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Chapter 3
Fluid Dynamics

In the production and use of steam there are many The surface tension of water is dependent on tempera-
fluid dynamics considerations. Fluid dynamics ad- ture and its value goes to zero at the critical tempera-
dresses steam and water flow through pipes, fittings, ture (705.47 F, 374.15C). Supercritical water is con-
valves, tube bundles, nozzles, orifices, pumps and tur- sidered single phase in fluid dynamic analysis due to
bines, as well as entire circulating systems. It also con- zero surface tension.
siders air and gas flow through ducts, tube banks, fans, The recommended correlation1 for the surface ten-
compressors and turbines plus convection flow of gases sion of water and its vapor, , is:
due to draft effect. The fluid may be a liquid or gas
but, regardless of its state, the essential property of a (T T )

fluid is that it yields under the slightest shear stress. = 235.8 10 N / m c


This chapter is limited to the discussion of Newtonian T
liquids, gases and vapors where any shear stress is
Tc T (1)
directly proportional to a velocity gradient normal to
the shear force. The ratio of the shear stress to the ve- 1 0.625 T

locity gradient is the property viscosity represented by
the symbol . where Tc = 647.15K and T is the fluid temperature in K.
Liquids and gases are recognized as states of mat- Water in steam generators operating at supercriti-
ter. In the liquid state, a fluid is relatively incompress- cal pressure (above 3200.1 psia, 22.1 MPa) will be-
ible, having a definite volume. It is also capable of have as a single phase fluid converting from liquid to
forming a free surface interface between itself and its steam without creating bubbles. At the critical pres-
vapor or any other fluid with which it does not mix. On sure and critical temperature, the density of water and
the other hand, a gas is highly compressible. It expands steam are identical and there is no distinguishable in-
or diffuses indefinitely and is subject only to the limi- terface at equilibrium conditions. Surface tension is
tations of gravitational forces or an enclosing vessel. also related to the latent heat of vaporization which
The term vapor generally implies a gas near satu- also decreases to zero at the critical temperature.2 This
ration conditions where the liquid and the gas phase chapter discusses single phase fluid flow. Chapter 5
coexist at essentially the same temperature and pres- pertains to two-phase fluid flow that occurs in boiling
sure, during a process such as vaporization or boiling. tube circuits.
In a similar sense the term gas denotes a highly su-
perheated steam. Sometimes steam may be treated as
an ideal gas and careful judgment is needed when Fundamental relationships
doing so. Three fundamental laws of conservation apply to
Fluid dynamics principles normally consider the fluid dynamic systems: conservation of mass, momen-
fluid to be a continuous region of matter, a continuum, tum and energy. With the exception of nuclear reac-
and a molecular model is not required except for rare tions where minute quantities of mass are converted
instances. However, one property is noteworthy to con- into energy, these laws must be satisfied in all flow-
sider due to the effect on steam generation fluid flow ing systems. Fundamental mathematical relationships
and due to intermolecular forces. Surface tension, , for these principles are presented in several different
is a liquid property of the vapor-liquid interface and forms that may be applied in particular fluid dynamic
is the energy per unit area required to extend the in- situations to provide an appropriate solution method.
terface. Surface tension is important in two-phase sys- However, full analytical solutions are frequently too
tems, such as a mixture flowing in a boiler tube, and complex without the use of a computer. Simplified
relates to the shape and flow regime of the bubble in- forms of the full equations can be derived by apply-
terface and also to the heat transfer area of droplets. ing engineering judgment to drop negligible terms and
Vapor bubbles increase the resistance to fluid flow. consider only terms of significant magnitude for cer-

Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics 3-1

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tain classes of problems. Fluid dynamics problems can The conservation of momentum for one dimensional
be classified as compressible or incompressible, viscous single phase flow in a variable area channel or stream
or inviscid. Engineering practice is based upon apply- tube is:
ing various assumptions and empirical relationships
in order to obtain a practical method of solution. A
more complete discussion of the derivation of these
1 G 1 G 2 A Pf
+ +
conservation law relationships and vector notation gc t A x A
representing three dimensional spaces may be found (6)
g P
in References 3, 4, 5 and 6. + sin + = 0
gc x
Conservation of mass
The law of conservation of mass simply states that
the rate of change in mass stored in a system must P = pressure, psia (MPa)
equal the difference in the mass flowing into and out G = mass flux, G = V, lb/h ft2 (kg/s m2)
of the system. The continuity equation of mass for one A = flow area of channel ft2 (m2)
dimensional single phase flow in a variable area chan- = density lb/ft3 (kg/m3)
nel or stream tube is: = wall shear stress, lb/ft2 (N/m2) (refer to Equation 26)
Pf = channel wetted perimeter, ft (m)
A V g = 32.17 ft /s2 (9.8 m /s2)
A + AV + V + A = 0 (2) gc = 32.17 lbm ft/lbf s2 (1 kg m /N s2)
t x x x
= angle of channel inclination for x distance
In its simplest form in x, y and z three dimensional
Cartesian coordinates, conservation of mass for a small This relationship is useful in calculating steam gen-
fixed control volume is: erator tube circuit pressure drop.
The conservation of momentum is a vector equa-
tion and is direction dependent, resulting in one equa-
u + v + w = (3) tion for each coordinate direction (x, y and z for Car-
x y z t tesian coordinates), providing three momentum equa-
where u, v and w are the fluid velocities in the x, y tions for each scaler velocity component, u, v and w.
and z coordinate directions; t is time and is the fluid The full mathematical representation of the momen-
density. An important form of this equation is derived tum equation is complex and is of limited direct use in
by assuming steady-state ( / t = 0) and incompress- many engineering applications, except for numerical
ible (constant density) flow conditions: computational models. As an example, in the x coordi-
nate direction, the full momentum equation becomes:
u v w
+ + = 0 (4)
x y z u u u u
+u +v +w Term 1
Although no liquid is truly incompressible, the as- t x y z
sumption of incompressibility simplifies problem solu- = fx Term 2
tions and is frequently acceptable for engineering
practice considering water and oils. P
Term 3
Another relationship useful in large scale pipe flow x
systems involves the integration of Equation 3 around
the flow path for constant density, steady-state con- 2 u v w
+ 2 Term 4
ditions. For only one inlet (subscript 1) and one outlet x 3 x y z
(subscript 2): (7)
v u
+ +
 = 1 A1 V1 = 2 A2 V2
m (5) y x y
where is the average density, V is the average ve- w u
locity, A is the cross-sectional area, and m is the mass + +
flow rate. z x z

Conservation of momentum where x is the body force in the x direction, P is the

The law of conservation of momentum is a repre- pressure, and is the viscosity. This equation and the
sentation of Newtons Second Law of Motion the corresponding equations in the y and z Cartesian co-
mass of a particle times its acceleration is equal to the ordinates represent the Navier-Stokes equations
sum of all of the forces acting on the particle. In a flow- which are valid for all compressible Newtonian fluids
ing system, the equivalent relationship for a fixed (con- with variable viscosity. Term 1 is the rate of momen-
trol) volume becomes: the rate of change in momen- tum change. Term 2 accounts for body force effects
tum entering and leaving the control volume is equal such as gravity. Term 3 accounts for the pressure gra-
to the sum of the forces acting on the control volume. dient. The balance of the equation accounts for mo-

