn't improved. Things tied to general morale are usually things that are just part of the job environment, and things tied to motivation are tied to the performance of the individual. Morale is internal feeling and it is inspired by the environment. Motivation comes from enthusiasm, zeal, confidence in individuals or groups that they will be able to cope with the tasks assigned to them Motivation is defined as an urge in an individual to perform goal directed behavior. Therefore, motivation cannot be inflicted from outside but it is an intrinsic desire in a man to achieve the target goal through performance or activity. Motivation is a dominant intrinsic urge in an individual. The leader of the team can introduce a team motivation or group motivation where the individual idiosyncrasy looses importance and the group goal becomes the target. It is then not motivation per se but a group morale - an “espirit de corps” i.e. a sense of group activity with desire for high achievement of the group goal. An individual can comfortably ignore his personal goals or needs. Such morale is mostly psychological in nature and not physiological