3-2 Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics

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mentum change due to viscous transfer. Term 1 is A general form of the energy equation for a flow-
sometimes abbreviated as (Du /Dt) where Du /Dt is ing system using an enthalpy based formulation and
defined as the substantial derivative of u. For a func- vector notation is:
tion (scaler or vector), D /Dt is the substantial de-
rivative operator on function defined as: DH DP
= q + + ikT +
Dt Dt gc
D (12)
= +u +v Term 1 Term 2 Term 3 Term 4 Term 5
Dt t x y
(8) where is the fluid density, H is the enthalpy per unit
+w = + v i
z t mass of a fluid, T is the fluid temperature, q is the
internal heat generation, k is the thermal conductiv-
where the vector gradient or grad or del operator on ity, and is the dissipation function for irreversible
function is defined as: work.6 Term 1 accounts for net energy convected into
the system, Term 2 accounts for internal heat genera-
or grad or del = i /x + j /y + k /z tion, Term 3 accounts for work done by the system,
Term 4 addresses heat conduction, and Term 5 ac-
For the special case of constant density and viscosity, counts for viscous dissipation.
this equation reduces to (for the x coordinate direction): As with the momentum equations, the full energy
equation is too complex for most direct engineering
applications except for use in numerical models. (See
Du 1 P 2u 2u 2u Chapter 6.) As a result, specialized forms are based
= fx + 2 + 2 + 2 (9)
Dt x x y z upon various assumptions and engineering approxi-
mations. As discussed in Chapter 2, the most common
form of the energy equation for a simple, inviscid (i.e.,
The y and z coordinate equations can be developed
frictionless) steady-state flow system with flow in at
by substituting appropriate parameters for velocity u,
location 1 and out at location 2 is:
pressure gradient P / x, and body force x. Where vis-
cosity effects are negligible ( = 0), the Euler equation
of momentum is produced (x direction only shown): JQ W = J ( u2 u1 ) + ( P2v2 P1v1 )
1 g
= fx
1 P +
2 gc
( )
V22 V12 + ( Z2 Z1 )
Dt x (10)
Energy equation (first law of thermodynamics)
The law of conservation of energy for nonreacting JQ W = J ( H 2 H1 )
fluids states that the energy transferred into a sys-
1 g
tem less the mechanical work done by the system must
be equal to the rate of change in stored energy, plus
2 gc
( )
V22 V12 + ( Z2 Z1 )

the energy flowing out of the system with a fluid,

minus the energy flowing into the system with a fluid.
A single scaler equation results. The one dimensional where
single phase flow energy equation for a variable area
channel or stream tube is: Q = heat added to the system, Btu lbm (J/kg)
(See Note below)
H H P 1 P W = work done by the system, ft-lbf/lbm (N m/kg)
+G = q H + q + (11) J = mechanical equivalent of heat = 778.17 ft lbf/
t x A J Btu (1 N m/J)
u = internal energy, Btu/lbm (J/kg)
where P = pressure, lbf/ft2 (N/m2)
P = pressure, psia (MPa) = specific volume, ft3/lbm (m3/kg)
G = mass flux, lb/h ft2 (kg/s m2) V = velocity, ft /s (m/s)
A = flow area of channel, ft2 (m2) Z = elevation, ft (m)
= density, lb/ft3 (kg/m3) H = enthalpy = u + P/J, Btu/lbm (J/kg)
= wall shear stress, lb/ft2 (N/m2) g = 32.17 ft /s2 (9.8 m /s2)
PH = channel heated area, ft2 (m2) g c = 32.17 lbm ft/lbf s2 (1 kg m /N s2)
x = channel distance, ft (m) for x distance
H = enthalpy, Btu/lb (kJ/kg)
J = mechanical equivalent of heat = 778.17 ft lbf/ Note: Where required for clarity, the abbreviation lb is aug-
Btu (1 N m/J) mented by f (lbf) to indicate pound force and by m (lbm) to
q = heat flux at boundary, Btu/h ft2 (W/m2) indicate pound mass. Otherwise lb is used with force or
q = internal heat generation, Btu/h ft3 (W/m) mass indicated by the context.

Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics 3-3

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Energy equation applied to fluid flow ible flow pressure losses, or change in elevation occurs.
The initial velocity is assumed to be zero and compress-
(pressure loss without friction) ible flow is permitted. If the temperature (T ) and pres-
The conservation laws of mass and energy, when sure (P ) of steam or water are known at points 1 and
simplified for steady, frictionless (i.e., inviscid) flow of 2, Equation 15 provides the exit velocity using the en-
an incompressible fluid, result in the mechanical en- thalpy (H) values provided in Tables 1, 2 and 3 of Chap-
ergy balance referred to as Bernoullis equation: ter 2. If the pressure and temperature at point 1 are
known but only the pressure at point 2 is known, the
g V2 g V2 outlet enthalpy (H2) can be evaluated by assuming con-
P1v + Z1 + 1 = P2v + Z2 + 2 (14) stant entropy expansion from points 1 to 2, i.e., S1 = S2.
gc 2 gc gc 2 gc
Ideal gas relationships
The variables in Equation 14 are defined as follows
with the subscripts referring to location 1 and loca- There is another method that can be used to deter-
tion 2 in the system: mine velocity changes in a frictionless adiabatic ex-
pansion. This method uses the ideal gas equation of
P = pressure, lbf/ft2 (N/m2) state in combination with the pressure-volume rela-
= specific volume of fluid, ft3/lbm (m3/kg) tionship for constant entropy.
Z = elevation, ft (m) From the established gas laws, the relationship be-
V = fluid velocity, ft/s (m/s) tween pressure, volume and temperature of an ideal
Briefly, Equation 14 states that the total mechani- gas is expressed by:
cal energy present in a flowing fluid is made up of pres-
sure energy, gravity energy and velocity or kinetic
energy; each is mutually convertible into the other Pv = RT (16a)
forms. Furthermore, the total mechanical energy is or
constant along any stream-tube, provided there is no R
friction, heat transfer or shaft work between the points Pv = T (16b)
considered. This stream-tube may be an imaginary M
closed surface bounded by stream lines or it may be where
the wall of a flow channel, such as a pipe or duct, in
which fluid flows without a free surface. P = absolute pressure, lb/ft2 (N/m2)
Applications of Equation 14 are found in flow mea- = specific volume, ft3/lb of gas (m3/kg)
surements using the velocity head conversion result- M = molecular weight of the gas, lb/lb-mole
ing from flow channel area changes. Examples are the (kg/kg-mole)
venturi, flow nozzle and various orifices. Also, pitot T = absolute temperature, R (K)
tube flow measurements depend on being able to com- R = gas constant for specific gas, ft lbf/lbm R
pare the total head, P + Z + (V2 /2 gc ), to the static (N m/kg K)
head, P + Z, at a specific point in the flow channel. MR = R = the universal gas constant
Descriptions of metering instruments are found in = 1545 ft lb/lb-mole R (8.3143 kJ/kg-mole K)
Chapter 40. Bernoullis equation, developed from The relationship between pressure and specific vol-
strictly mechanical energy concepts some 50 years ume along an expansion path at constant entropy, i.e.,
before any precise statement of thermodynamic laws, isentropic expansion, is given by:
is a special case of the conservation of energy equa-
tion or first law of thermodynamics in Equations 13a Pvk = constant (17)
and b.
Applications of Equation 13 to fluid flow are given Because P1 and 1 in Equation 13 are known, the con-
in the examples on water and compressible fluid flow stant can be evaluated from P11k. The exponent k is
through a nozzle under the Applications of the En- constant and is evaluated for an ideal gas as:
ergy Equation section in Chapter 2. Equation 18,
Chapter 2 is: k = c p / cv = specific heat ratio (18)

V2 = 2 gc J ( H1 H 2 ) = C H1 H 2 (15) where
cp = specific heat at constant pressure, Btu/lb F (J/kg K)
where cv = specific heat at constant volume, Btu/lb F (J/kg K)
V2 = downstream velocity, ft/s (m/s) = (u1 u2)/(T1 T2)
gc = 32.17 lbm ft/lbf s2 = 1 kg m/Ns2 For a steady, adiabatic flow with no work or change
J = 778.26 ft lbf/Btu = 1 Nm/J in elevation of an ideal gas, Equations 13, 16, 17 and
H1 = upstream enthalpy, Btu/lb (J/kg) 18 can be combined to provide the following relationship:
H2 = downstream enthalpy, Btu/lb (J/kg)
C = 223.8 lbm/Btu ft/s (1.414 kg/J m/s) k 1

This equation relates fluid velocity to a change in en- k P2 k
V22 V12 = 2 gc P1 v1 1 P (19)
thalpy under adiabatic (no heat transfer), steady, in- k 1 1
viscid (no friction) flow where no work, local irrevers-

3-4 Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics

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When V1 is set to zero and using English units Equa- most flow situations there are also bulk fluid inter-
tion 19 becomes: changes known as eddy diffusion. The net result of
all inelastic momentum exchanges is exhibited in
k 1
shear stresses between adjacent layers of the fluid. If
k P2 k the fluid is contained in a flow channel, these stresses
V2 = 8.02 P1 v1 1 , ft/s (20) are eventually transmitted to the walls of the chan-
k 1 P1 nel. To counterbalance this wall shear stress, a pres-

sure gradient proportional to the bulk kinetic energy,
Equations 19 and 20 can be used for gases in pres- V 2 / 2 gc, is established in the fluid in the direction of
sure drop ranges where there is little change in k, pro- the bulk flow. The force balance is:
vided values of k are known or can be calculated.
Equation 20 is widely used in evaluating gas flow D2
through orifices, nozzles and flow meters.
( dP ) = w D ( dx ) (24)
It is sufficiently accurate for most purposes to de-
termine velocity differences caused by changes in flow where
area by treating a compressible fluid as incompress- D = tube diameter or hydraulic diameter Dh ft (m)
ible. This assumption only applies when the difference Dh = 4 (flow area)/(wetted perimeter) for circu-
in specific volumes at points 1 and 2 is small compared lar or noncircular cross-sections, ft (m)
to the final specific volume. The accepted practice is dx = distance in direction of flow, ft (m)
to consider the fluid incompressible when: w = shear stress at the tube wall, lb/ft2 (N/m2 )
(v2 v1 ) / v2 < 0.05 (21) Solving Equation 24 for the pressure gradient (dP /
Because Equation 14 represents the incompressible
energy balance for frictionless adiabatic flow, it may dP 4
be rearranged to solve for the velocity difference as = w (25)
dx D
This pressure gradient along the length of the flow
V22 V12 = 2 gc ( Pv ) + Zg / gc 22) channel can be expressed in terms of a certain num-
ber of velocity heads, , lost in a length of pipe equiva-
where lent to one tube diameter. The symbol is called the
friction factor, which has the following relationship to
(P) = pressure head difference between locations the shear stress at the tube wall:
1 and 2 = (P1 P2) , ft (m)
Z = head (elevation) difference between loca- f 1 V2
tions 1 and 2, ft (m) w = (26)
V = velocity at locations 1 and 2, ft/s (m/s) 4 v 2 gc
Equation 25 can be rewritten, substituting for w from
When the approach velocity is approximately zero, Equation 26 as follows:
Equation 22 in English units becomes:

V2 = 2 gh = 8.02 h , ft/s (23) dP 4 f 1 V2 f 1 V2

= = (27)
dx D 4 v 2 gc D v 2 gc
In this equation, h, in ft head of the flowing fluid, re-
places (P) + Z. If the pressure difference is mea- The general energy equation, Equation 13, expressed
sured in psi, it must be converted to lb/ft2 to obtain P as a differential has the form:
in ft.
du + + d ( Pv ) = dQ dWk (28a)
Pressure loss from fluid friction gc
So far, only pressure changes associated with the or
kinetic energy term, V 2/2 gc, and static pressure term, VdV
Z, have been discussed. These losses occur at constant du + + Pdv + vdP = dQ dWk (28b)
flow where there are variations in flow channel cross- gc
sectional area and where the inlet and outlet are at Substituting Equation 26 of Chapter 2 (du = Tds
different elevations. Fluid friction and, in some cases Pd) in Equation 28 yields:
heat transfer with the surroundings, also have impor-
tant effects on pressure and velocity in a flowing fluid. VdV
Tds + + vdP = dQ dWk (29)
The following discussion applies to fluids flowing in gc
channels without a free surface.
When a fluid flows, molecular diffusion causes The term Tds represents heat transferred to or from
momentum interchanges between layers of the fluid the surroundings, dQ, and any heat added internally
that are moving at different velocities. These inter- to the fluid as the result of irreversible processes.
changes are not limited to individual molecules. In These processes include fluid friction or any irrevers-

Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics 3-5

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ible pressure losses resulting from fluid flow. (See The second term on the right side of Equation 36 may
Equation 29 and explanation, Chapter 2.) Therefore: be integrated provided a functional relationship be-
tween and x can be established. For example, where
Tds = dQ + dQF (30) the heat absorption rate over the length of the flow
where dQF is the heat equivalent of fluid friction and channel is constant, temperature T is approximately
any local irrecoverable pressure losses such as those linear in x, or:
from pipe fittings, bends, expansions or contractions.
Substituting Equation 30 into Equation 29, cancel- L
dx = dT (37)
ing dQ on both sides of the equation, setting dWk equal T2 T1
to 0 (no shaft work), and rearranging Equation 29 and
results in:
L L 2

dP =

dQF 0
vdx =
T2 T1 1
vdT = Lvav (38)
vgc v (31)
The term a is an average specific volume with re-
Three significant facts should be noted from Equa- spect to temperature, T.
tion 31 and its derivation. First, the general energy
equation does not accommodate pressure losses due vav = (v2 + v1 ) = v1 (vR + 1 ) (39)
to fluid friction or geometry changes. To accommodate
these losses Equation 31 must be altered based on the where
first and second laws of thermodynamics (Chapter 2).
Second, Equation 31 does not account for heat trans- R = 2 / 1
fer except as it may change the specific volume, , = averaging factor
along the length of the flow channel. Third, there is
also a pressure loss as the result of a velocity change. In most engineering evaluations, is almost lin-
This loss is independent of any flow area change but ear in T and l/2. Combining Equations 36 and
is dependent on specific volume changes. The pressure 37, and rewriting 2 1 as 1 ( R 1):
loss is due to acceleration which is always present in
compressible fluids. It is generally negligible in incom- G2
pressible flow without heat transfer because friction P1 P2 = 2 v1 ( vR 1 )
2 gc
heating has little effect on fluid temperature and the
accompanying specific volume change. L G2 (40)
+ f v1 ( vR + 1 )
Equation 27 contains no acceleration term and D 2 gc
applies only to friction and local pressure losses. There-
fore, dQF/ in Equation 31 is equivalent to dP of Equation 40 is completely general. It is valid for com-
Equation 27, or: pressible and incompressible flow in pipes of constant
cross-section as long as the function T = F(x) can be as-
dQF dx V 2
= f (32) signed. The only limitation is that dP/dx is negative at
v D v 2 gc every point along the pipe. Equation 33 can be solved
for dP/dx making use of Equation 34 and the fact that
Substitution of Equation 32 into Equation 31 yields: P11 can be considered equal to P22 for adiabatic flow
over a short section of tube length. The result is:
VdV f V2
dP = dx (33)
vgc D v 2 gc dP Pf / 2 D
From Equation 5, the continuity equation permits dx g Pv (41)
1 c 2
definition of the mass flux, G, or mass velocity or mass V
flow rate per unit area [lb/h ft2 (kg/m2 s)] as:
At any point where V 2 = gcP, the flow becomes choked
V because the pressure gradient is positive for velocities
= G = constant (34) greater than (gcP)0.5. The flow is essentially choked
v by excessive stream expansion due to the drop in pres-
Substituting Equation 34 into Equation 33 for a flow sure. The minimum downstream pressure that is ef-
channel of constant area: fective in producing flow in a channel is:
G2 G2 v P2 = V 2 / v2 gc = v2 G 2 / gc (42)
dP = 2 dv f dx (35)
2 gc 2 gc D
Dividing both sides of Equation 40 by G2 l / 2gc,
Integrating Equation 35 between points 1 and 2, lo- the pressure loss is expressed in terms of velocity
cated at x = 0 and x = L, respectively: heads. One velocity head equals:

G2 G2 1 L V2 V 2
P1 P2 = 2 (v2 v1 ) + f vdx (36) P (one velocity head) = = (43)
2 gc 2 gc D 0 2 gcCv 2 gcC

3-6 Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics

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where often more convenient to use mixed units. For ex-

ample, a useful form of Equation 46 in English units
P = pressure drop equal to one velocity head, lb/
in.2 (N/m2)
V = velocity, ft/s (m/s) 2
= specific volume, ft3/lb (m3/kg) L G
P = f v (47)
g c = 32.17 lbm ft/lbf s2 = 1 kg m/N s2 De 105
C = 144 in.2/ft2 (1 m2/m2)
= density, lb/ft3 (kg/m3) where
In either case, represents the number of velocity P =fluid pressure drop, psi
heads (Nvh) lost in each diameter length of pipe. = friction factor from Fig. 1, dimensionless
The dimensionless parameter defined by the pres- L = length, ft
sure loss divided by twice Equation 43 is referred to De =equivalent diameter of flow channel, in. (note
as the Euler number: units)
= specific volume of fluid, ft3/lb
Eu = P / V 2 / gc ) (44)
G = mass flux of fluid, lb/h ft2
Friction factor
where is the density, or l/ .
The friction factor () introduced in Equation 26, is
Two other examples of integrating Equation 35 defined as the dimensionless fluid friction loss in ve-
have wide applications in fluid flow. First, adiabatic locity heads per diameter length of pipe or equivalent
flow through a pipe is considered. Both H and D are diameter length of flow channel. Earlier correlators in
constant and Pl lm = P2 2m where m is the exponent this field, including Fanning, used a friction factor one
for constant enthalpy. Values of m for steam range fourth the magnitude indicated by Equation 26. This
from 0.98 to 1.0. Therefore, the assumption P = con- is because the shear stress at the wall is proportional
stant = P1 1 is sufficiently accurate for pressure drop to one fourth the velocity head. All references to in
calculations. This process is sometimes called isother- this book combine the factor 4 in Equation 25 with as
mal pressure drop because a constant temperature ideal has been done by Darcy, Blasius, Moody and others.
gas expansion also requires a constant enthalpy. For P The friction factor is plotted in Fig. 1 as a function of
= P1 1, the integration of Equation 35 reduces to: the Reynolds number, a dimensionless group of vari-
ables defined as the ratio of inertial forces to viscous
G 2 2v1 v2 v forces. The Reynolds number (Re) can be written:
P1 P2 = 2 n 2
2 gc v1 + v2 v1 VDe VDe GDe
Re = or or (48)
L G 2 2v1v2 (45)
+ f
D 2 gc v1 + v2 where
Neither P2 nor 2 are known in most cases, therefore = density of fluid, lbm/ft3 (kg/m3)
Equation 45 is solved by iteration. Also, the term 21 2 = kinematic viscosity = /, ft2/h (m2/s)
/(1 + 2) can usually be replaced by the numerical av- = viscosity of fluid, lbm/ft h (kg/m s)
erage of the specific volumes av = 1/2 1(PR + 1) where V = velocity of fluid, ft/h (m/s)
PR = P1 /P2 = 2/1. The maximum high side error at PR G = mass flux of fluid, lb/h ft2 (kg/m2 s)
= 1.10 is 0.22% and this increases to 1.3% at PR = 1.25. De = equivalent diameter of flow channel, ft (m)
It is common practice to use a numerical average for
the specific volume in most fluid friction pressure drop Fluid flow inside a closed channel occurs in a viscous
calculations. However, where the lines are long, P2 or laminar manner at low velocity and in a turbulent
should be checked by Equation 42. Also, where heat manner at high velocities. Many experiments on fluid
transfer is taking place, P2 is seldom constant along the friction pressure drop, examined by dimensional
flow channel and appropriate averaging factors should analysis and the laws of similarity, have shown that
be used. Computation using small zone subdivisions the Reynolds number can be used to characterize a
along the length of the tube circuit is recommended to flow pattern. Examination of Fig. 1 shows that flow
limit errors in widely varying property values. is laminar at Reynolds numbers less than 2000, gen-
The second important example considering flow erally turbulent at values exceeding 4000 and com-
under adiabatic conditions assumes an almost incom- pletely turbulent at higher values. Indeterminate con-
pressible fluid, i.e., 1 is approximately equal to 2. (See ditions exist in the critical zone between Reynolds
Equation 21.) Substituting for 1 and 2 in Equa- numbers of 2000 and 4000.
tion 45, the result is: Fluid flow can be described by a system of simulta-
neous partial differential equations. (See earlier Fun-
L G2 damental relationships section.) However, due to the
P1 P2 = f v (46)
D 2 gc complexity of these equations, solutions are generally
only available for the case of laminar flow, where the
All terms in Equations 45 and 46 are expressed in only momentum changes are on a molecular basis. For
consistent units. However, it is general practice and laminar flow, integration of the Navier-Stokes equa-

Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics 3-7

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

tion with velocity in the length direction only gives the small layer of fluid next to the boundary wall has zero
following equation for friction factor: velocity as a result of molecular adhesion forces. This
establishes a velocity gradient normal to the main body
f = 64 / Re (49) of flow. Because the only interchanges of momentum
in laminar flow are between the molecules of the fluid,
The straight line in the laminar flow region of Fig. 1 the condition of the surface has no effect on the ve-
is a plot of this equation. locity gradient and therefore no effect on the friction
It has been experimentally determined that the factor. In commercial equipment, laminar flow is usu-
friction factor is best evaluated by using the Reynolds ally encountered only with more viscous liquids such
number to define the flow pattern. A factor /De is then as the heavier oils.
introduced to define the relative roughness of the
channel surface. The coefficient expresses the aver- Turbulent flow
age height of roughness protrusions equivalent to the When turbulence exists, there are momentum in-
sand grain roughness established by Nikuradse.6 The terchanges between masses of fluid. These inter-
friction factor values in Fig. 1 and the /De values in changes are induced through secondary velocities,
Fig. 2 are taken from experimental data as correlated irregular fluctuations or eddys, that are not parallel
by Moody.7 to the axis of the mean flow velocity. In this case, the
condition of the boundary surface, roughness, does
Laminar flow have an effect on the velocity gradient near the wall,
Laminar flow is characterized by the parallel flow- which in turn affects the friction factor. Heat trans-
ing of individual streams like layers sliding over each fer is substantially greater with turbulent flow (Chap-
other. There is no mixing between the streams except ter 4) and, except for viscous liquids, it is common to
for molecular diffusion from one layer to the other. A induce turbulent flow with steam and water without

Fig. 1 Friction factor/Reynolds number relationship for determining pressure drop of fluids flowing through closed circuits (pipes and ducts).

3-8 Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

excessive friction loss. Consequently, it is customary number, are given in Figs. 3, 4 and 5 for selected liq-
to design for Reynolds numbers above 4000 in steam uids and gases. Table 4 lists the relationship between
generating units. various units of viscosity.
Turbulence fluctuations in the instantaneous ve-
locity introduce additional terms to the momentum Resistance to flow in valves and fittings
conservation equation called Reynolds stresses. These Pipelines and duct systems contain many valves and
fluctuations influence the mean motion and increase fittings. Unless the lines are used to transport fluids
the flow resistance in a manner producing an increase over long distances, as in the distribution of process
in the apparent viscosity. Analysis of turbulent flow steam at a factory or the cross country transmission
must consider the impact of the fluctuating velocity of oil or gas, the straight runs of pipe or duct are rela-
component along with the mean flow velocity or re- tively short. Water, steam, air and gas lines in a power
sort to empirical methods that account for the addi- plant have relatively short runs of straight pipe and
tional momentum dissipation.4, 6, 8 many valves and fittings. Consequently, the flow re-
sistance due to valves and fittings is a substantial part
Velocity ranges of the total resistance.
Table 1 lists the velocity ranges generally encoun- Methods for estimating the flow resistance in valves
tered in the heat transfer equipment as well as in duct and fittings are less exact than those used in estab-
and piping systems of steam generating units. These lishing the friction factor for straight pipes and ducts.
values, plus the specific volumes from the ASME In the latter, pressure drop is considered to be the re-
Steam Tables (see Chapter 2) and the densities listed sult of the fluid shear stress at the boundary walls of
in Tables 2 and 3 in this chapter, are used to establish the flow channel; this leads to relatively simple bound-
mass velocities for calculating Reynolds numbers and ary value evaluations. On the other hand, pressure
fluid friction pressure drops. In addition, values of losses associated with valves, fittings and bends are
viscosity, also required in calculating the Reynolds mainly the result of impacts and inelastic exchanges

Table 1
Velocities Common in Steam Generating Systems
Nature of Service ft/min m/s
Air heater 1000 to 5000 5.1 to 25.4
Coal and air lines,
pulverized coal 3000 to 4500 15.2 to 22.9
Compressed air lines 1500 to 2000 7.6 to 10.2
Forced draft air ducts 1500 to 3600 7.6 to 18.3
Forced draft air ducts,
entrance to burners 1500 to 2000 7.6 to 10.2
Ventilating ducts 1000 to 3000 5.1 to 15.2
Crude oil lines [6 to 30
in. (152 to 762 mm)] 60 to 3600 0.3 to 18.3
Flue gas:
Air heater 1000 to 5000 5.1 to 25.4
Boiler gas passes 3000 to 6000 15.2 to 30.5
Induced draft flues
and breaching 2000 to 3500 10.2 to 17.8
Stacks and chimneys 2000 to 5000 10.2 to 25.4
Natural gas lines (large
interstate) 1000 to 1500 5.1 to 7.6
Steam lines
High pressure 8000 to 12,000 40.6 to 61.0
Low pressure 12,000 to 15,000 61.0 to 76.2
Vacuum 20,000 to 40,000 101.6 to 203.2
Superheater tubes 2000 to 5000 10.2 to 25.4
Boiler circulation 70 to 700 0.4 to 3.6
Economizer tubes 150 to 300 0.8 to 1.5
Pressurized water
Fuel assembly channels 400 to 1300 2.0 to 6.6
Reactor coolant piping 2400 to 3600 12.2 to 18.3
Fig. 2 Relative roughness of various conduit surfaces. (SI conver- Water lines, general 500 to 750 2.5 to 3.8
sion: mm = 25.4 X in.)

Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics 3-9

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

Table 2
Physical Properties of Liquids at 14.7 psi (0.101 MPa)

Density Specific Heat

Liquid Temperature F (C) lb/ft3 (kg/m3 ) Btu/lb F (kJ/kg C)

Water 70 (21) 62.4 (999.4) 1.000 (4.187)

212 (100) 59.9 (959.3) 1.000 (4.187)
Automotive oil 70 (21)
SAE 10 55 to 57 (881 to 913) 0.435 (1.821)
SAE 50 57 to 59 (913 to 945) 0.425 (1.779)
Mercury 70 (21) 846 (13,549) 0.033 (0.138)
Fuel oil, #6 70 (21) 60 to 65 (961 to 1041) 0.40 (1.67)
180 (82) 60 to 65 (961 to 1041) 0.46 (1.93)
Kerosene 70 (21) 50 to 51 (801 to 817) 0.47 (1.97)

of momentum. These losses are frequently referred to be based on equivalent pipe lengths, but are prefer-
as local losses or local nonrecoverable pressure losses. ably defined by a multiple of velocity heads based on
Even though momentum is conserved, kinetic ener- the connecting pipe or tube sizes. Equivalent pipe
gies are dissipated as heat. This means that pressure length calculations have the disadvantage of being
losses are influenced mainly by the geometries of dependent on the relative roughness (/D) used in the
valves, fittings and bends. As with turbulent friction correlation. Because there are many geometries of
factors, pressure losses are determined from empiri- valves and fittings, it is customary to rely on manu-
cal correlations of test data. These correlations may facturers for pressure drop coefficients.
It is also customary for manufacturers to supply
valve flow coefficients (CV) for 60F (16C) water. These
Table 3 are expressed as ratios of weight or volume flow in the
Physical Properties of Gases at 14.7 psi (0.101 MPa)** fully open position to the square root of the pressure
drop. These coefficients can be used to relate velocity
Instantaneous head losses to a connecting pipe size by the following
Specific Heat expression:
Temperature Density, cp cv k,
Gas F lb/ft3 Btu/lb F Btu/lb F cp/cv N v = kD 4 / CV 2 (50)
Air 70 0.0749 0.241 0.172 1.40
200 0.0601 0.242 0.173 1.40
500 0.0413 0.248 0.180 1.38 Table 4
1000 0.0272 0.265 0.197 1.34 Relationship Between Various Units of Viscosity
Part A: Dynamic (or Absolute) Viscosity,
CO2 70 0.1148 0.202 0.155 1.30
200 0.0922 0.216 0.170 1.27 Pa s Centipoise
500 0.0634 0.247 0.202 1.22
1000 0.0417 0.280 0.235 1.19 Ns kg 0.01 g lbm lbm lbf s
m2 ms cm s ft s ft h ft2
H2 70 0.0052 3.440 2.440 1.41
200 0.0042 3.480 2.490 1.40 1.0 1000 672 x 103 2420 20.9 x 103
500 0.0029 3.500 2.515 1.39 0.001 1.0 672 x 106 2.42 20.9 x 106
1000 0.0019 3.540 2.560 1.38 1.49 1488 1.0 3600 0.0311
413 x 106 0.413 278 x 106 1.0 8.6 x 106
Flue gas* 70 0.0776 0.253 0.187 1.35 47.90 47,900 32.2 115,900 1.0
200 0.0623 0.255 0.189 1.35
500 0.0429 0.265 0.199 1.33 Part B: Kinematic Viscosity, = /
1000 0.0282 0.283 0.217 1.30
CH4 70 0.0416 0.530 0.406 1.30
200 0.0334 0.575 0.451 1.27 m2 0.01 cm2 ft2 ft2
500 0.0230 0.720 0.596 1.21 s s s h
1000 0.0151 0.960 0.836 1.15
1.0 106 10.8 38,800
* From coal; 120% total air; flue gas molecular weight 30. 106 1.0 10.8 x 106 0.0389
** SI conversions: T, C = 5/9 (F-32); , kg/m3 = 16.02 x lbm/ 92.9 x 103 92,900 1.0 3600
ft3; cp, kJ/kg K = 4.187 x Btu/lbm F. 25.8 x 106 25.8 278 x 106 1.0

3-10 Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

Fig. 4 Absolute viscosities of some common gases at atmospheric

Fig. 3 Absolute viscosities of some common liquids (Pa s = pressure.
0.000413 X lbm/ft h).

where 30 T + 460 G
P = N v (52)
N = number of velocity heads, dimensionless B 1.73 105 103
k = units conversion factor: for CV based upon
gal/min/()1/2, k = 891 where
D = internal diameter of connecting pipe, in. P = pressure drop, in. wg
(mm) B = barometric pressure, in. Hg
CV = flow coefficient in units compatible with k and T = air (or gas) temperature, F
D: for k = 891, CV = gal/min/()1/2
Equation 52 is based on air, which has a specific
CV and corresponding values of N for valves apply volume of 25.2 ft3/lb at 1000R and a pressure equiva-
only to incompressible flow. However, they may be ex- lent to 30 in. Hg. This equation can be used for other
trapolated for compressible condition using an average gases by correcting for specific volume.
specific volume between P1 and P2 for P values as high The range in pressure drop through an assortment
as 20% of P1. This corresponds to a maximum pressure of commercial fittings is given in Table 5. This resistance
ratio of 1.25. The P process for valves, bends and fit- to flow is presented in equivalent velocity heads based
tings is approximately isothermal and does not require on the internal diameter of the connecting pipe. As noted,
the most stringent limits set by Equation 21. pressure drop through fittings may also be expressed as
When pressure drop can be expressed as an equiva- the loss in equivalent lengths of straight pipe.
lent number of velocity heads, it can be calculated by
the following formula in English units: Contraction and enlargement irreversible
pressure loss
v G The simplest sectional changes in a conduit are con-
P = N v 105 (51)
12 verging or diverging boundaries. Converging bound-
aries can stabilize flow during the change from pres-
where sure energy to kinetic energy, and local irrecoverable
P = pressure drop, lb/in.2 flow losses (inelastic momentum exchanges) can be
N = number of equivalent velocity heads, dimen- practically eliminated with proper design. If the in-
sionless cluded angle of the converging boundaries is 30 deg
= specific volume, ft3/lb (0.52 rad) or less and the terminal junctions are
G = mass flux, lb/ft2 h smooth and tangent, any losses in mechanical energy
are largely due to fluid friction. It is necessary to con-
Another convenient expression, in English units only, sider this loss as 0.05 times the velocity head, based
for pressure drop in air (or gas) flow evaluations is: on the smaller downstream flow area.

Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics 3-11

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

When the elevation change (Z2 Z1) is zero, the

mechanical energy balance for converging boundaries

V12 V22 V2
P1v + = P2v + + Nc 2 (53)
2 gc 2 gc 2 gc
Subscripts 1 and 2 identify the upstream and down-
stream sections. Nc, the contraction loss factor, is the
number of velocity heads lost by friction and local non-
recoverable pressure loss in contraction. Fig. 6 shows
values of this factor.
When there is an enlargement of the conduit sec-
tion in the direction of flow, the expansion of the flow
stream is proportional to the kinetic energy of the
flowing fluid and is subject to a pressure loss depend-
ing on the geometry. Just as in the case of the con-
traction loss, this is an irreversible energy conversion
to heat resulting from inelastic momentum ex-
changes. Because it is customary to show these losses
as coefficients of the higher kinetic energy term, the
mechanical energy balance for enlargement loss is:

V12 V2 V2
P1v + = P2v + 2 + N e 1 (54)
2 gc 2 gc 2 gc
The case of sudden enlargement [angle of divergence
= 180 deg ( rad)] yields an energy loss of (V1 - V2)2/
2gc. This can also be expressed as:
Ne = 1 1 (55)
where A1 and A2 are the upstream and downstream
cross-sectional flow areas, respectively and (A1 < A2).
Even this solution, based on the conservation laws,
depends on qualifying assumptions regarding static

Fig. 5 Absolute viscosities of saturated and superheated steam.

Table 5
Resistance to Flow of Fluids Through
Commercial Fittings*
Fitting Loss in Velocity Heads

L-shaped, 90 deg (1.57 rad)

standard sweep elbow 0.3 to 0.7
L-shaped, 90 deg (1.57 rad)
long sweep elbow 0.2 to 0.5
T-shaped, flow through run 0.15 to 0.5
T-shaped, flow through 90 deg
(1.57 rad) branch 0.6 to 1.6
Return bend, close 0.6 to 1.7
Gate valve, open 0.1 to 0.2
Check valve, open 2.0 to 10.0
Globe valve, open 5.0 to 16.0
Angle valve, 90 deg (1.57 rad) open 3.0 to 7.0
Boiler nonreturn valve, open 1.0 to 3.0

* See Fig. 9 for loss in velocity heads for flow of fluids

through pipe bends.
Fig. 6 Contraction loss factor for >30 deg (Nc = 0.05 for 30 deg).

3-12 Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

pressures at the upstream and downstream faces of

the enlargement.
Experimental values of the enlargement loss fac-
tor, based on different area ratios and angles of diver-
gence, are given in Fig. 7. The differences in static
pressures caused by sudden and gradual changes in
section are shown graphically in Fig. 8. The pressure
differences are shown in terms of the velocity head at
the smaller area plotted against section area ratios.
Flow through bends
Bends in a pipeline or duct system produce pressure
losses caused by both fluid friction and momentum
exchanges which result from a change in flow direc-
tion. Because the axial length of the bend is normally
included in the straight length friction loss of the pipe-
line or duct system, it is convenient to subtract a cal-
culated equivalent straight length friction loss from
experimentally determined bend pressure loss factors.
These corrected data form the basis of the empirical
bend loss factor, Nb.
The pressure losses for bends in round pipe in ex-
cess of straight pipe friction vary slightly with Rey-
nolds numbers below 150,000. For Reynolds numbers
above this value, they are reasonably constant and
depend solely on the dimensionless ratio r/D, the ra-
tio of the centerline radius of the bend to the internal
diameter of the pipe. For commercial pipe, the effect
of Reynolds number is negligible. The combined ef-
fect of radius ratio and bend angle, in terms of veloc-
ity heads, is shown in Fig. 9.
Flow through rectangular ducts
The loss of pressure caused by a direction change
in a rectangular duct system is similar to that for cy-
lindrical pipe. However, an additional factor, the shape
Fig. 8 Static pressure difference resulting from sudden and gradual
changes in section.

of the duct in relation to the direction of bend, must

be taken into account. This is called the aspect ratio,
which is defined as the ratio of the width to the depth
of the duct, i.e., the ratio b/d in Fig. 10. The bend loss
for the same radius ratio decreases as the aspect ratio
increases, because of the smaller proportionate influence
of secondary flows on the stream. The combined effect
of radius and aspect ratios on 90 deg (1.57 rad) duct
bends is given in terms of velocity heads in Fig. 10.
The loss factors shown in Fig. 10 are average val-
ues of test results on ducts. For the given range of
aspect ratios, the losses are relatively independent of
the Reynolds number. Outside this range, the varia-
tion with Reynolds number is erratic. It is therefore
recommended that Nb values for b/d = 0.5 be used for
all aspect ratios less than b/d = 0.5, and values for b/
d = 2.0 be used for ratios greater than b/d = 2.0. Losses
for bends other than 90 deg (1.57 rad) are customar-
ily considered to be proportional to the bend angle.
Turning vanes
The losses in a rectangular elbow duct can be re-
Fig. 7 Enlargement loss factor for various included angles. duced by rounding or beveling its corners and by in-

Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics 3-13

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

For applications requiring a uniform velocity distri-

bution directly after the turn, a full complement or
normal arrangement of turning vanes (see Fig. 12b)
is required. However, for many applications, it is suf-
ficient to use a reduced number of vanes, as shown in
Fig. 12c.
For nonuniform flow fields, the arrangement of
turning vanes is more difficult to determine. Many
times, numerical modeling (see Chapter 6) and flow
testing of the duct system must be done to determine
the proper vane locations.

Fig. 9 Bend loss for round pipe, in terms of velocity heads.

stalling turning vanes. With rounding or beveling, the

overall size of the duct can become large; however,
with turning vanes, the compact form of the duct is
A number of turning vane shapes can be used in a
duct. Fig. 11 shows four different arrangements. Seg-
mented shaped vanes are shown in Fig. 11a, simple
curved thin vanes are shown in Fig. 11b, and concen-
tric splitter vanes are shown in Fig. 11c. In Fig. 11c,
the vanes are concentric with the radius of the duct.
Fig. 11d illustrates simple vanes used to minimize flow
separation from a square edged duct.
The turning vanes of identical shape and dimen-
sion, Fig. 11b, are usually mounted within the bend
of an elbow. They are generally installed along a line
or section of the duct and are placed from the inner
corner to the outside corner of the bend. Concentric
turning vanes, Fig. 11c, typically installed within the
bend of the turn, are located from one end of the turn
to the other end.
The purpose of the turning vanes in an elbow or turn
is to deflect the flow around the bend to the inner wall
of the duct. When the turning vanes are appropriately
designed, the flow distribution is improved by reduc-
ing flow separation from the walls and reducing the
formation of eddy zones in the downstream section of
the bend. The velocity distribution over the downstream
cross-section of the turn is improved (see Fig. 12), and
the pressure loss of the turn or elbow is decreased.
The main factor in decreasing the pressure losses
and obtaining equalization of the velocity field is the
elimination of an eddy zone at the inner wall of the
turn. For a uniform incoming flow field, the largest
effect of decreasing the pressure losses and establish-
ing a uniform outlet flow field for a turn or elbow is
achieved by locating the turning vanes closer to the
inner curvature of the bend. (See Figs. 11d and 12c.) Fig. 10 Loss for 90 deg (1.57 rad) bends in rectangular ducts.

3-14 Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

Fig. 12 Velocity profiles downstream of an elbow: a) without

vanes, b) with typical vanes, and c) with optimum vanes (adapted
from Idelchik, Reference 12).

Several different tube bank calculation methods

exist for extended surface, and many are directly re-
Fig. 11 Turning vanes in elbows and turns: a) segmented, b) thin
lated to the type of extended surface that is used.
concentric, c) concentric splitters, and d) slotted (adapted from Various correlations for extended surface pressure loss
Idelchik, Reference 12). can be found in References 9 through 15. In all cases,
a larger pressure loss per row of bank exists with an
extended surface tube compared to a bare tube. For
Pressure loss in-line tube bundles, the finned tube resistance per
A convenient chart for calculating the pressure loss row of tubes is approximately 1.5 times that of the bare
resulting from impact losses in duct systems convey- tube row. However, due to the increased heat trans-
ing air (or flue gas) is shown in Fig. 13. When mass fer absorption of the extended surface, a smaller num-
flux and temperature are known, a base velocity head ber of tube rows is required. This results in an overall
in inches of water at sea level can be obtained. bank pressure loss that can be equivalent to a larger
but equally absorptive bare tube bank.
Flow over tube banks
Bare tube The transverse flow of gases across tube
Flow through stacks or chimneys
banks is an example of flow over repeated major cross- The flow of gases through stacks or chimneys is es-
sectional changes. When the tubes are staggered, sec- tablished by the natural draft effect of the stack and/
tional and directional changes affect the resistance. or the mechanical draft produced by a fan. The resis-
Experimental results and the analytical conclusions tance to this flow, or the loss in mechanical energy be-
of extensive research by The Babcock & Wilcox Com-
pany (B&W) indicate that three principal variables
other than mass flux affect this resistance. The pri-
mary variable is the number of major restrictions, i.e.,
the number of tube rows crossed, N. The second vari-
able is the friction factor which is related to the
Reynolds number (based on tube diameter), the tube
spacing diameter ratios, and the arrangement pattern
(in-line or staggered). The third variable is the depth
factor, Fd (Fig. 14), which is applicable to banks less
than ten rows deep. The friction factors for various
in-line tube patterns are given in Fig. 15.
The product of the friction factor, the number of
major restrictions (tube rows) and the depth factor is,
in effect, the summation of velocity head losses
through the tube bank.
N v = f N Fd (56)
The N value established by Equation 56 may be
used in Equations 51 or 52 to find the tube bank pres-
sure loss. Some test correlations indicate values
higher than the isothermal case for cooling gas and
lower for heating gas.
Finned tube In some convective boiler design ap-
plications, extended surface tube banks are used.
Many types of extended surface exist, i.e., solid heli-
cal fin, serrated helical fin, longitudinal fin, square fin
and different types of pin studs. For furnace applications,
the cleanliness of the gas or heat transfer medium dic-
tates whether an extended surface tube bank can be used
and also defines the type of extended surface. Fig. 13 Mass flux/velocity head relationship for air.

Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics 3-15

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

example of inelastic momentum exchanges occurring

within the fluid streams.
The injector is a jet pump that uses condensing steam
as the driving fluid to entrain low pressure water for
delivery against a back pressure higher than the pres-
sure of the steam supplied. The ejector, similar to the
injector, is designed to entrain gases, liquids, or mix-
tures of solids and liquids for delivery against a pres-
sure less than that of the primary fluid. In a water-
jet aspirator, water is used to entrain air to obtain a
partial vacuum. In the Bunsen type burner, a jet of
gas entrains air for combustion. In several instances,
entrainment may be detrimental to the operation of
steam boilers. Particles of ash entrained by the prod-
ucts of combustion, when deposited on heating sur-
faces, reduce thermal conductance, erode fan blades,
and add to pollution when discharged into the atmo-
sphere. Moisture carrying solids, either in suspension
or in solution, are entrained in the stream. The solids
may be carried through to the turbine and deposited
on the blades, decreasing turbine capacity and effi-
ciency. In downcomers or supply tubes, steam bubbles
Fig. 14 Draft loss depth factor for number of tube rows crossed in are entrained in the water when the drag on the
convection banks. bubbles is greater than the buoyant force. This re-
duces the density in the pumping column of natural
tween the bottom and the top of the stack, is a result of circulation boilers.
the friction and stack exit losses. Application examples
of these losses are given in Chapter 25.
Pressure loss in two-phase flow
Evaluation of two-phase steam-water flows is much
more complex. As with single-phase flow, pressure loss
occurs from wall friction, acceleration, and change in
elevation. However, the relationships are more com-
plicated. The evaluation of friction requires the assess-
ment of the interaction of the steam and water phases.
Acceleration is much more important because of the
large changes in specific volume of the mixture as
water is converted to steam. Finally, large changes in
average mixture density at different locations signifi-
cantly impact the static head. These factors are pre-
sented in detail in Chapter 5.

Entrainment by fluid flow

Collecting or transporting solid particles or a sec-
ond fluid by the flow of a primary fluid at high veloc-
ity is known as entrainment. This is usually accom-
plished with jets using a small quantity of high pres-
sure fluid to carry large quantities of another fluid or
solid particles. The pressure energy of the high pres-
sure fluid is converted into kinetic energy by nozzles,
with a consequent reduction of pressure. The mate-
rial to be transported is drawn in at the low pressure
zone, where it meets and mixes with the high veloc-
ity jet. The jet is usually followed by a parallel throat
section to equalize the velocity profile. The mixture
then enters a diverging section where kinetic energy
is partially reconverted into pressure energy. In this Fig. 15 Friction factor (f ) as affected by Reynolds number for
case, major fluid flow mechanical energy losses are an various in-line tube patterns; crossflow gas or air.

3-16 Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

Boiler circulation or pumps, or a combination of the two. The elements

of single-phase flow discussed in this chapter, two-
An adequate flow of water and steam-water mix- phase flow discussed in Chapter 5, heat input rates,
ture is necessary for steam generation and control of and selected limiting design criteria are combined to
tube metal temperatures in all circuits of a steam gen- evaluate the circulation in fossil-fired steam genera-
erating unit. At supercritical pressures this flow is tors. The evaluation procedures and key criteria are
produced mechanically by pumps. At subcritical pres- presented in Chapter 5.
sures, circulation is produced by the force of gravity

1. Meyer, C.A., et al., ASME Steam Tables, Sixth Ed., 9. Briggs, D.E., and Young, E.H., Convective heat
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, transfer and pressure drop of air flowing across trian-
New York, 1993. gular pitch banks of finned tubes, Chemical Engineer-
2. Tabor, D., Gases, Liquids and Solids: and Other ing Progress Symposium Series (Heat Transfer),
States of Matter, First Ed., Penguin Books, Ltd., AIChE, Vol. 41, No. 41, pp. l-10, Houston, Texas, 1963.
Harmondsworth, England, United Kingdom, 1969. 10. Grimison, E.D., Correlation and utilization of new
3. Lahey, Jr., R.T., and Moody, F.J., The Thermal-Hy- data on flow resistance and heat transfer for crossflow
draulics of a Boiling Water Nuclear Reactor, Ameri- of gases over tube banks, Transactions of ASME,
can Nuclear Society, Hinsdale, Ilinois, 1993. Process Industries Division, Vol. 59, pp. 583-594, New
York, New York, 1937.
4. Rohsenow, W., Hartnett, J., and Ganic, E., Handbook
of Heat Transfer Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill Com- 11. Gunter, A.Y., and Shan, W.A., A general correlation
pany, New York, 1985. of friction factors for various types of surfaces in cross-
flow, Transactions of ASME, Vol. 67, pp. 643-660,
5. Burmeister, L.C., Convective Heat Transfer, Second 1945.
Ed., Wiley-Interscience, New York, New York, 1993.
12. Idelchik, I.E., Handbook of Hydraulic Resistance,
6. Schlichting, H.T. Gersten, K., and Krause, E., Third Ed., Interpharm/CRC, New York, New York,
Boundary-Layer Theory, Eighth Ed., Springer-Verlag, November, 1993.
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Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics 3-17

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

Laser velocity measurements in a steam generator flow model.

3-18 Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics