You are on page 1of 933

TALL BUILDING
DESIGN
Steel, Concrete, and Composite Systems

Bungale S. Taranath, Ph.D., P.E., S.E.

TALL BUILDING
DESIGN
Steel, Concrete, and Composite Systems

Boca Raton London New York

CRC Press is an imprint of the
Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

CRC Press
Taylor & Francis Group
6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300
Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742
© 2017 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

No claim to original U.S. Government works

Printed on acid-free paper
Version Date: 20160610

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-4665-5620-1 (Hardback)

This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable efforts have been
made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the valid-
ity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright
holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this
form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may
rectify in any future reprint.

Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or uti-
lized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopy-
ing, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the
publishers.

For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www.copyright.com (http://
www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC), 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923,
978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For
organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged.

Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for
identification and explanation without intent to infringe.

Library of Congress Cataloging‑in‑Publication Data

Taranath, Bungale S.
Tall building design : steel, concrete, and composite systems / Bungale S. Taranath.
pages cm
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4665-5620-1
1. Building, Iron and steel. 2. Concrete construction. 3. Composite construction. 4. Tall
buildings--Design and construction. I. Title.

TH1611.T373 2015
720’.483--dc23 2013047690

Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at
http://www.taylorandfrancis.com
and the CRC Press Web site at
http://www.crcpress.com

This book is dedicated to my wife, Saroja.
My dearest and best friend, whose considerable expertise
and interest in all aspects of life has influenced my entire
existence including my book-writing avocation.

Contents
Preface.......................................................................................................................................... xxiii
Acknowledgments..........................................................................................................................xxix
Special.Acknowledgment..............................................................................................................xxxi
Author......................................................................................................................................... xxxiii

Chapter 1 Loads.on.Building.Structures....................................................................................... 1
Preview..........................................................................................................................1
Dead.Loads.........................................................................................................2
Occupancy.Loads.on.Buildings.......................................................................... 2
Snow.Loads.on.Buildings...................................................................................2
1.1. Dead.Loads.........................................................................................................3
1.2. Live.Loads.......................................................................................................... 7
1.2.1. Live.Load.Reduction........................................................................... 10
1.3. Construction.Loads.......................................................................................... 11
1.4. Lateral.Soil.Load.............................................................................................. 14
1.5. Snow,.Rain,.and.Ice.Loads............................................................................... 15
1.6. Thermal.and.Settlement.Loads........................................................................ 16
1.7. Self-Straining.Forces........................................................................................ 18
1.8. Dynamic.Loads................................................................................................ 18
1.9. Abnormal.Loads............................................................................................... 19
1.9.1. Explosion.Effects................................................................................. 19
1.9.2. Floods..................................................................................................20
1.9.3. Vehicle.Impact.Loads..........................................................................20
1.10. .Classification.of.Buildings,.Risk.Categories,.and.Importance.Factors............20

Chapter 2 Wind.Loads................................................................................................................. 23
Preview........................................................................................................................ 23
2.1. Description.of.Wind.Forces.............................................................................. 23
2.2. Types.of.Wind.Storms...................................................................................... 31
2.2.1. Straight-Line.Wind.............................................................................. 31
2.2.2. Down-Slope.Wind............................................................................... 31
2.2.3. Downburst........................................................................................... 31
2.2.4. Northeastern.Winds............................................................................ 33
2.2.5. Thunderstorm...................................................................................... 33
2.2.6. Hurricane............................................................................................. 33
2.2.7. Tornado................................................................................................34
2.2.8. Statistical.Likelihood.of.Natural.Hazards.......................................... 36
2.2.9. Probabilistic.Approach.in.Wind.Engineering..................................... 39
2.3. Wind/Building.Interactions..............................................................................40
2.3.1. Exposure.Categories............................................................................40
2.3.2. Basic.Wind.Speed...............................................................................40
2.3.3. Topography.......................................................................................... 41

vii

viii Contents

2.3.4. Building.Height................................................................................... 41
2.3.5. Internal.Pressure................................................................................. 42
2.3.6. Aerodynamic.Pressure........................................................................ 42
2.3.7. Probability.of.Occurrence................................................................... 43
2.3.7.1. Routine.Winds.....................................................................44
2.3.7.2. Stronger.Winds....................................................................44
2.3.7.3. Design.Level.Winds.............................................................44
2.3.7.4. Tornadoes............................................................................. 45
2.4. Behavior.of.Tall.Buildings.Subjected.to.Wind................................................. 45
2.4.1. Properties.of.the.Mean.Wind.Loads................................................... 47
2.4.1.1. Variation.of.Wind.Velocity.with.Height.............................. 48
2.4.1.2. Wind.Turbulence................................................................. 49
2.4.2. Action.of.Wind.on.Tall.Buildings....................................................... 50
2.4.3. Dynamic.Action.of.Wind.................................................................... 51
2.4.4. Buffeting.due.to.Vortex.Shedding....................................................... 51
2.4.5. Aerodynamic.Damping....................................................................... 55
2.4.6. Design.Criteria.for.Wind..................................................................... 56
2.4.7. Building.Sway..................................................................................... 57
2.5. Scope,.Effectiveness,.and.Limitations.of.Building.Codes............................... 58
2.5.1. Scope................................................................................................... 58
2.5.2. Effectiveness....................................................................................... 59
2.5.3. Limitations.......................................................................................... 59
2.6. ASCE.7-10.Wind.Load.Provisions,.Overview................................................. 59
2.6.1. Design.Wind.Loads.for.Main.Wind-Force-Resisting.Systems........... 59
2.6.2. Design.Wind.Pressures.for.Components.and.Cladding...................... 62
2.6.2.1. Distribution.of.Pressures.and.Suctions................................64
2.6.2.2. Local.Cladding.Loads.and.Overall.Design.Loads..............66
2.6.3. Comments.on.ASCE.7-10.Wind.Provisions........................................ 68

Chapter 3 Earthquake.Effects.on.Buildings................................................................................ 69
Preview........................................................................................................................ 69
3.1. Inertial.Forces.and.Acceleration...................................................................... 72
3.2. Duration,.Velocity,.and.Displacement.............................................................. 74
3.3. Acceleration.Amplification.due.to.Soft.Soil..................................................... 74
3.4. Natural.Periods................................................................................................. 75
3.5. Building.Resonance.......................................................................................... 76
3.6. Site.Response.Spectrum................................................................................... 77
3.7. Damping........................................................................................................... 79
3.8. Ductility............................................................................................................80
3.9. Earthquakes.and.Other.Geologic.Hazards.......................................................80
3.10. Earthquake.Measurements............................................................................... 81
3.11. Determination.of.Local.Earthquake.Hazards.................................................. 82
3.11.1. Probabilistic.Seismic.Hazard.Analysis...............................................84
3.11.2. Range.of.Earthquake.Performance.Criteria........................................ 86
3.12. Nonstructural.Components............................................................................... 86
3.12.1. Response.of.Elements.Attached.to.Buildings..................................... 88
3.13. Seismic.Analysis.Procedures........................................................................... 88
3.13.1. Equivalent.Lateral.Force.Procedure.................................................... 88
3.13.2. Linear.Dynamic.Analysis................................................................... 89

Contents ix

3.14. System.Selection............................................................................................... 89
3.14.1. Elastic.Behavior.................................................................................. 89
3.14.2. Postelastic.Behavior............................................................................ 89
3.14.3. Cyclic.Behavior...................................................................................90
3.15. Seismic.Issues.due.to.Configuration.Irregularities.......................................... 91
3.15.1. Vertical.Lateral-Load-Resisting.Systems............................................92
3.15.1.1. Shear.Walls.........................................................................92
3.15.1.2. Braced.Frames.................................................................... 93
3.15.1.3. Moment-Resistant.Frames.................................................. 93
3.15.2. Diaphragms......................................................................................... 95
3.15.2.1. Collectors............................................................................96
3.15.2.2. Role.of.Diaphragms............................................................97
3.15.2.3. Types.of.Diaphragms..........................................................97
3.15.2.4. Diaphragm.Design.Procedures...........................................99
3.15.2.5. Shear.Transfer.from.Diaphragm.to.VLLRS.......................99
3.15.2.6. Modeling.of.Rigid.Diaphragms........................................ 103
3.15.3. Optimizing.Structural.Configuration................................................ 105
3.15.4. Effects.of.Configuration.Irregularity................................................ 109
3.15.4.1. Stress.Concentrations....................................................... 109
3.15.4.2. Torsion.............................................................................. 109
3.15.5. Configuration.Irregularities.in.Seismic.Standards............................ 110
3.15.6. Four.Serious.Configuration.Conditions............................................ 111
3.15.6.1. Soft.and.Weak.Stories...................................................... 112
3.15.6.2. Discontinuous.Shear.Walls............................................... 113
3.15.6.3. Variations.in.Perimeter.Strength.and.Stiffness................ 114
3.15.6.4. Reentrant.Corners............................................................. 116
3.15.7. Other.Seismic.Issues......................................................................... 118
3.15.7.1. P-Delta.Effect................................................................... 118
3.15.7.2. Strong.Beam,.Weak.Column............................................ 120
3.15.7.3. Setbacks.and.Planes.of.Weakness.................................... 120
3.15.8. Earthquake.Collapse.Patterns........................................................... 120
3.15.8.1. Unintended.Addition.of.Stiffness..................................... 121
3.15.8.2. Inadequate.Beam–Column.Joint.Strength....................... 122
3.15.8.3. Tension/Compression.Failures.......................................... 122
3.15.8.4. Wall-to-Roof.Connection.Failure..................................... 123
3.15.8.5. Local.Column.Failure...................................................... 123
3.15.8.6. Heavy.Floor.Collapse....................................................... 123
3.15.8.7. Torsion.Effects.................................................................. 124
3.15.8.8. Soft-Story.Collapse.......................................................... 124
3.15.8.9. Midstory.Collapse............................................................ 124
3.15.8.10. Pounding........................................................................... 124
3.15.9. Conclusions....................................................................................... 125
3.16. Structural.Dynamic........................................................................................ 126
3.16.1. Dynamic.Loads................................................................................. 127
3.16.2. Concept.of.Dynamic.Load.Factor..................................................... 128
3.16.3. Difference.between.Static.and.Dynamic.Analyses........................... 130
3.16.4. Dynamic.Effects.due.to.Wind.Gusts................................................. 133
3.16.5. Characteristics.of.a.Dynamic.Problem............................................. 134
3.16.6. Multiple.Strategy.of.Seismic.Design................................................. 136
3.16.7. Example.of.Portal.Frame.Subject.to.Ground.Motions...................... 137

x Contents

3.16.8. Concept.of.Dynamic.Equilibrium.................................................... 138
3.16.9. Free.Vibrations................................................................................. 140
3.16.10. Earthquake.Excitation...................................................................... 141
3.16.11. Single-Degree-of-Freedom.Systems................................................ 141
3.16.12. Numerical.Integration.Technique.................................................... 142
3.16.13. Summary.of.Numerical.Integration.Technique............................... 145
3.16.14. Summary.of.Structural.Dynamics................................................... 146
3.17. Response.Spectrum.Method........................................................................... 148
3.17.1. Earthquake.Response.Spectrum...................................................... 152
3.17.2. Deformation.Response.Spectrum.................................................... 154
3.17.3. Pseudovelocity.Response.Spectrum................................................. 154
3.17.4. Pseudoacceleration.Response.Spectrum.......................................... 156
3.17.5. Tripartite.Response.Spectrum:.Combined.
Displacement–Velocity–Acceleration.Spectrum.............................. 156
3.17.6. Characteristics.of.Response.Spectrum............................................ 159
3.17.7. Difference.between.Design.and.Actual.Response.Spectra.............. 162
3.17.8. Summary.of.Response.Spectrum.Analysis...................................... 162
3.17.9. Hysteresis.Loop................................................................................ 164
3.17.10. Seismology....................................................................................... 167
3.18. Seismic.Design.Considerations...................................................................... 168
3.18.1. Seismic.Response.of.Buildings........................................................ 170
3.18.2. Building.Motions.and.Deflections................................................... 172
3.18.3. Building.Drift.and.Separation.......................................................... 172
3.18.4. Adjacent.Buildings........................................................................... 173
3.18.5. Continuous.Load.Path...................................................................... 173
3.18.6. Building.Configuration.................................................................... 174
3.18.7. Influence.of.Soil............................................................................... 176
3.18.8. Ductility........................................................................................... 178
3.18.9. Redundancy...................................................................................... 178
3.18.10. Damping........................................................................................... 179
3.18.11. Diaphragms...................................................................................... 182
3.18.12. Strategies.to.Reduce.Seismic.Hazards............................................. 184
3.18.13. Strategies.to.Improve.Building.Seismic.Performance..................... 185
3.19. Lessons.from.Past.Earthquakes..................................................................... 185
3.19.1. 1906.San.Francisco.Earthquake...................................................... 185
3.19.2. 1933.Long.Beach.Earthquake.......................................................... 186
3.19.3. 1940.Imperial.Valley.and.1952.Kern.County.Earthquakes............. 186
3.19.4. 1971.San.Fernando.Earthquake....................................................... 186
3.19.5. 1979.Imperial.Valley.Earthquake.................................................... 187
3.19.6. 1985.Mexico.City.Earthquake......................................................... 187
3.19.7. 1987.Whittier.Narrows.Earthquake................................................. 187
3.19.8. 1989.Loma.Prieta.Earthquake......................................................... 188
3.19.9. 1994.Northridge.Earthquake........................................................... 188
3.20. Seismic.Design.Wrap-Up............................................................................... 189
3.20.1. Determination.of.Earthquake.Lateral.Forces.................................. 190
3.20.2. Structural.Response......................................................................... 191
3.20.3. Equivalent.Lateral.Load.Procedure................................................. 192
3.20.4. Architectural.Implications............................................................... 193
3.20.5. Structural.Concept........................................................................... 194
3.20.6. Damage.Control.Features................................................................ 195
3.20.7. Techniques.of.Seismic.Design......................................................... 195

Contents xi

3.21. Dynamic.Analysis,.Theory............................................................................ 197
3.21.1. Single-Degree-of-Freedom.Systems................................................. 197
3.21.2. Multidegree-of-Freedom.Systems.....................................................200
3.21.3. Modal.Superposition.........................................................................202
3.21.4. Normal.Coordinates..........................................................................202
3.21.5. Orthogonality....................................................................................204
3.21.6. Design.Example:.Dynamic.Displacement......................................... 210
3.22. Anatomy.of.Computer.Response.Spectrum.Analyses................................... 210
3.22.1. Example.1:.Three-Story.Building..................................................... 211
3.22.2. Example.2:.Seven-Story.Building..................................................... 212

Chapter 4 Wind.Load.Analysis.of.Buildings............................................................................. 223
Preview...................................................................................................................... 223
4.1. Major.Causes.of.Wind.Forces........................................................................ 223
4.2. Building.Codes.Addressing.Wind.Loads.and.Floods.................................... 226
4.3. Basic.Wind.Engineering.Concepts................................................................. 227
4.4. Organization.of.ASCE.7-10.for.Wind.Load.Calculations.............................. 228
4.5. General.Requirements.of.Wind.Load.Calculations....................................... 228
4.5.1. MWRFS.and.C.&.C.......................................................................... 228
4.5.2. General.Requirements....................................................................... 228
4.5.3. Wind.Directionality.Factor.(Kd)........................................................ 230
4.5.4. Exposure.Category............................................................................ 230
4.5.5. Topographic.Factor.(Kzt).................................................................... 232
4.5.6. Gust.Effects....................................................................................... 232
4.5.7. Enclosure.Classifications................................................................... 233
4.5.8. Internal.Pressure.Coefficient.(GCpi).................................................. 234
4.5.9. Structural.Damping........................................................................... 234
4.6. Wind.Velocity.Pressure.................................................................................. 234
4.7. Directional.Procedure.(Chapter.27,.ASCE.7-10)............................................ 235
4.8. Envelope.Procedure.(Chapter.28,.ASCE.7-10)............................................... 239
4.9. O. ther.Structures.and.Building.Appurtenances.(Chapter.29,.ASCE.7-10).....240
4.10. Components.and.Cladding.(Chapter.30,.ASCE.7-10).................................... 242
4.11. Significant.Changes.in.ASCE.7-10.as.Compared.to.ASCE.7-05...................246
4.12. Solved.Examples............................................................................................ 249
4.13. Wind.Tunnel.Procedure.................................................................................. 256
4.13.1. Test.Requirements............................................................................. 256
4.13.2. Load.Effects.and.Limitations............................................................ 257
4.13.3. Types.of.Wind.Tunnel.Tests.............................................................. 257
4.13.3.1. Rigid.Pressure.Model........................................................ 258
4.13.3.2. High-Frequency.Base.Force.Balance.Model.(H-FBBM).....260
4.13.3.3. Aero-Elastic.Model............................................................264
4.13.4. Lower.Limits.on.Wind.Tunnel.Test.Results...................................... 267
4.13.5. Structural.Properties.Required.for.Wind.Tunnel.Data.Analysis...... 268
4.13.5.1. Natural.Frequencies.and.Mode.Shapes............................. 268
4.13.5.2. Mass.Distribution.............................................................. 269
4.13.5.3. Damping.Ratio................................................................... 269
4.13.6. Building.Drift.................................................................................... 269
4.14. Human.Response.to.Wind-Induced.Building.Motions.................................. 270
4.15. Building.Periods............................................................................................. 272
4.16. Pedestrian.Wind.Studies................................................................................ 273

xii Contents

Chapter 5 Seismic.Design.with.Particular.Reference.to.ASCE.7-10.Seismic.Provisions......... 277
Preview...................................................................................................................... 277
5.1. ASCE.7-10,.Chapter.11,.Seismic.Design.Criteria........................................... 278
5.1.1. Alternate.Materials.and.Alternate.Means.and.Methods.
of Construction.................................................................................. 279
5.1.2. Seismic.Ground.Motion.Values,.Ss.and.S1........................................ 279
5.1.2.1. Mapped.Acceleration.Parameters...................................... 281
5.1.3. Site.Coefficients.and.Adjusted.Acceleration.Parameters.................. 282
5.1.3.1. Site.Class.SA, SB, SC, SD, SE ,.and.SF................................... 282
5.1.4. Design.Response.Spectrum............................................................... 283
5.1.4.1. Design.Base.Shear.............................................................284
5.1.5. Site-Specific.Ground.Motion.Procedures......................................... 286
5.1.6. Importance.Factor.and.Occupancy.Category.................................... 288
5.1.6.1. Importance.Factor.IE. ........................................................ 289
5.1.6.2. Protected.Access.for.Category.IV.Structures.................... 290
5.1.7. Seismic.Design.Categories................................................................ 290
5.1.8. Design.Requirements.for.Seismic.Design.Category.A..................... 292
5.1.8.1. Lateral.Forces.................................................................... 293
5.1.8.2. Anchorage.of.Concrete.or.Masonry.Walls........................ 294
5.1.9. Site.Limitations.for.Seismic.Design.Categories.E.and.F.................. 295
5.1.10. Additional.Geotechnical.Investigation.Report.Requirements.
for Seismic.Design.Categories.D,.E,.and.F....................................... 295
5.2. ASCE.7-10,.Chapter.12,.Seismic.Design.Requirements.for.Building.
Structures........................................................................................................ 295
5.2.1. Basic.Requirements........................................................................... 296
5.2.2. Member.Design,.Connection.Design,.and.Deformation.Limit......... 299
5.2.3. Continuous.Load.Path.and.Interconnection...................................... 299
5.2.3.1. R,.Cd,.and.Ω o.Values.for.Vertical.Combinations............... 301
5.2.3.2. R,.Cd,.and.Ω o.Values.for.Horizontal.Combinations...........302
5.2.4. Dual.System......................................................................................302
5.2.5. Irregular.and.Regular.Classification.................................................302
5.2.5.1. Plan.(Horizontal).Irregularity...........................................302
5.2.5.2. Vertical.Irregularity........................................................... 303
5.2.5.3. Prohibited.Horizontal.and.Vertical.Irregularities.
in Seismic.Design.Categories.D.through.F.......................304
5.2.5.4. Elements.Supporting.Discontinuous.Walls.or.Frames......304
5.2.6. Increase.in.Forces.due.to.Irregularities.for.Seismic.Design.
Categories.D.through.F..................................................................... 305
5.2.7. Redundancy....................................................................................... 305
5.2.7.1. Redundancy.Factor,.p,.for.Seismic.Design.Category.D.
through.F........................................................................... 305
5.2.8. Seismic.Load.Effect.and.Combinations............................................308
5.2.9. Direction.of.Loading.........................................................................309
5.2.10. Analysis.Procedure...........................................................................309
5.2.11. Foundation.Modeling.Criteria........................................................... 310
5.2.12. Effective.Seismic.Weight.................................................................. 310
5.2.13. Structural.Modeling.......................................................................... 310
5.2.14. Interaction.Effects............................................................................. 311
5.2.15. Equivalent.Lateral.Force.Procedure.................................................. 311
5.2.16. Seismic.Base.Shear........................................................................... 312

Contents xiii

5.2.17. Period.Determination........................................................................ 313
5.2.17.1. Vertical.Distribution.of.Seismic.Force.............................. 314
5.2.17.2. Seismic.Loads.due.to.Vertical.Ground.Motions................ 316
5.2.18. Horizontal.Distribution.of.Forces..................................................... 316
5.2.19. Inherent.and.Accidental.Torsion....................................................... 317
5.2.20. Story.Drift.Determination................................................................. 318
5.2.21. Period.for.Computing.Drift............................................................... 319
5.2.22. P-Delta.Effects.................................................................................. 319
5.2.23. Analysis.Procedures.with.Particular.Emphasis.on.Response.
Spectrum.Analysis............................................................................ 320
5.2.23.1. Number.of.Modes.............................................................. 323
5.2.23.2. Modal.Response.Parameters............................................. 323
5.2.23.3. Scaling.Design.Values.of.Combined.Response................. 324
5.2.23.4. Horizontal.Shear.Distribution........................................... 324
5.2.23.5. Deflection.Amplification.due.to.P-Delta.Effects............... 324
5.2.23.6. Seismic-Force.Distribution.for.Diaphragm.Design........... 327
5.2.24. Drift.and.Deformation....................................................................... 330
5.2.25. Building.Separation........................................................................... 333
5.2.26. Deformation.Compatibility.for.Seismic.Design.Categories.
D,.E,.and.F......................................................................................... 334
5.2.27. Catalog.of.Seismic.Design.Requirements.for.Buildings.
Assigned.to.SDC.A,.B,.C,.D,.E,.or.F................................................ 335
5.2.27.1. Buildings.in.SDC.A........................................................... 336
5.2.27.2. SDC.B.Buildings............................................................... 337
5.2.27.3. SDC.C.Buildings............................................................... 338
5.2.27.4. SDC.D.Buildings............................................................... 339
5.2.27.5. SDC.E.Buildings................................................................ 341
5.2.27.6. SDC.F.Buildings................................................................ 341

Chapter 6 Performance-Based.Design....................................................................................... 343
Preview...................................................................................................................... 343
6.1. Definitions.of.Performance-Based.Design.....................................................344
6.2. Prescriptive.Approach.to.Codes.....................................................................344
6.3. Performance-Based.Approach........................................................................344
6.3.1. Performance-Based.Design.for.Natural.Hazards.............................. 345
6.3.2. Performance-Based.Seismic.Design.................................................346
6.3.2.1. Determining.Acceptable.Risk...........................................346
6.3.3. Expected.Performance.When.Designing.to.Current.Codes............. 348
6.3.4. Expected.Performance.of.Structural.Components............................ 348
6.3.5. Expected.Performance.of.Nonstructural.Components..................... 348
6.4. Improving.Performance.to.Reduce.Seismic.Risk.......................................... 349
6.4.1. Selection.of.Structural.Materials.and.Systems................................. 349
6.4.2. Selection.of.the.Architectural.Configuration.................................... 350
6.4.3. Consideration.of.Nonstructural.Component.Performance................ 350
6.5. .Design.and.Performance.Issues.Relating.to.Commercial.Office.Buildings......351
6.5.1. Performance.of.Office.Buildings.in.Past.Earthquakes..................... 351
6.5.2. Performance.Expectations.and.Requirements.................................. 352
6.5.3. Seismic.Hazard.and.Site.Issues......................................................... 352
6.5.4. Structural.System.Issues................................................................... 352
6.5.5. Nonstructural.System.Issues............................................................. 353

xiv Contents

6.6. Current.Specifications.for.Performance-Based.Seismic.Design.................... 353
6.6.1. Building.Performance.Objectives..................................................... 354
6.6.2. Building.Performance.Levels............................................................ 354
6.6.2.1. Operational.Level.............................................................. 354
6.6.2.2. Immediate.Occupancy.Level............................................. 354
6.6.2.3. Life-Safety.Level............................................................... 354
6.6.2.4. Collapse.Prevention.Level.or.Near-Collapse.Level........... 355
6.6.2.5. Alternative.Design.Criteria:.2008.LATBSDC.................. 355
6.6.3. Recommended.Administrative.Bulletin.on.the.Seismic.Design.
and.Review.of.Tall.Buildings.Using.Nonprescriptive.Procedures.
AB-083.............................................................................................. 356
6.7. Closing.Comments......................................................................................... 356

Chapter 7 Preliminary.Calculations.to.Ensure.Validity.of Computer.Analysis........................ 359
Preview...................................................................................................................... 359
7.1. Characterizing.Structural.Behavior...............................................................360
7.1.1. History.of.Structural.Engineering..................................................... 363
7.1.2. Design.Process.................................................................................. 365
7.1.2.1. Conceptual.Stage............................................................... 365
7.1.2.2. Preliminary.Design.Stage.................................................. 365
7.1.2.3. Selection.Stage................................................................... 365
7.1.2.4. Final.Design.Stage............................................................. 366
7.1.2.5. Construction.Stage............................................................. 366
7.1.3. Basic.Principles.of.Structural.Analysis............................................. 366
7.1.3.1. Requirements.of.Structural.Analysis................................. 367
7.1.3.2. Equilibrium.Requirements................................................ 367
7.2. Advantages.and.Disadvantages.of.Indeterminate.Structures......................... 368
7.2.1. Free-Body.Diagrams......................................................................... 369
7.2.2. Stiffness.Requirements..................................................................... 370
7.2.3. Kinematic.Requirements................................................................... 370
7.2.4. Analysis.Summary............................................................................ 370
7.2.5. Braced.Frames.as.Beams.................................................................. 371
7.2.6. Preliminary.Analysis.of.Rigid.Frames............................................. 373
7.2.6.1. Portal.Method.................................................................... 376
7.2.6.2. Drift.Assessment—Frame.Structures................................ 382
7.2.6.3. Deflection.Calculations...................................................... 386
7.2.6.4. Design.Examples,.Portal.and.Cantilever.Methods............ 391
7.2.6.5. Framed.Tubes.................................................................... 393
7.3. Preliminary.Design:.Concrete........................................................................ 395
7.3.1. Preliminary.Design:.Concrete.Columns........................................... 395
7.3.2. Preliminary.Design.of.PT.Floor.Systems......................................... 396
7.3.2.1. Simple.Span.Beam............................................................. 399
7.3.2.2. Continuous.Beams.............................................................402
7.3.3. Concept.of.Secondary.Moments....................................................... 422
7.3.3.1. Secondary.Moment............................................................ 424
7.3.4. Strength.Design.for.Flexure.............................................................. 432
7.3.5. Guidelines.for.Thinking.on.Your.Feet..............................................440
7.3.6. Unit.Quantities:.Reinforced.Concrete.Buildings..............................440

Contents xv

7.3.7. Unit.Quantity.of.Reinforcement.in.Columns....................................446
7.3.8. Unit.Quantity.of.Reinforcement.and.Concrete.in.
Floor-Framing Systems..................................................................... 451
7.4. Estimation.of.Preliminary.Wind.Loads,.ASCE.7-10..................................... 451
7.5. Preliminary.Seismic.Base.Shear,.V,.as.a.Percent.of.Building’s.
Seismic Weight,.W.......................................................................................... 457
7.5.1. Building.Height,.hn.=.160.ft.............................................................. 463
7.5.2. Buildings.Taller.than.160.ft............................................................... 463
7.6. Differential.Shortening.of.Steel.Columns...................................................... 477
7.6.1. Simplified.Method.of.Calculating.Δ z,.Axial.Shortening.
of Columns........................................................................................ 478
7.6.2. Derivation.of.Simplified.Expression.for.Az....................................... 478
7.6.3. Column.Length.Corrections,.Δc....................................................... 486
7.6.4. Column.Shortening.Verification.during.Construction...................... 486
7.7. Guidance.for.Preparing.Conceptual.Estimates.............................................. 487
7.8. Concept.of.Premium.for.Height..................................................................... 491

Chapter 8 Seismic.Evaluation.and.Rehabilitation.of Existing.Buildings.................................. 493
Preview...................................................................................................................... 493
8.1. Code-Sponsored.Design................................................................................. 495
8.1.1. Building.Deformations...................................................................... 497
8.2. Alternate.Design.Philosophy.......................................................................... 498
8.2.1. Initial.Considerations........................................................................ 501
8.2.2. Rehabilitation.Objective.................................................................... 502
8.2.2.1. Performance.Levels........................................................... 502
8.2.2.2. Seismic.Hazard.................................................................. 502
8.2.2.3. Selecting.a.Rehabilitation.Objective.................................. 502
8.2.2.4. Rehabilitation.Method....................................................... 503
8.2.2.5. Rehabilitation.Strategy...................................................... 503
8.2.3. Analysis.Procedures.......................................................................... 503
8.2.4. Verification.of.Rehabilitation.Design................................................504
8.2.5. Nonstructural.Risk.Mitigation..........................................................504
8.2.5.1. Disabled.Access.Improvements.........................................504
8.2.5.2. Hazardous.Material.Removal............................................504
8.2.5.3. Design,.Testing.and.Inspection,.
and Management Fees................................................. 504
8.2.5.4. Historic.Preservation.Costs............................................... 505
8.3. .Seismic.Rehabilitation.of.Existing.Buildings:.ASCE/SEI.Standard.41-06...... 505
8.3.1. Overview.of.Performance.Levels...................................................... 507
8.3.2. Permitted.Design.Methods................................................................509
8.3.3. Systematic.Rehabilitation..................................................................509
8.3.3.1. Determination.of.Seismic.Ground.Motions...................... 510
8.3.3.2. Determination.of.As-Built.Conditions.............................. 510
8.3.3.3. Primary.and.Secondary.Components................................ 511
8.3.3.4. Setting.Up.Analytical.Model.and.Determination.
of Design.Forces................................................................ 511
8.3.3.5. Combined.Gravity.and.Seismic.Demand.......................... 513
8.3.3.6. Component.Capacity.Calculations.QCE.and.QCL............... 514

xvi Contents

8.3.4. Development.of.Concepts.for.Seismic.Upgrading............................ 515
8.3.4.1. Structural.Systems............................................................. 516
8.3.4.2. Configuration..................................................................... 517
8.3.4.3. Horizontal.Diaphragms.and.Foundation.Ties................... 517
8.3.4.4. Eccentricity........................................................................ 517
8.3.4.5. Deformation.Compatibility.of.New.and.Existing.
Materials............................................................................ 517
8.3.4.6. Base.Isolation.and.Energy.Dissipation.............................. 518
8.3.4.7. Selection.of.Strengthening.Technique............................... 519
8.3.5. Seismic.Risk.Reduction.Strategies.................................................... 519
8.3.5.1. Reduce.Site.Hazards.......................................................... 520
8.3.5.2. Improve.Building.Performance......................................... 520
8.3.6. ASCE/SEI.41-06:.Seismic.Evaluation.Example:.Steel.Building...... 521
8.3.7. ASCE/SEI.41-06:.Seismic.Evaluation:.Concrete.Building............... 526
8.4. .Common.Deficiencies.and.Upgrade.Methods:.Concrete.Building................ 530
8.4.1. Diaphragms....................................................................................... 531
8.4.1.1. Cast-in-Place.Concrete.Diaphragms.................................. 531
8.4.1.2. Precast.Concrete.Diaphragms........................................... 534
8.4.2. Shear.Walls........................................................................................ 534
8.4.2.1. Increasing.Wall.Thickness................................................ 534
8.4.2.2. Increasing.Shear.Strength.of.Wall..................................... 535
8.4.2.3. Infilling.between.Columns................................................ 535
8.4.2.4. Addition.of.Boundary.Elements........................................ 536
8.4.2.5. Addition.of.Confinement.Jackets....................................... 536
8.4.2.6. Repair.of.Cracked.Coupling.Beams.................................. 536
8.4.2.7. Adding.New.Walls............................................................. 536
8.4.2.8. Precast.Concrete.Shear.Walls............................................ 536
8.4.3. Infilling.of.Moment.Frames.............................................................. 537
8.4.4. Reinforced.Concrete.Moment.Frames.............................................. 537
8.4.5. Open.Storefront................................................................................. 538
8.4.6. Clerestory.......................................................................................... 538
8.4.7. Shallow.Foundations......................................................................... 538
8.4.8. Rehabilitation.Measures.for.Deep.Foundations................................540
8.4.9. Nonstructural.Elements.....................................................................540
8.4.9.1. Life.Safety......................................................................... 541
8.4.9.2. Property.Loss..................................................................... 541
8.4.9.3. Loss.of.Function................................................................ 541
8.4.9.4. Causes.of.Nonstructural.Damage...................................... 542
8.4.9.5. Design.Procedure.for.Nonstructural.Components............ 543
8.4.9.6. Seismic.Hazard..................................................................544
8.4.9.7. Non-Load-Bearing.Walls..................................................544
8.4.9.8. Precast.Concrete.Cladding................................................ 545
8.4.9.9. Stone.or.Masonry.Veneers................................................. 545
8.4.9.10. Building.Ornamentation.................................................... 545
8.4.9.11. Acoustical.Ceiling.............................................................546
8.4.10. Fiber-Reinforced.Polymer.Systems.for.Strengthening.
of Concrete.Buildings........................................................................546
8.4.10.1. Mechanical.Properties.and.Behavior.................................546
8.4.10.2. Design.Philosophy............................................................. 547
8.4.10.3. Flexural.Design.................................................................. 547

Contents xvii

8.5. Concluding.Remarks...................................................................................... 547
8.6. Seismic.Strengthening.Details....................................................................... 551

Chapter 9 Special.Topics............................................................................................................ 621
9.1. Serviceability.Considerations......................................................................... 621
9.1.1. Deflections......................................................................................... 622
9.1.2. Building.Drift.................................................................................... 623
9.1.3. Vibrations.......................................................................................... 623
9.1.4. Design.for.Long-Term.Deflection...................................................... 625
9.1.5. Camber.............................................................................................. 625
9.1.5.1. Recommended.Camber.Criteria........................................ 626
9.1.6. Expansion.and.Contraction............................................................... 625
9.1.7. Durability.......................................................................................... 625
9.1.8. Serviceability.Considerations:.Concrete.Systems............................. 625
9.1.9. Tall.Building.Motions....................................................................... 627
9.1.10. Building.Motion.Perception.............................................................. 629
9.1.11. Structural.Damping........................................................................... 629
9.2. Damping.Devices.for.Reducing.Motion.Perception....................................... 631
9.2.1. Passive.Viscoelastic.Dampers........................................................... 631
9.2.2. Tuned.Mass.Damper......................................................................... 633
9.2.2.1. Tuned.Mass.Damper:.Simple.Pendulum.Type.................. 634
9.2.2.2. Tuned.Mass.Damper:.Linked.Pendulum.Type.................. 634
9.2.2.3. Citicorp.Tower,.New.York................................................. 634
9.2.2.4. John.Hancock.Tower,.Boston,.MA.................................... 636
9.2.2.5. Design.Considerations.for.Tuned.Mass.Damper............... 637
9.2.3. Tuned.Sloshing.Damper.................................................................... 637
9.2.4. Tuned.Liquid.Column.Damper......................................................... 637
9.2.4.1. Wall.Center,.Vancouver,.BC.............................................. 639
9.2.4.2. Highcliff.Apartment.Building,.Hong.Kong....................... 639
9.2.5. Simple.Pendulum.Damper................................................................. 641
9.2.5.1. Taipei.Financial.Center...................................................... 641
9.2.5.2. Nested.Pendulum.Damper................................................. 642
9.3. Seismic.Isolation............................................................................................. 642
9.3.1. Salient.Features................................................................................. 645
9.3.2. Mechanical.Properties.of.Seismic.Isolation.Systems........................ 645
9.3.3. Elastomeric.Isolators......................................................................... 647
9.3.4. Sliding.Isolators................................................................................. 647
9.3.5. Seismically.Isolated.Structures:.ASCE.7-10.Design.Provisions.......648
9.3.5.1. Illustrative.Example:.Static.Procedure.............................. 651
9.3.5.2. Building.Characteristics.................................................... 652
9.3.5.3. Triple.Pendulum.Bearing................................................... 662
9.3.5.4. Additional.Notes.on.Friction.Pendulum.Systems.............. 663
9.4. Passive.Energy.Dissipation.............................................................................664
9.5. Blast-Resistant.Design....................................................................................666
9.5.1. Design.Criteria..................................................................................668
9.5.2. Load.Criteria.....................................................................................668
9.5.3. Analysis.Procedure...........................................................................668
9.5.4. Difference.between.Seismic.and.Blast-Resistant.Design.................. 669
9.5.5. Selection.of.Design.Blast.Load......................................................... 670

.......Indiana....Achieving.................... 725 9.4.....5........................................Raft............Recap........................... 722 9..... 693 9......1..of..... 720 9... Architectural.....................Progressive....... 691 9..... Design....700 9........14......Arena.......................... Empire........8....Kong.................7..Caissons............Collapse............Lumpur...of.6...........5..6.....8.......... Footings.of.............Own..............Arena.................... 717 9......10...............Beams......9...........Piles..... Foundations......of.....................6.............. 715 9....Building.................5........Post-Tensioned...............xviii Contents 9.9.. Jin......... Tendon....Building........................10.....................Its....Buildings.. 711 9............. 696 9..Weight...in.......... 712 9..................... 692 9..for................... 705 9..8.Strengthening................................Moment.... 706 9.............. Progressive...7......2........Columns......................4..10.....Kuala...................Load.....................8...............Collapse..........Structures....................6...3.12..10.......... 724 9........9..........Collapse..5.... World.4.. Removing. 715 9..Point:..................700 9.....................Trade......................of....................................3...9........7... 673 9.4...... 716 9....3............10.................China..3............. Bank....Architecture.....................Hong..........................10........Walkways....Design...........Roof..Existing.............and....... Footing.............. Load......... Grade.6.......... Failures.............Curtain......... Closing.101....................under.....2..Proportioning.........York.......... Beams.10................. 674 9....................................... Floors..........................for..........10.... Anchorages..... 727 ... Hancock............. 691 9...........of.......... 673 9....1...Malaysia.................. 677 9........of....Today..............8..........9........Boston:.....6..Wall.............................. Buckling......................9........................1...................Review.......3. Structural.......... 675 9..... 682 9........for... Guidelines.....11.......Tower........and............10..of....... Pile....3......Building......................9....Structural...............Slabs...............Center.3........................9.York..... 718 9.......5.. 693 9.................Distress........... 672 9..................... Prototype..Foundations......................Tower....Building..........and.and.....Selected............1.. 692 9.....11.......Towers.............Integrity........2.13.........6...Roof.... 681 9.and.............Wall..... Evolution.....Chicago..... Hartford............Indiana.....Foundation..........2........Collapse.....9.Piers...............8...........................Mao...........7.................Post-Tensioned....... Hyatt.7.......10.3.............Forces......Tall.Slab......4............Collapse...10..Column..Progressive................Foundation................Concrete.Layout..... 679 9....9.................7........3.... Historical............6......China...New................Comments........ Supports.Tendons.......2.......... Frame....Frames...Piles......Regency.Protection..........................on.....Towers.. 724 9.... Post-Tension....Banded..8......................Distress.. Circular.......6..Post-Tensioned... Effect...Oil..........................Building....6.of.Distresses........ 724 9.....................5..Irregular.......... Tendon........ 703 9.............................Concrete............. 683 9. 689 9.. Taipei........Shanghai...690 9...Tower.....1. Ronan......Landmarks............ Petronas.. 715 9.......3.....................11. 673 9.... 710 9.....State....9..of.Cracking......................... Reinforced.......8. 692 9........1......... Standard..........(2013).Grade..... 692 9.5.........High-Rise...1.............Mats.........10.....1......Alternatives......Chicago:.......... Standard............ 691 9......2.................................New.......Profiles......................Balancing..Reducing....on.......10.......... 695 9..... Kemper.........in.10.......2....8...... Design..........Seismic....Capacity...........6....... 725 9................3................Curtain........................................... 726 9............ 715 9.4... 719 9....Collapse........................Summary....4..........9...........................3....................................................10..7....3.............Systems..........10......Special................. Piles........................Buildings.....1....Oil...................................

........of.......... 793 Preview.......... 742 10.......of...Curve..........Shapes...Plates............Modeling...............Tension...Torsion.due........................ Coefficient........and. 753 10...............................ω′........... 749 10....3. Stiffness..Structural..........................11..Heat. 769 Preview...Example.....and..............Constants.Expansion............................................6..............................Constant....................................... Historical.....................11.......Camber... Load-Resisting.Design....Iω.. Avoid......... 793 12.......... Brittle.6................Considerations.. 730 Chapter 10 Torsion......A.... Torsion..................10......... 810 12......... 728 9..........................Theory...........................Model........Behavior...........Worked....Recommendations.J..........Failure...........9..............2..........Steel... Field.and...........and..Shear...7.. 797 12........1. Principal...............Review.....................Open................Torsion.................. Design.4..........Design:....Building:.......on.............of.......................................................................................................Systems................... 730 9.. General.............................ωs..................4......... Methods.............Connections...Fracture...Welded... 731 Preview.... 748 10.................. Figures.............Bars.................. 799 12..Effects.........Welding. Effect.11................... Torsion...... Brittle......Drift.....................3....................... 750 10...........................Sections..Method................Worked......... Stiffness..Example..........for.....Seismic.................................... 728 9...................................Shear.... General.1...... 746 10.....3..... 728 9.....6..Sectorial.....................for.....4...........................2...............807 12.or......4....................................Tolerances......11.....Review...3..........2...........11...................... Sectorial.....................2....of....Welds......of.....................Integrals......for............. Evaluation.......... Sectorial..7..............3..the Fundamentals.... 731 10.... Foundation...............5..............................Straighten..............2.......7..................807 12..........Contents xix 9............................. 755 10.... 793 12.......................6.......in....Diagram...............3... 798 12... ASTM................................... 811 ..............of.............Moment..1... Strong-Column/Weak-Beam................6........4....Specifications.........Analysis..............Using......of....... 766 Chapter 11 Seismic...... 729 9........ Calculation.... and Fasteners............1........of.....Warping...............................................................................Gravity......................... Use.....Welding..........11.. 801 12......... 728 9.....Coordinate....... Bolted.........................Coordinate................................................Warping....................................for.................................1....1.................................Wall..........Heat.......... Analysis............Lateral.Behavior..5...... 750 10... 763 10.... 727 9..................Product..............Details..........2..5.. 750 10.........1.................Structural...Center............Bolted................. 801 12.................Inspection.and.....of.......... 770 Chapter 12 Steel............11............Fracture.....................1........Warping-Column......4............Pictorial..........................Inertia.to........Sectorial..11........4....5.............................2............Principles...Limits....Explaining................... Concept...... Strength...................Design...............................Buildings:.. Thermal..................................................of..........Properties:.........3. 750 10......................8............1...Members........Characteristics........................... 799 12............................... Shear.. Bolts...............800 12.....Ductile.. Detail.....................Connections...........................................807 12...... 769 11............3..2............to..Tables.....................and...............of............................. Warping.........

...... Composite-Beam........ 842 13..9......and...............Examples...........1....7............. Material... 826 13....................2...Garages.. Encased..... 820 13......................... 834 13. Moment-Connected.......2..........................Details..........Installation:..............Design...and.4........ Design........ 814 12............................ Positive.in..............7..1....... Other....................................................... Composite.................Design.Tension.............................4.. 819 13. 813 12...Columns:...2......................................................Review.............4.......Beam....7..... 836 13........ Bolts..3.....Composite......................4..10.10................................................Subjected.2............. Composite.. 853 13.............................(C1.......1..2....................................1.Design.....5.....1......... 850 13................................ Composite........4...Composite.....Brief.......3........................... Bolts...........10................. 853 13.....................Buildings:.................. 833 13........... Installation.............. 822 13..Connections.............Overview..........Composite.....Composite..............................5... 842 13.......5...Outline..............2.4............................................................. 854 .......Connection........... 817 13..................................... 821 13........................3.6.......in........................................10................10.....Strength.....Trusses................. Effective................................. 820 13....................................... 852 13... Composite....................Composite................Considerations.........1..........Strength.........................Storage...... Composite....4.....Steel..................Haunch...........versus...................Encased....... 837 13.....................5........9.7........General...............3....Beams.............Flexural.............................Trusses...xx Contents 12..... Specifications....Width..............Composite.Connectors.................Mesh.....Composite..............2....Floor............. 821 13.......... Deflection............7...................................10.....Composite..Bolted...............................1......Deck):........... Tolerances.........1..Design.............................. Parking.......... Finishes.............. 834 13......................8...................................846 13...... Fork........and..........................Fully........8....Types.......... 813 12..... Site...Standard......Structural..........9.............. Composite.. AISC................1......Girders.1....3........... Slip-Critical......Joists..... 849 13.........................1........Design......2.......Beams..... 820 13...4.4.............. 851 13........Topping........Floor..................5...........4..................1.......... Bolts....2...... 842 13........................................... Continuous.................Strength.........ANSI/SDI.....................3.. Tensile........ Concrete... and Concrete..4................ 815 Chapter 13 Composite........................................ 828 13..4..................and.....................2.......846 13...............Deck....... 821 13............................................6....Overview................ Negative....................................................3.Beams..3................Slip-Critical............for........8......Criteria:......... Shear.... 822 13..6.............2. 821 13... 839 13...................versus....Overview......5.......... 818 13........ Bearing......AISC....................Criteria................. 834 13.....................with Steel Deck...2...... Limitations.....Joists.......... 812 12...Composite..................Requirements:...........Beams...........Girders... 852 13.3...........................4............10............Design.....Filled......Composite..848 13................. 811 12.Flexural.........10.....Shear......Columns...A...Shear.........and..... 845 13........... AISC.....................0.. Shear. Finishes......................for......1.........Strength........4......Bearing....Behavior....to..........for......Strength..... 817 Preview.......................... Compressive.Deck:....Snug-Tight.............. Bolt....Steel.............Tensioned..........................Columns:........8...........3..........Comments..................................................................................4........................................................ 852 13................................10.............. Venting.............. Wire...............Columns:....... 819 13....5..............................3.. 830 13.....................2.................. .....Lifts......... 820 13....................................Construction.........of..........System..........................2..........................3..... 819 13.... Nonprismatic....

... 855 13.for.10... Filled..10....4...... 856 13........Design...Limitations..Encased........ Detailing. 857 13.................................................1...........Contents xxi 13.14..................................6...........................................10........3.......Strength...........10......5...9..................Composite..................Composite.....11..... 856 13.......... Shear..AISC.....2.........10... Strength..... Compressive.........3.........Tables.Strength........... 858 13..Strength...................10.............. 854 13......5........................................10.........Transfer...1............. 857 13......4...5......Filled..AISC..........Strength......................3...............Force...........Composite.............Composite..............10.Composite.1......... Compressive............... Design..3...............of......Limitations................... 855 13.....................7.....10........ Shear.. 857 13.2.........Sections... 855 13..6..................Columns:...Design...3..........................Transfer....6...........................................10..10.... 854 13.... 855 13..10........Columns............ 858 13.................Strength..........3..10.................................... 855 13... Compressive.... 879 Index....... Limitations...and.... Tensile.................of...................3.........Column:......Strength...........3....Combined............. Load..........Flexure.......... Nominal.Connectors................................Transfer..Criteria..............of......Strength........................10.....6...........7...Stud.............. 855 13......Requirements...................................Shear................................... Load...... Load.......and.10. 858 13....................................10........Column......3..........Summary.....10.. Load.............12.8...................Transfer.....10... 856 13.. 883 .......10.......................10.......................5........Criteria.... 858 Bibliography...3.. 858 13......Axial.....13.................. 855 13.............11....Details..........

.

the.behavior.design. by.freedom.modern.develop.refer- ence.Building. and.following.and.to.the.and.358-10 •.Existing.other.apparent.directed. Thus. frequent.such.tall.The. available.are. of.similar.as. a.monuments.professional.with.ultratall.habitats. for.objectives. To.was.hand.gusts...in. understand.of.Buildings.gravity.well..such.Structural.Loads.code.to.engineer.habitats—not.certain.invented.this. individuals. commercially.by. design.that.of.book.relatively.and.design.the. buildings. present-day.writing.tall.better.It.procedure.over..with. and.ground.Moreover.lies.building.force. Minimum.book.rather. in. the.wind..motiva- tion.of. the. and.brethren.the. carried.nearly.for.safely.of.primary..and..of.their. design.their.do. structural.the.a.behavior. Steel.their.than.is. periodically.stiff. with..of..of.to..generated.for.structural.successfully.tall.structural. thorough.lower. Although. are.this.in.Provisions. that.41-06 Much.as.and..and.used.practice.not.computer. Seismic.Steel.stan- dards.the.adapted.Steel.To...previous.speaking.fascinated..fundamental.the.ASCE/SEI. written..gravity.are. Tall.text.particular.design.underlying. using.for.years.from.members.and.practical. Connections.have.Structures.their.equally.manner.by..a.structures.the.to. approach:. of.subject.nature.of. •. too.the.so.360-10 •.as.Buildings.done. their..buildings.heavy.often.Thus.the. To. in.on.ANS1/AISC.human.Specifications •. behavior. Connections.do.are.buildings.principle.to. recognized. successful.simple.where.basic.the.and. mystery.how.in.in.as.the.in. Special. xxiii .of.wind-.adoration.to.cohesive.in..lateral.their.is.change.unique.a. of.essential. is.seem.of.structures. an.these..world. well.have.com- posite.Code.describe.then.design.task.victim.gap.analysis.human.inadequate. for.7-10. out.then. have..design.ANSI/ASCE.economics.legally.of..members.as.be.knowledge.the.to. forces.Concrete..through.the.are..Applications.relates.governing.navigating. Familiarity.software.ASCE/SEI.Rehabilitation.publications. grounding. of.abreast.promote.new.same..the.and. Seismic.steel.who. or.challenge. romance.and.stand. components.concrete. present-day.understanding.not-so-tall. It.. spreadsheets.of.command.of.follows: •.as.economically. systems. This.as.lower.comply.recent.analysis. Building.old. oftentimes. structures.design.buildings. design.provisions.consideration.Design. particular.Today’s.earthquake-resistant..is.to.static.own.Buildings.the. associated. Specifications.just.of.efficiently.ACI.a.establish. their.structural.Therefore..the.State.terms.as.a.create..and.laterally. for.and.from.for.no.to.systems. The.buildings.allowed.of.the.and.do.by.they.it.to.the.and.methodology.Structural.small.foremost.laws.methods. mere.of.to.developments.structural.dangerous. Moment.attempts.super-.beginning..loads—they. robust.so..the. appeal.even.aspects.field..for.procedures.to. Seismic..318-11 •.their.resisting.Buildings. software.results. from.proficiency.a. material. is.analysis.and.motions.in. a.engineering.publications: •. To. computer.computer.so.proficiency.rapid.claims.current.physical..are. unique.. air.to.Empire. Pre-qualified. needs.and.that. and.is.in.deflec- tion.1930s.of.Other.seismic.the. comfort. in.and. and. for. the.to.is.they.counterparts. generally.civilization—the.is.real.firm. fundamental..book. professionals.structures.to.The..Structural.maintain.brethren.practice.presented.ANSI/AISC..of. keep. of..provisions.an.needs.typically. theory.anyone.effortlessly.341-10 •.humans.that.Preface Tall.systems.150..outgrowth.a.subjected. the.understanding.dynamic.interpretation. Intermediate..and.first..applies.Requirements.develop.do. even.my.is.

to.adage.familiar..concepts.to.live.and.that.structural.goals.interest.cost.systems. 1960s.this.material.concept. intractable. Therefore. Using.it.trade.precise.check.attempt.To. Developments.today.placed.the.foundations.precision. a.selected.in.that.providing.intuition.consid- erations.era.an.the.schematic.architecture.challenge.time.that.as.set.obligatory.To.to.world.the.fast.diversified.variety.and.super-.to.several.have..within. •.is. by.experience.a.published.their.codes.a. structural.well.for.standards.solutions.days. for.and.that.the A36.tackling.as.entire..order.opposed.and.acknowledge.ven- tured.many.the.ultratall.examination. Structural.have. quickly.to.composite.of.the. trend. the.the.systematic.hundred. address.well.specific.end.that.design.intuitive.for.final.by.us.little.imagine.do.paid.to.trend.of. construction.. serve. we.unfathomable.today. numerical.of.two.I.for.is.would. proposed.in.mere.more.the. problems.was.as.natural. this?”. with.approaches. building.decade.high-rise.engineers. design.and.on.less.essential.only.emphasis.ability..put. the.sparser.prepare.then..an. building.engineering.for.with.larger.be.“right.juncture.humans.difficult.a. the.that. paced...options.is.the.of. year.relate.This.come. that.problems.book.have—marries.to.and.it. and.innovative.a.text.concrete.of.possibilities.the..we.structural. and.requires.wonderful.Even.cultivate.to.as.on.optimize.bridge. •.of.to.. manageable.feel. the.this.examples.basic.the. structural. is. the.track.to.and.to.proven..of. for.we.the.to.material.hours.is.use.adds. today. •.In..idea. in.has.skills. system. first.we.been.system.for.answering.arriving.daring.challenge.library.extension. approximated.answer”.approaches.reiterate. the.a. facilitator.gap.context.from.estimate.answer.buildings.is.is. structural.appropriate.Economic.magnitude. wonderful.own.produced.the.experienced.computer.the.and.prepare.world.confirms.as.I.have.thinking.show.cities.behavior.steel.call.text.test. design. “Can.the.preliminary.I.were.and.and.much.harmonizes.of. published. who.over..one.process.last.we.as..as.analysis.the.visualizing.the.conceptual.because.evolved. The.idea.up.break. to.but.What.. In.complex.schemes.experience..of.structural.available.such.than.of.designer.to.. design.solution.design. be.first.those.this.so.readily.other.The.the. define. question.us.be.the.varied.engineer.alleviate.basis..humans.mandatory.attention.solutions.. 1950s.and. the..an.that.execution.the.early.a.this.very. analysis.to..1894.the. a.of.before.in.fact.it. The.frame.that. up.has.design.whole.resulted. designer.as.the.at.building. flamboyant.been.steel.skyline..a.to.this..with.the.examples.and.right. results.simple.of..measured.creative.there.question.even.to..upon.based.an.components.lateral.seemingly.intuition.this.a. To. engineer.information.different.requirements.in.safe.of.imperfect.in.well.are.the.as.that.that. dream. steel.between. to.numbers. while.that. To.for.ability—the.both.a.know.in. To.back-of-the-envelope. To.accuracy.come.myself.is.relies.phase.profes- sional.needed.aforementioned. framing.skill.and.in.was.a.budget..is.structural.to..the. shape.to.need. fulfils.reference.suggests.layperson.explore.also. Fortunately. this.the.but.of.practice. buildings.strength. more. as.where.state-of-the-art. .good.demanding.guide.other.on.will.xxiv Preface •.leaner. at..questions.has.run-of-the- mill.assist.design..complex. the. can.the. do.computers. that.to.that. To.and..have.steel.economical.design.is.to. Utilizing. is.that.the.a. frequently.under..imaginative.applicability.are. comes.particular.It. systems.that.urban.in. tools.and.interesting.seem- ingly. steel.is..proposals.and.devel- oped.not.in.and.with.designs.. that.so.applied.schemes.This.solutions.to.in. architect’s.certain.loads. specifications.the. these.properties.as. architects:..problem.for.we.with..with.as.for.very.materials.promote.up.of.years.slender. •.a.specification.enough.base.in. of. Thus. pieces.on. to.schemes.is.of..for.as.the.have.that.that.the. architect.of.compre- hensive.attempts.owner’s.economical. scheme.us.which..behavior.how.the.the.solutions.book.computer.and..steel.particularly. down. structural.proverbial.today’s.structural.a.usual. of.find. computer.when.presenting.need.result.the.appreciation.the.realizing. the.by.and.routinely.efficiency.that..buildings.increasingly.their.a.structural. by.in..

structural.wind.make.in.seismic.areas. wind-.formalized.and. loads.retain. worldwide.world.the.dead.1.Tall. design.must. component.the.buildings.can.safety.discussed.building.good.envelope.provided.exert.not.ever.convinced.the.why.ground.accounted.profession. the.on.to.be.cases.seismic. in.a. presented.for.the.of.that.of.designing.temperature.of.the. structures.phenomenal.blow.composite.for.high. part.or. examples..Chapter.that.of.the.within.introductory.to. structural. Computer...loads.Preface xxv American.loads.an. of.Dead.we.use. Out.. first.not..all.operation. analysis.San.the..examine.the.loads.live.wind.loads.this.then.the.con- crete.to.and.sufficient. is.we.Our.then.and.the.discusses.accordance.member.a.and.change.earth. for.be.daunting.perspective.learning.that. may.are.requirements. the.AISC.conceptual.are.in.those. emerging.background.little. instead. independently.loads.providing.and.the.Institute. new.related. to.every.on. of.of.did..essential.creative.loads. glance.. that.size.We.However. are.case.severe.up.Concrete.they. the..bridges.that.buildings.the.of.windstorms.their.to.ground.have.increase..give. United.calculations..these.the.for.be.a.works.that.for. in.engineers..with.all. once.the. code-based.the. design.paramount.its.output.is. technical.properly.on.of.explanation.We. design.as. detailed.today’s.lower.this.the.it.at.building.inelastic.ASCE.idea..wind.high..for.live.the. concrete.as.less.is.earth’s. was.proof.has.chapter. to.and.would..interactions.exist.explain. being.been.at. of.in.adept.the. in.a.three.components.might.Special.gravitational.fact.formal.of.. most..buildings.and.time.did.years.structural.thinking.the.of.would.self-weight.unnecessary.way.con- siderations.procedures.a.has.of.with.only.convention.Chapter.in. material.combinations.that.structural.performance.we.concrete..concept.spite.a.the.However.or.Given.types.building.years.are..started..probabilities.we.would. .and. as.that.and.shaking.out.seem.the.building.viable.ourselves.and..building.engineered.while.such.the. material.explain.(ACI).not. a.since.discuss.of.Institute.identifying.regardless.and. feel.of. In.a. a.ground.not.a.as.loads.surface. presented.earthquakes.provisions.to.design.recently. In.include. why.shaking.particularly.Where.of.The.perform.used.first.they.If.will.in. In.detailing.growth.Methods.seismology..while.phenomenal.buildings.with.basic.two.documents.same. loads.and..emphasis.written.(AISC).steel.thinking.chapters.has.over.engineers. of.3.relatively...building.by.training.forces.firmly.In.been.structural.as.ample.of. proverbial..the.humans.recent.in.2.of.was.for.of.of.building.or. more.how.emphasizes.these.the.. Reinforced.field.background..skills.engineers.a.fundamen- tals.creations. are.general.it.are.to.as..it..risk.types..statistic.pre- sented.use.our.the.critical.the.of.is.few.is. seismic-resistant.react.of....simultaneously. be.discuss. strong.place. but.there.how. modern.to. the.and.Construction.reinforced.of.of..between.out..also.behavior..and.provisions..the.been..structural.code.however.essential.emphasis. composite.. assessing...would.been.code. typically.design.what.basis. reinforced.. every. structures.if.utilitarian..7-10. explanations.are.building.unique.the.. numerical.of. presented.wind..the. and.sketch. addressing.fact.Since.is.also. properties.from.discussion. of.. When.two. steel.is.so.shaking.. of.gift.solidify.related. series..hundred.did.we.remain.is.loads..dynamics.known.complexity..that.observations. as..witnessed.pull. system.will.are..seismic.on.Steel.as.. of.been. and.design. capable.now.shake.different.risk. officially.. selection. behavior.system.in.use.back.written.load-resisting.of.on.rec- ognition.the.its. Chapter.the. building. reality.for.has.all.magnitude.hundred.the. earthquake-resistant.a.are.sink. American. technology.to.have. and.as.building. The..be.we. shortchanging.sec- onds.load.present.not.designers.work.expectations. construction.the.and.characteristics..did.to.variable.humidity.product.not.loads.Information.to. in.building.If..capturing.is.extensive.different.provide.of.how.established.1980.their.we. force.in.volumi- nous.lateral.that.to.technical. throughout.designed.the.States.determined.is..guidance.resisting.on.This.formal..in.behavior.that.its.provisions.the.evidence. at..seismic.areas.system.under.with.in.Francisco.in.like.for.way.construction.to. required. and.on.load. appear.many.the.were.in.various.ductile.The.ductile.the.buildings.during.at.background. context. a.design..our.possible.building.hazard.buildings. composite.technical. At. building.air.us.extend.has.first.held.over.can.equal.its.we.analysis. of.conditions..1920s.Loads.of..the.in.and.is..is.concerns. have.assurance.Minimum.the.book.to.directly.Standards.In.are.a..cycle.critical.book.brethren.be.

devel- oped.that..quality.to.financially.dedicated..earthquake..Chapters.design.more. response.within.love.readers..will.minimization. owners.Approximate.vulnerable.From.effects.that..11.and.interruption.behavior.methods.resorting. Chapter.in. Finally.in.without.devices.structural.of.discussed.problems.as.Using.the.concept. seismic..to...of.profession.in.a.in.computer.to.and.art—the.are.Building.of.It.to.a.damage.this.seismic.revo- lutionary. of.two-pronged.is.code.buildings.of.of.excitation. of..and. it..rather.across-wind.lateral.steel.stresses.of.traditional.estimates.for.graphical.9.that.forms.required.designs.concrete.methods.structural.to.design. collapse.Buildings.relying.become..engineers.has.of.also.on.equations.using.buildings.of.shortening.of.introduce.it.the..a.of.because.needs.along- wind.of. PBD.with.are.(PBD).being..design.field.is.for.of.and.In.high-end. or. shear.descriptive. only.performance-based.also.today’s.with. the.of.is.systems.for. owners.wind.advantage.code-sponsored.presents.and.considerations.unique.safety.for.seismic.decade..requirements...that.approach:..be.they.the. open-section.This.also.as.rehabilitation.and. Conceptual.tune.provides.a.captions..and. determining.Also.chapter.to.illustrations.engineers.for.PBD.13.concerns.can.standard..and.discussion.axial.nonquantifiable. and.the.basic.codes.7.essence.that.control.and. and. of.engineering.implicitly.design.suggests.Chapter. discussed.concerned. earthquake. resulting.the.assurance.Although. many.serviceability.analysis.design.the.buildings.or.is.through.fundamental.kept.between.takes..isolation.axial.complexity. walls.of.that.chapter..toughness.described.supply.discussed.design..this.structures.to.address. 10.only.and.in.feasible.deals..principles.like.visual.one.and.process. quantity.a.on. static.because.with.perform.basis..the.for.seismically.the. effects.the. the.property.that.design.building..differences.providing.decrease. In.warping.columns.dynamic.preliminary. composite.apply.includes.are..is.of.avoidance.go.seismic.to.possible.complex.The.topics.for.cost.design.the.mechanics..particu- larly.hysteretic..of. by.respectively.the.this.steel.is.art..functional.capture.from.mechan- ics.range. .less. overcome.the.analysis. philosophy.freedom.predictions.the..building.dynamics.so.tall.principles..comprehensible.compliance.the.increasing..PBD.large.that.and..represents. becomes.of.are.it..the.provisions. and.chapters. wide.part.level. upgrade.building.in.in.if.preliminary.tall.tools.number.structural.design.including.additional.of.assist.4.because. flange. full-blown.not.higher. are.Chapter.of. deficiencies.property.analysis.The.the.of. common.basis.design.be.here.response.necessary.of.Chapter.12.Rehabilitation.the.to.is.uncertainties.cutting-edge.conceptual. architects.. for.more.the.torsion.to.providing.amount.and.ductility.innovations. Chapter.demand.beyond.the. as.Design.as.with.the.techniques.explaining. to.least.prediction.using.code.. strength..that.procedures.anyone.secondary. provides.It.investigation.of.discourage.with..is.to.connection.likely.of.mathematics.ensure.a.protection.designed..trade- off.8.simplified.devoted.of. to.discussed.aids.(2).for.give.emphasis.with.motions.somewhat.to. that.of.result. applies.where.expected.seismic.for.tunnel.approach.against..accuracy. Chapter. warping.in.call.rule.elaborate.in.design.estimating..seismic.context..systems.stable.protection.of.this.determining. for.technol- ogy.levels.and.using.using.material.structural.procedures.. ASCE.in.damping.tall.and.conducted.thinking.general.ASCE.successfully.than.for.PBD.ASCE/SEI.of.the.systematic. these.it.the.of. it.we.thrifty.of.cover.translates.loads.are.that. sections.The.focus.chapter. protection. The.addressed..generous. including.attempt.discussed..is.as.of.primary.avoidance.them.xxvi Preface Chapter.an. detrimental.occupants.design.will.that..are.blast-resistant. 7-10.of.steel.are.haz- ards.created.development. Chapter.concludes.engineers.time-history.of. clear.acceptable. methods.ductility.methods.6.elastic. In.design.lieu.able. of.can.nonauto- matic.only.called.to.PBD.itself.is.Seismic.in.life.The.materials.methods.examples. into.for.first.slide.it.techniques.and..these.(1).feel..a.specific.the.Wind.buildings.the..including.more. 7-10.ASCE.preliminary.to.capacity.Design.with.technology.concept.it..building.for.purpose.gravity.building.analytical.seismic.of.magnitude. torsion.defined.and.5.prescrip- tive. because..performance.building.sound.we..we.the.is..their..tend.be. buildings.the.by.the.phase.determining.is.unit.buildings.language.innovation. predicting.provide..a.a. covers.evolution.ever.of.them.a.within.and.progressive.worked.selected.complex.offers.much.provisions.analysis.analytical.understanding.41-06.on.avail.

link.be. engineers.of.and.the.be.a.reality checks.intuition. to. perform.at.some..are.it.oneself.take.create.complications?.few.the.the..reached.engineer.of..are.thinking.are. stake..two.that.conventional.becomes.a.seems.to.viewpoint.modeling.engineers. learns. purpose.understand.bureaucratic.of.to..experience—all.against.to. now.just.let.and. Design.. bit.attitude. No.digital.society. Additionally.a.accom- plished?.engineers..to.the.field.in.computer.the.a.given.decision.have.books.starts.codes.is.run.composite.engineer’s.should.and. analytical.need.on.of. specifications.have.those.cases.have..be. self-consolidating. we. tomorrow’s.I. architecture.is.of.while.com- plicated.and.said.simplicity.more.are. their.time.Building.complication. feel. a.robust.in.to. the.formal.voluminous.taught. not.intuition..in.that.apprentices.but.code. do.engineering.today’s.place.complex.apply.structures.is. safe. accomplishing.what.with.right.the.understand.office.a.intuition. are.what..over.the. sure.have.. that.Do.discussion. allow—by.stiff.really. opinions.it.there. writing.to.another.regardless. and.engineering.to.principles. prepare.faced.timeless.a.design.of.as.did.than.an.perhaps.incorporated.analysis.graduates.that.many.specifications..one.the.has.or.author. else.to.increase.gotten.formulas.understand- able.to.far.learning. decision-making.but..balanced.is.engineering. demanding.there. not.he.just. need.was.drive.the.will.our.in.the.building..individual.Have.that.an..based.the.efforts.at..but.thick.above.that.engineers.principles.we.and.communal.to.all.is..attempt.a.of. accounting.will.to.of.up.Are.writing.infor- mation.and.fever.in.a.It.increased.debate.long.complexity. as. be.who.with.constant.In.stop.judgment.also.you. behind.so-called.answer.actual.may.increase. can.Every.expert.engi- neering..proper.have.young.we.and.is.five.even.construction..can..the.continuing..the.Few.the.them. left.of. as.simple.are.experience. The. ever..was.and.and.the.go.entire.the.magnitude.years..that.get.page.wants.as.can.the.the.the.design.compli- cated.required.were.inch.of.it.they.rationality.Every. However..1940s.a..who.or.conscience.technology.standards..judgment.every.this.it.to.we.the.objective.age.sat- isfy.Computers.super.old. considers.notes.that.judgment.the.a.education. before.challenges.because.what.practicing.are. when. to.book. design. flamboyant..available—out.is.on. our.sharpened.so..always.real.the..which.specific. motivating.be.for.No.precision.hard.and.of.be.over.to.engineering.authorities.of.each. How.a.structure? We..and.with.cultivate.of.faced.be.could.one.for.has.and.is.industry. cost-effective.answer.over.be. and.she.new.also.an.are.acquired.the.fact.single.fewer.incorporate.practically...typically.slowly.even. we. we..the. To.codified.in.action.information.rest.someone.one’s..cannot.no.years.specific.barely..structural.knowledge.the.. does.maintain.the.ideas.the.of. The.and.and..becomes.modest. then.engineers. today’s.establish.trick.cases.drawing.conversation.the.complica- tions.days.The.help.The.design. calculations.very.we.better.intelligent.no.to.ago..with.models.precedent.some.concrete..the.specifications.legalistic. What.and.than.the.with.expanded.code.possible.to.masters. Another.scale. design.and.steel.work.look.education?.more.to.this..will.inadequacies.the.in.equations.experience..cultivates.areas.at.there.effort.to.we. to.overheard.code.business.Preface xxvii It.the.book.The. .goals.process. back-of-the-envelope.much.in.or..experience.Thus.without.has.in..Gone.fabrication..problem.to.achieve.recognize.by.so. commentary.accomplished.gained.failures?.of.design.between.necessary.simply.What. that.your.understanding.in.glanced..code.educat- ing.greater.in.structural.presented.develop. economics— structures.a.the.Some. much.practically.new.input.an.these.prove.buildings.of.own.of.begs.When.has.the.in. projects. we.and.with.stability.equations..have. between..who.and.with.specifications.your.1930s.guaranteed.by.sustainability.single.from.more.resulting.need.today..of.be.project.to.much.more..avenue.few.that.task:. particularly.to.how.of.it. rules of thumb.structures.heavy.less.someone.space.edition. If.same.and. national.simple.by.perceived.those.rise.uncertainty.for.the.the.is.seems.fundamental..not.no.every.can.of.to.to..see.guidelines.matter.these.agen- cies.paradigms..globalization.and.specification.process.to.moment.It..challenges.point.. One.structures?. the..laws.more.a.of.concrete.for.pitch.that.more.deny.write.rule-fixated.known. make..workday.succinctly.a.the.with..intent.. the.interest. should.has.

opportunity. is.presented.comprehensive.engineers.will.importantly.problems..have. structure.would.authority.. design.a. while.more.this.this.engineers.engineering.will. Taranath PhD. Bungale S.be. understand.a.discovered.have. this.serve.is.a.entering.in..of.If. commonsense.for.but.ought.not.as.help.it.there.within.a.aspects.for. engineers.not. California .committee.do.process.mat. SE Structural Consultant Chino Hills.them.there.It.done..educators. are.the.that.addresses. designing.voice. duty.and.accomplished.recent.structural.by.graduates.approach.the.world.is.challenges. of.. Specifications.a.done.to. and Composite Systems.by.this. The.then.than.the. to.world.of.if.modern.an.building.anxieties.risk.with.document. Tall Building Design: Steel. important.a. most..my.guide.would.by.that.as. Concrete.profession.text.it.wel- come.the. If.hinder.well.exciting.mistakes. they.structures. PE. of.cause..hope.used.practicing.integrating..an.will.single.was.reference.design.that.book.is.foregoing. the.be.rather.such.the. they.confidence.could.practicing.and.and.individual.for.that..and.assuring.xxviii Preface No.

production. manuscript.for..organizing.preparation..Mehdi.Boston.India..and.sections.this..their.with.this.to.coordinator.for.life.for.to..with. thanks.Rao..help..copyediting. Ravindra.Roy.Publisher. Anika.Taylor.valuable. Taranath. Hagen.work. Thanks.sincere.manuscript. Everlasting..preparing. M..Ahringer.cooperation...express.William. son-in-law.the.to. Rajesh.manager.Kristin.thanks. B.of.thank.Kavi.grandsons.manuscript.daughter.elegant. in. to.and.wish.CRC.my. daughter. of.. Abhiman. Abhi.of.and.Roy.the. typing.... in.my.love..to.Clements. manuscript. of. Pondicherry..Anu...project.&. this.thanks.this. Thanks..Maya.writing. for.Acknowledgments I.on. my..and..for.Vijay..daughter-in-law..to.. are.Ashraf.Massachusetts.his. CEO. measure.SPi.family.appreciation.me.that.book.the.granddaughters.time. sections.Hans. friend.Global.typing. My.sincere.of.stole.the.Kumar.help.advice.Syed. of.layout.for..Francis.to.Consultants.. small.of.publication.taking.the. thanks. due. my.wishes. Taranath. The.Joseph.the.the.Taranath.for. LeMessuirier.are..Press.editor.V. to. Anupama. book.for.to. son.Group. my.from..their.book.manuscript. years.Mota.throughout.and. no. my...due.for. son.Nate.for.her.Jennifer.book.during. to.time. many...Aranganathan.Arun.final.package.valuable.their.and.Mike. Special.. My.. Taranath...production.. Dr.gratitude. Dr.the.this.acqui- sitions.also.and. the. xxix .in.entire.and.Samantha..various. sincere.

.

faced.would.extraordinary.on.. life.took.me.we.the.love.turn.daily.humor.is.coauthor..my.Acknowledgment.sick.manuscript..engineering.her.and.unexpected..of.challenges.I.offered.In.incredible.previous.in.has.into.thank..a..process.and.this.my..above.and. Taranath Chino Hills.Without.as.preparing.Special Acknowledgment In..and.I.not.the.became.highlighted.birth..Saroja.the.on.structural.my.have.in.liter- ally.health.different..I. the.helped. her.section..good.my.this.my.the.She.showered.books.midst.The.ways.when.all.being.Saroja.of. California xxxi .each.contributions.camaraderie.her.copilot. Bungale S.this.all.deeply.care...particular.For.humble.me.sixth.book.been.her. manuscript.prepared.possible.book.however.to. wife.patience.many...five.support.

.

fellow.He.Institution.a.China.Structural.California..has.construction.a.for. conducted.of.and.the.had. awarded. engineers.England.notable.as..and..published. engineer.bronze.in.principal-in-charge. as. vice.buildings. a.buildings.book.Dr.Los.positions.manager.Engineers.Engineers..Dr. Institute.seminars. away.on.England. and Composite Design of Tall Buildings.American.. He.PhD. five.a.firm.as.enthusiasm. Bungale S.with.joy.paper.never.sharing.a...consulting.develop.that.books.Taranath. and.greatest.into.and.impossible.PE.in.presented. Concrete.of.behavior.passed..and.Mexico..owners.project.translated.Dr. Korean..Kong...London...concrete.in. principal-in-charge..for.also.was..Taranath.produced. structural.tall. the.Taranath...to.Taranath’s..Texas.structural.a..on.structural..multistory. Illinois.was.and.of.project.Civil.and.a.num- ber.and.architects.served.served.widely.Chinese.SE.was. several.extensive.his.Hills. waned.of.He.were.of. engineer.States.tall. and Structural Analysis and Design of Tall Buildings: Steel and Composite Construction.in.projects.was.and. Angeles.consultant.London.composite.California.this.in. and.a.and.shear. president.being.when..the. and.Author Dr. the.experience. in.he.research.authored. registered.with.other.tall..referenced.steel.tall.the.on.build- ing.passion.published.senior.and.senior.Singapore. xxxiii .of.the.wall.seemingly.in. professional...Society. Taranath.structures.was.buildings.design. Reinforced Concrete Design of Tall Buildings.His. and.held.He..high-rise.as.a.fellow.imaginative.India.medal.design.papers.Asia. Concrete..buildings. two.of. with.. Steel..torsion.analysis.books: Structural Analysis and Design of Tall Buildings.conducted.throughout..solutions.Hong..United.member.based.of. He.many. as.in.for..structures.He. Chicago.are..Three.was.. firms.. Wind and Earthquake Resistant Buildings: Structural Analysis and Design. states.of.Houston.Chino.. consulting. in..recognition.

.

of.of..to.inaccuracies.of.Furthermore.responding..may.consistent.result.structure.of.estimate.require.of..as.on..structures. actual.may.and.building’s.by.within..include.generated.the.ceiling.geophysical.requirements.Static.dead.in. spaces..span.life. change.may..are.impact.this.forces. throughout. with.acting.may.the.ceiling.a.. mutually.building. a.in.by.gravitational.variation.stability.changes.by.the.a.the.dead. as.permanent.suppliers.structures.for.weight.appear.the.the. The.and.a.problems.action..may.loads.is.the.caused.defined. the.percentage.the.humans.time.into.thus.and. are.so. of.information.remains.equipment.loads:. building. human-made.the.loads.seismological. for.materials. The.design.constant. sizes.materials.dead...few..the.or.if.into.to.be.loads.directly.that.The.to.and..a.always.analysis.impos- sible.ground.final. The.load..making.precise..be.on..nature.of.forces..for.combination. and. formwork. Dynamic.of...in.of.light.by.into.of.and..panels. various.components.early.the.building.the.people.concrete.gravity.and.simple.because.loads. induced. season.and.building.is..human.be.be. weights. the.The.floor..forces.location.are. dependent.so.being.of.it.in.not.steel.of.static.the.load-bearing..makes.weights.and.nature.by.unit.examples. an.the.yet.. as.from. The.during.materials.weight.of.loads..of.is.load.the. or.stage. sources.to.in.fixtures..weights..machines.a.forces.instance.At.imprecision.appears.the.dead.of.on.producing.forces.more.dynamic.two.made.error.of.of.them- selves.up.are.restrained.of.. These.subjected.gravitational.of.The.distribution.subdi- vided.storage.Specific.element.cladding.forces..a. building.in.may.cast-in-place.½.rain. 1 .interior..sense.of.systems.form.a.elements.of. mass..be.a. of.selected. loads.dead.have. sizes.blast.the.human-made.categories:.systems. are.of.either.a.electrical.processes.always.period.into.meteorological..of.joinery.variations.of.the.load. gravitational.building. time.dead. Geophysical.or...shocks.for.elements.the.movement.which.Thus. and.Meteorological.more.the..of. they.an.force.struc- ture.pipes.be..be.from. Relative.cars.the..there.may.loading.to.. product.and.only.allowance.these.eleva- tors.time.structures. from.However.estimated.of.with..a.indicate.accurately.static.is.called.of.and.and.within..to. tanks.lines.finishes.to.make.of.the.further.generated.materials.changes..loads.result. change.a.or.the.mechanical. . 1 Loads on Building Structures Preview Loads. of.analyst.result.not.basic.systems.forces. Dead..also..forces.be.weight.or.ice.predict...partitioning.even.and.and.a.are...to.of.building.the..resulting..and. function.geophysical. of.and.can..the.which. often.an.or.nonstructural.The.weight.elements.temperature..subject..facade.over.the.it.manufac- turing.itself. structures..manu- factured.motion.shape. induces..and.As.are. make. It. Seismological.building.building.determine..permanent.and.influence.those.prestressing.occupancy. structure.wind.load.the. may.chosen.in. differ.the.humidity.The..of.construction.erratic.continuous.consist.the.15%–20%.facade..sources.loads.the. elements. The. loads.on.For.building. two.in.to. nominal.part.a.every. elements.calculating. ducts.the.building.or.forces.of.of.walls..size.distinct.temperature.matter.of..basis. of..effects.special. temporary:.load.for.may.loads.stiffening.are.weights.accurate.sources.absence.vary. building.ever-changing.result.they.geophysical.given.structure.building.materials.by..humidity.produces.the.the.be..the.forces.all.a.snow.locked.on.classified.on.forces.

fall.building.or. For.times.uniform...as.be. reduced.of.by.those.load..loads.dynamic.well.strain.valleys.on..loads. building..experience.building.in.their.investigations.loads.the.rapid.are.vertical.are.the. snow LoaDs on BuiLDings During..multiple.some.Minimum.live...upon..loads..the.Although...all.Sometimes.drift. to. structures.of.and.warm.gives.2 Tall Building Design: Steel.Wind.of. it.as.a.are.conditions.they.. depending.are. The.that.values.At. is.1300.the.load.outside..can.United. removal.1979.changing.degree.small.psf.has.for.taken..in. highly.shrinkage.snow..with.in.in.to.known.life.to.the.be.on..of.nature.Movable.distribution.the.begin- ning.fairly.national.gradient.this.as.snow.of.property.not. Concrete.temperature.(MRI).load..fact.will.are.to.ASCE.minimum.manuals.dead..Some.equivalent. formed.from.be.unusually.drifting.forces..between.roughness..be.If.problems.snow.surface.basic.loads.subject..or.is.be.of..components.and.seis- mic.occur.static.are..accumulation.used.the.generally.from.and. does..United.square.a.other.cause.speed.where.coefficient.Additional.struc- ture.source.permanent.Previous.basic.winter..failure.Ct.usually..to.uneven.counties.Illinois.are.unpredict- able.pounds.loads.structure.Ce. Wisconsin.and.. the.design.1978.permanent.may.snow.of.they.they.kg/m2). that.curved.or.factor..helpful.weight.in.dynamic.and.and.more.200.thus. acting.isolines.roofs.corresponds.a.data.as.the.wind.the.pitched.category.. To.showing.the.snow.produce.foundations.for.or.of...the.root.occurrence. loads.the.be.position..are.used.the.quite.most.time. of.For.of.those.made.static.The. .The.snow..the.their.as.to.States.of.as.to.of.over.in.of.or.recur- rence..data.this.of.structure.derived.or.Roof.To.high.building.can.loads.to.northern.than.make.failures. other.on.more.of.(psf.25-year.roofs.other.then.See.types.terms.failure.in.hung.empirical.and.from.loads.permanent.changing.computed.movement.in.some.of.and.the..are.the.be.load.load.even.. 100-year..temperature. also.the.its.decreased..these. probability.less.heavy. dead.an.coefficient.possible. always.the. Nonetheless.although.are.produced..the.by.in.direction.structure.gusting. of.Figure.for.whole.caused. slope.a.focused.current.it.as.gives.common. 7-10.the.ASCE. are. building.current.local.than.but. is.in.values.map.MRI.may..based.the.negligible.load.to.may.practice.any.produce.a.produced.Cs.psf.equipment.roofs.geometry.types..of.loads..experi- ence. loading. forces.and.and.percentage.more.7-10.ceilings.wind.by.in.statistical.been.reflect.fixed.are.and.design.are.by.of.increased.. on.found.sure.. The.reflect. these.The..and.7.interval.usually..roof..or.stage.qualify.(unchanging). on.considered.codes.used.roofs.of.settling.be.specified. and Composite Systems DeaD LoaDs Dead.allowance.the.and.loads. usually.basic.elements.completed.following.ASCE.load.tables..except.mean.values.at..must.of.of. be. simplicity.sloped. Subsequent.amounts.structure. loads..7.the.I.a. handbooks.snow.. live.reduction.result.an.judged.life.that.50. available.snow.loading.by. to.are.is.localized.these.ground. live.case.defined.the.ground. loads.conservatively.safe.design.is.static.in.years.loads.Pf .weight.and.the.has..static.winter.such. The.depends.disturbances.and.the.appropriate.7.nonuniform.a.occupancy.for.move- ment.built-up.whether.coeffi- cients.in.possible..caused.process.Live.snow-load.it.northern.all. can.cold.of.foot.forces.or.In.may..dead-load.multiplied.use.areas:.produced.collapsed.by.in..or. Weights.human.a.risk.many.strains.of.once. than.slide-off.full.accurately..analysis.more.structure.realistic.the.series.effects.relocation.of. be.the.by.States.nonuniform.more.load.which.floors.on.than.loads..structures. variable.be.of.per.or.express.to.ASCE.are.by.and.in.of.is.building.interval.close.of.practically.well.design. these..gives. in.though. buildings.of.hazard.MRI.1.ponding.accurately.the.roofs.represent.These.of.must.the.on.a.two. based.partitions..formulas.of.as.and.not. variations.the.from.collapses.machinery.the..materials.of. assumed.the..is.of.. occupancy LoaDs on BuiLDings All.from.and.assumed.inside.a.

temperature.machinery.will.itself.movement).of.be.with.extreme.did.foot.Design.and.ceiling.dynamic..this.often.oscillating.and.square.a.a.and. between.effects.the. produces.other..presents. for.we.commentary.except.circumstances.the.condition.sure..of. design.Table.changed.determine.included.loads.unit.are.this.and.be. may.in.only.on.concern.if.incorporated. but.act.beam’s.first. Although.weight.foot. internal..loads.. Similarly.load. .in. might..beyond.be.value.in.load..all. and.including.from.on.always..not.designers.we.dead.of.per.fixed.effect.condensed.similarly.per.a... single.of.the.sudden..ease.is.unequal. of. by.have.space.for. by.. a.humidity.conditions.the.should.job.of.be.Loads.constructions.established.dimensions.will. roofs.in. insulation..another. as.a.and. not.across.from.types..load.(kN/m3).would.their.because.establish.various.or. (or.of. to.given.ourselves.act.The..flooring.live.a.the.are.A.together..the.elements.engineers.a..experience.load..is.of.by.lifting. and.surface.temperature.But. also.suit- able.earth’s.not.and.it.volume.volume.blow. work.would.Minimum. weight. residing. construction.structure. of.shrinkage.impact.basic.one.can.be.load.with.turn..of.truly.be..of. Internal.dimensions.Each. building.service.. floors. partitions—the.the.some. permanent.these.and.that..expressed.(lb/ft3).the.in.equipment. a.an. a.Other.garage.did.load..but.built.floors.real.elements. a.of.weight.weight...the.are.pull.meter).or..for. walls.considerable. settling.cases.the...live.C3-1..experience. the.material.can.additional.that.Table.first.construction.in.the. of.. with..be.presented.is.sink.unnecessary.some.structural..to.produce.all..of.domes.be.. for.the.trouble.1.study.parts.supported.of. result.additional.shown.of.. fin- ishes..that.of.by.application. consist.shifted. build- ing.on..in.we. example.unit.among.building..shape.or.that.load—the.which. the.structure.beam.pounds.that.consistent.part.its.of..lies.included.in.strong.not...in.structural... a.permanently.a.here..the.rearranging.within.so-called dead.any.and.cladding..to.or.responsible.impact factor.use. all.those.parts. produced.a.the. to. of.other.and.determine.are.Structures.its.In.loads. the.is.be.a.may.to.most.terms.materials.be.structure.cases..a. similar.in. produced.design.load. wind.chosen.the.we. Dead.if.The.here.like.Some.one.per.also.they..of.be.be.architectural.control.to. weight.unavoidably.cranes.part.the.compute.weights.will.its. and..their.(kilone- wtons.the.which.considerable.paradox. building.consists.earth.act. including.. 1.not.this.its. equipment.dead.arches. weight.the.caused. partitions.gravity.value.movement.in.general.computation.more..... of.And.there—must.form.gener- ally.forces.average.on.. of.the.chapters.which.the.is.source..reduce.structure.list.weights.buildings.by.is.it..elements.the.considered.and.own.used.by. in.carry.an.another. incorporated.live.structural.forces.considered.load.pounds.. forces.structure.per.weight..and.a.can.various.the.To. foundations.Structural.building. walls.resist. In.did.can..cubic.once.7.table.in.out.how. loads.the.in..But.in..columns.build- ing. of.order.Buildings.impact.the. Pounds.even. is.learned. be.Thus..plan.structures.live.uniform.own.values.can.to.all.is.weight.but.support.deviation.must.movement.of.tend.did.Loads on Building Structures 3 An.range.actually.engineer’s.when.(kN/m2).load.use.the..By.can.seismic. those.of.know.actual.or.structure. has.values.encountered.values.that..the.to. materials.masonry. of.yields.in.make. weight. The.version.as.change. A.basic..so.determination.1.square.In.depend.wind.the.determined. forces. dimensions.the.the.that. the..must. differential.on.a.cars.elements. materials. self-stressing.will.to.subsequent. To.contraction.gradient.given.there. temperature.in.the.square.a.structural.chapter.permanently there. expansion.example. limited.These.structure.loads.structure.the. ceiling... For.the.for.reason.of.world. stairways.heaviest.of.of.the.from.dead.various.of.air..uneven.these.1  DeaD LoaDs The...the.statistical..of. into.of.building.one.only.(psf)..of.material.first.not.also..their.multiply..situation. is.concrete.given. in.ASCE. dividing.Relative..has.for.suspect.opening.Their.in.the.. itself.the.of.may.design.in.engineering.other.anticipated.Standard.items.but.the.of.given.practice.the.way.a.shake.weight.must.and..the.are.addition.foot.building.load..of.produce.that.load.that.. a.always.on.significant.materials.of.result.of.the.cause.cannot.it.loads.weight.or.beams.also.the.percentage.the.of.

quarry.felt. 4 Softwood.in.tile 9–14 Slate. Loose ½ Poured.¾.and.place 2 Rigid 1½ Partitions Clay.in. 1 Mastic.gravel 5½ 5-ply. 2½ Roofs Copper.manufacturer Concrete—reinforced.partitions Acoustical.in.1.tin 1 3-ply.deck See. 34 10.or. Stone 12½ Slag 11½ Lightweight 6–10 Concrete—plain.1.1. 13 Ceramic.1.¼ 10 Sheathing Wood.tile.1. 7 8 .1.roofing 1 3-ply. 40 (Continued ) .in.felt.in.in.1 weights of building Materials Materials weight (psf) Ceilings Channel.in.4 Tall Building Design: Steel.¾.in.fiber. Concrete.or. 17 4.in.suspended. 9 Hardwood.¾. 28 8. 4 Insulation. and Composite Systems TabLe 1.in. 13 Linoleum. 18 6.tile 3. Gypsum 6 Sand 8 Cinders 4 Finishes Terrazzo.in.ready. 3 Gypsum.¼. Stone 12 Slag 11 Lightweight 3–9 Fills.¾.in.and.in.in.in.in.and.system 1 Lathing.in.tile 1 Floors Steel.in.gravel 6 Shingles Wood 2 Asphalt 3 Clay.plastering See.

in.in.sash 8 Curtain. Society. 30 8.in. ASCE/SEI.(light. 7-10.in. 9½ 3. 80 12.bearing) 4.in.(load. 10½ 4.in.tile. 14 6.4. 45 Stone. 43 8.Buildings.Loads on Building Structures 5 TabLe 1. 38 12.glass.4. 30 6.1.asbestos. Minimum. 33 12.walls See.in. Civil.in.in.and.½.c.aggregate) 4.×.in..in.in.(heavy.in. of. 30 8.Loads.partitions 4 Plaster. Cement 10 Gypsum 5 Lathing Metal ½ Gypsum.concrete.Other.frame. 80 Hollow..in.in.and. 25 6. 55 12½.in. 120 Hollow.board. 18 Windows.block.in.¼.in. Engineers.2. American.. 21 6.o.4 2 12–16. .in.in.in.glass. 55 Clay.concrete. 2 Walls Brick 4.. 3 Source:.in.studs.manufacturer Structural. 18½ Wood. 55 Glass.in.2010.block.aggregate) 4.1 (Continued ) weights of building Materials Materials  weight (psf) Gypsum. Steel.block 2.for. 15 Corrugated.in.in.cement.. 40 8.1.in.in.block. 12½ 5. Design.Structures..

of.or.roughness..gross.of.in.a.or.consider.of.be.1.be.surfaces. members.future..margin.the.roof.in.factors.the.of.construction.the. Walls.provide.been.itself.easiest. and. of.building..dead.wall.from.values.the.of.is.steel. for.to.of.load.for.values.as.100.Note.building.the. buildings. that.it.expressed.dead-load.distributed.and.be.one.clear.can.less.knowledge.interface. a. area.a.dead-load.the.For.for. reasonable.building.preliminary.despite.depending.For. floor.made.the.be.made.item.of.concrete.the.building.assumptions.deflections.partitions.to.building.floor. estimate.with.greatly.the.to.should.shafts.itself.load.it.values.that.Allowances.it.floor.area. weight. Figure.dead.the.more.the.surfacing.can.the.thickness.is.stories.70%–80%.which.the.whether. the.act.quickly.the.actual.best.the.of.over- all.ordinary...the.design.floor. subsystem.tributary.reduce.idea.load.psf.it.and.may..spans. being.shall.a.reasonable..enable. roof.weight.be. overall.walls.slab. weight.a.of.or.building.for.But. condition.of.a.long. the.subsystems. exceeded.total.the..of.of.stabilize. of.low- rise. for.to.earthquake.ability.structure.design.column.one. When.the.a.preferable.the.concrete..curtain.used.or.is.be.as.may. type.be..values.to.psf. or.design. start.Therefore.building.where.lower.possibly.earlier. making..the. When.these.such.its.given.can.curtain.is.basic.actual. a.foundation..future.such.or.of. schemes.buildings.lateral.. load... of.will.area.that.a.total.be.Then.buildings.have.and..by.therefore. 1.force.50–80..to.to. when.to.overall. the.actual.facilitated.the.columns.of.This.construction.indicate.shafts.is.likely.more. of. However.of.and.the.are.reduce.be.as.of.value.But. designer. prescribed.in..according.of.150.the.terms.building.the..it.and.psf.and.only.6 Tall Building Design: Steel..the.of.a. design. approximation.psf.the.order.component.the.part..structural.position. be. thickness.applied.load.useful.reinforced.. a.protective.dead.should.and.initiating.of.likely.have.buildings..to. Such.the.will.their.for.safety.may.to.an.as. for.include.are.in.insufficient. obtain.and.partitions. ceilings.and.will.line. the.pounds.possibility. involved. structural.own.columns.layout. of.dead.insofar.be. of.need.building.to.suggested.numer- ous.approximations.of.façade.the.of.be.is.type. estimate.good.prestressed.dimensions.the.such.floor.. an. that. reinforced.actual.loading.specific..only. However.average. get.are.load.effective.modified.weight.compared.the.a.the. Concrete.major. in.dead-load.that.for.considering.in.is.compute.types.when.projected.of.preliminary. regarding.the.be.basis.to. estimates.should.The. vary.members.ordinary.a.verified..support.may. or..between.of.as. floor. structural.the.psf.partitions.dead.systems.assume.floor.approximate.15.plan.allowance.entire.over.concrete..materials.start- ing. This.upon.of. overall.minimum.their. dealing.a.overall.to..system.estimates..distri- bution..a.estimate.to.of. the.high-rise.7-10.the. particularly.for.concrete.terms.dead..provi- sions.of.wall.major.in. and.the.area.the.wearing.to. picture.partitioning.will.. based.is.load. weight.load.as.instances.interaction.critical.to..the. the.have.floor.eventually.to.the.psf.may. as.the.roof.the.on.and.material.along. will.there.effect.resistance.nominal.building.load.total.accuracy.and.load. and Composite Systems future. for. particular.the..for.expressed..and.per.an..have.low.of.in.a.gross..conve- nient.be. be.the.on.should.walls.for.of.refined. about.can.made. framing.if..utility.be.live.formwork. Although.structural.dead.10.the.include.to.is.They.the.40.a.. decisions. to.Approximate.schematic.where.attempt.will. of.in.be.rough.Assumptions..suggested.should.small.a.utility.comparing.be. framing..and.unit.at. covering.not.as.with.whole..area.and.the.as..considered.subsystems.will.the.of.of.means.the.or..building.buildings.be..influence.approximation.of.calculating.order.area.lines.to.For.As..concrete.since.walls.columns. floor.construction.weight.weight.example.to.applied.Special con- sideration.movable.accurate.used.stage.used.also.reduce..given. likely.widths.used.have..floor.the.of.exterior.greater.floor.tending.they.and.partitions.the.dead-load. subsystem..wall.rough.Also.design.ratio.. buildings.average.their.to.of.values.average.distributed.ASCE.provision.expressed. to.a.structural.vary.of. structural. of.on..on.a.psf.of. extent.enough.the. for.in.forces. calls.when.Provision..structural.the.proportioning.psf.there. . involve.acting.overturning.However. can.structure.plf. shown.analyzing. steel. materials. preliminary.the..help.overall. Observe.thickness.can.allowance.walls.wind.concerned.and. particular.floor.for.to.a. useful.their.dead..more. alternate.that.is.overall.

.must.states.)-42 62-United Calif.Code.and.) 18 8-Deering-Millikin (N.variety.ratio.entire.. Bank (L.of.know. 1.United.versus.structural.goods. (N.height-to-width.In.) 54-IDS Center (Minneapolis) 16 29-77 Water St.) 20 80 Pine St.steel.) 30-2 Broadway (N.1  Unit.addition. Chicago Civic Cntr. worst.a.codes.may.codes.number.it.stored.has.Y.conditions.live.on.can.the.loading.of.by.is.Y.and.entry.Y.2  Live LoaDs In.loads.shifted..the.and.is.on.that.) (20΄ Stories) 34 109-Sears (Chicago) 32 59 42-UN (N.is.prescriptions..of.other.States.life.Y..most..to.be.These.expect.public.to.weights—people. each.furniture.A..going.are.in.gained..-31 (87΄ Spans) 36 77-Chrysler Bldg (N.Therefore.are.or..one..may. building.general.that.support.load.are.the..in.Y.must.frame..Y.how.) 28 Alcoa (SF)-26 Pounds of steel (framing) per sq ft 26 50-1st NTL Bank (Seattle) 24 22 13-IBM (Pittsburgh) 50-Burlington House (N.structure.(IBC).beside..loads.impermanent.the.*The.counties.around.change.a. Chicago-60 38 110-World Trade Cntr.live.dead. Building.local.basis.published.load.Y.its.and.the.height.be.based.building.in.suggests.stories.the.live.safety.established.what. value.which...contained.International.) U.cities.during.acceptance.Loads on Building Structures 7 102 Empire State 42 40 (Long spans) 1st Ntl.It.its.obvious.building.we.may.for. Steel (Pittsburgh)-64 30 100-John Hancock (Chicago) Seagram (N.distrib- uted.Y.Y.S.and.) 14 Denotes average zone 12 10 10 (Housing) 8 10 (Housing) 6 17 (Housing) 11 (Housing) 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Form height-to-width ratio* Figure 1.indicates.concern.weight.never.they.exactly.of.be.equip- ment.)-38 41-437 Madison (N. . (N.These.the.structure.

actual.a.usual..occupancy.is.load. the. conservative.too.on.partial.previously.On.to.for.appear.likely...of.in.the.the.evenly.take.in.building.be.and.change. As.as.each.having..results. loads..a.areas.building.element.building.loads..occupancies.in.. in.less.occupancy.live.building.ceremonies.loads. taken..square. The.potential.occupancy.loads.the.built. occupancy.now.tables.are.not.potential. are.See.load.treads.in..The.10-year.crowding.weights.with..ceilings.be.changing. of.the.dead. conditions.a.fixtures. values.building.a.and...one.also.psf.garages.psf..a.dormitory.exert.deforms. These.analysis..Building.live..with.because.load.it.floor. load.at.of..of.under.apartment..design.temporary.do.the.by. complex.change.and.increasing.for.of.loads.uniformly.to.more.fatigue.are.the.to.the.short-.conservative.the.and..at. appear.floor. loads.structure.differ..each.case.of.slim.building.40.however.Table.factors.computers.survey.and.location.drills.on.attention.clearing..very.effect.likelihood.a. actual. caused.full. be. the.be.change. building.in.semipermanent..type.full.4.that.maximum.dance.maximum.a.. people.of.there.live..terms.wall.action.of.since.situations.almost.the.the. measured.conditions.to..in.locations.load.private.people.that.buildings.versatility.room.a.different.however. possible.is.foot.square.purpose.concentrated.other.load.always.values.partitions.of..is.shifting.list.not.for.varies. loads.by.making. loads.particular.load.take.times.stresses. Equivalent..predict.on.furniture. but.here. survey. or.the.accuracy.the..the.load.Also..to.warehouse.that. take. called.g.to.than.different.that.loads.Generally.stair..areas.code.experience.to.chances.into.part.indicate.of.other..account.parts.to.halls.apartments.live.parking.of.allowance.loads.other.actual.a.be.load.value. Live.reduced.minimum.are.that.public.must...its.they.a.tire).impossible.the.1... and Composite Systems The.conditions.A.the.corridors.the.. are.single. actual.as..its.of.of.account.subject..a.occur.survey.are.for..various.value..uncontrollable.that.worst. filing.minimal.intensity. uniform.safes.much.possible..office.minimum.a. to.loads.various.have.of.are. ability.loads.include. and. a.the.the.load.capacity.and.this. On.on..been.structure.a.consists..area.predict.loads.Table.will.load..smaller.a.Load. and. The.impossible.the.other.of.26.over.of.was.Through.8 Tall Building Design: Steel. .of.load.of.occupancy.building.to.for.programs.dead.list.noted.loads.recom- mended..not.may. or.concentrated.in.varying.fire.uniform.the. distributed.codes.include.Computer.of.a... loads.actual..empirical. by.are.live.about.as.given.absolutely.possible.carry.movable.redistribute. form.because.of.every.and.high. A.equipment.are.continuous.at. Codes.very.in.maximum.the.vulnerable.2. concentrated. the.50.unpredict- able.loads.than.the.jack.of.every.designed.will. reduction.a.load.by.an.to.. floors.loading.loads.loads. foot.of. overloading.expected. surface.of.and.from.a.factors.the.simultaneously.and.the.extraordinary..They. each.building.psf. Given..calculation.and.for.most.of.time.not..7-10.use.load.is.live. needs. and.the.to.use.showed.saving..buildings. of.with. accessible.not.the.loading.speed.it.on.allowance.they.but.on..estab- lished..in..loading.given.loading.for.In.assume.a.may. industrial.The.loads.are.equipment.or..of.on.g.floors.of..A.it.brought.uniform.may.allowing.determining.the.evaluations.parties.copying.areas.warranted..possibility.never. equivalent. Loads.or.loaded.the..rearrange- ments.regulations.or..location.larger.a...the.the.and..The.The. both.intensity.the.much.of.loads.live.such.a.uniform.reach.of.live. Although.the.value.the.codes.its.load.of.recommended.is.spread.of.building. on.machines).than.electronic.function.may.codes.be.The.it.of.given.for. objects.loads.furniture..area.is.subject.larger.1.values.hand.reduction. Concentrated..space. approximation.are.variable.prac- tice.regulated.that.engineering.safety.consider. Live-load.about. allow..be.system.by.60%.character:.may..the.varying.reduced.the.and.recreational.conventional.are.The.be.those.as.engi- neer.into.the. are.automobile.long-term.of.live. by.of.jammed.(e.period.be.code.are.ASCE.hand.Hence.people.over.thus.and.critical.at.element. Concrete..will.live...complete.in..represented.unpredictable.design.live-load.reflect.due..of...account.importance.values.calculations.considered.such.building.developed.specific.and.live. are.Changes.stated.subjected.The.the.structure.must. of.temporary.demanding.a. conditions.high-rise.loads.loads.books.which.floors.a. on.cabinets.tables.same. within.of.the.time.live.column.occupancy.all.time.only.a. prescribed.nearly.statical.load.or.that.the.of. contents.live-load.do.is.which.imagination.intelligence.greater.. rather.other.act.loading.for.that. the.which.as.their.on.(e.buildings.the.minimum.the.

first.(4.9) Armories.(13.and.(3.18) Balconies.(2.(4. based on anticipated.floor 80.(4.maintenance.systems Office.(8.floor 80.recreational.(4.floor) 60.100.40) Office.rooms.alleys.87) 1000.(passenger.18) Assembly.only.79) (Continued ) .seats.and. and Minimum Concentrated Live Loads occupancy or use  uniform psf (kN/m2)  Conc.(4.(8.above..33) Corridors First.(7.rooms 150.40) 2000.90) Corridors.halls.45) Private.balconies 100.above.computer.9) Computer.(2.(see.45) Corridors.(4.blocks 40.83) 1000.87) Lobbies 100.ft2.2 Minimum uniformly Distributed Live Loads.be.and.92) Corridors 100.rooms 150.(7. Lo.(6.(7.theaters Fixed.79) On.92) 300.(1.79) Other.97) 3000.above.and.residences.c Trucks.and.one-.(4.shall.poolrooms.(8.floor 80.(4.83) 2000.(4.59) Catwalks.access 40.(4.except.83) 1000.(1.(2.occupancy.87) 1000.45) Manufacturing Light 125.m2) 60.(2.residential) Access.(4.corridors 100.not.only) 40.laboratories 60.79) Stage.buses Grandstands.79) Dance.floor.indicated 100.(2..(1.floor.floors.same.floor 100.first.(see.(3.(4.rooms 60.as..79) Movable.drill.first.(8.(exterior) 100.79) 2000.(8..45) Corridors.designed.areas.90) Penal.(1. lb (kN) Apartments.residential) Libraries Reading.(11.b.floors.45) Stack.(1.to.79) Platforms.(see.79) Hospitals Operating.(8.90) Heavy 250.79) 2000.45) Hotels.and.and.similar.buildings File.92) 1000.vehicles.occupancy Lobbies.90) Offices 50.for heavier loads.(3.exceeding.areas 75.(2.79) Garages.(4.rooms 40.(4.b 1000.18)a.(4.seats 100.(9.and.00) 2000.as.first.Loads on Building Structures 9 TabLe 1.two-family.(3.(4.(fastened.institutions Cell.(assembly) 100.3.use 50.4) 2000.and.(4.stadium and arena bleachers) Gymnasiums—main.92)a.and.ballrooms 100.floors 150.87) Bowling.for.rooms.use 100.served.

 lb (kN)  Residential Dwellings..with.each.materials.in. the.to.of.The.or. a.area.(4..44) All.applied. Other.permitted. appropriate.attics.and.include.some.two.serving.and..stairs. ASCE/SEI.and.10 Tall Building Design: Steel.mandated.a.motor. Design. Structures.of..Since.few.parallel.a..or.apply. the.and.format.and.except.The. trucks.and.seats.to.the.(0.be.not.most.mechanical.to.actual.passenger.loading.passenger.been.by..structural.and.of.grandstands.2.(4. system.increasing. member.applied. fatigue.supported.in. and Composite Systems TabLe 1.strength.simultaneously.rooms.shall.action.continuous.the..as.swaying.of.three. by..has.use.building.lb. provisions.wind.each.the. Engineers.are.corridors.serving.is.loads.load.reduction.not. . choice.concept.function. 1.for.of.the.other.Section.per.nine.and.area.of.acting.perpendicular.structures.the.7. however.each.4.for.3.therefore.load.live. determining. accommodating. c.seats.seats.reduced.years.addition.them 40. of.kN).advantage.forces.materials.sleeping.then.and.which.this.than.vehicles.the.concentrated.areas 30..lb.a.(1.and.factors: .following.formula. In.of.two-family) Uninhabitable.carried.vibrations.5.row.ground.the.live.a.uniformly.lb.of.more.perhaps.members. applied. of..settlement.none.of.balconies 40.need.follows:.the.determining.(10.has.attics.vehicles.loads.loads. knowledge.rooms.over.2010.live.age. Civil.be.temperature. .unless.areas..without.garages...perpendicular.2.an.ft.However.of. From.applied. for.4.structural.attics.the.35. The..load.10.by. for.a.used. buses. a.deck.the.used.forces..mm).portions. 114.lb. change.factors.000..reduction.the.slab.live.with.4. and.reduction. distributed.property.live.be.92) Hotels. Design.. only.a.old.50.load:.a.by.their.. Specifications.linear. and Minimum Concentrated Live Loads occupancy or use  uniform psf (kN/m2)  Conc. 2..of.the. 7-10.will.of.row.following.The.stands.multifamily.of. d.79)d Source:.ASCE.seat. prediction. Bridge.4-1.bleachers 100..there.on.have.48) Uninhabitable.or. the.and.7-10.accurate.for.applied. shall.the. Buildings.5.the.loads.restricted.to.linear.concrete.live.for- mula..Future.required.make.are.(1).and.in.to.(1. 1.to.250. Society.in.tributary.the. .recent.for.79) Reviewing..conditions.vehicles.seat.allowance.last.storing.row. an..is..load.garages.houses Private..parking.24.2 (Continued ) Minimum uniformly Distributed Live Loads.without.per.forces. gaining. Lo.the.the.horizontal.ft.capacity.direction.for. standpoint.have.25 + ÷÷ ç K è LL AT ø . Minimum.research. Live.forces. Loads.dynamic.shall.(114.engineer.mm.storage.specific. Concrete.transferred.them 100.loads.combating.wheel.. not. as.kN).years.nearly. on.the.(13. Design.storage 20.for. American.corridors.exceptions.more.masonry. LRFD..swaying.possible.designed.1 Live LoaD ReDuction The.for.direction.load.to. on. structural..passengers.that.and.design.storage 10.are. depends.in. for.parallel.The.horizontal. b.The.by.be.environmental. and.96) Habitable..of.changes..(one-.not.construction.(1.Table.through.of.AASHTO.control. 3.in.changes.92) Public. be.(0.of.per.to.of. Floors.(2).by.live-load.load: æ 15 ö L = L 0 ç 0..determining. per.into..but. structural.vertical.for.

4.a. subject.as.live-load.must.period. a.is.since.be.building.traffic.larger.may. of.heavy.passenger.be.this.are. footprint.a..strength. construction.only.of.live.. vehicular.that. reached.noted.is.two.time.5.of. There.ft2..concentrated.Other.be.loads.design... Live.must.has.at.the.Perhaps.time.are.deflections.process.2) AT.by.be.of. from.50L 0.was..recom- mended.be.exceed.the.interior.on.the.shall.be.defined.shall. of. of.. than. 0.supported.constitute. has.element.surrounding.The.and.guidance. minimum.width.no. impact.slabs.points.to.design.to.Also.practices.follows: •.and.at..of.designed.contractor.Concrete.to. allow.highway.of.load.be.support.building.for.curing. 1. principal.remove.number. traffic. the.two.stockpile.floor.to..any.accounted.the.much.be.of.heavy. when.tributary.in.to.loads.truck. may.traffic. building.the.design.(see.3  CoNsTruCTioN LoaDs Structural.be.loading. the.passenger.than.to.structural.one.called.The.precast.column). to.except.be. live.with. loads.20%.not.construction.Contractors.not.the.fire. to.handling.materials.carrying.an..engineers.psf.panel.garages.important.reduced. more.. a. results..design.erection.may.be. and.factor. For.of.to.. dead.the.the.but.value.an.and.to..1.the. is.particular.reduction.vehicles.a.two.loads.is.time.ft2.use.or.example.construction. its.designed.weight.after.such.reduced.span. designed.contractor.suit.with.lifting..supported.of. The.for.than.consideration.during. kinds.known.must. the.the.slabs).ASCE.shall. A.area..20%. suffi- cient. from.the.when. elements.position.appears.due.shall.shall.except.the.concrete.assuming.permitted.in.construction.possible.unable. are. more.and.is. may. •.permitted.live.during. four.one-way.the.that.less.element.be.to.area. in.for.this.that.is.loads.which.member KLL.contractor.which.slab. loads.used.verified.the.members.subject.their.to.form.for. problem.40L 0.vary.supporting.may..The...should.failures.weights..live.than.is.of.should.particularly.shall.quite.is.construction.respect..supporting.plazas.the.less. generally.it. times.increases. fails. the.or.more.beam.area.must.compositely.not. Construction.permanent.bus.type.critical.that.its.varies.shoring. may.used.(for.shall.needs. element.temporary.area. .emergency.an.L.act.unreduced.the.a.restrictions.. time.regarding. subjected.1.is.design.member.formwork.noncomposite.shoring..greater. whereupon.Similarly.or.permitted.larger.of..(for. know.and.loading. It.of.area.weights.by.failure.unacceptable.design..and.and. considerably.loads.they.stress.for.by. however.concrete.during. Although.the.encounter.slab.since.is. areas.be. or..400.the.normal.con- crete. contractor.during. major.for.of...members.per..of.causes.loads.units.result.small. such.the.and.Table.to.the. reduced.structure.is.supporting. be. be.the.heaviest. may.to.of.a.is.a.the.before.0..floors.that.These.reduced.load.loads.the. truck.are.on.loads. element. design.members...time.member L 0.. strength.a.have.live.designed.or.two-way. vehicles:.commonly.area.supporting.not.as.far.times.floors It.forms.Loads on Building Structures 11 where L.the.exceed.tributary.of. the.not.no.lifting.span.heaviest.resulted.average.members.span. plaza.one.any.its.In.and..money.live.in... trucks.in. Highway.to.framed.beam.with.for.is.considered.4..widely.a.removal.most. made. be.equipment.to.the.the. concrete.ft2 L. for.vehicle.that.one-way.reduced.per.for. likely.loads.assumed. up.These.their.live.the.that.be.the.by.placement.construction.not. the.slab.the.and.This.in.for.and.loads.in.may.it.be.AT.the.a.load.the..by.than.construction.to.be.car.than. structural.Structural.system.large..building.structure..case.floors.7-10.ft2.100.before.by. and. members.K LL AT.. that. .from.to.also.units.loads.the. tractor-trailer.action.the. member.to.loads.less.conditions.considered.individual.the.equal.

to.in.the. 1.of.can.medium-weight.truck.mounted.or.it.traffic.Truck.much.Transportation. Nearly. highway. distribution.heaviest.2  (a–d). 540 ft.represent.on.cranes.hard.have.it.the.one.of.heavy.booms. fitted. The.25.The. variable..from.about.4).plf.in.also.40.a.additional.pictured. (Figure. long.These.outriggers. loading. in.the. 8K 32 K 32 K 32 K 32 K 8 K 14΄ to 30΄ 14΄ Axle loads.that.a. with.American.The.equipment.may.something.that.of.the.rear.loads.in.the..4.by.Standard.cranes. carriages.together.respects.loads.intensity.distance. machines. conventionalized.of.or.load.of.system.distributed.bracing.supported.principal.ft.capacities.therefore.. perhaps.on.is.not.of.mobile. of.to. attachments.Crawlers. Use. increase.crawler.traffic.any.be.of.loaded.sup- ports..can.2.(AASHTO). surfaces.lb.stability.10..specifications.Typically.say. Because. it.recommended.loads. the.to.extent. obviously.of.center.of. highway.crane.structure. adopt..a.tracks.capacity..Association.1000.the.mph.differ- ence.center.1.can.cranes. to.line.on.on.car.of.ft.represent.8 W 0.rubber. capacity.long.Self-contained.50. character.and.same.on..average.that. the.2 W 0.along.effect.used.tires.such.counterweights..tons..passenger.range.the.mounted.increase.to. crawler. to.when.to.to.its.are. and.AASHTO. and.weigh.of.of.adequately.8 W Varies 14΄–16΄ 14΄ 0. traffic. United.such.in.structure.average. be.the.line.for.many.If.up.while..ft.crane.lb. on. Self- propelled.than.and.250.with. is.tons.represents.temporary. the.Figure.distance.and.200–500.of.4 W 0..turntable.of.mobile.Highway.or.loading..000.erecting.4 W 2΄ 6΄ 2΄ (c) (d) Figure 1.a.is.up. they.between.traffic.with.3).crane. base.up.traffic. erection.to.are.base. .4 W 6΄ 0. corresponding.installation.a.since.lane.is.load.to.having. bridges.500.long.State.HS20-44.load. common.by.lift.. kips (a) (b) HS 20-44 8 K 32 K 32 K 10΄clearance and load lane width 0.10. of. for.to. be. or.to.000.bridges.a.of.highway.vehicle..requires.present.capacities.of.a.more.in.the.with. expedient.1 W 0.lane..about.weighs.contains.is.and.lane.necessary. the.propulsion..4 W 0.cranes..up.(Figure.similar.allows.are.concen- trated.HS20-44.an.the.be. for.provide.the.12 Tall Building Design: Steel.lb..intensities.loaded.consist..to. to.Officials.somewhere.1.speeds..load.fully.An.less.come.center. a.with.000.plf. their.crawlers.car. ring.uniformly. .high..loads.for. mobile. is..This.a.classes.have.loaded.grav- ity. are.truck.the.The. One.four.that.1 W 0.1. widely. all..may.the..may..at.of.vehicles. steel. designed.Crawler. attached. Concrete.weighs.loading.50.rotation.cranes.are.verification.move.at. counterweights.cranes.360°. States.the.load.the.concentrated.heaviest. Truck.. crane.fully.750..truck. most. of.important. and Composite Systems considerable.

mounted.booms.to.most.capacities.up.one.capacities.to.up.on.erection.for.machines.ft.and.3  Crawler.750.rubber.common.with. high.ft.of.booms.crane.tires:.500.1000.tons.crane:.to.up.long.540.tons. .to.the.and.4  Truck. Runner line Jib Main load falls Topping lift Boom Outrigger Figure 1.steel.Loads on Building Structures 13 Runner line Jib Main load falls Topping lift Boom Counterweight Figure 1.up.

are.site.clean.Other.they.being.more.clean.14 Tall Building Design: Steel.100 psf.increased.of.sands..the.be.wall..soil.below.gravel–clay.50)b Poorly.a.are.An.buoyancy. their.below.silt.gravel–sand..nonexpansive.from.44.floors.clean.plastic.foot.of.lateral.buoyant.if.upon..of.may.soils. 100.floor.allowance.the..adjacent. the.with.when. .depth.Basement.specified.depending.lateral.provided.71) Organic.45°.design.table. optimum. For.pressures.as.be.from..35)c Mixture. required.graded.walls.unless.35.pressure.soil.walls..plus.be.Minimum.silts.rigid. Due.clays. field.plasticity CH d Organic.testing.mixes GC 45.include.grade.may.preferable..sand. a..is.be.gravels.2-1.(meter).8.to.the.or.for.backfill.elastic..sands.made.foot.43.mixes SC 85.silt.relatively.8.gravel–sand.plasticity OL d Inorganic.increased.soil.increased.Table.mixes GP 35.sands. basement.mixes SW 35.made.backfill. for.systems.(7.transmission.silty.by.of.the.The..than. Concrete.not..gravels.in.Actual.more.3.below.being.graded.graded.classification. supporting.Loads.if.be.(2.are.from. 2010. Design.(meter).to..and. and Composite Systems 1..adja- cent.Design.draining.be.much.these.as.calculating.or.poorly.psf. and.should.and.investigations.States.as.Engineers.relatively.floor.clays.graded.when.as.adja- cent.depth.ver- sion.should.shall.must.reduced.free-water..clay-types. moist.mix.35)c Inorganic..gravel.be.light.rigid.and. TabLe 1.load.gravels.walls.exert.varying.than.walls.weight.silts.the.many. and.at. soils.of.hydro- static.with.clayey.grade.of.medium.gravel–sand.shall.soils..pressures.considered.as.with.magnitude.clayey.regions.pressure.50)b Silty. at.loads. b.(13.graded.of.. lateral.mixes SP 35.the.poorly.damage..surcharge.silts ML 85.of.no.fixed.to.relatively.pressure.lateral.shall.loads.possible.is.American.minimize.considerations.weight.United.movable.not.floors.clays OH d Source:.by.clean.shall..geotechnical.and..gravels.(5.44.plasticity CL 100.determine. loads.full.the.grade.walls. Expansive.slope..serious..very.load.and.Submerged.braced. used.50)b Clayey.Society.be.gravel–sand.sand–clay.given.Structures.. soil.shall.(5.design.3. c.(9.relatively.or.to.to.but.Special.Basement.psf.backfill.50)b Silty..the.shall. for.50)b Poorly.walls.and.sand–silt.pressures.the.(5.silts MH d Inorganic.clay ML-CL 85.walls.below.high. densities.poorly.for.the.considered.ft.(2.lateral. soil.expansion.kN/m2) per.(7..walls.to.7-10.excavated.ft.freely.for.in.It.(5.m).of.against.expansive.as.per.design.per. determined. ASCE/SEI.silts.high...Minimum.of.the.cause.the. conditions.the. given.special.extending.for.the.. The.poorly.to. hydrostatic.lateral.to.the.clays.is.m).for.braced.and.for.lateral.kN/m2).as.by.light.07)b Well-graded. conditions.07)b Sand–silt–clay.type.(15.in.back.are..govern.provision.not.graded.potential.mixes SM 45.surface.Buildings.rigid.can. d.abbreviated.structures..and.the.in.60.low.included.Table.gravels.soil.mixes GW 35.(13.the.sands.ASCE.of.of.(15.Expansive.not.(13.soil.saturated.soils.the.horizontal.soil.oils.than.soil.shall.design. Unsuitable.the.mixes GM 35.35)c Inorganic.pressures.and.rigid. soils.present.anywhere.excavate.sand–gravel.3 Design Lateral soil Load Design Lateral soil Loada psf per Foot  Description of backfill Material unified soil Classification of Depth (kN/m2 per Meter of Depth)  Well-graded.of.extending.pressure.7-10.low. specified.are.sands.35)c Clayey.(5.supporting.systems.steeper.silt–clays.be.exist.depth.material.foot. For.as.of.71. are.(13.inorganic.fines SM-SC 85.1.and.to.as.not.because.is.soils.Civil.4  LaTeraL soiL LoaD In.

heavy.load.considered.consideration...a.on. snowfalls. (b) roof.soil.easily.geotechnical.in. loads. reduction..design.excess.the.square.load..A. 9. that.cause.can.ponding.for. codes.the.are..loads.Rain.on.value.design.south.Loads on Building Structures 15 of. by.5  sNow.called.expansive.equipment .the.of. protruding.loads.of..special. sundecks. might.the. from.and..unbalanced.remembered. (a).general. If. load. especially.loads.snow.of.progressive.are.thought..a. therefore.consequences.collect.on..may.of.designing.allowing. depth.for..inch.soil.is.roof..flat.assessing.engineer.lightweight.calculating.United. own.the.follows: .loading .loads. elements.appreciable. when..accu- mulations.Figure.the.with. Considering.water.snow-load.in.determining. can.lb/ft 3.of.these.it.if. on.the. projections.a.loss. the.cause.procedure. on. ornamental. The. a.Considering. the.may. . such.location .expansive.drains.ground. melts.be.in..7-10.of.on.load.the.kept.wind.and.on. 4.Considering. indicates.are.deflected. and.of.special.would.roof. snow.as.psf.snow.expansive.higher.loads.the.should.roof.loads .in.more.in.heat.of..on..existing.eliminated.sliding.can. as.the. courtyards.ratio.of. more..material. established. raiN.by.the.snow.thermal..these. reasonable.design.occur.increase.roof.recommendations.to.the.weighs.from.deflects.the.ground.its.should.new. Determining.will.since.pressure.is.Considering. 10.as.The.resisted..replaced.As..of.snow.not.5–0. It.of. 1.areas..failure The.percentage.In. lower.snow.loads.snow.the.in.be.pitched.structure.because.foot.when.and.snow..a.footings.snow-load.the.that.structure.the.nonpervious. and.slope.Generating.resulting.various.. such.tend.in..maximum. roofs.regions. receive.exerted. Ice. will.design..behavior.roofs.example.drain..is.extra.since. of.provision.skin.large. as. than..function.from.roof.perhaps.roof.acting. snow.water.Considering.be.top.100. on.in..from..blows.slide.snow..in. aND iCe LoaDs Observation.or.total.be.roofs.other.ponding.live.the. recommended.though..ASCE..a.water.allow.result.as.evaporates.for.62. implications. considering. 5.. elevated...condition.accumulation. parapets.loose..Considering..loads..greater.in.snow..load.given.the.7-1. load.of.collapse. and.If. drifts:.for.removed.need.mind.snow.so.design..is..to. exposure.snow..the. certain.ponding. approximately.the.much. over.States. balconies. load. collect.high.ranging.. the.roof.roofs .psf. 6.soils.Heavy.the.. roof.conditions.. elements.pressures.only..of. psf.and. 8.drains.Considering.excess.because.soil. design.7-10.on.7.less.the.of.loads.locally..roof. flat.details.snow.are.weighing.the. snow. 2.northeastern.geographic.at.a.zero.off.slope . many. is.often..present. (b).maximum.the. necessary.clogged.pounds. secure..than.occupancy.for. no.exceeded.Codes.under.loads.make.through. that. roof.0.in. a. ground.as.than.must.to.Considering.influence.general.can.to. (a).of.load.loads. in. nonexpansive.backfill.the.cap..on.be.an.floors. 11.structure .the.and. their.but. be.snow .roof.gather.of.and.Considering.the. exterior.4. has.One.process.loads. resulted.the.a.. at.Alternatively.Other. years.However.generally.backfill.partial.for.value.This.and. Snow. 3. than. density.excess.be.roof.per.load.loads..in.swelling..to.the.snow .ground.snow-load/dead-load. and.for.depending. oth- erwise.roofs.wind. The.a.density.building.rain.such.in..loads.be.loads . of. to.. other. is.eventual. as.and..based.off.should.or.certainly. Water.established.through.the.of.structure. 1.of.and.may.when.snow..deflection.(c).important. and.roofs. rooftop. prediction.resulting.map.and.founda- tion.situations.minimum.percentage.snow..is.ASCE. 7. load. snow. such.the.accumulates.that.the.

structures.hand.by..and.on.guide.become.a.of.to. The..by.may.and.is.see.of.temperature. 65°F–72°F. Nonetheless.These.connecting.emphasize.be.The.the..well......the.known..weight.high-rise.and.building.. to.the.temperature.These.serve.of.seventies.gener- ally. damage.than.outside.first.the.We.value.the..must.approach.its..columns.(Figure.favor.set.performed.erected.and.a.struc- tures. 68°F 120°F Figure 1.out.soil.it.rotate.they.from.exposed.buildings.last.create. problems.told. by.moved....when.an.acknowledged.requirements.projected.noticed..erection..at.building.exposed.interior.of.1.if.shorter.minimum...however.many.as.the.science.changes.is.to. be.connecting.on.for.pressure. mechanics.of.air-conditioned.of.soil.applicable..is.the..soils.it.well.of.design.be.20°F.designed.behave.either.outer.is.to.(Figure..be.also.is. columns.up.these.50 years.blessed.buildings.the.5  Thermal.on.code-designed.goes.columns.there..Building).be..of.set.rather.as.code. .codes. is.1.6).structural.hinging.fixed-end.ice. high-rise.that.to.building.the.to.buildings.that.air.great.and.beam.approximations.columns.under.formation.them.according.build- ing.wall.the.are.occur. must.winter.rocky.summer.of. emphasized.are.Modern..settles.aesthetic.the.empirical.water.subjected.must.will.(the. curtain.the.up.that.Manhattan.the.art. sand.than.open-trussed. foundation..the.the.design.a.it. variations..the.to.the.. most.also.not. 1.island.behavior.by.for.area.a.temperature.120°F.built.of.large.length.that..to.frame.load factor.wind.maintained.6  TherMaL aND seTTLeMeNT LoaDs In.icicles.their.while..a. caused.their.for.were. and Composite Systems elements.quite..innovation..a.heavy.that.increase.the.and.3.2.at.feeling.which..of.Mexico.of.buildings.majority.much.are.other.on.resulting.constant.Figure.built. Concrete.a.structure.value.set.the.the.is.particularly..a.method. engineer.to..of.inside.In.the.properly.the.may.the.of.loads.interior.Furthermore.members.study.has.of.for.are.sand.only.structure.7).may. is.best.this.the.down.of.the.The.beams..beams.by.water.Such.as.would.in. while. They..the.exposed.inner.in.5.1.these.sixties.require- ments.unevenly.of.damaged.allowing.temperature.higher.bend.bending.outer.1913.problems.the.floors.soil.therefore. buildings.ends. Soil.withstand. reinforcing.inner.at..exterior.to.16 Tall Building Design: Steel. the.the.longer.squeezing.columns.importance.during..become.architectural.they.the..settle.in. in.Woolworth. Invariably.them.may..their.as.to.when.to.buildings.and. It.or.heavy.or.some.if.mixture.in.a. Bending.codes.columns.the.they.to.hidden.of. that.reach.reason. aesthetic.is.While.permitted.in.City.

or..independent.be.should.context.earthquake.no.factor.that..and.variation.as.10%–20%..6  Thermal.or.such.ultimate.a.together..computation. as.a. .is.foundations. more...method.various.that.system.be.in.rather.with.capacity..strength.this.be.problem.additional.strength.the.Nevertheless.and.Loads on Building Structures 17 Hinges 68°F 120°F Figure 1.load. the.work.combination.as.load.total.building.method.rational.all. ultimate. design.that.undesirable.been. elements.movements.one.and/or.ultimate.lateral. Figure 1.safety.elements.. remains.load.. For.as.a. realistic.a.a.complicated.buildings.of.is.multiplied.workmanship.reduced...under..the.to.should.is.And.a.total.no.a.designed.other.it.extent. When.a.computed.and.in.all.That. component.design.to.quite.excessive.not. a.much. is.such.margin.an.by.how.building..dis- crepancies..have.by.of.actual.vibration.equated.live.provide.7  Uneven.to.of.rather.settlement.certain.rotation..the. space.load.beam.wind.as...as.code-specified..more.is.dimensions.to.to..care. ultimate.material.of. still.difficult.a.certain.some.the.strength.hinged..moving.will.to.structure..out.to..of.live.structure.now.ultimate strength.accepted.properties.vibrate.excessive.deflections.earthquake.structure.and. loadings.vertical.man- ner. cracks.wind.strength.determine.of..check.components..load..Studies.. Although.. this.undesirable. it.in.(and.vibrations.structure.design.of.must.normal.to. the. approach.acts.difficult.using.load).predict.dead.the.have.take.is.under.Thus.is. the. problem.the.approach.and.unknown. However.other.

period. give. designer. or.should.to. vibrations.high.value.but.pressure.Similarly. in.of.To.ratio.the.be.structures.wind. in. analyses. reach... if.However. low-rise.all.a. it.oscillation.oscillations.to.all.it.its.enough.which. by.the.For.environmental.self-straining.such.or.of.concrete.for.time.be.joints..forth.. shrinkage..made.temperature.vanishes. the.structures.well.as.objec- tionable.gust.forces.by.higher. understanding.pendu- lum.framing.often. building.and.that.brick.a.and.of.of.codes. that..object. undergo.more.how.by.wind.the.Center.be.is...lowest.produced..the.these. The.distress.totally..structure.depend.ratio. action.total.is.Such.calculate.many.modern.be. depends.do.the.a.building..on.by.and.the.was.consider.New.This.City.a.the.possibility.upside-down. can.load?.and. self-straining.slowly.would.on.design.a. Under.us. of..Hence.10. structures.uncomfortable.wind.one.use.knowledge.be.extreme.a.is.York.and.visualize.so.not..loads.ones.an.are.World.For.provide.its.complete. which.created. and Composite Systems made.in.to. humans.vibrations.varying.small.as.should.components.that.and.it.movement.whether. gust.. applied..same.Together.structures.load.self- straining. is. action.of.referred.to.systems.damage.special.changing.forth. moments.and..the.to. sensed..ever.or. of.oscillations.second.decreas- ing. elements.times. Examples.dynamic.the.is.of.dropped.a.the.ordinary.were.slightly.nonexistent.frequency.by.on.permanent.the.it.illustrate. settlements..is.a.to.the.bearing.the.in.of.moves.for.as.the.compared.floor.slap.building.the.the. 1.minimize.of.never. dynamic..to..comparison. subsystem.8  DyNaMiC LoaDs The.stay.loads. gust.of.period.actual.a.in.enough.as.on..upon.other.feel.the.increasing.safe.behavior.rigid.the.that.the. for.Therefore.to. stresses.guide.than. of.The.a.is.which.decide.does.pressure..18 Tall Building Design: Steel.the.and.on.have.of.Unless.to. practical.may.swing.also.magnitude.the.swings. It.the.walls.to.again.gust..its.raises.and.that.even.slowly..the. stresses. forces.static.suitable. long.materials.studies.displaced.tall.live.conditions.such.sway.gust.slabs. The. takes.full.static.If. 1.damage.period. not.the..the.as.are.in.value.to.can. increases.building.building.effects..forces.a.self-straining.functional..would.Its.abruptly.period..is.as. .now.the. dimensional. static.better. anticipated.pressure.thorough.of.or..have.is.or.but.back..decrease.loads.impact.loads.structures.from. the..other.one.as.limit..to.of.building.. called.the. to.the.details. the. for.greater.of.of.which.swing. self-straining.a.or.should.position. structure. be. only.a.and.through.called.load.unchanging.static.period.In.load. on.called static loads.loads.unusual.steel.unchanging. the..to.the.or.time.a..fast. structural.first.extreme.are.the.a.vibration. it. magnitude.of.and..dynamic.a.oscillations.and. Its.chances.load.static.building. on.structural. develop.usual.the. effects.called dynamic and. rigid.back.well.top.back.answer.are..building.. combination.to.an. the.when. of.provisions. either..its..effects..component.that.load.cause.requirements..eye.question:..takes.the.are.be.the.only.reference.the.foundation.time.rapidly.found. include..dynamic..by..short.right. in.made.not.possible.as.to..Note.interaction.The.structural.the.. floor..the.buildings. to.acts.forces..like.half.behaved.even.is.seen.gentle. experience...It.support. effect. example.always.or.as. a. Generally.ft. foundation. depending..a.7  seLF-sTraiNiNg ForCes Constrained.higher. its.would.existing. self-straining.through.design.of.of.its.period.a.easy.amplitude.slowly.to.10-story.bends.by.a.loads.loads...a.building.maximum.fluctuations.then.it.towers.building.Similarly.value.and.the.guidance.loads.and. forces.of.strength.equivalent.example.considering.varies.not.touch.wind.to.since.a.in. alone.much.these.a.a.building. can.building.larger.only. maxi- mum.forth. changes.Trade.For. expected.can.much.For. and.as.often.Therefore.a.move- ment.the. that.are. in itself.may.no.at.and.from.takes.to.a.in. or. various.s.building. with.the. the.sensitivity.the..1350.pressure.pendulum.high.change.shrink.shears.and. dynamic.stiff.than.and.naked.wind.specifying.change.also.approach.assumed.have.from.economical.systems.pressure..structure.that.requirement.complete.structural.left.while..shorter.fair.be.this.human. differential.the. forces. how.. be.structural.tacitly.it.let.is..acted. But.that.considered.relief.of.applied.of..the.fit. frames.a.the.as. Concrete.wind. pendulum.of.external.depth–span.dead.for.a..and.the.is.

could.gross.condi- tions.local.resonance...mi/s).but. a. to.gusts.vehicle. most.that.the.terms.s.collapse..pulling.they.. rapid.eight.immediately.will.. integrity..of.like.with.sabotage.small.so.load..and.. most.a.bell.of..the..is. say.brick.with. hot.do.impractical.construction.rhythmically.design. is.a.taken..relatively.errors.2.misuse.ring..For.of. as.and..building.produce.a.one...dynamic.rate.in.there.collapse.building.dynamic.vanishes.as.close.wind..caused.sabotage.an.increase. falling.It.misuse.say. into. in.add.local.as.general.of. the.of.have.abnormal.period.half.in.high.high.large.light.ele- ment..case—the.they.intervals.slowly.very.person.ringer. In.long.for.such.to.called.load.static.of.load.with.sabotage.is.with.a.loads.of.explosions.beginning.at. Likewise.decreases.the.effects.a.part.cannot..to.a.with.designed.is.resonance.undergo.a.a. explosives.building.period.but.the. the.here.subjected.If.entire.force.to.building. the.a.can.static..of.Generally. cannot...an..a.do.of.to. supersonic.at.a.Progressive..though.a.structure.the..of.a.portion.wind.heat.the.the.the.force.9  abNorMaL LoaDs Through...the.with. (bang).or.collapse.pull.said.increase.by.so.how. quality.and.designs.winds.pulling.long.time. and.propagates.excavations.However.again..To.of.rope.case.to.structure.second. try.its.a.resulting..about.the.large.events.only.a.incidents.force.before.may..effects.period. 1.cause.outward.as.with.a.relatively.be.properly.understand..on.applied.the.oscillation.their.of.or.or.steadily. speeds.system.liquids. for.pendulum. of.a.the.bell.a.thousandth.move.might.much.local.low.of.us.failure.than..enough.new.is.widely.in.a.designed. high.gust.the..swing.for.be...might..addition.or.gross. general.become.unexpected. explosives.9.such.a.with.to.prevent.waning. occur.until..and.part.building.tons—often.with.strongest.seconds.that.of.church..burning.and..but.of.and. defined.forces.of.spread.industrial..of.Loads on Building Structures 19 its.waits..of.through.part.same.it.high-explosives. at.the.building.single.In.maximum.resonance.if.growing.1 expLosion effects Explosions. tornadoes.dynamic.misuse. volume. second).hit.failures. a.period.time.collapse.a..than.consists.(as.of. or.rapidly.be.is.sway.the..In.of.bell.bell’s.the.impact..may. gases.is. in.(fireball).small.limit..be.is.release.time. considerations.slow.keeps.The.The. concentrated.. period. Because.either..accidents.pulls.not..unintentional..of.10-story.structure. transformed.consists.on.were.a.to.let.collapse.rope. in.applied.and. simple.single.that.a.it.its.to.a.would. large..fundamental.usually.equal. . gas.resulting..than.reaches.not.yanking.pressure..are.effects. occurs.energy.initial. a..yanking.in.that.of.the.of.a..of.Resonant..the.. Interestingly.energy.Similarly.of.gust.structures.explosion.effects.larger. then.structure.strategy.or.normal.greater.it.to.minimize.its.in. are..and.resist..if.to.example.the.is.If. subsonic.be..of.explosives.the.a. heavy.a.one.decreasing.phenomenon.of. is.element.wave.would.in.effects.2.is. It.or.conversion. severe.series.few.increasing.of.for.subjected.But.shock.its.by.from.collapse..an.collapse.tiny. last. rings.the.is.widely.eight.effects.misuse. period.the.adjacent.local.accident.sound.be.precautions..to.rapid.in.pro- gressive.to..the.gunpowder.so.made.first. structural.to.to. the.each.large.absorb.it.ft/s.pressure.be.for.eventually.objects.collapse.impact.some. for.ringer.events.bell.acting.the.such.or.radially.dangerous.sense.the..while.of. 1.that.fraction.rate.defined.a.s..vain.structure.boiler.if.very.directly.up.may.to.in.to. precisely.unforeseeable.slowly.increasing.disproportionately.catastrophic.and.gas.abnormal.and.eventually. be.This.the..swings.to. When.from. a.willful.that.the.a.do. a.is.forces.structures.of.weighs...general.a.normally.it.it.the.are.not. when.It.to.detonation.900.of.ignition.rhythm.and. not.rope.of.loads.source.as..a..is.that.sway.(less.swings.can.sudden.due.pull.with. stated..instantaneously.and.few.static.are.in.oscillations. at.starts..go.as..to.4.bell.consider.progressively.pounds. pulls. that. low.time.load..impact.second.effect.grows.weapon. is.period.the.same.as. solid..is.a.a.which..lead.may.rapidly.high.at. large.seconds.seconds.the.but.the.enough.the.dynamic.dynamic.a. speeds.a.

very.all.open-front.and.gas.of..of.damaged. stability.the.floating.the.fire..in.not.Each.and.structure.the.structures..been.2 fLooDs Forces.large.produce.can.its.interior.the.based.use.gas.structure. may.the.from.factors.purpose.load.specific.equalized. categories.severely.within. statistical.differ. such.IV.on.by.and.be.broken.being.structures. due.or.responds...categories.basement.stories..varying.and.as.explosion. wall.away.falling.that.to.welfare.of.causing.7-10..walls.human.propagates. previous.in. slabs.Hydrostatic. categories.into.may.compressed.floor.United.property.the..case.building...pressures. occupancy.highly.on.building. compromised.. may.that.of.of.which..the. bracing. surfaces.the.of.the.natural.then.remaining..are.reflected. and. the.of. structures.level.a.damage.a. lifting.an.caused.load. Importance.River.and.highest.9.and..a.between.is.the.and.face.to.degree.typical.characteristics.factor.the.applicable.the.and.provisions.progressive.hazardous.from. even.vehicle.will. as.wave.structures.the.relate.be.of. impacts.first.exterior. of. blown.shock..floors.areas.of.when..category.soft.for.to.life.have.large. forces.build. lift.wood.floor. can.air.the. assigned.examples. buildings..engulfed.building.nature.windows.human.frontal.damage. building.damage.weak.criteria. ASCE.great.failure..at.and...loads.1000.from.amplification.high..and. .columns.the.from.open).away.most.loads.may.may.to.building. occurs..loads. columns.penetrates.III.Debris. their.for.collapse.most.In.wind. as.occupants.that.for.surfaces.the.pieces.explosions.and.the. 7.is.The.maximum.of.and/or.to.that.categories.to.include.. 1.to.floors.disintegrated. generated.that.blast. be.In.retail. the.building.of. See.and.according.or..blast.particles..of.Tables.of. to.and.and.classification.building.debris.the. removal... leading. to...exterior.a.air.risk.The. are.by..snow.walls.as.four. The..section.the. to.spaces..to.collapse.classifies.all.creating.become..explosions.floating.building.wall.a.amplified.. factors.a.within.effect.separated.a.the.occur.proximity.ice.produce.the. used.wall.loss.consequence.configurations.main.. but.. referred.high-velocity..with.of.earthquake.for.subjecting. use.risk.submerged.the.structures..floor.corners.very.shock.effect.progressive.. life.10  C   LassiFiCaTioN oF buiLDiNgs.natural. explosions..water.waves.explosion.damage. walls.by.openings.is.propels.extensive.anything.building.The.many.wave.flood.associated.incorporating.reduction.risk.collapse.occupancy.is. hydrodynamic.and.causing.an. ocean.so.where. lateral.survive.to.The. 1.collapse.importance.two-story.risk.health. such.set.is.up.sur- faces.psf.are.importance.5.debris.functionality.is.Finally.their.and.for.lightly..that.ocean.as. concrete. elements.the.. then.entire. In.and.corresponding.on.wind.I. the.pressure.19. when.subjecting.A.severe..the.of.bomb.gas.by.. are. 1. associated.9. and Composite Systems shock. large.structures.18th.their...Diffraction.up.currents.to.impact.roof.the.for.that.to.an.II. their.as.roof.to.of.manner.which. of.and.environmental.around.can.shock.debris. on. away.total..a.blown.importance.and.an..and.caused.to.one-.welfare..causes.close. pressures..When.overpressure. exceeded.In. in.foundation.factor.and.conditions.and. pressure..pressures.through.to.Kingdom.structure.in.3 vehicLe impact LoaDs There.factor.20 Tall Building Design: Steel.applying.to.explosions.initially.in.the.force.22-story.side.secondary. by.started.in.exterior.is. be. pressure. floor..missiles..the..deadly.surfaces.collapse.beams.environmental.1.and. confined.buildings.can.a.can.of.  aND iMPorTaNCe FaCTors ASCE.of.attached..purposes. buildings.1967. diaphragms. risk.size.health.accounts..In. from.overload.impacts.(high..1.with.risk.locally. and.to.of.structure.of.consisting.wave.and.spaces.4.the. editions. hydrostatic. Concrete.and..and. risk CaTegories.

containing.but. 2010.quantity.where.pose.of.if.1.use.of.IV.process.low.the.satisfaction.release.public.00 1.if.except. Other.public.10 1.where.is. and ice Loads use or occupancy of buildings and structures  risk Category  Buildings.highly.not.the.authority.substantial.risk.that.substances.can.Engineers. Ie I 0.of.other. earthquake.substantial.maintain.structures Source:. and.that.but.as. Society.that..human..IV. sufficient..Loads.structures.a. hazardous.toxic.substances.failure Buildings.not.fuels.hazardous.classification.the.facilities..structures..life.7-10.commensurate.with.jurisdiction.as. Structures.having.substances.the.use.the. Design.and.Category..the.structures.and.structures.00 II 1.in.other.to..of.or..of..00 III 1.if..50 Source:.dispose.explosive. containing.Design..hazardous..highly.human.80 1.represent.with.risk.handle.manufacture.jurisdiction..by.other. that.00 1.threat.associated. ASCE/SEI. Buildings.dispose.toxic.in.substances.threat.pose.structures. Buildings.Society. Engineers.released Buildings.in.limited.by.functionality.if. ice.4 risk Category of buildings for Flood.and.Structures. of.assessment..other.with.and.could.be.and/or.to.explosives).authority.chemicals.of.failure I All.to.required.disruption.exceeds.Categories.Loads on Building Structures 21 TabLe 1.event. Is Factor—Thickness.or.having.and.I. .is.of.a.for.be.structures.the.manufacture. wind.the.pose.to.and.category...and.a.risk.to. Iw  Factor.a. for.a.25 IV 1. snow.which.the..listed.shall.hazard.cause.such.that.explosive.included.5 importance Factors by risk Category for snow.Risk.the.structures.to. TabLe 1.Section.facilities.substantial..essential.or.the.released.a.the. store..other.to.00 1.the.Other.to.quantities.to.public.a.not.00 1.a.or.fuels.other.other.buildings. described.failure.life III Buildings. Minimum.(including.and.event. their.of.be. 2010.dangerous..of.substances. Loads.established. ASCE/SEI.of.and. Civil.other.threshold..as.toxic.mass.demonstrated.for.and.a.IV.substances.community Buildings.established.not. 7-10.structures.American. quantity.pose.could. sufficient.day-to-day. lower..to. American..of.failure.risk.a.Risk..those.civilian.of.00 1.process.impact.in.waste.other.waste).00 1.which.store.jurisdiction. economic.in.or.(including.eligible.to.in.and.other.structures.IV II Buildings.a.chemicals.20 1. a.Risk.life.80 0.such.quantity.structures.hazardous.potential.and.to.the.hazardous.having. Ii Factor—wind.and.5.authority.25 1.hazard.25 1.Category.or.risk.Category.Buildings.handle..as.the.is.other.Minimum.threshold..hazardous.and.sufficient.the.Civil.2.Risk.it..III.containing. and earthquake Loads snow importance  ice importance  ice importance  seismic importance  risk Category  Factor.toxic.quantity.designated..included.facilities IV Buildings.to.to.category.limited.releaseda Buildings..to..by.exceeds.

.

occupant. movement.1  DesCriPTioN oF wiND ForCes One.top.design.distribution.complex...the. of.to. The..and.their. have.strong.and.forced.land.require.designing.Although.locale.on.original.buildings.To.swings.by.and.and.building. occupants.The.than.by.surface.of.provide.fulfill..on.build- ings..speed.greater.load.the..of.face.the. These.windward.values.can. material.is.gravity. considered.to. does.wind.testing.can.may.or. or.the.be. top.it.have.of. scenario.behind.top.be.than.considerations. building.because.noted.is.represent.regions.cause.build- ing. for.of.the.the.posi- tion.. wind.map.may.with.comfort. to.in.the.wind.forces.fundamental. of.glance.plotted. buildings.depending.hence.been.that.weak.on.maintained.maps.surface..(other.also.and.to.for.of.which. wind.they.who.a.damaged. the.occupy.concerned.“What.should.design.1500.speeds.the.of.it.cataloged.of.the. In.The.the.the..be.in.their.loading.for.maximum.local.air. may.be.so.and..To.tall. and..force.frequency.and...stopped.design.a.design.swing...of.is. floor.portions.doing.vary.serviceability.and.questions. not.the.buildings.and.anywhere.that. or.feel.3.with.tornado-prone.they..of.the.stronger.is.may.damage. with.this.building.a.building. Wind.the.wind.the.. limited.is.windstorms.given.2.buildings.two.are.and. independent.and.large. a..2.sophisticated.constructing..that.tornado.structurally.to.building.except..States. 23 .negative.the.go.magnitude.the. dynamic.particles.as..of.well-designed..It.building.may. There. windward.States. concern.to.at.swings.substantial.wind.expected.pressure. due. of.more.order. suf- ficient.by.a.but..Figure.answer.buildings.Figure.this..continue.(ASD).between.6–7.because.does.effects.the.referred. designing.wind.lateral.of.in.assure.should.a.stress.each.structures.face.understanding.wind.mechanism.aerodynamically.rectangular.occurs.be. Under.tornadoes).of.height.is.to.a.those.dangerous.many.be.that.but. to..be.site?”.is.of.get.various.damage. flexible.that.require.the.the.this..of.most.shape.occupant.to.due.to. structural.but.building.than.protection.top.sum.those.on.on.other.other.The.a.air.dom- inant.on..high.safety.air..avoid.maintained.for.design. wind.the..required.however.exerted.event. parts.of.from.. design.nearby.differences.of.by. of.of.However.occur.may.a.design.noted.aspects.emphasis.horizontal.and. possessions.designed.expected.speed.tunnel.. ASCE.leeward. require.over.ft.primary.its.vary.allowable.in.the.designed.most.wind.not.and.wind.hurricane.or.from.passerby.before.vertical.suction. cannot.damage.what.suction.occurrence.ft.and.left.it. deterioration.constructed.entire.around.as.the.vertical.particles.to.2.shown. sometimes.at.as. at.in.of. structural.building.stories.for.occupant.much.1.a.a.configuration.side.total.it.suck.are.is.frequently.wind.deflection.world. Wind-loading.In.and.for.of.the...sensitive.not.the. 2 Wind Loads Preview A.storms. such.of.but. heights:.gives.is.. building. building.can.the. its. work.is.be.. behavior. direction.as. 2.chapter.a.in. Besides.analysis.seen.for.was.wind.inconvenient. great.and.its..may.. any.7-05.all.a.. much.forces.In.to.comfort.resolved.methods.leeward. its...own.its.for..of.produce.need.each.thus.right.pressure. surroundings.although.again.constructed...the.similar. wind.and.taken.of.exerts..substantial. The.basic.forces.building. who.to.rare.has..United.the.Rather.ft. greater..the.its.building. Wind.measurements.earthquake.elements.wind.flow.the.be.building.like.during.sway. by.to.a.the.loadings.. associated.. understanding.the.wind.very.designing.is:.wind.loading.be.wind.and.pressure.particles.these.that.at.strong.is.wind.a. influence.strongest.can.speed.together. beyond.this..building.is. be. inadequate.taken.wind.with.United. resistance.for.damage. loading.

.Alaska.Exposure.2.terrain.category.nominal.wind.C.coastal..the.speeds.Values.areas..regions.speed..unusual.conditions.contour. 24 90(40) 100(45) 85(38) 110(49) 120(54) 90(40) 90(40) 130(58) 140(63) 72 120(54) 68 110(49) 130(58) 100(45) 130(58) 90(40) 140(63) 140(63) 150(67) 140(63) 64 150(67) 90(40) Special wind region 90(40) 100(45) 130(58) Location V (mph) (m/s) 60 90(40) 110(49) 120(54) Hawaii 105 (47) Puerto Rico 145 (65) Guam 170 (76) 56 130(58) Virgin Islands 145 (65) 130(58) 100(45) American Samoa 125 (56) 110(49) 52 130(58) 120(54) –172 –166 –130 –160 –136 –154 –148 –142 Figure 2.ft.wind.speed.outside.last. and Composite Systems .examined.the.m).Islands.gust..of..at..contours. Concrete.gorges.ground.for.Linear.be.use.).for. Tall Building Design: Steel.and.map.3-s.special. last.miles.for..the.Notes:..1  Wind.above.United.in.wind.1.(From.contour. (10.shall.hour.shall.and.are.between.States.ocean.wind.promotories.ASCE.3.interpolation.and.design..permitted.is.wind.33.area.coastal.Mountainous.7-05..per.(m/s).4.

building.opposite.oscillations.never.the.the.mass.may.queasy.Figure..(TMD).that. building. does.building.with..not..such. reinforcing.. Thus.top.the. consists. by. become airsick.past.of.this.feel.action.period.building.same.tall.attached.absorbers.the.of.the..damped.of.for.damper..period.use.. device.flow..is.when..the.a.the. in.to.serviceability.of.their.period.showing. the.One.do. the.but.the.its.into.resonant.used.that.of.not.years.period. .more. not.in. shorter.motion. to.enormous.avoid.antiresonance.building.airsickness. its. a. period.the.with.by. structure.building.the.a. structures.2. oscillations.Even.say.floors. make.of.height. the. wind.build- ings.the.1/500.building.the. it.method. oscillations.is.damper.moves.the.to. one.brake.tall..perhaps.that.. method.action.. The.tends..3  TMD.grow.the.It.wind.wind. building?.but.masonry.2  Plan.indicates. The. How.in.of.in.a.shock.wind.heavy.of.of.in.stiffened.short.the.by.was.tops.of.will.building.that.excessive.Wind Loads 25 Suction Pressure Figure 2.bearing.the.than.the.of..say.replaced.wind.drift.One.by.is.period.as.were.oscillate.some.with.is.called.system.come.to.could.coin- cides.remedy.building.a. its.consists..damper.tuned.explains.mass..by.they.was.caused. but.occurs.defections.of.springs. could..wind.same.while. top.own.means. in.accelerations.a.our.counteraction.3).damper.the.This.acceptable.wall.When.which.the..not.in.its. changing..are.their.that. resonant.is.the.building.phenomenon.oscillates.insides.to.this.or.are.less.designed.tuned.of.costly..ft.The.skyscrapers.vulnerable.all.research.oscil- lations.damper’s.swing.also.period.to. after. prevent.a.a.is. stiffer.up-and-down.wall.be.the. buildings.mass.in..the..the.in. Dynamic damper Wind Figure 2. stiffer.induced.bearing.more.by..a.lateral.However.heavily.happens.overcome.have.people.weight.play.forces.a.so.of.own.(see.with.first.when.out.because.motion.should.large.the.why.This.a.3. basic.When.lateral.ft.complex.building..that.resonance.springed.by.the. The.Recent.The.determining.the.consequences.. the.it.locked-in-gravity.controlled..buildings.To.the.in.1500.direction..

as.larger. are.speed.lightweight.40–50.the..and. it.dead.about.and.a.much..the.the.wind.and.velocity: p.weight.storms.the. partition. this...0.the.pressures. cladding.primarily.psf.its.openings.buildings.of. Wind.decades.resist..spaced. During.lateral-force- resisting. illustrated. Figures 2.of.discussed.is.same.no.4..overall. structure. it.air..now.longer. several.high-rise.pressure.glass-walled.All.shape.With.and..interior.standard..the..induced.interior.natural.proportionate.is.introduction.Pressure.other.by.a.velocity.us.engineered..offered..of.open. To.increased.the. .the.building.. problems.environmental.skyscraper..stiffness..face.was. To.generated.to.and.due.gust..the.a.psf V.00256V 2 where p.its.wind.of.surrounding.systems.common.buildings. new.general. Suction on rear wall Uplift on roof Positive pressure on front wall d Suction on side Win walls Figure 2.than.of.on.is.of.been.with.terrain. for..on.5. the.height.height.massive.arrangement. the.movable.and.of.effects.reach.at.in.temperature.curtain.in. reduce.and.500.air.event.the.on..the.structures..is.small.with.the.the.prime.longer. and.the. roughness.altitude.decreases.in.dynamic.large-scale.a.remaining.in.columns.in.an.smaller.frame.taken.depends.pressure.partitions.protection.the.s. possible.rigidity.weight.flexible.of..and.mph The.m). wind.developed.factor.leeward..that.pressure.ft..of.surface.still.may.velocity.have.wall.multiplier.adjacent.a.associated.complexity.be.structure.behavior.height..system.4  Schematics.around.significance. Concrete.to.action.create.a.are.the.of.or.of.its.weight.with.from.the.and.not.the.constant.wind.slenderness.building.later.more. and Composite Systems rigid.for.wind.mph.walls.space.the.a.form.building..problem.the.limiting.steel.impossible. of.the.have.to.weight. with.3. of..the.systems.pressure. As.the..regularly.factor.and.to.reflects.in. and.wind.and. hits.to.be..1800s.for. building.pressures.enclosure.=.the.corners.beams.suction.fac- tors.wind.aware.greater.terrain. The.and.than.and.important.shape.density.optimum.factors.creates drag forces.as.design.many.wind.suctions.building.are..built-up.been.influenced.away. corresponds. brought. and.predict. in.and.first..curtain.which.is.90.consideration.wind. Wind. the.its.members.. In.frame..building.have.a. of.tested.structure..cladding. as.in.of.that. around.of.lateral.velocities. facades. The.on. flows.with.by.structure.facade.a.density.dimensions.terms.of. had..such.potential.spaces.understand.mass.to.26 Tall Building Design: Steel.heavy..routinely.surface.factor.postulated.dynamic.of.so.of.relatively..and.particularly..walls.determining..mph.wind.(153.from.of..itself.forces..00256.a.late.gravity.to.with.loads.and.as.as.more.of.this.values.Glass.wind-induced.the.structures.For.and.man-made.windward. innovations.values.scientific.basic.in..exceptional.up.on.the.spanning.face.frame.make..may. effects.precise.used..scrutinized..2.a.of.wind.the.closely.structure.was. buildings.added. small.major. high-rise.chapter.non- load-bearing. however.long.was.Heavy.by.1950s.All.Pressure..is. building.which.150.is.of.on.the..the.were.action.buildings.psf.and.may.degree.texture.square.the.of.the.stone.these.or.concrete.the.remained.atmo- sphere..of. era.high.strength..the.non-load-carrying. the.wind.0..

Reinforced Concrete Design of Tall Buildings. reducing wind loads and wind.Press.. resulting in higher wind loads and development of local pressures.. depending upon S and H 27 Figure 2. not at the base or worsen wind concentration.around.Boca... Wind Loads A building significantly taller than its A building of height similar to its surroundings can experience high wind surroundings may be protected from large A tall building concentrates wind at its base Openings through a building at the base may loads and concentrate pedestrian-level winds wind loads and concentrated pedestrian winds induce high velocities in the opening Circular buildings may reduce frame loads Adjacent building placement may protect Adjacent building placement may deflect Multisided buildings may not permit full and pedestrian-level winds but increase from high winds.Taranath..flow.buildings.CRC.FL.(From.2009.5  Wind..) .S. or pedestrian-level winds wind separates from the building H S Recessed entry provides low winds Corner entry may accentuate wind A low-pedestal building concentrates Setback all around the building may improve at door locations concentration at building corner wind on the roof. frame local cladded loads at the points where the pedestrian-level winds pedestrian-level winds loads.Raton..B..

may.that.dynamic.High.currents.applied.of.modern.static.wind.range.oscillat- ing.800.building...opposite.2.of.effects.habitat.during.may.of.2.pressures.published.a. Air..wind.itself..moves..wind.no.the. Consider.heavy..that.vertices.as.of.also.that..the.example.into...buildings.completely.time.loads.with.building.moving.creates.and.an.for.period..For.is.pictures.may.a.8–12 s.of.gust..tall.is.6899-1984)..of.cannot. random.. create vortices.be.ft.and.transverse.action.to.tall.wind.2.not.air.wind.of.walls.below.pedestrians.sense.occupants.direction.entirely.dangerously.to.in..of..period.reduced.slightly.with.seismic.2.walk.goes..applied.a.with. of.objects. tall.doors.agreed.same.than.studied.by. associated..to.as.than.elevators.the...the.may.In. can..its.and.wind.characteristics.of.plaza.In.the. in.sides.no.much.high- wind-velocity.be.drift.to. its.extend.much.must.wind. the.of.and.range.Under.The.in.the. and.gusts.static.5–1.(20.Some.and.the.buffet.building.and..0.. Concrete.dynamic.a.floors.to.time.building.static..the.The. problems..be.to.a. loads.the.on.are.back...and.and.includes.2.windy.the.and.then..flow.considerably.for.for.have.is.than.for.static.fall.intensity.depends.buildings.action.suction..velocities.again.example.sudden.they..or turbulence.vanishes.2.organization.in.the.standardization.the.effects.moving.designed.noises.have.building.pedestrians.The.height.dynamic.on..position.the.purposes.in.creating.the.disorientation.the.guidelines.0%.wind.earlier.a.larger.on.experience.the. corners.the.swing.larger.stops.on.a.a.depends.Additionally.wings.concrete.vanishes.velocity..violent.the.subjected..a.blown. one.H/400.of.to.off.the.ft.. intensity.its.forth.s.coupled.strains.the.rapidly. know.say.may.and.the.but.its.longer.in.areas. flow.a.of.it. are.that.2.best.moves..international.creating. then.in.building.inter- mittently. whereas.building.to.lateral.are.of.around.a.is.heard.therefore.around.has.buildings..those.of.to.evaluation.result.decreases.the.the.gustiness.oscillation.loads.wind.low-rise.wind. shedding.loads.for.airplane..effects.buildings. decrease.a.can.of. trees..Wind.if.the. and. Imagine.top.flow.lightweight.bends.to.at.is.building.much.Other.off.direction.is.illusory.as.more.61.streams.and.roofs..tall.a.shorter.create lift forces.may.wind.have.shelves.the.for. a.wind..complete.considered.mass.of.have.known.upper.with.building.of.be..determining.council.as period.how.may.has.due. schematically. wind.structure.and..wind.Therefore.its.(214–427.of.than.commonly..top.. see.but. experience.lightweight.somewhat. buildings.treated. forth.moves..to.gravity..considered.progressively.a.response..the.response.long.On.same.effects.commonly.is. damping.as.increases.to.swayed.but. is.load.value.index.the.and.building.for.and.if.the.steel.in.of.even.urban.be..it.unsymmetrical.lean.similar.been.been..if.windstorms.turbulent.of.include. high- velocity.that.less.ft.period.which.tall.design.the. first..storms.get.in.gustiness.than.of.It.the.wind.floors.taking.reach. we.which.creating.wing.partitions.the.windows.normally.If.neutral.of.is.of.flow.an..twisting.of.acceleration.. and Composite Systems Analogous to. improperly.strip.downdrafts.period.steady.time.of.important. change.same.gust.gust.dynamic.you. of.sway.not.by.cause.torsion.approximately. ..break.motion.shown.load.continues.eventually.This.takes. and.a.oscillation.intensity.28 Tall Building Design: Steel. a.through.loads....buildings.if.may.how.on.will.s..the. called..in.or. leeward.an.s.and.dynamic..and..tall.tall.movement.vibrate.a..This.stiffness.to.of.but.flow.gusty.A.. symptoms.the.unacceptable.wind.dynamic.You. strongest.is..response.fast.cycle. a. the. depends.of. It..buildings.more.wind.a.doubt.masonry.s.and.frightening.motion..(ISO.than.be.it.for.or.milli-g).direction.outside.with. turbulence.occu- pants.for.strong.ft.a.considered:.vertigo.its.back.and.abruptly. in. turbulent.After.day.factor.been.upper.sure.variation.top.drifts.and.oscillating.concern.is.in.loads.strange.reaches.Downdrafts.(0.adjacent.with.5.building.maximum.used.and.zero.the.the.for..building. by.standard.its.also.period..speed.of..and.a.dynamic. full-height.m).and.develops.Periodic.were.tall.load.building.to.wind.it.may.also.in.static.smaller.constant.until.building.struc- ture.regions.a.only.building.usually.and.may.. is.construction. of. cannot.oscillation.starts.the.m).. To.therefore.of.much.(0. Unlike.building.known.10-story. through.it.criterion. Structural.for.of.that.the.limit.suction.be.accelerations.sudden. quite.gust.chan- deliers.buildings. edges.the.gust.floors..rushing.properties.excessively.forces... Although.maximum..books.10-year.61.is.shakes..tall.building.takes.a.gustiness.the.need.the.itself.load.imperceptible.building.with.world.the.Figure..floors.m).safety.the.generally. period.Sometimes.of.around.. which.The.at.these.the.in.manner.a.gust.for.direction..magnitude.were.experience.accelerations. around.2.on.an.create.The.can.because.to..hand.circular.on.whistles.the.updrafts.its.other.in.building.the.innovations.on.in.gusts.for.wind.anchored.in.wind.700–1400.gust.the.whether.all.s.varies.perception.has.range.

.largely.the.all.direction.certain.to..height.The.particularly.a.of.structure.building.surface.referred.tunnel.increase.gustiness.for. where.land.height.periodic. importance.appropriate.out.load.may.motion.that.attributable.always. height.static.for.building.rational.does.and.is..motion.vibration.eddies.an.the.natural.turbulent..layer.to.It.of.over.the.atmosphere.determined.this.of.felt.terrain.surface.orientation.the.frequency.use.or.wind.are.As.. near.averages. structures.to.the.greater..of.its.pattern.alternates.earth’s.influence. of..size.much.air.and.to..governing.wind.a. concern.Wind Loads 29 Every..of.a. varies.construction.exerted.may.one.most.direction.those.properties...well.are.applications.causing.of.is.precisely.this.flowing.structural.For.of.within.the.wind.far.step.bridges..as.the.the.and.level.in.the.are.During. of.suspension.it.importance.site.wind. the. tunnel.within. known..referred.on. horizontal.standards..certain.of.atmospheric.is..as.less.Should.the.over.open.design.simple. response.loads. information.responds.loading.constant.1660. A.aboveground.directions.soldiers..the.from.occur.speed.fact.determined.form.and.a.of.in.the.surface.the.lift.is. and.all.structures.the.strong.weight.. Wind.of.When temperatures.This.one-quarter.of.in.frequency..load.motion.height.since. meteorology.to.urban. in.direction.heat.second.differences.wind.speed.building.ought.wake.surface boundary layer.be.ocean.may.is.instability.natural.In.or.and.at.for.friction.either.a.which.the. motion.to.probability.retarding.In.is.with.smoke.Therefore.the.influenced.in..characteristics.and.complicated.wind.that.ground.such.this.of.turbulence.curtain.as.although.is.nearly.which.narrow.tur- bulent.dynamic.wall.the..terrain.layer.(500.ground.built-up.to.The. is.so.and.layer.particularly..and.the.rather. force.Similarly.temperature.is.perpendicular..than.Long.as.zone. less.occur.particular.only.earth.about. Winds.until.retardation.break.and. air.are..speed..necessary.a.dynamic.as.surface. parameters..and.alternating.be..primarily.soldiers.model.roughness.time.of.in. from.turbulent.of.resonance.and.the.thus.sort. provides.of.bridges..but.that.flow.its. also.the... of.down.by.thrust.gradient.building.even.individual.how.dangerously.oscillate.to. building.the.mile.3D.this.means.vertical.effect.result.is.in.concerned.with..of. fetch.over.it.near. in.900.down. differences.damage.actual.term. regarding.synthesize.less.a..called gradient wind speed.boundary.wind.and.horizontal.the.wind.of. speed.the..ft.a.is.of.is.distribution.flow.surface.of.the.flow.by.in..near.reached.the.and.air.obtained.make.neutral.light..not.where..can.by.wind.this.is. from..areas.turbulence.or.by. but.above.caused.may.in.structure.earlier.loading.the.is.In.the.over..not.at.sheets.aerofoil.and. at.the. engineering.activity. Wind..thermal. periods.wind.such.with.negligible.direction.the.is. motion.motion.with.statistical.horizontal..and.of.structure.much.and.and.define.which.from.and.natural.is.men- tioned.dynamic.of.height.set. of.is.Motion.often.in.in.boundary.find.difference.the.country.longer.gust.glass.of.and... terrain.within..example. of.suitable. testing.data.wind.not.to.turbulent.a.of.air.On. is.wide..developed.are.windward.a.below.layer.long.aerodynamic.made.stability.conditions.structure. particular.to.approximately.atmospheric.a. information.uniform. surface.frequency..greater. of.Movement.hand.zone.on.height.than.surroundings.the.is.this.components.A.statistically.speeds.roughness.height.panels.aerodynamic.vertical.whereas.would..includes.is.air. The.the.the.the.are.the.gradual.sun.over.earth’s..and..capable.the.ft.by.less.over.pressure.of..other..m).its.caused.of.stacks..natural.a.by.around.current.under.surface..cause.a.over.usually.the.the.applied.effects.pressure.the.by.differences.a.is.and.effect.typical.. Wind.similar.particles.site.to.climate. ground.most.of. information.. to.the..wind.wind.. of.typically..slowly.to.to.of.the.erratic.has.(270.direction. to. Air. dependence.or.is.caused.extends. importance.at.are.height.than.distributions.vibration.with.an.the.of.layer.on.proportion..wind.side..climate.susceptible.motion. is.company.most.to.this.surfaces.than.speed.direction.whole.horizontal.layer.particular.studying.is.this.total.the. .be.side.suitable.in.by.is.the.be.engineering.as.near.in.urban.spectrum.wind.it.design.where.unequal.of.order..airflow.these.tunnel.sensitivities.effects.it.the.felt.simulated.speed.referred.frequency.to.that.positive.increases.gust.distribution.of.wind.is.a.Above.necessary.building.called.the.no.carrying.roughness.at.them.may.This.the.is.vertical.height.wind.gradient.oscillations.loading.thrust.areas.used.with.of.not.of..of. the.high.produced.wind.the. is.largely.up. direction.occurs.dangerous..the.distance.applies.These.height.roughness.boundary. its.m).at.slowed.to.a.in.is.natural.of.phenomenon.joint. Vertical. depth.of.in.as.this.that. marching.ground.boundary.surface.characteristics. a.wind.to.with.to.air.

time.like.creating.above.occurrence.latitudes.6  Global.the.by.high-pressure.a. In.The. General.earth.trade.air.these.result. from.become.and.of. 60° 30° Polar easterlies 0° Ho rse lati tu des Prevailing westerlies 30° Do ldru ms Trade winds 60° Ho rse latit udes Prevailing westerlies Polar easterlies Figure 2.from.the.stormy.earth .latitudes.belt. to.periods.meet.air.winds. and Composite Systems of.the.and.region.equatorial.atmosphere.southern.its.rises. 1.air. southward.modern. trade.the.wind.equator.is..regions. As.global..low-pressure.relies.into.of.between.meteorologists.winds.secondary.this..of.flowing. Concrete.. air.conditions Figure.lower.the.uniform.westerlies.two..such.producing.It.warmed.no.is.and.air.to..terms.sailors.circulation.high.winds.creating.between.that.earth..Europe.shows.over.the.a.Smaller.rotation.going.circulation.around.early.northward.produces.from.flows.from.as.prevailing.pressure.the.the.America.air.warm.process.wind.aloft.winds.trade.2.counter.air.low-pressure.the. recognized..of.dense.earth.phrases.circulation: .way.long.this..the.northern..equator.the.same.Observe.circulations.6.the.moist.For.by.The.and..in.winds.colder.wind.is.hot..that.of.prevail- ing.of.general.hemispheres.place.giving.to.that.poles.rise..of.from.cold.the.cold.expands.a..low-pressure.rises.the.hemispheres.around. air.southern.in.winds.global.a.flows.who.circulation.drawn.winds. 2..of.and.the.descend.television.depositing.sun’s.is.and.warmer.heat.are.were.which.and.respectively.the.of.describing.from.global.the..adjacent.from.meteorology.cooler.are..this.dense.prevailing.areas.westerlies.types.there.30°.interface..move- ment.main.air.oceans.modified.Flowing.by.in.direction.30 Tall Building Design: Steel.and.northern.steady..away..warm.of.the.sailors.region.circulation.initiated. long-distance. .in.by.the.by.extending.the.of.the.air.cold.on. Near.in..variable.used. characterized..local.latitudes.interest.for..to.lighter.area.example. much.air.to.model.the.North...The.precipitation.of.within.and.regions..Into.heavier.unequal.relatively.blowing.used.wind.are.winds.northern.these.Winds..the.of. take.floats..area.rises.

building. powerful.. type.air.building.wind. no.range.types.atmosphere.(1127.its.high.as.horses. special.. may.in.These.region.wind.damage.the..The.modified.more.to.ships.windward.weight.The.common..intense.has.of.referred.horizontal.six.ft.latitudes.pos- sibly.very. .down.across.the.some.out.hemispheres.in.pressures.velocity..can.speeds.on.suggest. States.of.not. United.the.wind.wind.of.ground.than.has.doldrums.in.the.horse.Straight-line.side. Straight-line.design. (hills. wind. loads.and.on.of. associated. is.and..Thus.exists.height.equator..lack.latitudes.regional.provide.in.2  TyPes oF wiND sTorMs A..surface. ground.of..in.forces.because.all.the.the.be. magnitude. Observations..got.of.10°N.regions. winds..primary.surfaces.the.slope..which.by.States.many. surface.exterior.from.of.considered.easterlies.forces.United.vortex.trade. directly.Two.contrast.winds.Figure.because.throughout.face.earth’s.one.many.shown.its.wind.wind.and.about.high-pressure.with.from.a.000.bounded.to. 2. along.The.hurricane-prone.it.the.blow.wind.. trees.on.roughly.general.vor- tex.mountainous.the.most.000–12.uplift.a.different.the.on.wind.20 min.the.Figure.7.has.called. propor- tional.are.in.kinds.times.loaded.very.the.between. 2.building.and.000.is.is.winds.in..that..surface.those.other.use.sailors.This.basic.calm.of. on. earth.frequently.of.the.the.called.to.last.are.the.of.of.about.has.latitude.storm.returns.consultation.mi.the.may.the.a.Wind.. only.latitudes. occur.2.earthquake..Instead.at.the.to.prevailing.to.occur.in.around.and.areas.act.considered.or.Neither.general.above.High.the.2.Colorado.usually.applied.impact.called.winds.either.that.called. roughness.design.in.of.belts.but.wind.in.in.as. relied.of.ring. 2.north.to.in.severe... a..are.approximately.is.low..with.speed.or.given.and.because.storms.2. with.a.to.downburst.on.the.of.effect.roof.circula- tion.60°.as.local.spreads.that.day.ASCE. it.the.design.large.risen.engineer.belts.reaches. When.helpful.the. as.the.is..The.and.event.In.the. for.and..The.at.downdraft.the.wind. buildings).where.of.greatly.areas.equator..around.envelope.there.. both..life.winds.blow..down-slope. thunderstorm.are.ft.The.stalled.from.winds.. downdraft. known.building.the.to.both..between.wind.10°S.in.the.and.interior.and.is.their.advise.horizontally..part.resisting.meteorologist.of.follows: 2.. the..proportionally.in.for..up.mountains.inward.between.with.on.are. the.air.6.building..of.horse.upward.outflow.characteristics. buildings. is.that.blow.that.polar.possessions.the.very.referred.area. storm.by.most.speed.on.continental.a.in.as.the..produce.sides.equator.of.a.it..south. 30′.direction.Down-slope.of.. moving.can.the.special wind regions.line..typically.and.establishing.producing.latitudes.should.of.is..cycle.The.the.a.15.2 Down-sLope winD Wind.if. wind.2.or..can.elements.unlike..thunderstorms.occur.doldrums. microburst. and.forces. 700.occur.wind. downdraft.IBC.for. Their.low.. the.speeds.horse.the.as.rise.function..In.sailing.and.weight.rings.and.to.the.the.design.nor.result. Wind.are.Therefore.no.the.of.earthquake.7.United.localized. with.speeds.form.site..the.structure. other.3 DownBuRst Also..and.all.more.of.Alaska.little. that.of.west.is.rotation.the.climatic. result.km).flowing.are.2.is.downburst. exterior.values.forces.to. blow.of.prevailing.5%.they.to.. pressure.regions.winds.exterior.earth.their.straight.2.Unless.Wind Loads 31 which.square.and.relative..associated.sailing.location.outward.data.they.are.These.ground.and.winds.States.near.high.at.produces.winds.a. impose.are.established.died.them.The.east.of.openings.that.and.that.the.in.a.1 stRaight-Line winD This.shown.to.ships.significant.the.winds..lies.trade.variety.calculated.types.local.type.department.6.

include.Management. Port 32 Angeles Seattle Olympia Kalispell Spokane Great Falls Portland Minot Missoula Salem Butte Bi Glendive Bangor Medford Challis Billings Montpelier Boise Cody Buffalo Bay Rapid Albany Boston Pocatello Jackson City aukee Redding Casper Buffalo Rock Springs Detroit Sacramento Reno Cheyenne Carson City icago Harrisburg New York Salt Lake City Cleveland San Francisco Denver ASCE 7-05 ngfield Indianapolis Grand Cincinnati Las Windborne Junction Charleston Washington.. and Composite Systems Virgin.2010.special. Puerto Guam ASCE 7-05 Hurricane-prone region Rico.S.also..regions.the.Guam..Samoa...Rico...U.P-804.regions.Wind Retrofit Guide for Residential Buildings.Hurricane/typhoon-prone.) .American.Federal.DC:.(From. DC Bakersfield Vegas Pueblo Debris region Cortez Lexington Roanoke Wichita Springfield Owensboro San Los Angeles Flagstaff Gallup Santa Fe Tulsa Bernardino Raleigh San Nashville Diego Albuquerque Amarillo Fort Smith Memphis Phoenix Oklahoma City Columbia Little Roswell Rock Atlanta Fort Worth Birmingham Macon Dallas Jackson Alaska El Paso Abilene Savannah Montgomery Fairbanks Nome Baton Tallahassee Houston Rouge Valdez Orlando Anchorage San Antonio New Orleans Tampa Juneau Miami Honolulu Special wind region American Samoa.Emergency..Washington.and.wind.Association.December.Islands..and.FEMA. Tall Building Design: Steel. Virgin Islands Hawaii Boundary of the ASCE 7-10 Hurricane-prone region Figure 2..Note:. Concrete.regions.7  Hurricane-prone.Puerto.

and.s.Hurricanes.high.doldrums.mph.clouds.out.one..northeast.they.high.from.7-10.its. development..In.spring.from.very.numbers.also.as. Saffir–Simpson.of.when.as.oceans. These.storm.. severe.Wind Loads 33 2.faster. and.from.of.I.not.the.few.common.northeastern.strongest).hurricanes.or.severe.wind.of.defense. the.of.basic.600. eye.typically.stationary.The.storm.Except. 50.the.can.(3.intensity.highest.and.varies.heavy.conditions.storm.in.hurricane. of.several.are.great.a.interacts. Hurricanes.I.around.through. spells. area.accompa- nied.striking.180. the.Risk.the.for. Atlantic..of.seas.and. and.originate.may.hour.Almost.ris- ing.speed.warmth.blow.strong..hurricane-prone.. hot.up.all.cladding..a.on..rains.with..the.in.air.m/s).or.on.storm.atmospheric..diameter.and.heavy.in. The.hurricane’s.it.type.in..hurricanes.Thunderstorms.of. thunderstorms.between.Midwest.thunderstorms.northwest. as.in.are.often. terrestrial.they.earth.However.warm.last.and.(translational. tropical.the..Besides. rain.and.abruptly.and..(the.form.low-pressure.it.speed). rain....high.a.the.five-step. are.prevalent. .winds.along.for.and..the.States.values.type.are.basic.the.once.weakest).rises.become.of.000..2.Observe.warm. 2.Categories.they.atmosphere.hurricanes.25.being.in.create.rapidly.for. Thunderstorms. thunderstorms.wind.high.days.storms.faster.swing.move.2.greatest.potential.and.IV.often.the.and. torrential.lift.of..and.temperate.over.of.. release.with.at.Within. in.are.any.gusty.United.in.storm.develop. Category. in. most.and.10.first.tropics. for.center.occur.speeds.mph.the..only.The.summer.fully..tornadoes..minutes.the.causing.at. From.approxi- mately.United.m/s).They.the..Caribbean.the.action.eye...and.buildings.hurricanes.produce.increasing.two.summer.produced.converging.their.have...are.the.spiraling.become.clouds. punctuated.for.much.heavy..the.hence.and.saturated.the.of.the.affect.violent.storm’s..to..hurricane. conditions.system.circularly.Ocean.reached.severe.in.such.location.can.delivering.stall.rise.moisture.exceptionally. disturbances.forward.westerly.the.roofing.movement.storm.the.Thunder.equator.same.2.results.normally.winds.can.rains.winds.very.devastating.at. of.winds.synonymous.lightning.warm. the...exerting.are.altitudes.has.creating.as.with..developed.cold..a.(90.cease.and.ASCE.5 thunDeRstoRm This.downpours.for..occasionally.point. speeds.4 noRtheasteRn winDs This.upper.or.usually..direction.velocities.most. by.in.States. higher.rises.the.gust).the.at.high-velocity.are....occurs. for. regions.States.travel.air..200. blowing.accompany.ori- gin.speeds.regions. 2. center.in.in.specified. spectacular..less.forces.away.a.consist.mph.a.Sea.that.center.level.commonly.the.continues. disturbances.Besides.land..speeds.and.northeast.atmosphere.sometimes.the.maximum.of..develops.is..The.winds.They.velocity.southeast. the.extremely. one.the.started.Figure. of.is.the.rapidly.See.winds.United.of.the..invariably.hurricanes.have.They.mi.bring.thunderstorm. tropical cyclones..Hail.70–80.(the.200.for.dense.air.vary.hurricanes.Scale.A.and.quite.the.wind.center.6 huRRicane This.cooler..cause.swirling.cold.and.attain.the.designed.and.producing.. that.of.rare.terms.and. produce.tornadoes.at..respectively.Wind.of. long.the. and typhoons..ranges.virtually.given.the.storm.wind.great.in. essential..speed.lower.move.in.2.of.low-pressure.familiar.of.character- ized.features.installations.drops.pressure.170.warm.building.air.structure.each. Hurricanes.. many. Of.and.Hurricane.geo- graphical.suction.The..are.for. forms.is.coast. atmospheric.reach..weather.10.it.than.people.air.(the.from.often. by.(31–36.for.area.moving.wind.mph..north.V.wind.the..violent.sometimes.year.moist.of.III.instances.area..only. these.a.the.and.sharply..also. are.conse- quently.rates.type.II.also.and. most.. the.and.toward.and.50–70..full.components.known..devastating.to.spawn.of.the.ground.Approximately.mph.with. originate.Category..form. velocity.these.the.elements.hurricane).7. The.also. heaviest.eye.known.Under.are.either.a.Hurricanes. and.to.doldrums.The.of.typically.types.winds.blow.They.rainfall.storm.storm..capable.storm.of.speeds.in.can.and.several. the..high.large.between. of.in.an.a.winds.edge.violently.then.toward.scale.

called.extend. to.the.destructive.measurement.Storms. trunk.the. the.made..storm.cold..ground.air.path. .inter- cepted.wind.occur.many.having..the.a.m/s).and.tornado.mi.the.roared.no.cool.are.tornadoes.tornadoes.and.from. responsible.some.feet.leading.As.Statistically.year.Bay.causes. rapidly.in.(F4–F5).consist.up.begins.storms.America.funnel.a. warm.periphery.are.magnitude. right.the.they. center.to.extension.the.its.Australia.tornado belt.standard.1979. are.hurricanes..it.predominately..(incredible.common.of.of.two.such.However.with.data.large.a.of.As.cooler.the.form.funnel.sucked.at.the.hurricane.vortex.(light. speed.curtain. on. wind-borne.tornadoes.overlaying. .for.. wind-related.to.mph.considered.. all.destroy.m/s).usually.surface.The.a. Tornadoes..to.the.develop.(F0–F1).(92–l52.m).vortex.rotating.by.300. path.on.most.the.(8–10. the.usually.air.through.naturally.In.measuring.base.of. strong.(2252.buildings.contains.pressure.called.and.front. from.are.until.engineer.typi- cal.to.alike.that.to.Weak.in.the.. 112.torna- does.decks. with.from.7–25.close.the.anchorage.there.tornadoes. the..air..attention.accompanied. of.and.the. the..A.the..damage). However.km).torna- does.may. 1. been.air. widths.to.frequency.down. the.cyclones.plains.frequently.5–6.plains.historical.categorizes.occasionally..seas. a.about.general.the.from.past.very.air...up.F0.over. of.of..even.forces.warm.of.which..clouds..winds.can.still.is.be..creating.mph.of. for. a. blow.scale.reduction.typhoon.runs.of.violently.the.high-altitude.Bengal..hurricanes.and. less.of.Rolling.typically.each.the.with.suggest. 1400 mi.eventually.190.from.mi.the.centrifugal.pick.whirl- ing.depending.winds.origin.rises....of..center.North.funnel-shaped.air.is.a.it.direct.the..might. warm.warm.of.of.air.when.the.hit.Figure.(9–14.on.ft.with.low-pressure.building. plank.A.long.single.air..(16.everything.to.toward.Larger..accurate.are.of.be.. known.common.occur. have.at..areas.the.and.ground.to.of..walls. widths.vortices.wide. straws.area.building.circulating.F3).moderate.begun.be. several.speed..the.to.tornado..funnel.not. Wind.six-step. decreases.warm.as.parts.because.rare. Concrete.(F2.a..and.ft.for.damage).tornado.of.in.large..usually..but.reduced.hundred.a.a.tornado.touches.a.is. and Composite Systems over.thunderstorm.most.severity.m/s).the.pressure.7 toRnaDo This..such.the.is.Tornadoes.violent.8.classified.begins.tornadoes...of.F5.are.downward.The.could.tornado.cold.natural.typhoons—a.spinning.visible.km).ranges.travels.air.If.A. of.meaning.speeds. pieces.within.States.damage...home.funnel.storm.ground.vary.(134.to.diameter.are. 2.as. reported.and.have.from.Fujita.though.little. Warm.The.2.country.flat..drawn.steel.die.created.approximately.in.34 Tall Building Design: Steel.of.a.the.by.core.have.of. wood.column.form.more.rapidly. and.to.Texas. drive.northeast..more.in. increased.means.of.pay.high.diameter.increases.destructively.ft.and. greatest. areas.velocity.However. from..vortex. touching.highest. Chinese. number.in. of.tornado.based.to. ft.the.tornado.of.violent.recorded.great.along. Although..of.typical.be. the.of. end-on.to. of.and.tornadoes.3.of.the.and.No.rotating.up.common.occurrence.than. that.eye.to. Tornadoes.exactly.toward.tornado.touched.storm.a.of.This.that.distance.great- est.has.a.get.into.wind.averages.collides.air.from.seen.to. directed..the.mph.of.several.outlet.moving. for.in.storms..The.are. a.instruments.not.and.deck.in.had.inner.for.the.the.force. cloud. through.periphery.flat.tornado.Violent.trapped.size. approximately.under. 300–500.ground.Distance.colder.They.name..impacted.m/s).oceans.storm.a.north..many.(6–40 km).of.upon.extra.or.has.destroying.diameter.out.thunderstorms.See.the.a.encounter. are.above.Although.The. than.clouds.gains.wind.tornadoes.km).can.200–800.Guam.more.2.roof.the. 1000.sustain..Pacific.(610 m).the.subjected.(600.strong.it.speeds.where. distance.whirl..a..and.Kansas. 375-mi.be.the.been.within.20–30.However.of.violence.km).spiraling.m).surface.ground.(85.can.of.diameter.(61–244.Funnels. The. tree.the..center.to.its.are.region..in. column. deaths.island..photographs.cloud.for.in. the.and.design.the. mi..extending.could. debris.strength.center.scale. through.wind which strikes..because..Fortunately..tornado.toward. high wind.usually.is.the.dense. typically.speeds.speed.of.a..even.as.(50.has.moist.edge.at.are.the. Tornado. a.storm.the.severe.country.observed..United.the.a.are.other.a.the.2000.10.bottom.buildings.have.make.by.behooves.it. however.in.The.tornado.Nebraska.it.reaching.characteristics..is..storms.the.the. communities. been.to.a.all.the.mph.column. of.to.of..impractical.a. wind.debris..mi.have.to.in..on.water.northwestern.be.frequency.

DC Bakersfield Vegas Pueblo St. community.. (From. United.. and F5 tornadoes Olympia per 3. Puerto Hawaii Rico. States. shelters.8  Tornado. construction. guidance. Virgin Islands * Based on NOAA. 35 Washington.DC:. based. New Orleans Orlando San Antonio <1 Anchorage Valdez Tampa Juneau 1–5 6–15 Honolulu Miami 16–25 >25 American Samoa.Federal. F4. and. FEMA. and F5 tornadoes Nome Houston Rouge per 3700 sq.2000. Storm Prediction Center Statistics Figure  2.July. in.. the. data. occurrence.. F4. on.) . historical.700 square miles (1950–1998) Spokane Kalispell Wind Loads Great Falls Missoula Minot Portland Salem Butte Bismarck Bangor Glendive Fargo Duluth Challis Billings Montpelier Medford Boise Cody Minneapolis Buffalo Rapid Pierre Green Bay Albany Jackson Boston Pocatello City Rochester Redding Milwaukee Buffalo Casper Rock Springs Detroit Sacramento Reno Cheyenne Sioux City Carson City Chicago Harrisburg New York Salt Lake City Omaha Des Cleveland San Grand Moines Francisco Island Grand Denver Springfield Indianapolis Junction Cincinnati Las Topeka Kansas City Charleston Washington. Port Angeles Seattle Summary or recorded F3. mi.Association.Emergency. Design.. Louis Cortez Wichita Springfield Lexington Roanoke Owensboro Los Angeles San Flagstaff Gallup Santa Fe Tulsa Bernardino Raleigh San Albuquerque Nashville Diego Oklahoma City Fort Smith Phoenix Amarillo Columbia Little Roswell Rock Memphis Atlanta Birmingham Macon Fort Worth Dallas Jackson El Paso Abilene Savannah Montgomery Fairbanks Number of recorded Baton Tallahassee F3. for. 361.Management.

.hazards.and.in.of.few.the. In.following.wall.given.it) .earlier. events.rapidly.days. of. diameter.and.It.collapses.(except.. key. However.during.the. tornado.is. 2.visible.the.hurricane.collapse.earthquakes.no.unstable.the.relatively.there.economical.a. unlikely.so.a. as.at.ground.national.center. areas.as.route. Values.cause.of.foundation.a. being.the..tornado.roof.occupants.well.key..notice.several.m/s).its.earthquake. of.is.and.destruction.as.anchorage.its. m).takes.basis.ones.is..are. safety.give.devices.be.serious.assembly.considerable.in.all. reinforcing.thoroughly.are.location.or.stored.disturbance.areas.always. because.the.at. than. over.unsupported.or.building.there..greatest.strong.and.of.which.a.buildings.is.few.incidence. 1.there.new. particular.is.business.day.due.to.onto.the.account.of.takes.daylight.close.floods).small.totally.it.hazards.size.8 statisticaL LikeLihooD of natuRaL hazaRDs The.probabilities.almost.anchorage.buildings.generally.because. 2.hours. experience.far. and.high.such.violence.Hurricanes.contain.location.its.to. is.and.rising.tornadoes.and.not.for. to. the.hurricane. Alaska.a.killed.warning.from. to.commonly.details..design.the.impor- tant.is.around.atmospheric.seem..warning.Like.occupants) Deficiency.speeds.on.epicenter.a.are.are. there.are. tornadoes.(the. For.To.that.movement..incidence. across.seasons. power.for. hit.protect.Tornadoes.hazards.tornado.death..than. details. block.may.to..immediate. that.are..days.than.consists.time.. is.tornadoes.in.or.the. ft.times...walls.much.every.predicted.then.2.167–224. the.generalized.goods.order. rotating.every.return. occupant.mi.for.frequent.by.of.in. For. tornado.two...floors. often.such..nuclear.of.shorter.protection.in.by.a.before.along.have.visible.and.winds.construction. a..although.order.tornado.even.precise.among.yet.recommended.why.injured.to.of.that..the.tornadoes.the.2.open..sensing.the.low.house.large.key.seriously. shown.is.of.plants.an.area.is.not..satisfy.within.its.furiously.off.did..winds.its.second.much..for.of.atmospheric...without.e. probability.detail.approach. by.natural.300–400.natural.ends.the.that.earthquakes.construction: .ones.floor.The.its. can.until.the.periods.random.some.hours..events. km).of.concrete..as.before.block.for. such.month.. give.a.tornado-damaged.off.hit.the.are. Although.wind.because.to.mass.specific.locations.strikes.exceptions..foundation. that.or. to.With.occupants.much.even.of.the. unique.be.hitting.regional.(the.be..by.comes.expressed.are.more.is.the.hours.to.9.such.the. California.are. small.gives.into.any.is.would.from.to.the.hurricane’s.The.confronting.return.details.much.vertical.can. tornado.. occupants.destructive.Figure.generally.shown.Floods.90%. more.crises.indicated.such.site. a.the.is. (483–644.serious.can.local.36 Tall Building Design: Steel.tracking...the.similarity.Although..terms.more.in.public. provide.occupants. in. (458.it.Therefore.hurricane.with.path.whereas..most.is.air.regarded..tornado.give.localized.warn- ing. any.Earthquakes.the. frequent. be.and.occur.and..their.vary.of. were.. large.buildings.build- ing..walls.as.general. reported. building.common.seconds. tornadoes..carefully.definitely.larger. .no.but. very. of.earthquakes.for. making.designed.failure.damage.occupancies.roofs.tornado-prone.timing.a. .wall.of.without.the.mph.so.of.extreme.warning.loss.prediction.are.(75–100.is.higher..and.continuous.injury..with.the. of.and.and. areas.other.these.those. construction.tracked.caused.slower. because. The.nothing.warning.probability.roof.landfall.. Although. Concrete.block. building.in.very.such.design..the.however.warning.rare.specific.as.economic.cannot.predicted. of. The. can. (i.the.here.Hurricanes.the..wind. events.especially. Investigations. 1500.on.than. tracked.flash.structural.all.of. though. and Composite Systems speeds.their.as.a.and.movement.be.pressure. earthquake-prone.system.and.vicinity.long.periods..a. one.linking.is. For.warning.of. for.envelope.of.hazards.inside..now.for.the.owner.should.

Management.guidance.speeds.FEMA.) . 37 Federal.(From.for.Washington....community. Louis Cortez Wichita Springfield Lexington Owensboro Roanoke Los Angeles San Flagstaff Gallup Tulsa Bernardino Santa Fe Raleigh Nashville Albuquerque Fort Smith Memphis Phoenix Amarillo Oklahoma City Columbia San Little Atlanta Roswell Diego Rock Birmingham Macon Fort Worth Dallas Jackson El Paso Abilene Savannah Montgomery Fairbanks Wind zones Baton Tallahassee ZONE I Houston Rouge Nome Alaska New Orleans (130 mph) Orlando San Antonio Anchorage Valdez Tampa ZONE II Juneau (160 mph) Other considerations Honolulu ZONE III Miami Special wind region (200 mph) +Hurricane-susceptible region ZONE IV Hawaii+ (250 mph) American Samoa.DC:.for. Puerto + Guam + *Design wind speed measuring criteria are Rico.Emergency.shelters.community.9  Design.361..construction.Association.July.wind. Virgin Islands consistent with ASCE 7-98 – 3-s gust – 33 ft above grade – Exposure C Figure 2.. Port Angeles Seattle Olympia pell Kalis Spokane Wind Loads Great Falls Portland Minot Missoula Salem Bismarck Butte Bangor Glendive Fargo Medford Billings Duluth Challis Montpelier Boise Cody Minneapolis Buffalo Pierre Rapid Green Bay Albany Boston Pocatello Jackson Casper City Rochester Milwaukee Redding Buffalo Rock Springs Detroit Sacramento Reno Cheyenne Sioux City Carson City Omaha Des Chicago Harrisburg New York San Salt Lake City Cleveland Grand Moines Francisco Island Denver Springfield Indianapolis Grand Cincinnati Las Topeka Washington.tornado.shelters.Design.2000. DC Junction Kansas City Charleston Bakersfield Vegas Pueblo St.and.

such.in. together...of.average. expressed.seismic.people.the.one.in.deci- sion.years. the.may.China.caused. useful.a.future.event. be.by. return.large.probability.a.but..far.several.wind.expressed.And.over.of.do.they.the.represent.because.it..will.are..called. prevailing. wind.between.earthquakes.period.a. For. generating..irregular.or.warmer.During.would.an..their...earth.safely.and. folklore.of. a.of..often.the.seasonal.return period.magnitude. Concrete.the.parts. areas..oceans.The.2000.a. loads. year.even.commonly.wind.mathematician.to...and.statements. low-pressure. surge.the.northerly.are. Because.time. belt.a.and.10.caused.They.38 Tall Building Design: Steel.year.or.winter.the.time. seasonal.quite. prevailing.toward.northeast.variations. 1. example.experience.winds.be. equatorial.and.in.. can.tell. approximately.perhaps..generations.in.California.by.the.wind.regional.than.is.summer.their..something.and.that.winds.direction.period.in.specified.Francisco.before.the.even.. of.Earthquakes..frequent..terms.and. succession.the.buildings.one.blowing. into..mountain.hence. time.air.occurs? The.to.makers. move- ments.in.a.Local winds:.peri- ods.for.not.mean.with.the.the.us.breezes.to.correspond.be.are.an.relation. Atlantic.daily.used.seasons.but. in.over. the. period.of.that.consequences.continents.which.occur.of. the.country.worried. commonly.seats.between.rational..are. risk.lifetime. Prevailing winds:.patterns.by.. 1%.floods. Even.known.the. are.over.seasonal.what.discrepancy.most. values. of.as. bringing.for.land.very.The.that.that..in.its.happen.colder.with.period. the.to. the. and Composite Systems so.wind..possible.they.be...Massachusetts.in.local. .the..or.Because. oceans.in.incidence.occurrence.terrain..homes.as.these..corresponding.local. winds.of.of. .exceeded.must. the.include.problem.for.the.the.or.years. prevailing.rooms.blowing.50.in.Indian.engineered.earthquake.the.1906..the.return.noticeable.colder.probability.level. average.in.and.wind.back.safe.(an.return. warmer.can. directed.400.trade. winds.are.or.earthquakes.of.or.occurrence.and.less.effects.because.in..about.Although. called.example.corresponding.year.oceans.(or.and.these.can.of.the..hazards.of.example. .rarity.types.given.a.of.difficult..really.of.the. moving.than. adjacent.counterproductive.of.presents.probability.low.is.is.the.Sea.periods..broadly. For.that.by.to.happen.in.is. tornado-prone.return.is.the. monsoons.trade.may.and.the.the. hurricanes.mean.. be.warning..natural..extreme. and.the. of.wind. These... Surface.is..will.only.their.will.use. are.exceedance.an.schools..next.with.be. of.long.northeasterly..design.of.a.of..during.Seasonal winds:.time.and.continents. but.relatively. air.mean recurrence interval (MRI).daily. in.period. is.shorter.periods.then. of.However.the.as.be.problem..These.not.in.for.pressure.pressure. to.in.probability. 2.hint.there.causing.a.of.San. with.occurrence.wind.500.whirl- winds..year.deflected.southeast.years—let.years..expected.magnitude..same.basements..or.is.probabilities.as. experience.winds.what.it.southern.use.years). of.probabilities.our.of. pressure.actual. retreated.we.a.Because.a.probability.value).mean. Traditionally.alone.building.express. winds.associated.than. . a.practical.best.might.in. roam. in.constructed.is.In.with.are.. residents..purpose.of.rarity. seaboard.and.winds.high.not.and.mean.of.predicted. Winds.shaking.the.in.Air.about.event.over. that. of.500-year.wind.for. three. be. types:.complete.become.defined.rotation.California. Currently.is.The.This.. major.summer.interested.years?).of. 3.importance.the.Ocean..the.to.this. All.of.trade.and.intensity.period).an. storm.for.deal.e.the.the. toward. every.confusing.. classified..are.as.in.pressure.may.events. design.perfectly. the.codes.they.and.or.the.give.result.of..the.unpredictable.temperature.is.equator.their.next.more.or.in.(i.plus...are.inaccurate.from.now...high. interest.to.another.earthquake.winds.earthquake.In.the.500..three.thunderstorms.the.difference.of.temperature.is.in.the..that.their.the.still.being.California.the.much.what.go.of.little. occur.next.to.return.years.air.winds.northern. winds.higher.500.may.if. characteristics.earthquake. extreme.public.and.weather.most.Alaska.deter- mining.only.stories.the.in. buildings.figures.one.acceleration. and.years. toward.valley. hemisphere..many.their.variations.time. grouped.long.is.probability..This.term.. lack.predictable.winter.examples. high.or.In. other..pressure.codes.earthquake.floods.to.changes..The.are.are.Tennessee.return..hemisphere.of.lifetime.event.would.are.can.

Similarly.imposed.(1.that.that.States.example.service.mph.49/50.a..design.(1.the.be.of.buildings.as.seasonal.. this.the..period.rainfall. A.a.speed.(10.to.of.time.corresponding.intensity..local.for.1.50-year.vary.with.. It.exposure.winds.the..the.wind.instance..0.the.is.100.of n.probability.exceed.in.(51.(return.expected.is.of.much.period.the.a.of.prevailing.that.grouping.is..120.a.local.in.of.probability.of.by P.speeds.for..during.still.and.over.actual.in.period.in.it..return.are.the.87 = 87% .least.during.100.The.to.years Consider.7-10.is..is 100 æ 49 ö 1.that.(reciprocal.least.a.a.seconds.=.lifetime.of. will.building.year.winds..of.the.period.of.in.=..understand.return.probability.months.given.fluids.annual.those.14%.0.design.the.is.that.the.as gusts.mph.over.very.the.5-IA.in.probability.a.of.speed.as fluctuations.Figures.100-year.the..service.the..separately.will.64% .nonhurricane.MRI) n.A.(49/50)100.engineering.this.wind.years.For.700.design..at.sciences.occurrence.a.a.of. widely.For.building.are.one.is.lifetime. engineering.say.an.that. period.of.to.The.lifetime.is.100.less.many.wind.distinguish.speed.probability. overstressing.gust.that.115.0.means.~..mph.00143.that.wind.26.being.within.being.wind.low.115.velocity.design.year.that.period.are.this.is.wind.with.is.Pa)n where Pa.the.of.function. corresponds.is P.exceeded.the.probability.See.a.10.of.the.−.of.speed. 2.random.ç ÷ = 0.average.in.exceeded.IB.exposed.be.2.36.studied.several.practice.high.the.winds.a.−.speed.notion.is. that.once.700.fluctuate.and.The.years.is. Suppose.m/s). structure.is..wind..at.not. in.a.to.wind.occurrence.variations.of.engineering.of.the.speed.for.probability.signifies.winds.design.faster.the.varia- tions.=.the.any.is.these.=.most..Thus.once.m/s).building.33.scales.less.return-period.terms.m/s)..of.to.of.ASCE.for.probability.safety.areas.period.−.general.expected.a.1/700.115.the.Because.years.exceeded. exceeding.the..wind.probability. MRI.may.will.compared.a.studied.will.14%.50.occurring.every.local.−.02)50. design.is.This.However...years.unlike.regions.9 pRoBaBiListic appRoach in winD engineeRing In.a.m/s).every.referred.of.=. experience.within..of.of.the.once.certain.of.that.this.dura- tion.mph.fluctuates.probability.conservative.P.instead.For.not.years.self-evident.interval.in.maps.whereas.few.3.700.a. è 50 ø This.important.on.the.years.years.Wind Loads 39 whereas.MRI.believed.using.of.of.for.structure. structures.a.generally. expected.recurrence.design.considered.exceeded.years.these.The.fluctuations.will.at.700-year.although.nominal.is.expression.other.in.speed.this.events.on.in.115.of.winds..115.than.used.seasonal.short. loads.prevailing..chance...is.the.exceeded.is.whereas.ft.Therefore.exists.in.(51.(51.wind.that.64.differing.of.(54.probability.be.in.intensity.annual.the.of.wind.region..least.statistically.of.for.the.of.because. What..s.of.will.and.of.occur.within.of.vary.0.a.considered.there. mean..of.given.periods.the.life.a.fashion.speed.aboveg- round.1.the.of.. exceeding.the.of.mph..winds. Flow.hydrology.referred.of.to..a.wind.at.of.buildings.of.wind.are.The.occurrence.is.wind.=.50-year.in.than.areas.within.lifetime.once.life.United.example.1..return.wind..designed.used.1700.years.struc- ture?..will.the.speed.to.0.−.a.factors.of.wind.mph.dur- ing.considered.once.to.the.and.rainfall.it.speed.the.be..wind.designed.between. values.in.period).design.m).basic.a.structural.of.row.0.years.exceeded.probability..

Concrete.profiles.building..in..wind.for.those.was. Taranath...failure.and.the.suburban.building.defines.in.7-10.succeeding.surfaces.64 0.7.22 0.is.18 0.(see.7-10.defined. influence.02 0.resist.Exposures.pronounced.strength.prevent. CRC.73 0.in. Reinforced Concrete Design of Tall Buildings.areas.adjacent.S.2.06 0.2.in.adjacent.005 0.the.Exposure.surfaces.Table.probability..regions.of.D.flats.includes.following.areas.58 0.therefore.and.MRI.for.of.05 0.1.interacts.estimated.28 0.the.3.for.40 0. water. 2..under.smooth- est.suction).flat.pressure..a.buildings.).(Note:. n (years) annual  Mean recurrence  Probability Pa  interval (1/Pa) years  1  5  10  25  50  100  0.design.C...the.98 0. Note.wind.ASCE.06 0.If.wind..2 Basic winD speeD ASCE.D.flats.speeds.terrain).01 0.hur- ricane. not.or.must.Exposure..40 Tall Building Design: Steel.2.coastal. wind.hurricane-prone.regions.B.the.adjust- ment.wind..pressures..3.actual.basic.exceeded.in.s.areas.64 0.pressures.in.994 0.a.speeds. .10 0.like.Negative.the.occur.Exposure.receive.ground.than.factors.C.period.in.5)..C.FL..includes..earlier.salt.the. exposure.(flat.retardation.in.both.sufficient.64 0.defines.a.is.and.Exposure.e. given.10 0.013 0.22 0.7-10.unbroken.made.nominal.49 0.the.water.negative.Exposure.than.Exposure.smoother.open.3. Press..2.would.a.to.above.for.in.scattered.and. and Composite Systems TabLe 2.(i.10 0.basic wind speed).01 100 0.005 200 0.calculation.1 0..in. Raton.that.B.load.an.obstructions.03 0.longer.speed.to.Exposures.C.given. 2.18 0.a.15 0.28 0.82 0.4.speeds.function.1 10 0.Exposure.wind..10.have.text.04 25 0.87 0.013 75 0.positive. Exposure.includes.three.exposure. B.as.period.with.and.shown.higher.vicinity.D.basic.12 0.the. The.in..The.a.wind.findings..to.2.of.See.15 0.simul- taneously.with.wind.49 0.and.in.ambient.and.Figures.same.as.speed).building.(which.is.D.is.and.open.loads.be.its.the..shown.04 0. Boca.urban. building.loads.15 0.1 exposuRe categoRies The.order.C.ASCE.the.applied.roughness.mud.wind-induced.ASCE..P.to.29 0.surface.increases.given.used.034 0.0067 0.a.hurricane.and.2.is.measured.of.40 0.will.that.pressures.Exposure.that.terrain.terrain.of. A.cor- responding.Exposure.D.to.ASCE.....building.D...wooded.located.3  wiND/buiLDiNg iNTeraCTioNs When.Figure.is.7-05.93 0.MRI.D.grade.magnitude..is.02 50 0.greater.41 0. The.wind. with.roughest.C.located.primary.exposure.recent.ft.the.(subject.than.procedure.0067 150 0. are.terrain.of.the.back.to.Therefore.located.999 0.as.B.. 2..87 0.and.building.characteristics.the.B.B.cat- egories..velocity.in.of.exposure..predecessor.034 30 0..at.33.are.and..the.34 0.have.2009.97 0.ice.the.39 Source:.1 Probability of exceeding Design wind speed during Design Life  of a building exposure Period (Design Life).magnitude.less.loading.the.the.Values...rather.regions.02 0..05 0.gust..the.are..irregularities.

Prior.1995.the.fastest-mile..air. as.near.of.wind.the. Taranath..the.is. city outskirts.for..the.(e.basic.ASCE.for.provides.ground.10  Wind.of.loads.high.7.wind.than.roof.to.load.2009. required.=.by.86.procedure.are.us..procedure.the. increases.a.. is.g.example..to. D. the.pounds..a.a. In.area.ASCE.to.. speed.a.e.building.(i.a.on.assume.3..about.given.for.in.factor.edition.ridges.on.let.basic.for.loads.the.and.the.been.hence.the.50. squared.1. terrain open terrain unobstructed areas.speed.speed).pressures.mph.) Since.For.3... basic.are. .time.wind.wind.versus.over.was.covering.speed. increased.increased..speeds.mph.FL.the.. is.of.grater.the.Raton.a.and.speed.ridge.mile-long. pressures.flat.wind.CRC.changes.of.7. velocity.land.above..a.Therefore..point). to.pass.a. 2.peak.gust.5 v z 1/11..5 400 200 0 Center of large city Rough wooded country.to..s.wind.fastest-mile.receive.3 topogRaphy Abrupt.gust.speed. (From.is.time.greater.roof. Flat open country. (psf).account..load. profile.corner. urban and suburban towns.per.averaged.. determining. C.the.a.isolated.110..S.90..to.height.Wind Loads 41 1800 1600 1400 zg = 1200 ft 1200 v z 1/7 1000 zg = 900 ft 800 zg = 700 ft 600 v z1/4.is.time. therefore.speed. open flat coastal belts.building.topography.peak. corresponding.4 BuiLDing height Wind.equivalent.3. to..a.mph..70.height..Press.hills. the.typically.. B.fastest- mile..ASCE.peak.If.speeds.building..with..taller.a. Exposures.Boca.fixed.higher.a.would.at.is..mph.high-rise..speed.has.the..increases.(150/110)2.escarpments.a.basic.mile.the..different. speed.20..such.7. and water surfaces outside hurricane-prone regions Exposure B Exposure C Exposure D Figure  2. 2.faster.the.as.uplift.of.speed..located..a.that. and.150.the.exponentially.the.wind.speed.speed.wind.a. Reinforced Concrete Design of Tall Buildings.square.the.column.. wind..increased.account. therefore..foot.influences.cause.Because. relatively.mph.with.located.fastest.corner. gust. velocity.topographic. B. the. wind.provides..speedup.measuring.building.than.building.

infiltration.in.breakage).for.capability.roof.the..lower.the.. When.exterior.and..these.use. and.speedup.6 aeRoDynamic pRessuRe Because. aerodynamics.of..pressure). window..and.exterior.of. the.a.and.or.on..in.the.buildup.external.full.has.uplift.(this..... the.building.is.pressure.gable..the.the.out.is.window.causes.than.depressurized. Building.larger.However.the.side.The.internal.air.the.that.roof.significantly.the.the. roof.As.of.decrease.can.loads.different.the.than. The.of.increases.the.also.. same.than.7.with.main.42 Tall Building Design: Steel..load.for.12.is.applied.on..side.porosity.steeper.are.within.becomes.is.pulled.3.pressure.projections.negative.enclosed.partitions.or.the.positive.out.the.the.the.wind.are.the..which.than..buildings.above.. load.and.But.coefficients.walls.roof.Buildings..in.an.pushes.walls.wall..at. various.is. because.wall.roof.combined.a.coefficients.pressurized.surface.forces.assess.coefficients.pressures.analogous.buildings.the. When. building).the.negative.pushes.building.indicate.walls.influences.roof.accounted.the.load.to.outward.affects..loads.the.The.and.is.of.combined..referred.push.outward.11.is.it.is.on.the.ends.the.surface.be.balloon).entire.internal.(e.location.the.also.side.an. the.gable/hip.bay.and.(i.are.side.increased.walls.the.up.occur.the.wall.around. that.of.within..portion.the.wind.partially.the.the.The.increases.the.building.wind.provides.on.ceiling.At.are.the.slope.roof.depressurized.building.a.the.Exterior.rear.example.absolutely.therefore.uplift.For.increased.building.load.on.air.is.posi- tive. the.can.fully..those.porosity.discussed.interior.through.to.to.roof.a.projecting.the.blowing.the.negative.the.boards.The.air..suction.to.exerted.the.and.pressure. Aerodynamic.of.referred.the.airtight.in.loads.is.The.of.with..internal.pressure.suction.text.on. wind.pressure. which.the.irregularities.a.internal.indicate.from.loads.pressure.coefficient.a.windward.decreased.stair.from.wall..pulls.building.time.loaded.the..pulls.when.Porosity.somewhat.building.succeeding.on.down.and.frames.a.than.less.of.are.wall.blow.pressure.which.have.load.balloon).ends.such.an.interior.the.Turbulence.the. and Composite Systems 2.other.pressurized.reduces.and.can. walls.roof.dormers.2.(this.monoslope.building.wall.also.the.win- dow.result.a.roof.from. also.inward.which.doors.on.loads.and.if.provides..the.lower.between.internal.the.of.side.Figure.pressure.e.of.being..to.and.acting.3. the..limited.walls.which.a.positive.hip..are.of.on. . Building.the.magnitude.to.windward.localized..procedure.shown.uplift..negative. building.the. building.a.the.wall.walls.magnitude.of.the.pressure.(e.to..all.by..the.internal..left.corners.and.breaching.on.of.the.of. used.irregularity.the.design.the.a.cause.building.door.sufficient.internal.pressurized. upward.as.analogous.for.the.values.down.wall..for.. 2.is.and.Therefore.as.rear.contributes.a.by.air.high.e.for.have.rear..sawtooth.to. When.schematics..as.to. (i.as.load.occur.that.in.the.uniformly.This.building.openings.shape.on.is. amount.fully.(suction).roof. between.typically.pressure.rear.wall.See.grid.building.suction.is..coefficients.roof.perimeter.striking..their..domes..pressurized. loads.a.at.lower.walls.cause.the.the.at.pressure.from.Internal.wall.if.internal.is.g.positive.field.loads.rear..with.pressure.higher. walls.. in.walls.exterior.combined..The.the. a.interior.building.suction.positive.have.the.interior.loads.chimneys.out.roof.the.can.loads.pressure. the.etc.a.striking.wind- ward.in.porosity.typically.side.as.are.low-slope.the.the.pressure.on.influence.interior.open. highest..of..caused.through.that.loaded.roof.function.and.in.2.increase.building’s.into.of..up..This.cause.small.schematically.calcula- tions.wall.the..roof..or.greater.pressure.surface..walls.calculations.of.the.pressurization.is.Buildings.exerts...wall.and.the.Positive.the.receiv- ing.changes. pressure.combined.load.on.wind.the..Figure..g.of.not.the.low-slope.the..shape.porosity. of.5 inteRnaL pRessuRe Wind. Concrete. Wind.as.position.and.well.is.inward.roof.pressure).the..of.receiving. the..resulting..The.are. the.window.is.by.on. ASCE.as.these.in.windward.a.therefore.out.window.applied..porosity.(i. roofs.e.roofs.below..a.building.of.due. interaction.in.use.A.on.walls.surfaces.and.enclosed..envelope.roofs.openings.of.either..turbulence..blow.and.tower.build- ing.corner).uplift..to.of.wind.letting.the.from.values. openings.are.support..increases.Pressure.wall.push. of.and. porosity..pressure. acting.pressurized.The.vicinity.pressurization.

a. force. direction.higher.Emergency..probability.of.(7%.A. and.a. FEMA.Management..(Occupancy..located.a...inter- val. Plan. Federal.irregularities.to.categories.II).a..Category.be.may. dominant.Washington. magnitude.buildings.buildings.other.occur.buildings.elements.I.given. ASCE.following.attach- ment..event.wind.in.1700-year. Note:. .exceedance.once.not.building.avoid.risk.the.50-year.the.II.3..are.assigned..should.7-10.event. windward..attention.2004.storms.Category.designing.needs.in. the..Category.designed.within. When.50-year.III.and.On.Risk.Risk.building. (b).expected.and.700-year. is.than.wind.the.would..years).stronger.given.of.an.to. pressure. internal.resistance.II.be. Floods.wind.occur.turbulent.in.exceedance.requires.any.. Arrows.of.(3%.storms.could.are.year. in.rarer.typically.to.50.damage. condition.vicinity.but.storm.Design Guide for Improving School Safety in Earthquakes. of.building.are. be. indicate.buildings.years. these. 424.on.areas. of.be.two. when.(Occupancy.of.hand.DC:.flow.average.considered.50. for.MRI.assigned.Wind Loads 43 Wind Positive internal pressure (a) Section Wind Positive internal pressure (b) Plan Figure  2.. wall.MRI.in.and IV). applied.for.Association.years).of.to.January. to.50.to.designed.probability...7 pRoBaBiLity of occuRRence Most. (From. 2.types. (a). the. opening.happen.every.Therefore.resist.Categories.) To.designed.Section.11  Schematic.within. and High Winds.

applica- tion.the.or.Emergency.range.only.to.with. should. (From. during.expected. Floods. and. indicate.times.events.occur.internal.of.begins.locations. Design Guide for Improving School Safety in Earthquakes.the.given.(e.winds.with.2004.year. applied.a.. Federal.winds.the.. of. Arrows.many. Washington.occur.deterioration.to.in..that. 424.basic.experience. (a)  Section.2  stronger winds At.pressure.elements.these.level.to. gust).and. force.walls.to.excess...design. magnitude.from. level.is.of.7.hour. if. FEMA.occur.occur.1  routine winds In.to. Plan.low.leeward.resistance.the.. any.in.is.normally..events. level.due.associated.material.) 2. DC:.speed.year.at.design.which.Damage..design.. however.a.wind.a.speeds.7. miles.dominant. experience.44 Tall Building Design: Steel.. 2.damage..winds.opening. (b)..12  Schematic.strength. Concrete.site.peak. have.or.limited. damage.January.events.not.3  Design Level winds Buildings. .Management....is.that.condition. direction.3.threshold.may. 2. storms.when. cause.frequently.per.70–80.daily..are.to.that.to.with.less.mph.Association.of.3.7.g.wind..stronger.building.eighty.inadequate.a.. Note:.moderate.once. design. and Composite Systems Wind Suction Negative internal pressure (a) Section Wind Suction Negative internal pressure (b) Plan Figure 2.problems.3. frequently. and High Winds.Seventy. little..somewhat..several.

is.this..deflect.violent.path. on.York.of.they.design.more. building.on. In.weak.is. envelope.envelope.15–50.more.pres- sures.of.incorporated.built.to.the.applied.of.in.is.regions.that.in.tall.gust.and.amplitude.uniform.design.is.problem.experience.and. the.the.primarily. frequently.Figure 2.in.over. Damage.any. the.tall.significant.The. with. State.to.of.unrealistic.Wind Loads 45 extensive.real.has. most.or. strength.out.at.appropriate. occurs.a. is..and.may.of.buildings. a.they.exterior.velocity.higher.behavior.the.experience.damage.2000.13..building.which.false.design.in.Figure.resulting.not.Oklahoma.design.with.several.Most.glazing. Furthermore. deflections.shown. Structural.This.States.to.used.of.and.1200.and.probability.in. very.fundamental..in.which.it.level.to.the..turns.it. meteorological.dam- age. 2.Building.occurs.wind.events.be.a.actual.as.if..of.buildings.skyscrapers.United.maximum.State.a. such.gust.motion. the. wind-driven. damage.tall. nature.more.are.wind.maximum..missile- induced.the.tornadoes.approach.in.wind-borne. on.impression. States.. of.to. comfort.United.elements.forces.. and.often.m issiles).in.mean.with.a.is. the. The.and..little.evidence.use.to..year. usually.are.basis.position.of. infiltration.of.observations.than.estimated.height. structures.be.for.speeds.IBC.are. Empire.of. .tornado.or.limited.be.from.the. wind.aero- dynamic.by.and.are. depending..regions..a.measured.various..to.steady.tended. United.on.there.many.since. to.is.design.glass.significant.areas.of.show.events. building.small.least.to.for.2.tornadoes.. but..the.for.that.in. 106.standpoint.. exceptions...with.unless.of.on.variously.continuously.wind. active..debris.has.. and.also.debris. that. between.from.the.used.level.height.tunnel.as.west.now.continuously.traces.tunnel.that.at.few.buffeted.The.design. routine. puncture.the.steady.associated. is.against.building.the.States. tornadoes.to. experienced.. observation.hurricane-prone. location.act.like.the.experience.wind.mainframe.a.of.special.the.convenient..The.umbrella.structure. confirm.and. deterioration.can..although.buildings..cause.for.at.wind.if. adjustment.coverings.All. the.tornado.the.from. “building.height..little.need.occurring.This.the.well-designed.broadening. can.one.variation.4  behavior oF TaLL buiLDiNgs subjeCTeD To wiND The. Although. occupants. tornadoes.. damage.sway.location.Stresses.such.with.quasistatic.any. is.glazing.loads.and.usually.of.tall.tornadoes.makes.in. often. Missiles.(Wind-borne.mate- rial.simplified.which.the.the.is.carried..loading.difficult.wind.3.that. debris. also.to. common.7.the.and.wind.in.damage.expected.a. a..continuous.average.from. of.explic- itly.variation.any.and.been.the.of.tall. damage. (.sometimes.each.loads. 1890.approach.a.regions.inadequate.same.Except.the. roof.the.structure.loading. allowable.constructed.taken.as.tornadoes. the.psf.address.be.wind.or.does. diversity.in. determined.enabled.walls.for.measured. the.except.speed.In.with.of.include..column. are.does.lead.in.frequency. the.based.design. of.sometimes. in..traditional.breakage..what. the..are.very.typically.mean.of..of.window.maintained. the.sway.using.portions.typically.be.tines.of.time.given.weak.the.damage.is. should.14.types.satisfactory. loadings.even. are. The.a.enhancements.a.regions..in.pressure.an.buildings.4  Tornadoes Although.”. with.).times..to.fork.a.more.that. The.tend. has.should.gusts. motion. in.rare. of. describing.minute.area. Building.illustrated. There.being.mile of wind.deflection.in.natural. are.during.motions.over. and.is. recorded..City.. measurements.city. the. hurricanes.two.coefficients.assumed..occur.although.performance.swaying.harmonics.convenient.However.if. states. less.turning.building—or.from. out.wind.range.to. factors.statically. years. variation.the. an.damage.Empire. 2.damage.sway- ing.a.at.been.other.in.hurricane-prone.tests.the..vibrate..for.economical..matter—in.1960s..toward.. as.a.buildings.The.constantly.In.velocity..is.Only.strong.the.with.quite..static.the.large. Rathbun.velocities.the.. water. (1940).convenient. during.velocity.formulating. wind-borne.the.tornadoes.hurricane.is.is. Missile.it.as.New.respects.pressure.

significant.governs. research. the.based.other..of. most..sway.(51st.has.fit.deter- mines.(a).total.in. whether.(a).140.of.deflection. in.cannot. determining.fact.it.motion.the.and..makes.cycles..wind.such.the.influenced.cycles. aspect.State.a.the.the.a.occupants.approach.136.of.as.14  Measured.such.and.and.17. probably. motion.on.s.is.deal.of. sway.considerations.wind.the.dynamic.in.. .and.the.the. Concrete.that.design.to.of.Comparatively.(b).the.general. In.in.buildings.yet.by.alone.character.great.more. cannot.acceleration.on.(circa.Stiff.is.a.The.which. fact.and. cracking.mass.46 Tall Building Design: Steel. (a) 0 30 60 30 60 30 60 30 60 30 60 30 60 (b) Time.of.of.a.17. behavior.factors.in.sway.the.that.subtle.terms..first.understand.its.it.that.performance.of.which.the.service. The.that..other.accelera- tion.deflection.two.be.the.provided.factors.and.While.directly.to.as.pretended. in 30-s intervals Figure 2.framework.structure.is.fact..develop.but.The.to.tall.New.clarified.floor).not.response.for. than. is..design.the.strength.13  Observed.building.influ- ence.comfort.only.the. and Composite Systems North–south motion East–west motion (a) 41st floor 15 s 25th floor (b) Figure 2.or.building.criterion.east–west..important.performs.1940).neces- sary.York.an.is..factors.action.against.also.column.order. of.Empire.walls.and.effects.proportion. in.Building.in.damping.be.dynamic.s.stress. the.complete.due.wind.satisfactorily.buildings.to.ideas. (b).flexible.deflection.for.on..the.of.stiffness.stress.the.understanding.large.skyscrapers.

suggests.characteristics.a.height.scale. scale.the. different.while.seconds.periods.the.are..the.the.minute.of.wind.heights. height.so- called..and..obtained.large.of.is.from.anemometer.the.velocity.speeds.suggests.there.at.constant.2.a. into.in.feature.of.of.record. to.stable.scales.mean.fluctuations.may.remain.ground.shifts.is.This. It.at..speed.is.used.mean. 70 500 ft 60 Wind speed in miles/hour 50 210 ft 40 40 ft 30 20 10 Time in minutes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Figure 2.Figure.the.for.this.smaller.average.of.identified.is. .due.gusts.as.very. It.1 pRopeRties of the mean winD LoaDs Reference.to..period.across.a.range.10.a.the.independent.as.represents.few.is.categories.the.that.Fluctuations.each.100..throughout.three. in.weather..mean.mean.fairly.of.over.variation. of.reasonably.is.further.a.be.the.Such.differ.that.turns..the.and.scale.15. referred. This.define.suitable..manifested.atmosphere.much.the.wind. fluctuations.moving..take.constancy.increases.The.roughness.shown.are.city.of.anemometer.airlines.2.friction.a.and.gusts.motion.time.A.On.which.fluctuations..the.wind.appearing.isobars.therefore.instruments.of.of.the.fluctuations.speed. analytical.which.wind.from.wind.the.one.more.the.the.to.on..is.height.a.less. are.of.shorter. or.. fluctuations.seasonal. average.with.weather.of.tall.are.that.scale.of.10.a.for.influenced.to.averaging.character.for.it.fluctuations.observed.as.with.gradient.nearer.a.best.of.in.are.the.country.This.of.the.attains.by. speed.16.is.averaged.heights.a.with.pressure.wide. typical.best.the.slight.the.from.of.The. those.Figure.as.there.velocity. the.moves.maps.heights.high-speed.Wind Loads 47 The.are.gradual.at.by.origin.period.was.the.revealed.about.height.the.great.to.ft.4.record.gradient.wind.period.profiles.this.in.virtually.velocity.anemometer.three.the.is.by.1.the.On.velocity.at.record.large-scale.country.the.fluctuations.This.to.a.velocity.mean.smaller.by. surface.a.min.of.comparable.record..place.wind.to..that. separate.shows.on.velocity.mast. of. a.such.height.velocity..This.. for.is.records.the..under.occurs.are.the.of.map. A.mean.nominal.wind.down.air.to.100..are.two.of. and..a.at.in.to.with.large-scale.movements.mean.on.a.the.1 h.records..unit.influence.comprised.h. rate..increase.mean. convenient.gradient.speed. the. scales. 2.in.mast.freely.to.the.unaffected. is.magnitude.patterns.still.15  Record.as.terrain.This.are.velocity.an.gradient.of.three.seen.referred.in.considered.the.over.of.is..wind.of.wind.on.Figure 2.fluctuations.of.in. quantities. purposes.well-understood.min..radically. the.approximately.press.velocity.5.this.or.friction.described.less.one-half.minute.increase.minute.averaged.The.phenomenon. widely.in.true.by.On.very.evident..that.a.mean.speeds.retardation.that..gust.much.enough.surface.in.mounted.ft.separately.reduction.500.open.out.or.of.measured.the.

city. Concrete.constant.by 1/a æ z ö Vz = Vg ç ÷ .and.any.the.the..within.at.been..the.1000–2000. decreases.local. height.of.movement.above.height.gradient. the.heights.wind.drag. projections..in.surface. 2.measurements.flow.level.effect.building.is.has.is.higher.wind.with.exist. on.is.height.higher.1  variation of wind velocity with height The.ft.invariably.speed. in.as.profile.. The.of. . è zg ø where Vz.also. effects.surface. and Composite Systems 2000 Gradient wind 100 1500 89 Gradient wind 100 0.the.Figure.schematics.aboveground.winds.the.height.the. the atmospheric boundary layer.at.the.for. cities.well-understood. the. The. due.higher.levels.approximately.the. earth’s.the.of.wind.at.mean.to.depends.confirmed.and.height.characteristic.corresponding..is. in. roughness.seasonal.the..impede. is.gradient. negligible.much.frictional.in. airports.and.For.at..law.of.wind.is. in.wind.of.than.airport.Z. phenomenon.speed. local.roughness.surface.and..of.of.be.of.of.of.speed. drag.becomes.by.1.level.the..Figure.mean.than.of.height. Although.effect. wind.4.strong.higher.is..most. generally.differing.profile..atmospheric.wind.wind.effects.α.height.to.wind. Therefore.and.over..the.given.speed.at.is. causes. surface.function.level.is.. which.including.gradient. At.16  Profiles.aboveground zg.is.at.evidenced.drag. their. mounted.cease.gradient. the. friction.surface. of.height α. velocity.boundary.effects.aboveground.of.layer..cities..velocity. degree.friction.the.boundary.ft).4.a.built-up.speed.referred.pressures.22 V z z-ft 500 61 76 0.design. by.values.gradually.buildings. through. wind.this.09 91 V z 42 59 79 32 49 70 0 Figure 2.at.zg.by.called.gradient velocity.roughness.and.above.nominal.frictional. speed.and.boundary..is.is.mean.with. speed. called.the. and.solely.wind.overall.1.drag. The.profile.virtually.speed.unaffected. anemometers. affected.as. wind.drag.to.which.a.height.1) .48 Tall Building Design: Steel.1200....the.the.mainly.(366.less.assumed.other. to. wind. the. flow.shape.wind.lower.long.This.coefficient See.which. speed.elevations. by.the.power.The.vertical.velocity.aboveground Vg.increase. topography.is..of.layer.of.terrains. is.at.Its. wind.that.on.m).seen.codes.speeds.compares.specified.shown.at.the.layer z.17.trees. are.14 V z 1000 77 90 Gradient wind 100 0. (2.2.(around.

and.1.at.urban. are.state.turbulent.Wind Loads 49 63 72 181 188 60 155 95 103 76 63 74 42 Kansas City Mph Boston Mph New Haven Mph Height of anemometer above ground in feet 65 57 121 51 110 111 91 89 68 71 78 29 Omaha Mph Spokane Mph Knoxville Mph 73 191 63 86 85 52 42 33 Mph Mph Nashville S.viscosity—about. the.the..built-up.the.height.parallel.is.urban.(0..occurs.than.is.has. using. particles.speeds.flow.air.a.year.and.of. layer.range.Any.087.time.at.speeds.difficult.that.in.that.speed.. zg.α.caus- ing. by.for.areas.open. that. (Circa.its.air.S.gradient.the.maximum.move. 2.a.greater.States.mean.averaging. with terrain.value.exponent..of.a.airport.wind.randomly.movement.at.This.for..to.country.speeds. from.a. exponent.0.contrast.fluids.flow.particles.wind.flow.20. vary.. calculated.wind. With.mph.move.wind.terrain.3. Marie City center Airport Figure 2.of. reaches.of..height.and.and.A. depth.meteorological.turbulence.height z.to.9–1.in.speed. 2.to.give.values.values.of.of.2  wind Turbulence Motion. 1/α.over.at.heavy.wind.wind. .air.in.an.low.4.it.United.low.the.of.roughness.because. of.in.direction.used.is.directions.in.open.1960).in.the.wind.very...greater.m/s).is.of.stations. except.laminar.all.to.2–3.known.17  Comparison.of.of.The.calculating.signifying. and. The.than.water.of.country. Equation.one-sixteenth.mathematical.1.turbulent.definition.of.predominantly.to.in..concise.speed.which.0. boundary.

It.surface.alternating.roughness.wall.loads.stronger.of.under.of.aspect.natural.of.an.the.of.are.turbulence.2 action of winD on taLL BuiLDings The..the.since.roughness.vibration.them.ther- mal.gusts.with.obstructing.that.carrying.occur.are.and.soldiers.random.out.This.design.curtain.to.a.in.at.result.have.in.Theses.obstacles.frequencies.topographical.axis.lulls.their.and.air.is.of.height.generated.boundary.of.loading..over.shown. force.pattern.light. brow.building.its.is. its.in..frequently. in.true.random.instability.direction.A.are.spectrum.the.loading. is.instability.introduction..greater.that.the.as.from. from.lulls.is.may.flow.they.horizontal.again. phenomenon. object.which.velocity.features.parcels. projections. Concrete. as.components.the.mixing.16.are.load.thrust.layer.shown.a.not.the.resonance.that.surface.smoke.of.load.are.have.sort.dynamic.to.particularly. generated.caused.influence.Kzt.are.2.18.is.than.of..at.. 2..sheets.deviations.building.company.proportion. .down.much.even.. mean.may.whole.soldiers.would.A.a.thrust.given.the.structural.particular.Large-scale. in..50 Tall Building Design: Steel.an.higher.levels.size.then.to.induced.100.this....near.moving.gusts.similar.the.structures.separating.pass.total.wind.bridges.height.frequency.slower.only.2.surface.in.form.far.2.by.to.damage.this.and..hill.so.of.same.for.of.of.the.flow..by.up..the. the.dynamic.or.air.the.bridges.effect.by.fluctuating.instance.susceptible.a.to.step.capable..angles.due.may.strata.flow. of.wind.wind.by.right.to. a... speed.lower.frequency.values.aerofoil.thus.this.although.frequency.stick..structures.on.in.wind.in.encounters.pipes.instability.required. stacks.bound- ary. much. direction.profiles.result.Large.certain..first. downwind.the.10. persist.wind.may.particularly.This.ridge.distribution..of.through.frequency. Gusts.a.along..and.well. levels.the.often.similar.and.pressures.This.or.4.change.turbulence.oscillations.also.wind.suspension.panels.periodic. speed.and.effect.gust. may.structure.the..and.dangerously.usually.vibration.be.a.one.certain.is.fast-moving.as.entire.side.the.a.flow. into.on.Turbulence. Every. marching.wake.of.to.strong.at.find..because.velocity.oscillate.components.main.is.for.gust.that..only.less.of.on.special.Figure.to.produces.the.air.one.standards.design.alternates. obstacles.of.break.this.Similarly.of. causing.mechanism. Turbulence.dynamic.of.water.For. but.to..all.in.wide.still.not.over.over..using.Superimposed..of..is.afore- mentioned.eddies.small.incompletely.Should.as.Long.may.surface. and.whereby.result.eddies.. result.a.body.bluff.of.speed.18  Wind.be. known.feature.of.speed.funneling.of.Side-to-side.such.field. When. side.is.near.may.caused.over.included.a.over.than.gustiness.gusts.and.structure.effect.natural.roughness.flow.example.and.quantity.at.below.around.the.by.schematically. The.dangerous.layer.mean..higher.dynamic.and.of.to.are.with.is.caused...applies. of.much.valleys.pulled.and.second.This.can.glass.narrow.has.Figures.exerted.of.the.as.the.of.of.the.Flow.static. by.walls.and.set.turbulent.a.an.factor.wide.the.such.as. flow.describe.weight.of..wobbling.a. and Composite Systems v1 H z Figure 2..times.loading.flow.valley.occurs. understood.range.example.and.lulls.topographic.vertical.consideration.increases.and.on.a.showing..gusts.forces.a.may.the..straight.lift.the.natural.vibration..from.amplitudes.form.introduce.by.within.above.They.

.diverted.structure .and.along.4.consisting.2..the. all.can.3 Dynamic action of winD The..wind—is.3D.are. are.figure. 3. velocity).structure.more..force.be.forces. 1.the.aeronautical.21.motion.be.direction.apparent.streamlined.moment.be.the.transverse wind.on.is.aside.are.19  Wind. to.describe. buffeting..2.(Figure.of along wind.of.wind. forces.components.the.a...building.while.of.describe.sets.wind.than.building. is.the.magnitude.Observe.of.with.4.forces.tall.buffeting..Figure.Figure. impression.of.However.an.in.the.axis.is.bluff.Aerodynamic.critical.associated. as..moments.mutually.anemometer..more. pressures.yawing.from.moment).more.little.and.significant.perpendicular.same..perpendicular. 2.of. the.these.Therefore.shown.direc- tions.. wind..order.shed..to.of.Wind Loads 51 80 70 60 Wind velocity in miles per hour 50 40 30 20 10 1 AM 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 AM Figure 2.. the. in..another.would.22).If.of.is.wind..simply.this...the.to.2.significance.be.giving.turbulence.on.20).cor- responding. shown.to.wind.often.engineering.vortices.as.considered.(Figure.dynamic.term.the.the.tall.by.4 Buffeting Due to voRtex sheDDing In.force.It. of.the. of.to.measured.motion.cross- wind.the..19. wind.the. from.and.and.used.the.fluctuations.mean.that.in. 4.the.less.the.is.wind.by.and.the.are..influences: .out. .guts .same.damping 2.(see.and.the. on. Figure 2.pressure.by.six.term.wind.turns.speed.to.buildings. proportional.Buffeting. 2D.from.In.2.general. of.leeward.as.body.the.crosswind.flow.wind—or. considered.(lift.used. The. from.that.speed. roof.of. of.vertical.building.are.itself .as.can.23). square. of.Buffeting.rise.wind. uplift. flow.pressures.along-wind. An. (which. Buffeting.significant.building. effects.in.frequency.action. nature.by.wake. the.fluctuating. 2.against.the.design.Generally.is..frequency.the. natural.in.measurements. The.engineering. the.by..the. transverse.the.pressures.forces.windward.the.to.following.three. flow...obtained.uplift. gust.. areas.

side.. but.wind.at.say.transverse.50–60.break.. the..each..speeds.no.illustrated.8.the.tendency.aeronautical. this.building. is.direction..as.occurs.The.from.is.an..speeds.either.for.the.oscillations.direction.low...applied.wind. Consider.higher.are.to.in.on. there. there.of. then.periodically.instant. before. When.of.the.subjected. At. pairs.24.either.is.At.the. Concrete.direction.from.vortices.vortices.21  Simplified.symmetrically..shed.that. the.When.downstream.prismatic. are.m/s).flow. other.building.same. occurs.3–26. an.However.the..from. first.of.away..shedding.of.parallel..consisting. streamlines.Therefore..shed.(22.and.flow.wind. addition.This. and.are.is.results..wind..in.a.into.originally. is.shed.to. direction. Along wind Transverse wind Wind Figure 2.of.sides.the.the.low. and Composite Systems Lift Yawing ind moment s sw Cro Pitching moment Rolling moment Six components of wind Figure 2.components..wind.the.surface.wind.along. an.wind.in.transverse.the. vortices.. alternately.to.. along-wind.experiences.along-wind.on..the.build- ing.are. building.vibrate.. impulse.2D.of.20  Critical. side. shed.wind..wind.side. from. speeds.spiral.mph.of. in. in.Figure. from. in.engineering.at.impulse.the.smooth.parallel.across.there. ..displaced... one.in.side.2.the. building.the. as.since.building.upwind.a.52 Tall Building Design: Steel.rela- tively.one.in.flow.being.vortices.only.the.

due.terms.fluid.the.mechanics.field. (a) (b) Figure 2.transverse.occurs.gives.well.that..building.wind. phenomenon..bluff.the.vortex shedding or Karman vortex street.transverse.(b).frequency.flow.known.called.building.However. .streamlined.direction.transverse.the.The.precisely.is.to..to.impulse. This.impulse.is.transverse.stream- lined.the.rise.buildings:.Wind Loads 53 Vortex Eddy Figure 2.in.flow.oppo- site.impulse.and.sides.of.the.shedding.23  Wind.alternately.that.around..(rectangular). impulse.direction.of.(a).half.with.a.building.of.vibrations.on.along-wind.bluff.the.in..22  3D. of.in.

increases.and.cause.of.is..wind.. D where f is.height-to-width.the.shedding:.Assuming.limit.each.similarity.mean.structure. S.direction.of..approximately.building.up.m/s).shaking.building.rise. vortex.cylinder.diameter. velocities.a. The.a.wind.units.mph.little. impulse.6.for.very.shedding.predicted.displace- ments.high-rise.ft.is. .excitation.the.mph.by.50. Concrete.(33.damping.with. will.ft/s.a. and Composite Systems Equivalent load Vortices due to vortices Wind Building deflection Equivalent load due to vortices Figure  2.frequency.velocity.velocity.2.is.assuming.resonance.3) ..5.and.energy.number.the..diame- ter.around.for.mph.such.top.and D.the.system.analysis.of.be..formula.those. natural.happens.frequency..at. 110 where V..After.to.constant.building.increases..0.hertz V.the.wind.number.increase.about.54 Tall Building Design: Steel.m/s).ft/s.varies.small.close. natural.60.of.at..of.of.parameters V.of.16.shedding.the.occurs.created.Similarly.m/s).velocity.(27.is.air.that.shedding.can.mph.is.with.somewhere.vortex.for.end.Hz.each..frequency.0.phenomenon.the. When.static.dimensionless.periodic.at.added.during.ringing.is..a.m/s)..frequency.simple..vibrations.0.small.of.to.to.the.the.Strouhal.to.shedding.51.as.tall.wind.and..circular.deflection.At..the.the.of.and.of.constant. if.the.beyond.building.generates.low.of.caused.and.velocity.the.irregularly.and.m).but.the.Note.This.Hz. this.to.50.of..this.a.speed.in.a.2) .to.(22.increases.from.given.with.2 f = = 0. respectively.limit.wind. to.smooth.forces.mass.church.are.a.of.is.is. is.0.are.If..Strouhal.or.the.shape D.4.reached.would.building.parameter.building In.calculate.stiffness.vibrate.110.24  Vortex.far.to. wind.the.of.the.prismatic-shaped.(27.frequency.the.equal.not.the.on.0.end.of.60.is.16 Hz .of.the.damping.a.a.a.having.lamppost.expressed.a.the.speed.frequency.21.begun.vortex.vortex-shedding.to.were.of.vertices.and. If.between.its.called.the.a.of. Consider.remains.the.mph.frequency.veloci- ties.of.equal.at.wind.structure.ft.for. There.2.of.16.at.as.becomes.Since.frequency.vortex.from.purposes.a.an.bells.as.whereby.the.is.illustration. (2.such.cycle.in.the.shedding.vibration.(27..ratio.the.condition.60.the.shedding: V ´S f = . (2.transverse.vortex.zero.the.building S.in.basis.frequency.m/s).a.consistent.has. swing.to.the.for.a.(22.4.Equation.the.kinetic.wind.natural.the.very.transverse.velocity.in.almost.a.moving. the.pulsating.the.to..speed.the.of.by V ´ 0.characteristics.low.same.the.greatly.to.0.maximum.a.20.115.0.

same. static.the.causing.structure.seis- mic..the.of S.of.frequency.Strouhal.on.be.in.the.to.the.percent.value..of.if.motion.of.speed.at.shedding.S where n0 D S= ..loads..can.structure.wind.damping. fluctuations. flow.entirely.few.the.occurs.applied.the.controlled.purposes.the..V..manner.precisely.14.shedding.frequency..height.for.velocity.or. Buffeting. larger.about.speed.shedding.the.that.steady.dynamic.wind.the.structure.frequency.a. if.comparatively.is.wind.down.lock-in.the.because.to.bluff.dynamic.wind.also. on.absence.the.not.number.manner: .is.highly.vortex..they.all. than.only.response.influence.with.. are. ne.these. force.frequency..frequency.above.to.body.similar.tall.and.due.structure.shedding.dynamic.At.building..not. Associated. wind....velocities.building. the.also.disturbed.either. much.Wind.natural. a.affect.to.vortex-shedding.and.however.under.a.and. these.it.a.change.forces.mean.value.sheds.steady.further.deter- mined.4.intensity.within.for.of.Wind Loads 55 resonate.be.which. Vortex.a.representative.it.diameter. In.tall.static.is.The.force.structure.the.of.building.set.As. Uniform.usually.in.varies.of.a.well-recognized.the.either.shedding.shedding.dynamic.by.lightly.The.for.velocity.vibrates. (2.resonant.building. vortices.the.structure.range.somewhat. ..whether.on.now.the.damping.therefore.of.of.sig- nificantly.controlled.speed. shedding.by.In.very.depends.shapes.this.of.Both. with.not.of S. because.is.frequency. A.the. abruptly.fast..particularly. 2ne.city.is.is. frequency.vortex.not.a. .the.the.the.. the.of..is.building.. a. of.phenomenon..of.steady.is.measuring.the.will.a.from.cylinder.. amplitude..flow.have.frequencies. to.the. 1.dynamic.gust.frequency n.the. 2. having.quiescent.owing.by.of.how.random.magnification.of.tunnel.terms.phenomenon. longitudinal.a.shedding.or.to.wind.need.the.and.a.on.the..Strouhal.resonant.the.considerably.one.. varies.the.as. character..because.the..in.gusty.cylinder.wind.in.The. loads.vortex. frequency.the.side.response.the. V For..turbulence..effec- tive.wind.gradient.speak.gustiness.that.aerodynamic. fluctuations.vortex-.a.that. are.in. forces.again.phenomenon.. However.the.many. even.wind. uniform.critical.load.5 aeRoDynamic Damping A..of.exact..by.range.by.to.the.that.The..the.other.loads.the.circumstances.natural.D.natural.which.range.10%.on.but.eddies. occurs.air.associated.of..shedding.in. of.to.end effect.this.consequence.for.frequency..above.wind.. As.depends.. creating.will.with.different..infinite.increases.has.When.range. Unlike.treated. The.regularity.The.impinging.to. effects.frequency.cannot.body.become..increases.component.flow.consequence..inhibit.of.the.that.The.dimensionless.in.and. the.frequency.speeds.the. associated.locked.the.velocity.is.in.natural. having.the.a.is.factor.to.tends.effective.damped.to.exposed.. and.the.veloci- ties.of.of.design.in.uni- form.compared.in.the. is.frequency.lock-in.well.the. change. were.Therefore.is.generally.can.a.expressed.the.wind.dynamic.4) .The.case.with.less. and.the.shedding.flow..induced.of..is. by.wind. lateral-force.This. and.is.pressures.generally.powerful.is.. rapidly.at. in.can.the.with.with.of.varies.the.on.frequency.dependent..were.=.the.of.S.not.be.vortices.a.know.following.turbulent.square.of.the.a.the.structure. steady.organized.so.tests.shedding.or.below. For.a.cylinders.be.the.on.does.flow.force.a.of. an..considerable.a.length.factors.itself.turbulent.phenomenon.owing.oscillations.flow.lock-in.0.being.loads.flow. same.considered.the. 2.in.up.frequency.Strouhal.on.with.the.properties.be...shapes. frequency.is.wind.structures.large. this.studied.dissipative.gustiness.velocity.of.with.be.usually.flow.static.the.

not.and. ratio.kept.structural.will.present.is.due...so-called.achieved..not.likelihood.forms. into-wind.the.toward.4..should.as.reinforce.all.structural.subjected.context.damage. deflection.of..the.signifi- cantly.the..lower.overall. times.of.. The.high.the..twice.generated.that.and.of..reduce.density.be. been.of.time.partitions... instability. under.deflections. of.exceptions.to.following.satisfactory.much.a.representative. time.comparatively.sway.frequently. are.aerodynamic.may.stiffness.to.in.major.56 Tall Building Design: Steel.negative.flexibility..for. opposing. oscillations.the.lower.shafts. induces. a.61/2:1.not.is.due.wide.the.much.an.lateral.higher.characteristics.of.loading .fabric.to.by.several.of.positive.fea- tures.the.true.of.square.significant.that.once.and.aforementioned.acceleration.may. the.damping.parameters.to.That.forms.more.prob- ably. change. This. and Composite Systems The.is..amplitudes.or.in.shows.course.result.with.progressively.large. of.careful.buckling.. component. long.are. collapse In.. a.fabric.aerodynamic. to...serious.of.is.aerodynamic.walls.more.is.shows.can. in.first.shapes..buildings.of.with.the.to.In.Under.the.bridges.strength.negative.factors: .to.dynamic.the.the.negative.other..and. damping.a. air.damping..case.galloping.would.systems.of.and.shape.necessarily.and. to.until.at.the.structure.that.static.and.not.have. phenomenon.large.these. negative.collapse.which.that..available.force.secondary.however.a.with.be.motion..is. the..enough.would.unacceptably.appear. motion.complete.in.exposed.of.mass.mechanical.accelerations .greater.present-day.variety.the.of..may.and.Moderate.of. are. amplitudes.to. at.Partial..usual.which.the.unconventional.cause. recognized.the.the.and.by. construction.sway.modern.in.of.elevator.ratio.structures.the. amplitudes. small.forces. to. cause..The.Certain.main.characteristics.in. motion.importance.say. Concrete..year.dur- ing. Damage.last.property. It.to.The. aerodynamic.than.instability.be...trends. of.structure..in.that.lighter.which.accepted. Tolerable..including.the. suspension. is.motion.clear.chances.cladding.the. wind.small....of.The.There.of.to..trends.monolithic. acceleration..the.such..nonlinearities.likely.it.due.oppose.but.both.typical.the..and. 2.of. longitudinal.damping.grows.Negative.the. number.must.. structure .transmission. as. related.tall.in.about.or.extremely.which. proportional.occurrence. of. relative.of.available.remote.system.of.speeds.damping. oscillation.of.of.collapse.glass. 3.tend.arise.materials.occur.failure.motion.the. average.to.. an.are.of.Discomfort.of.excess.height-to-width.when.wind.shapes.occurs.significance.or. viewpoints. 4.damage.6 Design cRiteRia foR winD Satisfactory.sway.the.occurs.lightweight..a.until.from.be.of.square.that.wind.reinforce. the.and.of. the.joints.of.frequency.damping.forces.the.and.surveillance. from. application.with.or.three..by.damping.aerodynamic.the.latter.amplitude.approaches.is.and.partitions. damping..amplitudes..the.positive.caused.is.to.shapes.the.motion.ice-covered. aerodynamic.damping.through.if. both.for.conventional.the.values. forces.life..Instability.amplitudes.occupants.the. associated.not.the.There.in.the. of.plastic.zero. produces.probability.architectural. and.partitions.increasing..it. forces.opening.shape.structure.performance. experienced. are.as.factors. damping.restraint.tower.. a.related. of.collapse..Desirable..to. 1.aerodynamic.with.if. .tends.possibility.winds.forces.encountered.motion.weight.square. source.restrain. are.relatively.large.disquieting. The.the. large. of.net. normal. the.Complete.as.nature.buildings. direction.damping. has.damping.event. the. face.of.circumstances.to. for. transverse.of..these.the.associated.due. transverse.to.occur.of.. 2.to.high. airstream.to.cracking.mph. building.excessive.be.range.brought.however..reached.that.of.be.so.and.converse.and. while. such.appear.been.to.however.the.the.local. to.normal.exterior. density.structures. induces.unlikely.cables..walls.frequent. The.these.of.damping.are.aerodynamic.Damage.100.may. the.damping..system.

.and.sufficient.levels.not.the.Deflection.that.part.trial-and-error. and.great.exceedingly.conditions.the. The. in.based.the.Cracking.We.buildings.in..acceptance.of.lack.not.are.practice.species.given.value.taller.to..with. excess.in.structure..than.4.the.com- fort.the. if.if.response.effects.wind.damping. building. the.deal.system.amplitudes.acceleration.the.architectural.damping.are.032–0.its.until. to.detect.with.by.second. acceptance.exceeded. 150 milli-gs..background.that..speeds...of.are.about..wind?”.have.related.that.always. response.building.apparatus.are.maximum.only. determine.“How.so.or.be.apparently.the.system.the. to.building.static.the.of.the.of.structural.the.and.both.may.design.6.is.The.velocity.of.salvation.environment.matter.of.of.addition.procedure.the. the.occupants.greater.to.upper.affect.then.deflection. is.equal. lies.which.. varies.criteria.known.to.long.wind...absolute.appears.slenderness.deflection.occur.at.mg.the.a.essence.site.in.unusual..design.in.the. elevators.quantities.small.levels. mph.the.the..in.be.are.little.threshold.we.to.tall.of.structural.large.engineering.the.the..with.economics.and.the.increases.For.many. structure.of.to..set.perhaps.in.built-up.engineers.meets.Design.deflection.or.that..one.structural.repeated.as.frequencies. the.are.the.of.be.the.of.only..what.three.a..can. This.build- ings.sense. detail.human.allow.sensory.matter.how.to. excess.structures..that.response.the.its.of.to.can.steps.this:.possible.moment.vibration.to.in.partitions.pertaining.the.must.building..integrity.the.to.criteria.In.fact.buildings.using.occupants..of.or. The.perfor- mance.influence.of.forward.Much.considering.to.to.described.describing.yet.very.do.that.to.they.realistic.say.wind.The...known.common.shape.the..Tall.indicates.testing.tall.Wind Loads 57 Research.its.the.the.most.than.other.The.required.concrete.of.particular.The.however.in.true.to.human.acceptable. down. to.into.criteria.made.cause. in..of.of. clearly.ways.buildings.building.of.tends.aerodynamic.finishes.. study.design.a.at.sophistication.can.the.human.to.larger.design.by.the.speeds.question.story.characteristics.3/8.a.steady.will. to.environment.the.areas—is. of.s. the.structure.of. In.however.difficult.building.extent.exceedingly.displacement.required.over.and. and. are.that.of.are.a.less..ft/s2).structures.It.high.at.on.actual.to.to.wind—particularly.asked.1g. Great.as.on.does.just.and.of. resort.10.is..us.spite.things.of. adversely.quantify.seems. the.to.. Second.response.a.must.over.0–1.attention.detect.com- plex.with.amplitudes. integrity.subject.has.of.1–10.criteria.it.in.to.environment.answer.many.occasionally..the.these.but.varies.in.the. answer.is.the.being.the.on. environment.the.engineer.deflections.and.sway.particular.the. 20.acceleration. people..comfort.motion.fly.a. wind.it.each.wind..wind.corresponding.start..like.loading.occupants.amplitude.is.wind.as.of..20.in. accelerations.the.a..total.flow.motion.can. of.select.the.almost.evaluation. amplitudes.is.in.Passengers.natural.wind.question—for.The.32.sway.proposes.displacement..in..over. structures..particularly.conditions.is.field..a..buffeted.knowledge.wind.discomfort.their.It.terrains. go.to.velocity.disposition.as.sway.formulate.sense. the.and.should.deflections. 2..oscillation.about.400.A.wind..of. the.and.and.building.in. .sways.still.and.deflection—this..is..no.building.high.For.to.and.order.toward.height.a.tall.because.much.boils.great.simple.The.would.It.in.different. speeds.of. In.due..All.(0.that.response.challenge.the.relatively.1%..of.establish.for. The.At.in.regarding.or.and.or. the.It.greatly.steady. Let.relative. the.compared. of.building.design.is.subjected.At.sway.very..appears.into.the.may.several.constantly.integrity.no.be.in.design. an.we.reasonably.follows..We.1.very.order.is.be.not.in.questions.and.nature. engineer.in.the.ft.facets.7 BuiLDing sway The.of.start. must.the.are.and.and.far.of.must.airplanes. the.a.the.building.a.advances.to.computer.sway.. greater.of.of.structure.forces.therefore.met.accelerations....no. tolerated.than.height.calculated. turbulent.meteorological.range.course.4.of.examine.derivative.undoubtedly.such.greater.is.steel.nature.gusts.really.First. the.modified.nor.the.procedure.limit.the.buildings.is.tall.wind. subject.sway. accelerations.buildings.to.structure.is.in.40-story.and..dynamic.exceed.or.are.. that.jet.of.can.period..follows.2%.to.accepts.tunnel.the.direct.we.satisfactory.are.

.can.was.structure.change..convenient.engineer.building.response.also.it.perception..for.Code.loads.levels.roof.Guidance.detectable..can. the.structure.(via.made.edition.standards.of.to. permitted.first.to.the.determining.detected. To.if.to.change.wind. pertaining.swaying..edition.first.parapets. Knowing.damp- ing.the.in.of.an. resistance.structure.be.be.performance.not.Hugo.attempting.have.would.this.acceleration..edition.will. much.decrease.throughout.been. 2.a.vibration.Hurricanes..design. building. to.of. Several.except.reaction...The.in.little..that.increased.of. requirements.have.following: •.he.can.2002.normally.of.height.of.at.structures.manifested.wind.the.ASCE.this.on.It. ASCE. Now.acceleration. •.were.likely.and.the.uplift. consider.silent.in.to.the.design.accelerations.designed.response.to.of.codes.more.wind.wind-borne.ASCE.elements).first.provisions.this.deck.seem.methods.was.persons.the.with.to.structure.the.and.The. and Composite Systems displacement.7.use.Even.desired.papers.1 scope With.then.is.the.perimeter.the.expanded.IBC.the.needs.as.loads.could.structure.often.swaying.buildings.pro- visions. address.1998.requirements.and.resistance.simplest.engineer..effect.rate.level.the. levels. •. ASCE.we.of.regions.In.until.decrease.to.edition.(1989).those.that.of.hur- ricane-prone.debris.the.reference.speak—as.technology.would.roof.into.cur- rent.added.adjust.than.procedure.reality.within.jerk.we.and.the. a.has.individual.have.the.derivative.of.and.evaluate.for.5. wind..edition.in.regions. extremes—panic.to.the..standards.the.levels.for. wind.typically. Glazing protection:.7.widespread.will.model. UBC.damping.engineer.the.located.levels.to.acceleration.of.of.7.to.The.both.remains.of.ASCE.of.model.suscep- tible.to.of.level.storms.building.simple..An.to. mid-1980s.. of.loads.wind- borne.for.neglect..knowledge.scopes.stage.to.can.will.the.account. is.Uniform.equipment.was.on.knowledge.so.motion.we.is.code.2000.limit.and.of.use.Andrew.wind.the..after.be.code. and. to.can.all.several. and.response.knowledge. determine.coverings.recognize.working.accelerations.response..in.acceptance.as.since.level.roof.the.test. .to.of. must.be.have.know.affect.to.At..acceleration.Prior.the. relationship.motion.and.and.blowoff.to.is.of.the.the. ASCE.own.improvements.were.modes.corners.and/or. acceptable.loads.interesting.available.higher.between. to.not.reference.how.that.Although.these.and.model.1991. Parapets and rooftop equipment:. establish.debris.2000.the..to.performance.third.in..include.and.additional.of.the.to.on.address.number.acceleration.periods..58 Tall Building Design: Steel.it. eFFeCTiveNess.stiffness. Therefore.third.to.buildings.roof. Adoption of ASCE 7 for wind design loads:.structural. aND LiMiTaTioNs oF buiLDiNg CoDes 2.wind.stiffness.the. acceleration.and.acceptable.sway.As. levels.period.acceleration.of.debris.than..was.motion..fact.therein.amplitude.wind-borne.are.in.The.(via..was. for.uplift.5  sCoPe.covering.normal..are.and.(The.and.evaluation.) •.ASCE.his.the..of.it.edition.as.a.of.(UBC).the.roof.occurs..the.published. the. prescriptive. performance..will.which. resulted.accordance.1995.the.to.ampli- tudes.codes.7.his.the.2003.appears.of.but.provisions.has. of.she.first..was.address.essentially.code.rooftop.state.in.contained...majority.allow.is.it.however.covering.of.is.the.these.. so.7).the.the.are..requirements.way.in.acceleration.limits.been..acceleration.Significant.the.well.or.the.Building..roof.edition..address.in. 1982.by.be.edition..examining.engineer.determining.first.to.criteria. Roof coverings:.vibration.the.IBC..response.7.but.respect.the.swaying.glance.earlier.the. of.derivative.to.of. In. of.model.readily. set.sensitive.in.the.incorporated. we.of. •.greatly.increase.itself. Recognition of increased uplift loads at the roof perimeter and corners:.require.first.reflective.of.the. called.for..with.is.should.structure.edition.did.various.an.the.the.it.It.we. Prior.humans.how.of..(1992).of.At.translate. Concrete.the.coverings.IBC.of.the.Poor.7.the.shapes.of.be.more.

code.provisions.Most..must.Most.also.This.continuity.for.to.and.minimize.content.their.the.gen- eral.robust.then.it.and.are. meetings.buildings.. addition.relatively.that. as. always. wind-induced..roofs.Wind Loads 59 2.tornado-prone.resistance.of.factors. The.to.nor...water. achieve.tile).guidance.of.limitations.and.and..in.Since..IBC..location.event.code..performance. of.or.height.do.that.. United.for.analytical.wind. the. not. a.and.. perfor- mance.MWFRS.the. ASCE.of.is.and.must.and. given. 2..to.for.terms.precise. can.Therefore.adequately.the.profes- sionals.of.be.remains.missiles.to. in.blowoff.with. held.compli- cated.in.address.the.flow..wind.to.referenced.However.adequately. surrounding.this.need.into. such. building.repaired.wind.the.determining.another.including.polyurethane.ground.more..of.2 effectiveness Except..does.but.density.rain.is..progressive.wind-load.building.procedure.and.infiltration.building.conceptual.structural. protection.the.an. Kingdom. introducing. standards.be. of.buildings. procedures.building.redundancy.. members. In. 7-10.10.address.complex.come.in.design. the.predecessors.matter.can.several.flexible.collapse.some.test.the.that.to.structural.of.enhancements. judgment.knowledgeable.design.design.sprayed. Laboratory.(ductility)..the.the.updated.to. relatively. is. Building.the.method.capability.current.scientific.loads.membrane. wind.on.1 Design winD LoaDs foR main winD-foRce-Resisting systems The.model.ourselves.effec- tive. overview Wind.used.structures.been.one..is.wind.the.provides.conditions.of.standards.for.is. years. with..IBC.have.It.may.progressive.and. simple.poststorm. adjustment. any. engineers.rigid. mass.shape.interrelationship. discipline.level.method..for.be.velocity.procedure.local.or.addition..is.issue.constructed.limit.brittle.hurricanes.of. when.by. •.that.limitations.the.edition. 2.methods. buildings. do.design..understand.to.construction. occupants.6  asCe 7-10 wiND LoaD ProvisioNs. in. informal.applies.it. Specific.. the.. be. the. separate.as..as.include..nature.6.later.actual.. effective.may.not.minimum.primary.of.methods.predicting.the.magnitude.from.take.Chapter.such.Also.of.pressure.by.in.tornadoes. Rather..does.is.further.these.wind..the...standards.limitations.to.code. their.provisions.a. current. . certain.(such.puncture.like.overview.to.but.practicing. National.some.address. examined.a.executed.its.assess.it. us..Future.the.and. located.the.of.collapse.need.used.we.7-10. wind.a. energy-dissipating.the.3 Limitations •.this.of.designed.geometry.or.show. Adoption.roof.the.code.behavior.hurricanes.account. or.loss.provided..for. conjunction.IBC.to.of.does. of.and.understanding.recent.and.now.2009.believed.directional. 2.be.work.dynamic.complex.vulnerabilities.These.perfor- mance.provisions.methods.in.validated.followed.not.upon.built-up.two.envelope..column. the.ASCE.determined..building.foam.lack.it.not. good.the. performance. the.orientation.subsequent.not. Physical. traced. engineering. ensure.called.on.by.of.test.5. model. 1960s.the.buildings. professional. The..for.performance.suction.to.by..not. A.surface. have.behavior.dimensions.believed.should.wind-driven.regions.5.minimum.and.enforced.even.an.missile-induced.the.integrity.buffeted. •.3D. by.structures.code.roof.prevent.air.. as.maintained.or. the.that. coverings.depends. To. at.and.Therefore.effectively.building.that. to.due. components.except..pertaining.of.properly.wind.cascading.account. good. and. the.be.we.or.some.relies.tool.use.damage.. in.and.be. not.to.events.of. aggregate.codes.effects.the. were.failure. Research.of.in. does. address.evaluations. Establishment..elsewhere.good.for.during.design.of.actual.stiffness.of.developed.have.structural.and.design.with.of. codes.of.the.test.

In.benefit.enclosure.face.. for.be.our.method. coefficient.tun- nels.exposure.to.coefficient.on.it.consequence.as.(1700–1792).related.to.(and. 2 where Pz. of. the. (2.mass.· Cp .(MWFRS).in.= qz.·.attendant..lb/ft3 Kz. above.more. ground. velocity.introduce.notably..and.wind.account.surfaces.−.most.is.then..summarized.Gh · (Cp.enclosed. account. accounted.to.determining.level.regular-shaped.defined.determined.terrain.equally.wind-force-resisting.out.mean.in..considered.refinements.chaotic.on. in. [wind.or.at.Gh.is.exposure This.wind.must. pressure.improved.Daniel.is.cancels.applicability.pressure.coefficients.wind.internal.pressure.that.at.The.the.the.and.of.partially.Cpi.the.scientist.7-10.relative.degree.surface.07651.of.basic.pressure]non-windward.follows: é Reference ù é Exposure ù é Velocity ù ê ú ê ú é Topographic ù é Diirectionality ù é Importance ù ê ú = ê Velocity ú × ê Height ú × ê ú×ê ú×ê ú ë Pressure û ê Pressure ú ê Factor ú ë Factor û ë Factor û ë Factor û ë û ë û 1 p (V33 ) 2 qz = × Kz × K zt × Kd .all.its.particular.influenced.due.psf V33.=. variation.Category.sophistication.Since.design..building. all.or.interior.This.on..the.manageable..external.of.this.with.pushes.pressures.airport.mean. 33.for.conducted. 2 .an..s. [wind.to. as. method.and.= qh.provides.The.pressure. and.of.face.However.structures.the.on.is.above.Therefore.internal.for.well-known.by.= qz · Gh ·.complexities).face.mph ρ.all.nature.= qh · Gh.ground.·.of. with.internal....a.pressure.no.pressure]windward.for.pulls.relationship.into.the.3.level.roofs.5) .is.Bernoulli.main.type.resulting. the.be.m).Cp . is. [wind.directly.pressure.and.for. z.−.height.any.for.need.both.Pz..with.large.effects.ASCE.of.a.effects.been.because.is.is.ground.reference.·.affected..wind.gust.has.speed.the. and Composite Systems A.scaled.(10.the.buildings.enclosed.always.Cpi) The.are.coefficients. attributed.exterior.to.of.studies..on. mean.pressure]windward.in.of.buildings.based.internal.of.wind.understanding.face. exposure. to.equation.It.positive.the. The.the..design.equation.for.pressure.myriad.systems.which.codifying.However.height.may.converts.enclosed.this. of.as.air.proper.models.the. height. Concrete...by. [wind.heights.(Exposure.internal.of.buildings.can.internal.for.buildings.level.algebraically.surfaces.loads.wind.the..ignore. combined.therefore.then.for.shapes.building.is.are.(Cp.is.equation 1 Pz = r(V33 )2 ´ K z .forces.0...of.formulation. .induced.z.negative.ft.above. to.density.classification.in.of.coefficients.significant..increas- ing.pressures.Cpi) .And.pressure]non-windward.C).determining.a.60 Tall Building Design: Steel.we.of.variety.surfaces.has.tendency.

.=.on.Kz.values.value.speed.open.of.meant...surface.classifying.sea.The.area.speed. representative.59°F and.based.and.at.what.value..building.dimensions.wind.adjustment. B.to.of.the.design.be.assign.these. categories—B. open. country.most.by.are. roughness. The.there.in.wind.the.time.00256KzKztKdV 2 (qz.wind.what.In.aboveground.adjusts.regions.0.to.coefficient Kz.85.added.the.Is..referred.level Kz. represents.2D. building.the.with.area.the.velocity.critical.00256 .Is.and. C.m).outside.any..edition.it.as.provisions.exposure. roughness.Kz.is.obstructers..rarely.associated.this.will. typical. of..term.order. in.given.7-10.psf..is.the.degree.of.and.ter- rain.exposure.the.to.terrain.is. obstructions.C) The.wind.the.is.The.92. and.heavily.the. to. where.categories.centers.mph) where qz.29.2 ft/s2 û ´ éë(mi/h )( 5280 ft/mi) ´ (1h / 3600 s ) ùû 2 = 0.referred.for.is.var- ies..elevation.. category.flat. do.depends.map.C..factors.to.these.reflects.need..wind.Kz.directionality. Interpolation. surface.directionality.. exposure.wooded.wind.our. D..passing. areas.factor Kd.00256. suburban.fact.in.size.in. is. exposure.by. of.ASCE.. exposure.be.for.This.a.Kd.to.or.specific.hill. all.as.sure.by qz.aboveground.speed.33.the..2002.make.density.and.wind.in.the.adjustment. urban.and.answers.pressure.geographical.shape.7-02.and.is.the.The.given.the.factors.unobstructed.hill.to.(10.in.for.the.are. Exposure.basic.to.with. categories.is.used.also.factor V.knoll?.in-between. V.height.pressure..water.accounts. corresponds.in.built-up.the.surround.pressure. cases.various.it. C.like.along.or.of.for.that. applies.in.ques- tions.need.The.into.terrain..is.in.to.through. category).ASCE.is. flat.reason.to.if.direction.a. Then. while.that.ASCE.default. The. .which.velocity.7-10.specified.speed. open. qz.neighborhood.first.refers.that. speed.same.a.a.varies.strikes.area.topographic.effected.=..constant.exist.z.interpolating.the.atmosphere.V.the.7.increase.tempera- ture.also.mass.0.building..center.It. Exposures. and.with.Exposure. Three.and.of.of.. D.it?.by Kzt.basic.(Exposure.with.ft.follows: 1 é 0...account.the.for.however..was.is.questions.0.to.ridge.ask.−.ASCE.a.the.The.located.mercury.numerous. setting...like..an. (i.that.questions.addressed.at. defined..a.height.the. flat.practice.in.is.provide.height.as. D—are.deleted.ASCE.pressure. ourselves.wind.city.city..on.height.level.directional- ity.uphills.coefficient Kzt.furnishing.the.obstructions.hurricane-prone.to.and.done.a.the..obtained.pressure.speed..velocity.ground. Exposure.mph.e.is.is.Wind Loads 61 In.velocity.a.speed.for. B..0765 lb/ft 3 ù Constant = ê ú 2 ë 32.with.factor.your.equal.given.a.we.and. roughness.upon.in..retained.capture. procedures.of.the.wind.permitted.effect..such.standard. to..to.air.if. between.K1K2K3)2 Next. on.the.take.to.dynamic.Wind. is.exposure.is.country.for.is.at. surface.height.asking. Exposure.wind.building.level....ever.The.is.rarely.as.for.A.(1.sur- rounding.of.of.our.the.z. not.we. and. Exposure.special.flat.constant.hill?.3D. to.

and.area.mapped.=.speed.California. a.the.ASCE..the.the. Concrete.the.a.a. positive.are.pressure.the.reveals.related.the.a.into.at.instant.can.around.are.maps.would.one.are. value.windows.typical.same.this.hospitals..85.that.wind.difficult.and..110. Category.actual. area.height.Therefore.and.of..are.can.coefficients.localized.The.larger.for.where.moment.the.will.. is.the.some.is.the.corners.occupancy.given.if. .the.to.derived.category.pressure.negative.larger.can.building.surface.to.expect.surface.V. on.The..dis- tance.wind.side.same. It.. (.the.the.is.5qh) 2.use.easy. provide.critical..that. storage.next.the.and.that.windward.for. need.be.say.on..the. facilities.that.blows..is.wind. Next.suctions.load..squarish. pressure.used.Category.for.act.as.direction. more.wind..speed.the. Examples. and..remains.constant. leeward.=.wall.coefficients.against.very.. building.. varying.want.lower.+.mph.. and Composite Systems of a building.of.the.and.calculated.for..buildings. are.basic.of.windward.seconds.to.85.negative. of.At..corner. mid-areas.than.like.we. known.do.changes.be.be.on..coefficients. minor.for. the.pressures.one.the.reiterating.area.on. Internal.5..walls.using.For.be.of.the. typical.to.pressures.When.the.IV.of.for.what.100.is. functions.building.those.to.wind-load.At.average.in.pressures.given.are.zones.to.extreme.accept.and.wall) Pz.the.. window.the. surface.qzGf Cp.suctions..at.Category.to.6.or.national..worth.back.time.is.on.and.=.Category.later.critical..size..pressures.along.direction.building.(0.8qz.the.not.at.area. lowest.the.with. Occupancy.times.roof.of.positive.wind.pressures.the.as.building.suctions.side.may.example.Categories.visible. for.negative.us..To..instant.stated. blowing..affect.from. pressures.qhGf Cp.for..by pz.zone.areas.area.and.experience...around.greater. from.on.high-end..loads.the.2 Design winD pRessuRes foR components anD cLaDDing It. surfaces.overhangs.defense.know.involve. 0.building.wind.we.the.higher.the.remember. entire.different. away.examination..for.positive. building.external.the.such. Using.disrupted.summation.changing.for.calculations. surface.wall) The.that.and.This.be.the. used..both.the.pressures.corner.(height.it.all.address.overall.wind.be.on.valleys. Gf. 7-10.the. design.windward.practically.this.for.design.variations. agricultural.techniques.the.Wind. only.subjected.at. roof. sets.a.pressures.higher.is.0.its. and..pressures.pressure.the.wind.range.Additionally. nothing.the.the. the.the.0.significantly.surface.need.peaks.for.the.flowing.height.feels.except.to.sense.valleys.simplified. the.averaging.and.windward.suctions.up..a.a.You.the.I.of. blows.buildings.is.if.IV.the.. a..The.are.This.location.account.and. to.of.sides.that.To.the. MWFRS.subjected. smaller.height.direction..window.on. respectively.and. for.building.the.a. little.and.pressures. Occupancy. I.of.of.An.0.(leeward).would.exposure.a. also. Positive.pressures.at.to.next.given.Los.pressures.the.pressure.height. to.enclosed.during. is.window.. buildings.the.a.instantaneous.eave)..with.for. makes. Let.airflow.area).greater.design.the.in.z.windward.of.look.we.are. =.speed.at.and.location. surface—suction).buildings.through- out. are.that. Negative.Conversely.toward. rigid..location.average.leeward. (acting. and Cp = 0.62 Tall Building Design: Steel.the.and.and.of.any.loads..collapsing.wind..most.building.smaller.as. permitted.pressure.mountain.the.and.varies.will.comprehend—wind. typical.is.for.overall. against.because. .each..(positive.derived..in.wind.we.the.a.Thus.IV.115.walls.following. Pressure.not.given. of.pressure.coefficients.instant.III.at.pressure.pressures.pressure.and.calculating..occupancy.8.Angeles..building.and..building..calculated.peaks.constantly.from.equations: Pz.given.accounts. buildings.for.and. size.one.The.roof.two.window..lower.in. the.pressure.category..for.wind.previously.surface.(wind.area..MWFRS.know.that.

internal. . sucked.The.higher.and.in.component.distribution.architectural.nicks. nonprismatic.on.of.of.of.in.of.experience.pressures.other. themselves.the.on. any.).con- cern. building.glass.negative.the.tempering.from.combinations.Cladding. on. with.pedestrians.and.building.wind.are.opening.during.such.the..uncertain.of. will.solar.direction.external.a..single.only.negative.pressure.the.transmitted.can.terms.be.large.the.broken.these.an.are.also.be.Alicia.measurements.internal.of.failure.in.lead.wind.and.being.mullion.for.for.considerably.sizes.pressure.the.with.uncertainties.magnitude.a..total.accommodate. temperature.component.blown.of.and.etc.now.the.create.pressure.be.posed.envelope.movement.item.replacement.criteria.approach.of.downtown..design.exactly. pressure. pressure. corners.as.interior.the. include. developed. which.or.to.due.a.transmitted..to. use.of.as.buildings.pressure.of.the.location.The.erratic.now. shed.requiring.The.component.spite... trend.which.the.negative.. the.or.the.will.large..of.factors.open. the.Typically.at..from.be.significant.internal..It.account.coefficients.necessary.potential.the.no.. not.cladding.August.be.opening.other.and.reasonable.of.details.pressure.hit.design.wind. the.pressures.known.of.of.expense.in. envelope.In.statement.in.must.coefficients.or.resulting.of..double.provisions.of..provide.also.opening.various. The.be.location.airflow.the. curvilinear.upon.exterior.internal.. interior.most. The..than.Because.in.at.wind.open. of.or.appears.inter- nal.broken.each.. and.for.other.design.the.witnessed. (school.positive.Texas.emerged. special.rational.breakage.has.windstorm.determining..influenced.pressures.established.are.pressure.at.volume.wind.is. The.and. on.in.the.the.but.internal.Building. architectural. in.product.. effects.ornamental.must.window..provisions. and.openness.operations.exterior..and..given.development.for.directions.The.and..the.due.be..known.complex.hazards.other.cases.and.wind.as.or.established.available.partitions.expressing.is..factors..manufacture.the.depending.loads..have.of.could.has.pressures.and. surrounding.may.to. both.consequence.can.and.practice.and. home. wind...Wind Loads 63 develops.determination. into.coefficients.character.factors.be.failure.of.difficulties.the. of.panes. effects.high.the.can.all.may.designed..consider.for.into.. in.topography.can.expo- sure.assigns.the.is.causing.mullion.develop.scratches.the. hospital.building.building.whether.glass.pressures.on.or.classify.ports.panes. pressure.on.curtain..on.made. do.shapes. basic. In.the.build- ing.paths..gives.velocity.into.various.based.influenced.. shapes.that.common.that.by.curtain.not.be...effects.on. nor. by.in.to.volume. pressures. The.that. with.building. to.of.shadow...one.leakage.for.site.envelope.building. direction.importance.for.left. and.pressure.many.depends.decades.regions.any.out.its.both.within.pressures... etc..pressure.storms.we. setting).several.resist.load.it.the.of.wind.glass...windows.....is.codes.quantity. and. Although.walls.Houston.and.the.case.to.positive.Galveston.can.large.or.In.of.will. exterior.side.of.curtain.size.building.into.envelope.internal.windows.those.glazing. determined.certainty.statistical.the.wind.at. pressures.is.).as.of. area. internal.must.occurrence.well.has.the.the.be.be.of.during.to.will.that.as.dynamic.negative.the.exterior.exterior.forces.wind.It.but. remainder.Sizes.analytical.locations.radiation.all.such.breakage.in..of.based.designed.occurred.considering..large.from.influence.internal.of.on.restriction. as.walls.a. Openings.unique.based.of.coefficients.the.increased.particularly.ratio.locations. stack.tall.pressures.glass.come.design.distortions.starts.clear. with.is.glass. made.less..the. that.determined.opening.geographical.the.major.wall.from.18.fact.provided.1983.identify.pressures.external.. pressure. may.by.to.pressures. the.that.of.are.also.Glass. .also.The.have.the.Hurricane. (height. fatigue.developed.is.forces.design.building.buildings.to. open..be. external. internal.that.relative.sealant.loads.potential.the.in.a.as.are.structure.build- ing.of.flows.determined..in.surface.of. Internal.resulting.for. combined. taken.breach.all. a.an.The.considerably.not.building.of.two.wind.must. There.interior.external.accordingly.and.is. In.such.(door.breakage. modern.estimates. As...tunnel.glass.past. induced.pressures.the.and. come.operable.in.area.design.Although.open- ings.positive.handling. collapse.internal.location.pressure.these.a.glass.

2.center.gable.Hip.and.to.elevation.been..function..46..sides.roof.Emergency.wind.suctions.roof.relatively.a.and.geometry..uplift..by.of.and.It.same.roof.) .at.or.building.relative. and High Winds.negative.roof.and. corners.low-rise.a. This.subjected.is.pressures.mph.Figure.in.and. on.assumed.(Figure.(a).is.schematics.than.gable.that. 7°. Concrete.are.to. evidenced.ft.building..1  Distribution of Pressures and suctions Shown.2.pressures.25a).(From.that.positive.. and Composite Systems 2.at.overhang. wind.of.building.(Figure. and.as.function.of.27°–45°.or.corner.to.30.for.(b).windows.roof.enclosed.no.90.roof.higher.the.uplift.for.negative.roof.Exposure.a.2.roof.flowing.and.the.basic..roof.to.wall:.on.(c).flat.slope. Winds.along..30.Management.of..roof..overhang.corners. and ridge line –15 psf (b) –23 psf at hip and ridge lines –46 psf at corners –27 psf at perimeter –13 psf (c) Figure 2.B.speed. Floods.DC:.all.as.location.Observe.64 Tall Building Design: Steel.Federal.assume.B.a.wall.slope.pressures.25. of..the.and.is.FEMA.as.25  Relative.surface.uplift.of.psf.all.Note:.all.January.roof.slope.pressure.result.speed.Design Guide for Improving School Safety in Earthquakes. caused.damage...the....positive.2.25c).the.up.Washington..of. is.height.6.corner.compared.15.has..gable.around. hip.with.location.424.psf. –24 psf –37 psf –15 psf –20 psf +15 psf –16 psf (a) –20 psf –27 psf at perimeter.7°.Design.slope.roof.7°.positive.enclosed.building.a.and. pressures...90. those. Association..mph.of.gable. to..2004.or.sides.in.overhang.ft.a.pressures.wall.Exposure.windward.pressures.low.of.basic..edges.pressures.relative.an.height.

windstorms.. strength. testing. pressure.distinct. the.point.same.fluctuation.strength.the.in.the. can.of.on. strongly.order.downstream.to.surface. the.and. than.designated.are.acceptable. is.a.possible.load.building.than.corners.tunnel..8.remains.on.buildings.other..pressures.pressures.the.Figure.corners.areas..this..industry. mean. positive. eave.on.Negative-pressure.probability.or.as.(Regions. the. As.of.period.The.negative-pressure.of.cladding.. mentioned..period.building’s.is.that. or.it.studies..winds.of.are..glass.steel.uses..rather.the.The.fluctuate.from.models.pressure. thought. face.not.the.a.point. schematically.the.design. upstream..pseudostatic.2.in.as.as.plan.example.For.around.on.downstream. Positive-pressure. and.as. the.wind. design.. As.continu- ously.the. in.buy.Therefore.leeward.scale.or.face.strength.velocity. fluctuating.at. 3.an.high-pressure.and.face.wind. 1.have.and.zone.for. more. fluctuates.26.The. of.generated.concrete. . on.3) The.upstream. be.of.not.consider. combination. static.0. a. earlier.Wind Loads 65 Region 2 Region 3 Region 1 Figure 2.material.Therefore.The.gust.tiles.cladding.loads. as.the.and.failures.a.on.on..a. is.component.of.three. of.commonly.zone.s..highest.26  Wind.the.of.the..as.ridge.of.on. period. influenced..cladding. design.02.2–0.it..Wind.with.per.the.region. the.materials.Regions 2.yield.fluctuating.function.positive-pressure.in..or.(Region.or.components.much.as.glass. relatively.fluctuate.usually.zones.on.building.the.the.but.etc.to.acceptance.the..such.glass.shorter.on.a.other.mean.on.of.gust.of.has. in.Therefore.compared.in.upstream.glass.indeed.. certainty.(panes).static.a.is.as.treated.absolute.which.arising.whether. the.glass.dynamic.the.varies.known.zone.cladding.2.are.suctions.upstream...the.from.and.not.ran- dom.is.. the.criteria.strength. velocity..based.it.to.based. of.negative.around.Negative-pressure.surface.and.of..as.a..the.1) .is.for.Figure. confirmed.of.to.2) . the.steel.is.not.pressure.Wind..26: . windward..pressure.probabilities.clad- ding.of.failure. The. lights. by.the. 2.with.criteria.and.the..construction.of.velocity. negative. pressure.(Region..suction.both. pressures.addressed.design.selection.equivalent. local.statistical.the.building.problem.pressures.velocity.steady.constant. The...takes.1000. buildings.accurate.any.and.buildings.as.than.the.on.of.to.to.as. is.shown.from. sufficiently.face.is.develop..

in. two.come.suction.location.of.Figure.load.reveals.but.to.that.the.is. by.the.of..have.covers.glazing.loading.assessment.positive.overall.and. no.and.areas.and.The.high-rise.of. windows.more. negative.that.below. loading.the.simultaneously.differences. bridge.both.building.is.the.of.tests.as. any.wind.gusts.are.any.tunnel.cladding.zones. The. 2.the.pres- sures.to.parts.resist.outward-acting. failures. for. wall.of.building. There.that.negative.the.They.greater..occur. 3.from. building.determining.the. Concrete.systems.critical..have.components.the.common.important.positive-pressure.very..follow.direction. do.velocity. overall.is.by.consid- ered.pressures..is.of.of. not. effect.are.instant.enclosed. these..and.give.the.vital. not.recourse.overall.momentary.fact.pressure. (see. 2.is.significantly.a.twice..pressures.overall.maximum.27b.important. examples.building.building. the.summation..Figure.building.in..types. local. these.projecting.time.design.but. the.to.Contributing.as..blown.problem.formerly.maximum..surface. are.of. of.design.load.only.perhaps.the.to.the. Tacoma.direction. classic.highest.meantime.both. winds.pressures.2  Local Cladding Loads and overall Design Loads The.overall. types.wind.27f.on. 5.cladding.window.required. aboveground. as.the.of. disaster.surroundings.load.have.surface..of.loading.by.of. design.occurring.design. winds. loads. than.or..established.overall.to. cladding.are.fail- ures.s. importance.around.have.of.surfaces. .the.elements.as.are.of.complex. of.local.determining.building.to.pressures.their.adjacent.of. the.forces.and.careful.mullions.of. proportion..determination.loads. is. the. less. toppled.of. of.measured.load.character.local.action.based.and.air..combination.and.loading.local.column.in.failures.details.those... to. Although.much. occurred.through.than. Another.Much.(1).consequence.load.building...wind.at.on.center.of. .the.any.micro.loads.shows.than.itself.specific.model.on.glass. Figure.referred.analysis.building.of.. relative.of.design.wall.such.wind.that.wind.in.the..design.areas.tunnels..but..been. Typically. loading.of.greater.the.wind.a.wind.architectural.and. 1.about.. varying.magnitude..exterior.load.a.concentric.in. and.as.Figure.the.wind.by.. specific.wind.Local.and.various.for.system.few. . both.load.is. of.it.near.any.analytical.of.the. and Composite Systems 2.configuration.entire. with.In.into.Internal..a.overall.specific.has.light.on..a.to.cladding.building.loading. negative.whereas.for.research.pressure.are.model.significant.that.The.a. vagaries.of. are.most. Local.pressure.6.most. surface.the.complexity.significant. hand. typical..2..The. comparable. failures.may.anchorage.or.. roofs.wall.connections.building. height.the.simultaneously.assumed.we. in.under.lateral.wind.cladding. 6.on.to..features.2. positive.instances.and.27).loads.the.direction.facade.somewhat.are. obvious.of.testing.roof. .few..than.the.positive.overall.and. intensity.corners. of.not.in.top. Probably.of.whereas.wind.illustrated.design.grid.also.outward-acting.load.positive.for. building.66 Tall Building Design: Steel.2.and.testing.the. be.building. are..is.2.no. substantially. .Important. influenced.diagram.proper.feature.at. cladding.caused.shown.tests.of.influenced.act.deep.of.loads.at. The..for.it. to.pressure.and.quite.In. designing. On.as. more.Intensity. of..given.lower..that.time.in.determining.very.local.panels. overall.more.(2)... and. the.pressures.on.cladding.and.buildings.have.at.is.on.differ. quite.design..had.only.use.Generally.a.Therefore.on.to.of.surface.important. configuration.following: . design.a..and.contours.surface.2.are.is.are.methodology.leakage. wind.occurring.the.negative.a. cladding.suctions.in.majority.the.needed.differ.is..to..over.an.near.the.block. vary.is.any.. .of.the.off.the.diagram.the. uncommon.two. building.loads.may.wind..such.assist.local.negative. other. 4.or.nature.if.intensity. in.the.Local.27e.overall.building.the.sensitive..critical.pattern.the.some.attention.velocity.not.gives.wall..the.been.local.fully.for.stories.effects.are.. by.load.buildings.of.

. are in..peak.(b).27  Pressure.peak.peak.country.building.positive.shown..(f).simplified.pressures. 67 .(c).psf.Pressures.building.cladding.for.design:.(e).building.positive.positive.grid.Note:.pressures.pressures.pressures.in.. Wind Loads 35 60 60 60 60 40 –40 –45 –60 –55 –35 –50 30 –45 30 –65 60 –70 70 70 –75 25 30 +92 20 +80 50 50 40 15 0 –2 5 –3 10 +60 60 +80 70 70 70 70 40 –20 +40 +40 60 10 70 70 –20 +25 +25 60 11 10 17–18 15 +40 +40 60 50 50 –15 +60 10 (a) 10 10 (b) 17 18 (c) (d) (e) (f) Figure 2.and.in.negative..tied.pressure.. (d) peak.pressures.to.wind.measured.city..in..contours.open.diagram.(a).tunnel.

ASCE.resources. is.28  Maximum.simplified?. perform.and.29  Vortex..(Figures. of.a.any. given.at.transverse.conditions.periodic.not.sin... that.would.in.the.. earlier.0 3.. evident.our. discussion.of..and.the.most.vibrations. the.get.of. .that. and Composite Systems 5.can.3 comments on asce 7-10 winD pRovisions It. they. wind-load.provisions.sinusoidal.if.computers.be.Yes..of.migranious.ASCE.F1.shedding:.wind. the.0 Ω/ω Figure 2. the.time.28..5 1.that.Could.all.are.0 β/ω = 0.in. Concrete.of.dynamic.building.0 β/ω = 1.2 (DLF)max 2.adding. Equivalent load Vortices due to vortices Wind Building deflection Equivalent load due to vortices Figure 2.7-10.expect.current.2.tedious.the.cover.don’t.6.3 β/ω = 0.for.to.generates.with.quite.29).load.conservatism.rigorous.damped.0 2.load.but.the.1 3.factor..easier. brief.level.the.provisions.efficient.68 Tall Building Design: Steel. so. direction.cost—the. special.be.0 β/ω = 0.the. perhaps.result.calculations.trend.systems. provisions.resulting.cost.vertices.Ωt.from.0 0 0 1.is.certainly. 2.availability.particularly.0 β/ω = 0 4. from.to.shedding.use.soon.0 β/ω = 0.2.However.a.economical.

Loma.In.loads.of.or. through.aftershock.less.occur.is.very.to.earthquake.earthquake.crust.caused.has.area. since.being.least.the.world. 69 .kind.with.with.. 2.a.the.surface. we.jerky..magnitude. only..Pacific..1. last. earthquakes.take.have.and.signifi- cant.on.of..later. and.. impact.input.mostly.smaller.magnitude.a.structures.in.hazard- ous.to.ground.buildings.a.many.worst.the.it..the. of.lateral.the.to.the.Indies. that.aftershocks..of.are.at.there.of.were.quake.that.direction. scale.the.of.forces.in.of.of. Earthquakes.of.to.a.each.the.only.greater. being.collapses.parts. on.242.with.above.died.had.shores.and.the.cause.portions.time.northern.remain..the.the.this.floats. to..still.resistant.like.victims.damage. earthquake. 50..The.Peking.strong.its.is. on.evaluated.When.in.which..are.structures.are.that. knowledge.structure.foundation..molten.causes.the.distribution.energy.. follow.lateral.over.The.the.the.regions.mass.called.floor.mass..above.least.000.had...core. 10  lesser.applied.makes..in.the.forces..The.in.Not.a.thought.of.out.catastrophic.of.reshaking...number.and.Seismically.magni- tude.be.motion.. Prieta.One.mass.They.people.Earth’s.largest.quakes.can.boundaries.Asia.the.some.example.horizontal.over.by.and.being.of. have.5.occurs.in.the. of.all.motion.scales.to.proportion.jerks.original.stresses.are.are.below.mostly.particularly. (within.little.does..number.group.and.the.we.earthquake.at.of..seen. their. to.horizontal. destruction. resulted.3.in. in.Figure.Richter.the.but.the.1.was.8.sliding.all..when.break..the.the.waves.earthquakes.in. so.A.line.this.a.dynamic.pattern. aftershocks.subjected.earthquake.magnitude).the.(within.and.purposes.back..gener- ated.the.earthquake-induced.on.wants.year.further..they.The. has.27.at.multi- story.strengths..events.usually.there. oldest.that.diminish.triangular.with.the.in.had.earthquake.Mediterranean.resist.large.Earth’s.a.in. 3 Earthquake Effects on Buildings Preview Earthquakes.creates. analysis.large...one.When.week.These.of.along.to.the. design.effects.buildings.plane.plates.its.of.these.applied... region.but.occur.each.1967. is.are.of.original. loads.the.Aftershocks.intensity.most.equal.Earth’s.which.resisting.along.with.5.as.one. within.in.designed.respect.but.magnitude).called.it.died. capable.of.They.measuring.Richter.move. therefore. years.structures.the.oscillate. magnitude).people.exerted.structure.as. the.7. 100.the..horizontal.rock.have.size. in.are.impact.weight.the.used.forces.deaths.disasters.while.other.forces.building.are.dynamic.number. it.fractures.4..in.generally.at.destructive.. 3.one.produce. the.an.line.forth.a.or.to.can.Richter.tendency.in.where.Earth’s. (see.foundation.0.may.Himalayas.the.mass.Since.these.and.the.shaking.fault.quakes.jerking. may.the.Minor.that. and.the..at.in.lateral.and.of.is.more.worst.the.the.than.earthquakes.1..building. Some.crust. antiquity.all.through.earth.eastern.buildings.the.to.those.Guatemala.an.zones.damaged.order.systems.on.the.of.of.are. Richter.due.surface.is.can.the.of.bracing.and.are. the..group.quake..tectonic.which.where.within. our..shaking.moderate.same.(6+.simplified..follows.occurs.For.are.the.and. crust.of.are.measures.forces. size.simplified.on.floors.parts.the.in.effects.loading.aftershocks.For.faults.produce.in.similar.or.the.the.more.north.wind.along.wide.a.another. The.Even.cause..by.the.bracing.an. Aftershocks.break. a..so.and. of... wreaked. high. Earthquake.a.movement.very. buildings.are.inertia. two. being.to. in..to..and.earthquake-resistant.the..original.action.many.of.place.bring.with.faults.same.after.quake.well-built.most..number.This.earthquakes..movement. against.earthquake. and.built.000.that. and.East.buildings.1).sudden.destructive.lateral.scale.first.resisted.to.a.through.of.quake.They.measuring.height.west- ern. intense.of.that.very.

diminished. of.of.a.on. the.engineering.This.the.gravity.but. is.applications. be.long-period.on.these.we.so.later.motions. study.design..some.capable.this.the.the.called..shown.random. and Composite Systems F4 F3 F2 F1 V Figure 3.of. and.a.would.scale.insufficient.earth- quakes.worthless.it.it.our.and. fascinating. economic.gives.uncertainty.and.earthquake.to.have.by..overload.Earthquake.. information.records.variables.height.near.loads. engineering.challenging.structure.is.of.wealth..with.difficulties.characteristics. or.other.seems.designing.earthquakes..and.change..earthquake..of..the.and.seismic.fill.intriguing. instrument.in..not.difference.have.it.effects.data.be.with.the.the.nebulous. treated.viewpoint.nature.large. loads.be.to.when.also.of.future.building.this.manner.as.of.must.forces.other.our.placed..forces.motions.ground. the..cases.(also.are.variables. detailed.undeniable. with.of.properties.maintains.it.would.even. the. by.it.the. are.building.percent.failure.nature.in.actual.time.if.structural. to.years. engineering.the.the.variables.and.practical..be.these.that..the..motions.prevent.way.or.of. structures...will. rest.and.applied.for.of.is. of.in.instruments.nature.is.therefore.columns.that.still.chance.We. for.random.must. reason.must.still. earthquake. there.design.both.column.structures.effect.the.the..concepts. engineering. decreased...can.occur.aspect.however.of.span.characteristics.random..we.earthquake. what..forces. disciplines.engineers.increased.weight.the.design.value.of.design. inelastic.not.up.a. to.. In.objectives.load.earthquake.fortresses.face..even. regarding.the...the.them.The.of.mild.extremely.as.vertical.the.recording.Figure....us.design.be.amplification.to.this.earthquake.in.world..called. and.knowledge.of.earthquake..deterministic. the.design.graphic..under.makes. a.confronted.most..generated.both.allowance.design.to.an.its.time histories).recording.to.the.engineer.such.modest. speaking.and.systematically. seismo- grams.from. Otherwise.though.weight.In.engineer- ing.engineering.educational. buildings.floors.medicine. Concrete.case.of.viewpoint.the. whose.uncertainty.soil–structure. of.deal.less.design.due. .factors.in..columns.design.decreased.also.while.differently.bring.beyond.will...This..from. behavior.openly.and.the.are.even.they. to. accordingly.experience.to.structural.of.branches.the. is. therefore.failure..either.this. Modern.response..trait.engineering.research.Sooner.vertical.to. of.the. earthquake-induced.compared.immediate..is.effects.appreciable.of..the.exer- cise.branches.that.reflected.approach. short-period..minutest.and.due.also.uncertainties. learn.contend. strong-motion.In.we.50%.a.in.earthquake-resistant.bending.wiggly line.judgment.needs:.the.debated.In.all.the.to.the.over.is.is.on.The.to.encountered.importance..compression.and.in.con- struction.the.know.live..strength.system.structures.dealing.loads.idealizes.in.However.a. primarily.mistakes.Increased. it.percent.unlikely.2. To.structures.with.dynamic.But.to.dealing.vary.vertical.to.make..are. must.in.a. is.about.gravity.that.70 Tall Building Design: Steel.objective.all.reduces.caused.their..larger.it.only. valid.that.compression.mistakes.by.rarely.begin.manifestations.earthquakes—about.large.filtered.providing. These.over.parody.to. psychiatry.and. understand.There.for.acquire.loads.upper.of.high.to.of.will.This.is.prove.interaction.forces.a.in.trustful..the.near.been.orthodox. the.3.expose.in.concerned.with.shaking.have.the.way.motion.in.collapse.often.orthodox.and..relieve.damage.seismic.of.provide.compression.while.In.fruitful.of.made..Add.future.with.1  Lateral.in.be.most. are.overloads..disturbances.to.that.indirect.experience.is.need.engineering.probabilities.in. helpful.dead.to.to. by.concerns. seismic.the.but.orthodox.out.of.technically.few.evident.a.pertinent..simple.unknown.necessity.interest.there.in.the.terms.agency..of.engi- neering.increase.strategically.brief.of.load.expressed.If.systems—whose.resist. Although.applying.These.are.familiar.earth- quakes.vertical-load-resisting.

2.of.probability.This.may.zones. shows.contour.rare.(50.the.of.probabilistic..South.1. Centro.The.not.United.will.on.on.variety.single.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 71 0.Carolina.commonly..are.in.probability.estimated. of.available.sooner.Charleston. .maps.500.1 Acceleration of gravity Acceleration 0 –0.seismic.probabilities.to.a.probabilities.period.hazard.between.States.period. of.USGS.later.of.in. in.peak.website.levels.lower.of.was. Component).1990s.in.if..years—was.(MCE).acceleration.the.value.These.are.of.occur.numbered.maps.prediction.ensures.spectral.designer.practical.safety.building.occur.basis.determine..time.2%.number.believed.(USGS).exceedance.1970s.return. The.divided.which.5.National.earthquake—for.selection..equal...regions.various.produced.be.against.basis.of.expected.For. 1940.of.codes. The.exceedance.may.period.large.would.of.explanatory.single.earthquakes. in.exceedance...Program. result.a.years).specified.typically.the.50-year.this.years).of.some.Provisions.to.a.is.used.return.with.the.ground..States..Thus. not.some.the.occurred.each.representation. acceleration.are.regions. El.a.USGS.maps. The.as.assume.seismic.probabilistic..Geological.high-probability.250.50.began.the.of. May.for.value..years.years:.of.years.of.of.motions...in.about.United.a.sets.largely.years.Design.the.that.the.earthquakes.or.the.loads.of.that.represented...developed.in.earthquakes.3.and.accel- eration.for.exceedance.as.with..by.nation.98%..at.in.exceeded.the.terms.of.about.earthquake..for.the.and.for.500.seem.form. dilemma.to.seismic..50.acceleration..low-probability.showing.regions.but.respectively. earthquake.two.into..is.in.much.event.analysis.map.2.building.probability.the.they.be.in.1 –0.will.2%.used.years).used.recurrence.. (NS.in.the.latest.times.of.be.ratio.Earthquake.such.more.the.the.New.2.earthquake.the.of..in.effec- tive.earthquake.maps.used.are.the.(a.2 –0.USGS. Until.were.on.that.on. In.the.the.of.value.a.be.and.coefficients.United. The.In.may.2.velocity–related.expo- sure.ground.a. Seismic.assigned.equaled.next.odds.earthquake.return.2 0.10%.peak.Missouri. from.ground.high-. maps.earthquakes.example.probability.(0.infrequent.in.4).Recommended. s Figure  3.period.probabil- ity. 1994.2.a. 18..years.maps.sequence.years:. Starting.the.States.spectral. is.the.475.and.return..a.show.so.is.of.1898.in.in.are.500.provided..Reduction.of.The.and.hazard.a.period.the.of.between. seismogram.Hazards. accelegram.and.material.and.design.probabilistic.50.ground.motions.when.structure. The.the.in.of.2%. any.considered. protection.to.statistical. country.3 0 5 10 15 20 25 Time.motion.2  Strong-motion.exceeded.a.based.was.the.is.that.acceleration..in.of.%g.the.likelihood.maps.States.a.100..zone.lines..ineffec- tive.must.the.(a.designate.maximum.much..by.(NEHRP).this.Survey..example..contiguous.475.the.building.the. 10%.lower.of.1811–1812.in.is.new. that.United.be.90%.provide.in.were.peak.that.effective.and.difference.frequent.the.percentage.maps.the...hazard.earthquake.seismic.low-probability.and.map.which.degree. not.of.exceedance.the.Madrid.a.seismic.50. used.probability..coefficients.very.the.is.seismic..but.acceptable.use..use.1.codes.%g.return.

Provide.of.design •.which. Outline.exceedance.of. Explain.value.on.seismic.done.provide.. are.mostly.of.of..recognize.differing.complexity.is.the.least.(as.to.the.by. s.is.chapter.while.in.2.California.a..the.of.on.contain.for.of. In. are.acceleration.of.on.configuration 3.types.using.experienced.years.appropriate.general. large-magnitude.72 Tall Building Design: Steel.in.building.it. the.building..on.or.observation.how.involved.structures •.on.The. rather.site.of.as.distinct.discussed.effect.occurring.fault.limited.acceleration.code-level.seismic.motion.the.over.. Discuss.nature.values.of.of.more.different.will.based.slippage.defined.of.the.under. In.react.when.pass.geological.building..of.The.building..more.the.protection.in.earthquakes.period.how.by.this.a.the.each.is.maps. for.response.types.generated.These.necessary.differ.For.spectral.of. provide.that.depending.used.this.earthquake.spite. in.of..This.design.building.margin..ground..is.affects.variations.earthquake-induced.MCE.experienced.However.a.considered.and.periods. in.different.buildings •.an.ground.50-year. acceleration.each.shake.essential..are.is. Concrete.directly.few.earthquake.ground.on.based.forces.the.engineers.maps..of.size.moving..regions.2/3.many.in.(a.characteristics.prone.the.configuration.to.the.understanding.in.noted. approximately.The.site.provisions.use.over.motion.their.in.the.designers..create.will.change.move.MCE.differ- ent. of.motions.based.defined.of. what.against.USGS.ways.values.are.number.complex.it.the.are.building.and.and.experimental.regions. each.is.for.the.forces.analytical.level.few.and.world.by.result.spectral.probability.lesser.identical.combining.tries..response.building.on.US.0.of.to.shaking.regions.of.about.determine.of.for.well-defined. the.an.of.motion.and.by.hazard. The.occurs.by.it.the.inferred.will.the. the.phenomenon.the.more.values..experience.by.structure. to.by.this.basic.will.of.Inertial.earthquake.its.seismic.two-thirds.experienced. seconds..between.build- ings. Instead.for.is..mainly.the.are.age.in.which.time.regions.1.a.quality..rate.seismic.not.the.basis.design. several.peak.these. spectral.building.earthquakes.this.rest.the.2%.typically.building..providing.is.the..a. different.used.conditions.buildings.the..reduced.to.building.building.the..shaking.in.coastal.faults.believed.is.design...in.ways.in.by.value.is.vary.through.of..collapse.waves.and.the.direction.for.DE.those.design...there.all.more.study.in.than.predictable.extensive.the.building.s.values. These.of. These.reason.is.used..codes.to.with.are.types.to.on.rock. 1.the.that.interactions.high.short-period.shown.level.probability. The.becomes.of.design.the.maps.to.5.this.perform..construction:.which.for.in.maps.resultant.earthquake.(short).motion—the.building.acceleration. ground).2%.seismic.some. It.guide. system.to.in. as.the.ground.building.research.acceleration.whether. a.different.a.seismic.the.likelihood.its.the.is.each.is.introduction.country.different.how.to.characteristic.USGS. 50 years.2%..to.structural.becomes.earthquakes.of.each.including.from.acceleration.usually.seismicity. USGS.or.buildings.which.characteristics.uniform.is. and Composite Systems The.that.of.comes.ground.to.accelerations.this.500.used.provide.are.of.at.building.maps. if.chapter.at.acceleration.determine.from.to.They..0.and.to..the.performance.and.be. the.characteristics.seconds.more.of.as.building.a.MCE.During. give.the.detail.in.events..the.broad.directly.affects.systems.or.is.at.. and. design.(DE).the.MCE.most.is..long-period. .feel.a. the.these.2.the.to.accelerations.a.than.The.the.the.calculate.the.force.peak.considered.within.probability.of.structural. are.addition.for.for.belief.. summary.50..earthquake.a.USGS. referred.the.make.if.issues.during.understanding.it.severe.the.at.shaking.considerably.life-safety.the.that.years).for.time.are. the.we •.using.failure.that.that.by.the.and.as.they. outside.characteristics.occurrence.extent.waves. and.than.are..engineers.ground.This. values.of.in.material.standards.return.for.that.an.engineers..earthquakes.maps.forces.period.controlled. (long).MCE.maps.as.building.the.of.prevention.likelihood.fault.key.1  iNerTiaL ForCes aND aCCeLeraTioN The.building..buildings.the.is.waves.the.are.design.structural.in.most.their.of.build- ing.are.the.important.shaking.less..of.California.shaking.failure.from..design.such.of.result.In.design..internal.is.For.is.to. Understanding.actual..MCE. conceptual.ground..

divided.earthquakes..than.of.of. After.the. light..or. model.it.building.we.the.1) where F.or.and.tendency..one.tower.represented.at.later.may.hands.the.rate.mass.for.an.before..32.When. and. (b).percentage.the.acceleration.to.by.The.moment.in. .seismic. such..small. Figure. part.be.to.tower.for.mass..better.to.of.. tend.sudden. why.acceleration. ground. and.motion.of.forces.the.shifting.This..weight.very.the. motions.of.the.of.the..=.pilots.3. From.the. freestanding.aerobatic.the.is. houses.3a.as.second.is..the.an. equivalent.in. water. (a).is.the. explains.of.water.body.ground.M. Acceleration.concentrated.Figure.of.bungee.so.with.a.in.is.or.32..in.of.with.inertial.force.Ma (3. reach.the...M.Newton’s.1g. in.The.is. for.the. subjected..at.body.you.ft/s..as.simplified.ft/s...the.roller-coaster.such.horizontal.the.that.top.catch.the.laterally.the.accelerates.direction.movement.can.can.base. as.measured.ft/s.While.a.0.3  Analytical..ground.Thus.the.fall.mass.the. a.motion. to.riders.change.human.the.rate..another.second.is.put.and.column.as.as.. 3.are.undergoing.as.model.base.as.when.about.up.(equal.tower. to..are. law.by.determines.equal..the..a.a. water.00lg.analytical.velocity. buildings. equivalent..mass.of. wood-frame.The.earthquake.g) a.fraction.is.keep.motion.of..on.a.building.3b.ones.an.A.gravity. SDOF.top. jumpers.acceleration This.an.velocity.large.acceleration.be. perform. subjected.equivalent.for.waves.the.dealt.high.ground. a.too.with. of.change.is.or.is.A. earthquake.must.initial.second.the. The.One. the.shake.. cantilever.force.force M.stay.building.F.as.64.of.sensitive.that..lateral.is.velocity.person.to.cantilever.shown.very. tower.cantilever.law.much..of.to.. F.9g.. shown.space.tower.4g.additive.of.due.is.free.tower.the.When.feel.setting.to. Newton’s.for.a. in.g..of.a. Consider.in. first.parachutists.velocity.to. building..gravity.up.g.Thus.the.is.in.mass.the.terms. to.is.the. tower.an.second.experiences.they.weight.experiencing. of..is.heavy.are.rapid. tower.acceleration. with.that.of.(ELF).Earthquake Effects on Buildings 73 Mass M (a) (b) Figure  3. Water.end.due.at.accelerations.the.free-falling.the.M.in.acceleration.at.the.surmise. freestanding.

but..and. small.View.wave.station..of.of.time.Northridge.74 Tall Building Design: Steel.earthquakes.constructed.also.surface.cycles.and...threshold. Olive.4.likely. and Composite Systems they.most..cm/s. aND DisPLaCeMeNT Acceleration.it.impact.earth.varies.over.earthquake.lasted.San.in. the.caused.This.of.damage.1..of.mph..is.motion.centimeters.earthquake.can.travel. peaks.(4.the.6..second.cm).account.same.1.or.between. of.shaking.bracketed duration.is.takes.mph.Tarzana.quite.exceeds..motion.factor.The.to.into.a.Sylmar.seconds.the.and.from.shaking.second.severe.great.amplification.g.of...suffer.exceed.in.travels.the.centimeters.the.recording.withstand.and.about.about.18. 3.Continued.an.or..concrete.on.high...to.Poorly.failure.being.of.of.1994..and.the.the.or.measure.This.motion.the.is.In.were.10.slow—huge.or. between.5.derived.severe.the.few.to.last.Thus.to.the.their.hospital.rock.are..the.2  DuraTioN.result.acceleration.the.a.of.larger.damage.seismic.major.in..structures.over.displacements.occur.it.example.which.result.the.termed.0.earth.yet.of.frequency.more.duration.over.amplification..7.In.to.in.are.earthquake.is.that. In...is.inches.may.of.(DVA).to.its.typical.abruptly.l..distances.cm).commonly.strong.a.values..and.areas.shake..small..the.ranging.all.1906..acceleration.and.As.combined.refers.6.as.and.building.and.intensity..to.small..for.than.5g.few.initiated.in..In.the.time.building.feet.In.soft.The.000.is.displacement.to.depth.60.than.quite.to..can.San.a.little..and..lg).between.to.at.number.amplified.acceleration.in.that.the.immediately.the.measured.from.or.and.accelerations.a.of.a.tend.change..slippage.(34.soil.may.adjacent.except.1964.2g.for.the. rock.in.ground.duration.taken.rock.destruction.they.significant.to.5.damage..velocities.building.000–18.of.a.of. decrease..miles.moderate.over.traveling.seismic.a.measuring.to.a.fraction.about.moderate.S wave.sustained..above.the..of.rock.km/s.velocity.shaking.as..this. veLoCiTy.through.lasted.the.at.San.very.points..measured..about.lasted.building.key..over.the.Hz).distance.be.This.in.hundred..clear.the.steel.much.of.Francisco.motion..may.forces.5.the.In..studied.10%.refers.1.have.by.at.moved.shaking.compared.the.small.1.thousands.be. 3.wave.. Two.which.first. A.both..3.are.underlying.motion.epicenter.tons.are..recorded.that.the.the.for.the.and. to. is. at.a.from.Prieta. (or.seismic.Also..acceleration.depending.at.of.the.earthquake.velocity.and.the.Short.short.reduces.tends.s.so.direction.not.in..is.increases.at.in.a.more.charac- teristic.in. approximately.amplitudes.by.Northridge.and.earthquake.from.propa- gates.of.and.earthquake.certain.For.a.cm/s.acceleration.km/s.on.periods.an.fast.1971..ground.layer.of.because.displace- ment.of.of. times.by.epicenter..0.shaking..the.is.are.the.Fernando.strong.s..of.in.to.the.roof.acceleration.In.but.recorded.ampli- fication.slower.92g.accelerations.measures.earthquake.buildings.only.of.ground.at. As.be.factor.but.3  aCCeLeraTioN aMPLiFiCaTioN Due To soFT soiL Earthquake.of.Typically.accelerations.from.ground.3. P wave.soft.5.mathemati- cally.the..earthquakes.nature.min. earthquake.a..relatively. earthquake.peak.effects. Displacement.motion.relation.be.level.waves.when.structure.of.surface.tends..from.6.with..In.be.Northridge.damage.and.to.are.is.on.epicenter.displacement.value. .large.and.High-frequency.resistance.waves. motion.vibration.time.shak- ing.The.05g.thresh- old..per..s. forces.the.from.displacements.as.0.may.000.more.quantities.47g.a.of..at...longer.the.13.at.difficult.defined.or.weakens.the. about. displacements..much.km)..1906.are..(12.directions.second.moved.Alaska.brack- eted.a.roof.inches.caused.Burbank.as.km).may.much.determining.pronounced..the.in.. deal.which.initial.a.These.wrenched..in.fault.the.related.Francisco.for...while.the.45. The.measured.recorded.to.may.a.general.the.in.0g.became.waves.in.is.shaking.about.the.Loma.type.loca- tions.velocity.7.000–11.periods.severe.from.have..slow.over.motion.an.a.vary. rate.feet.to.significant.(higher.small.on. The.amplitudes.. be.miles.a. Concrete.parking.or.acceleration.was.2.5..a.the.motion.is.last.of..single.acceleration.miles.a.Velocity.directly.low- frequency.several.building.2.in.0..earthquake.very.a.the.0.earthquake.so.waves.of.rup- ture.(29.duration.in.waves.the.severe.soil..8.value.and.a.fault.of.begin.10.other..

some.the.fact. related.necessary.is. that.Citicorp. determining..designed.earthquake.of.make.of.will. 1 divided. Natural. specific. the.. relate. A.slow.is.of.10.of.in.forth.at.=.cycle.at.tend.periods.Francisco’s.3.give.and..Marina.as.structure.will.inverse.a.between.number.period.5.to.design..hertz.sway.push.with.0.or.of.period.taller. considerable.. periods. a.the.foundations.some.period. s.possible. amplification.from.an.push.60-story.to.be.1989.rolling.height..Whether.caused.design.higher.its.will.this.the.a.of.building.4  NaTuraL PerioDs All.District.they. 0.inverse. shaking.a.fractions.during.are.important.particularly.so.cycle.natural.be.one.are.or.in.of.require.building.period.seismic.waves.at. about. When.the.measured.building.the. A.anything.was.wall. nature.in..the.0.natural.New.rate.function. of. of.motion.Frequency.vibrate.frequency.force.it. Specially.complete.for.this—the.is.occur.cycles.period..rubble.height.other.s.hertz.one-story.than.a.a.of. from.levels.a.When.quick.building.seismic.natural..without.vibrate..second).and..seconds.by.earthquake.5 1–2 6–8 Building period (s) Figure 3.may.it.One.building.it. about.In.4  Effect.equals.soft.York.building’s. have..shove.05.soil.swing.this. such.was.the. vary.fundamental.building. office.buildings.a.0.buildings.in.filled..1–2.long-period.move.effective.that.of. equipment.times.three.to.deposited.will.seismic.on.be.starts.earthquake.in.not.one...of.is.if.measured.after. a.a.4).abrupt. piece.building.cycles.shaking.located.s.designed.started.earthquake.natural.stories. ground. forth. codes.be.and.Period.sway..sway.to.about.of.extensive. possibility.10.object. of.. as.1 0.forces.four-story.of.pushing. requirements.These.are..s.has.it.a.preliminary.San.second— and.dam- age.the.in. filing.pulling.is.to.stories.period. of.is.to.building.is.is.of.wave..that.for.largely.clay.needed.the.7.(Figure.back..as.at.is.which. the.a.1.horizontal.Prieta.on.buildings. 20.by.given.motion.thumb. of. divided.1906.to.built.time. 3.The. . a.the.and.and.of.rule.period.In.and.primarily.therefore.on..20.if.for..maxi- mum.its.slowly.of.per. Because.and. the.second.s.that. Another.which.of. characteristics.characteristic. seismic.back.will.period..a.it.indicated.this.is.of..Hz.importance..sites.and.frequency.is. the.will. ground.. forth.six.a. 40–50 story 10–20 story 4 story 1 story 0.building. close.of.cabinet.20.poor.push. cabinet.at.the. for.also.number.the. to.amplification.a..at.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 75 inspection.seismic. vibrating.they.(or.it.is. to.for.earthquake.is. the site. waves.the.and.or.about.period. very..back. to.possible.records. Periods.second.about.must.have.the.05.it.Loma.period.of.to.

it.and.and.note.Very. When. deformation.to.cancel.recognized.is. effect.absorbed. plastic.near.the.installed.building.as. of.the.unlike.up.depending. is. geometric. mass.a.forces. displacements.structural.which.to. is. increase.a.maximum.may.is. an.. accelerations. person. interest.is.Other..same..at.Buildings.or.swing.become.its.is.the.resonant. amplitude. the.will.2. except. building.101.at.while.defined.As.absorb. natural.energy.not.ground.the.a.also. The.also.rock.take.the.many.faster.of.0.motion.ground.of.because.his.given.the. changed..on.Galilei.approaching.attained. in.strings. an.pendulums. T .in.of. longer-period.oscillations. or.is. even. whether.earthquake.structure.is.smaller. and. suffer.which.hard.ground.system.the.periodic. in.expected.be. if.is.only.resonance.frequency.in. its. natural.to.the.it.tuned.linear.the.(Figure.familiar.resonant.maxi- mized.the..large.of.become.cycle..as. 3. It.possible.shock.as.system.amplitude.the.be.it. is.. damage. pushes.is.or..is. its.exact.on.is.seismic. concern. and.most.to.at. increase.reciprocal.others.swing. be.conclusion.does.period..structure.construc- tion. from.2) . to.T.phase. of.the. of. building. response.to. the. buildings.physical.in. also.swing’s.amplitude).a.but.of.bridge.the.the. ground. course.swing.will..when. construction.frequencies.times.swing..extracted. greatest..cannot.to.the.absorb.the.in. period.2g.of.the.. The.pushes. Concrete. damage.to.soft. also.ground. change.some.higher.produce.may. period. never. thus.energy.quite..first.after.This.dissipate.is. earthquake.Taipei.s..periods. within.the. certain..a.common.4. materials.should.5  buiLDiNg resoNaNCe In...a.reassuring.law. building’s. may.as.that.struc- ture’s. and Composite Systems back.interval.that.pendulum.by.a.disasters.of..result..period. range.obeys. account.a.to.will. by.causing..at.energy.have.opposing.(maximum.of.Thus. the.vibration.own.distortions.. academic.really. dramatically.close. vibrating.building.the.the.2.weakened.frequency.ground.period.swing.major.relies.occur.often.into. of. period.tendency.slower.while. in.building.Pushing.can..typically. the.of.may.to. Because.is. as.oscillating. become.or.they.natural.resonance. this.building’s.attempts. Perhaps.is.some.because.as.structure’s.that.example.730-ton.larger.not..to. only.five...of. about..important.and. ω.make.few.a.frequencies.nature.the. infinite.3.project.concern.engineering.the.is.the.imagine.to.deflection.investiga- tions.completing.the.resonance. earthquake. its. its.that.time.countermeasure.four.when.76 Tall Building Design: Steel.of.the.can.resonance.vibrates.every.but. of.resonance. At.Galileo. 1.This. with. ground.much. .. from..(its.likely.the. Avoiding.ground.the. height.to.tempo.driving.period. conditions.was.the.systems..Furthermore.It.oscillate. of.the. unusual. sustain.pendulum—a.resonance.practice.as.musical.the.be.result.. small..ground.the.in.a. Therefore.The.a. motion. to..and. content..zones.equal.a.motion.is.but.interest.accelerations.even.constructed.forth.building..resonance. because.swings.structural..denoted.to. this..resonance.its..of. fact.factors. motions. response.beginning.to.s.structure.at.vibrating.push. varies. under.mounts.natural.a. accelerations.1602. the.that.period.pushes.vibration:. Since.7. A.This.frequency). building.small. but.the.vibrations.just.are. of.As.in.4).the.a.completely.elastic. may.buildings.. It..go.experiencing. resonance.encounter.amplitude. increasing.motion.fatal.will.already.not.in.noted. which..actually.. due.pushes.such.at.playground.further..are.characteristics..as.when.very.every.and.force.swing.with.arcs. its..and.respond.dynamics.the..perhaps.of.higher.that.damper—to.building. the.may.The.prove.natural.frequency..create.large.are. has.cycles. period.of.by.is.the.s.and.pushes.Hard..softening.1g.the.to. ground.tower. to.that.range. of. rather.building.at.than.frequencies.that.consideration.of.experience..with.frequencies. of.vibration. affect.acts. well.in.are.and.0 w= (3.in..natural.know.hence.oscillations.the.with.their. proportions.is..impacts.cycles..resonant.with.period.important..problematic. 0.structure.of. set...short- period. by.of.large. nonlinear.

natural.The.period.earthquake.downtown. amplification..period.with. short-period.so.building.design.as.This.the.period.is.building.that..damage.building.3..may.the.differently. back.best. response..a.building.buildings.and.ground.periods.stiff.several.period. Taller.the.than.resonance.is.however.will.at..at.coincide.that.response.will.more.come.maximum.that.how.On.City.. common.of.such.. spectrum).termed.with.building.in.varies.of.in.a.a.the.Thus.earthquake..act. not.expected.likely.so:..Conversely.period.by.similar.a.from.periods. .be.buildings.the.the.response.6.This.not.expense.may.(Figure.this.old.two-story..accelerations.experience.show. any.increases.1985.periods.20..amplifi- cation. This. periods.forth.short.tradeoff.to.hand.the.critical.will.high-rise.graph.taller..the.is.the.varying..generally.displacement.at.experience.be.buildings.buildings.for.. responses).spectrum..to.response.widely.site.always.the.6.This.its.A. that.different.the.the.and.may.maximum.... is.to.it.ground.modes.spectrum.verti- cal.during.may.the.low-to-midrise.period.of.. that.and.building..of.lower.although.low-rise.general.the.building.DVA.building.(short-period).6  siTe resPoNse sPeCTruM From.increased.the.a.than. accelerations.3.show.lesser.toward.of.were.motion.to.ordinate).(long-period).lengthen..and.(which.earthquakes..be.against.height.that. the.building.destruction.less.that. different.undergo.period.building.decrease.Note.3. period:.of.is.why.in.spectra.it.significant..will.that. frequency. 250 miles.Such.response.. such.accelerations.that.like.5  Vibration.that.accelerations.are.more.of. they.(the.given.s—the.as.ground.partitions.ground.Thus.may.within. (or.a.frequency).by.margins.will.represent.building.of.nonstructural.ordinate.coincidence.in.more..For. fundamental.expected.significant.focus.lengthens.result..earthquake.displacement.wiggle.suffered.at.the.short.of.motion..simplified.it.there’s. greatly.short).site.values..be.representation.the.displacements.stories. is.same.of.under.shows.soft.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 77 First mode or Second mode Third mode natural period Figure 3.about.response.a.spectrum.so.common.in.version.reduce.earthquake.buildings.at.the.terrible.of.(and.be.and.motion.con- tent.but.most..axis.a.a.5).always..accelerations.long.from.resonate.to.a.0.trying.ground.period.undesirable.with.buildings.response.the.relatively.Taller.shows.other. with.frequency.displacement. 3.building.buildings.soft.of.considerable.period.would.flexible.low-rise.response..was..periods..of.of.more.ceil- ings.spectrum..the.can.will.response.natural.or.design.components.proportionately.increasing.of.vibration. necessary.City...happening.building..in.midrise.ground.to.caused. discussion.2.as.some.a.building.illustrated.motion.was.However.(moving.a. lake.natural..the.very. evident.although.be.of.for.of.in.primarily.spectrum.the.the.shows.vibration..at.vibration..possibility.the..in.modest. Figure.the.ways.earthquake.around..s.on. on.to.response.and..accelerations.be.to.higher.the.to.differing.will.its.to.snake.also.a.in.caused.range.the.modes.right.horizontal.90. one-.These.building. However.different.structures.a.is.glance.the.for.a..between.even. taller.them.modes.vibrate. low-period.bed..damage.of. The.the.is.suffer.a.s.in.plots.the.undergo.of...ground. it.A.stiffer.Mexico.the.about.higher.little.a..horizontal.building’s.the.respond.purposes.reduced.ensure. buildings. preceding.DVA.acceleration.the.smaller.Mexico. In.over.caused.

undergo. site.knowledge.its. building.spectrum.shown. period. adjusted.7.at.resonant.flagpole:. period.the. not. with.a.a.on.but..be.Based.the. maximum.in.and.building.as.such.design.for.response.is.a.accelerations. Original Lower ball Lower pole Change Change Change section material base Figure 3.possible.flagpole.than.will.response. the.said..enables.for. does. The.response. structure.a.displacement.Figure. of.these. to.of. Concrete. coincide.velocity.quite.perhaps. ensure.is.the.identify.done. building.might.peak. and Composite Systems 4 Acceleration 3 2 1 0 2 4 6 8 10 Period in seconds 4 3 Velocity 2 1 0 2 4 6 8 10 Period in seconds 4 Displacement 3 2 1 0 2 4 6 8 10 Period in seconds Figure 3.acceleration.shorten.changes.spectra.which.this.6  Simplified. the.to.7  Turning.easier.frequencies.the.nonbuilding.for. response.building.3..period... that.engineer.This.78 Tall Building Design: Steel. .

of.the. damping.a.a.is.to.damping.attribute.on.allow.many.flagpole.3%.of.vibration.a.the.number.as.of.and..be.recent. peak.Damping.a.0.structure.increases.moment.00 0.that.frame.of.had.to.This. spectra.a.or.engineer.termed.5%.such.. is..internal.damping.tiles).in.any.50 2.high.buildings.with.as.a.of.due. .typical.energy.its.the.number.zero.8g.water.partitions.critical. Architectural.steel.a.have.such.00 1.a.of.and.will. and.block.least.decay.of.a.10%.together.the.a.light.damping.heavy.walls.friction.is.will.significance.damping. between.of.amount..amount.and.structures.lower.used.partitions.damping. response.contribute.also.a.10%.building.nature.to.con- crete.as..00 2.of.older.and.provide.the..been.to.values.apply.response.and.spectra.more.fixed.For.the.decay. that.0.00 Period in seconds Figure 3.about.glass.motion.A..designer’s.continued.to. a.would....for.The.for.For. concrete.design.simple.3. The. a.measure.would.The.eventually.used.the.with.to. Pseudo absolute acceleration (Sa) in ‘g’s 3..damping.absorbed..a.vibrator.enable.that.or.amplitude.level.some. as.in.position. Damping.encased.2g.buildings.damping.higher.of. acceleration.decrease.damping.to. Damping..a.return.a.value.for...modern.will.damping.values.buildings).This.that.response.principally.a.to.time.devices.the.reduce.acceleration.to.value.is.damping. in.spectra.it.most.a.envelope.accelerations.have.made.main.in.and.with- out.metal.exterior.the..and.its.exterior.to.vary.damping.connections.light.tuned.the.is.steel. of. rapidly.hollow.to..would. open.fixed.of.show.engineers.apply.value.also. building. and.a.employed.value.7  DaMPiNg If.affects. value.increase.office.heavy.(such.damping.00 0.structures.in. show..50 3.values.for.partitions.measured.00 λ = 0% λ = 2% λ = 5% 1.façade.columns.by.regarded.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 79 3.of.8  Response..5%.and.critical.original.00 2.with.the.0%..critical.cantilever.minimum. increases.that.con- crete.and.amplitude.a.of.layouts.structural.by.to.generally.tank. Response. the. cease.structure. damping.features.reference.steel.frame.will.generally.for.damping..generated.values.8.produced..5%.be.The.but.greatly. Figure.vibration.structure.ground. 3.the.vibrate.office.provide.this.construction.65g.of.50 1.is.use.of. the.in.fixed.as. ground.offices..values. The.of.ability.a.years.and.government.(often.which.structure.motion.the.the.is. single.theoretical.column.than.damping.system..beams.building.of.a.00 λ = 10% 0.supported.damping.and.value. might.the.over.

its.the.few.those.the.threat.be.public.The.from. in.steel.reason.the.support.prior.closely.understand.absorbs.materials.and.failure.This..are.and.the.limit.as.and.revenues.temporarily.embedded.energy.many.end...so.much.only..snap.(depending.bars.capacity. plastic. and.fail.buildings.a. and.continues.motion.rivers.earthquakes. so.the. can.and.heavy. detailing. than. higher.bends.meaning. give.the.bending.the.lakes.The. bending.are.members..possibly.The. fro.The.(the.distortion.. spaced.material. not.remain.they.in..further...made.snap.pushed.deformation.its.our.of.way.a. explanations.loading.involve.for.with.and.code..spoon.are.the.rather. natural.of.. water.of.that.and. •.business.are.fail.which.are.ground. In.elastic.instantly.at.does...that.effectiveness.after.after.of..destruction.war.in.Earthquakes.structural.metal.shaking.a.has.as. must.real. The.conditions. Other. 3.subjected.accompany.is. ties.past.seen.much. with. Thus.repair.energy. special.bays.although.to. or.of.pushed.be.back. a.concrete.great.structure.liquid.spoon. granular..overload.of.limits.most.not.still.spoon.sites.the..elastic.and.never. when.addition.few.human.resulted. condition.after.to.break.of.in.following: •.on.resist.permanent.to.building.in.to.motion.would.fear.more..ability.the. of..very.sud- denly.in.also. Liquefaction.materials. lessened. occurs. accepted.energy. way.will. the.the..related:.destruction. change.a.and.earthquake-caused.period.plastic.resistance.by.or.case.rock.on.level. generally.safely.that.earthquake.dependent.required..when.metal.reserve.deformation).than.beyond.long. heavier.is.a. and.been.to. be.without.earthquake.of.of.sensation.spoon.duc- tility.can.most..absolute. Brittle. history..of.forces.sloping.they.the.it.seconds.although.be.can.point.members.similar.details.unreinforced.the.several.standing.why....and.than.of..will.origin. The.life. as. this.ground. .but..resist.is..complete.and.movement.to.masonry.more.to.when.back.the.is.nature’s.and.it. This.for.vibration).place.experience.and.nature.member.distortion.endure. with.certain.continue.bending.aftermath.hazards.property.creates.earthquake. closely.is.death.return. cause.distortion.disappear.soil.the.uncertainly.concrete.. and.funda- mental.the.considerable.through..the.second.shaking.metal.of.ground.difficult.the.possibility.These.the. deformation.while.break. doing.absorb. soils.defers.terrifying.can.capacity.earthquake. nature.not.of..forces.terrifying.and.plastic.will.provide.in.material.failure.and.at.Jobs..affect.equaled.by.death.to.distort.to.We.to.The.loads.80 Tall Building Design: Steel.dissipates.successive..connections.far.is.even.is.take.inadequately.considerable. of.equal.as.that.will.steel.property.is.to.a..at.a.services.near.have.sometimes.the.and.by.only.that..suddenly.such.by.of.that.the.a.phenomena.or.distorted.solid.before.and.slipping..its.the.a. more.mainly.create. homelessness.designed.and.on.which.types.of.bends.of.shape. sand.ductility.a.that. material.of..not. Ductility.ground..diminished.This.is.that.subjected.are.Reserve.private.intact.a.rare.reinforced.earth.forth:.does.building. and Composite Systems 3.terrifying.to. taken.of. This.a.not.can.earthquakes.materials.. environmental.uncontrollable.and.structures.the..one.. be.but.Beyond.requiring. Concrete.of.ductile.they.beyond.forth.minimum.on.ductile.together.ductility.the.connections. Landslides.as.weapons.In.identified.suddenly.However.original. loose.of. their.know.deformation.destruction.effect.earthquake.the.now.earthquake. that.will.proportions.only.metal.extreme.that.decades.feared. have.. triggered.can..and.can.such.warning.to.. placement. process.is.a..remind.8  DuCTiLiTy This.9  earThquakes aND oTher geoLogiC hazarDs Earthquakes..us.located.were..of.reinforced.of. distorted. mysterious..inelastic..the. however.and.structure.with.the.individual..connection.rapidly..least.can.the.one.and. Scientific.plastic.geologic....of.materials.This.so.state.after.years. of.forces.like.the.times. presence.Early.vibrations.and.the.of.a.sudden.earth.occurs.phenomena.shaking.and.for.ductility.

with.that.and.times.earthquake-caused.impacts.a. California.earthquake.threat..large.movements..Because.earthquakes.recurrence intervals.are.truly.some.west.wave. occurrence.potential.familiar.the.approximately.design.and.twentieth.US.to. that. with.States.in..development.but.are.their.Consequently.ASCE.action.are.than.very.about.is.from. Table.large.MO.shaken.energy.not.it.hazard-prone. areas.to.. the.at. now.Richter.identified.ft.are.Midwest. regions.in.well.of..only.Charleston.than.perhaps.Madrid.ocean.a.Structural.designed..any.of.high.New.consequences.early.potential..the.common.size.and. United..method.is.for..the.buildings.occur.Certainly.infrequent.of.or.locations. each.Carolina.earthquake. Records.earth- quakes.unit.aimed.and.states.9.to. unlikely.there. the. by.many.in.allow.national.over).near-term.or.other.Lake..damaging.current. incorrectly.devised.6.similar.loss.the.an.to.scale.on. Earthquakes.of.called.yet.the.however.of.City.earthquakes.for.They.scale.or.the.scale.moderate-to-major.known.greatest.earthquake.although.of.greater.they..an. size.the.and.South.the.much. the. far.that.the.The.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 81 •..and..Richter.occur. Technology.the.Missouri..that.predict.1989.instruments.the.in. 1935..seen.earthquake.a.at.Mountains.for. earth- quakes. to.1.in.to.vulnerable.although.occurred. Most. Richter.is. problem.very. California.tsunamis.aforementioned..application.zones..in.earthquakes.standard.States.on.in.magnitude.occurred.and.hazards.even.probability.appropriate. 3.California.Seismic.of..to.bays.occurrence..the. speeds.accepted.rare.since.50.regions.is.earthquake.map.seismic. restricted.result.extremely.damage..scale.are. probability.between.indicates..of.seismic.of.life. earthquake.lakes. about.and.increase.the.South.practices.of. of..recorded.of.wave.the.significant.earthquake-caused.is. Moderate.in. Professor.and. of.seldom.serious.a.km. normally.Oregon.the.are.10-fold.the.is.large.been.the.a.experience. just.could.that.occurring.the.severe.source. are.Alaska.of. by.and.these.a. represents.on.and.approximately.near.Buildings. California..United.from. 200–400..earthquake-caused.be.and.to.alternative.in. not.the.not.of.although.scientists.cause.40. the.basis.is. in. has. are..(see.waves.Rocky.in.7-10.ended.have.land-use.earthquakes..areas.or.sloshing.very. or.such.a.earthquakes..and. likelihood.travel. few.than.more.in.epicenter. They.all.that.the. Richter. and.particularly.in.dimin- ishing. .assume. United.largest.47.is.the. statistical.. seismograph.of.of.are.quite.. a.open.engineers.of.are.the.100.the.defense.knowledge.may..of.occur..coastal. •. Although.knowl- edge.ground.. Seiches.states.waves. California.New. With.every. States.increased.while.low.several.century.more. to.possible..maps).and.risk.of. frequencies.1568.3.therefore.5.10  earThquake MeasureMeNTs There.shaking.that.form.each.the..East.design.of.closed.as.where.is.of.limit.amplitude.from.of.which.period.threat. the.of.the.seismicity...injuries.in.areas.deal.by.by.have.lesser.damage.be. earthquake.the.take.measures.amplitude.one.1811.level.year... damage.shorter.no.a. of. Institute.mag- nitude.geologic.the. very.increase.it.As.amplitude..the.casualties.shows.likely. a.earthquake.that. probabilities.earthquakes.waves.of..familiar.magnitude.recognize. simply.km. in.at.but.50–70.occurrence..(magnitude.are. years.been.inevitable.. good.of. states.two.at.is.main.take..have.some. These.of..in.1812.United. Alaska.be.Richter.based.and.Salt.likely..exactly.is.cause.than.and.at.have.United.Western.100.three.will.years.to.of.most.life.much.show.is.However..They. in.but. notably.earthquakes.way..maximum.occurrences.tidal. devised.a.statistical.economic.Madrid.reducing. most.unit.In.of.these.to..time.on.or.is. are.earthquake-resistant.broad.can.represented.effective. States.. people.earthquake.and.earthquakes.the.in..30.in.other.areas. of.a.. Charles.or.distance... For...places.the.The. national.seismic..magnitude.subject.the.31.a.two.a.areas.. know.con- struction.certain.with..possibility..the.practical.and.logarithmic.Perhaps.likelihood.The.distance. of.possible.are.sometimes. Tsunamis.is.same.50.and..several.are.times...average.to.a.the.are.wave.a.Washington.States.

building.different.way.6 0.34 — — — — 0. a.designed.in..0166 0.are.designed.the.8 0.giving.0228 0.1 −26.14 25 66.deterministically.0 25. level.for..0 0.on.code. lost.simplicity.coefficient. greater.given.buildings.0794 0. were..shaking.6 38.Because.at.current.4 −41.5 22.indicate.be.a.shaking.04 35 20.a.2B.075.6 −0.of.detailed.seismic.a.and..Zone.in. ft y. is..sense.this.indicates..value.in.the.08 45 61.0616 0.to.acceleration.long-.it.be.The. of..Zones..0066 0.shaking.multiplier. seismic.. information.precision.2A.and.specified. range. in.in. ft/s2 y (∆t)2.tolerable.to.0 −0.a.the. s 1/2F(t)..for.selecting.12 37. their.20 25 −22.was..06 40 41.0511 0..predictions.. Numerical.0.value. site.values.values. Zones.was.more.1 Numerical integration results I.any.3.damaging.by.site.values.0090 0.Figure.8 −11.are.from.much. States. The.0664 0.0004 0. quite. 3.16 25 36.which.collapse.8 47..can.02 30 5.lacking. define..6 −25.considering.4 −0.to.0060 0. a.US. into.shown. recently.more. but.is.old.0 15.knowledge..3 −53. a.0047 0.4.8 0.The.4.in.series.to.0031 0.3.when.0004 0.at.of.fault.a.Zones.between.5 0.measures.the.on. shown..buildings. ft/s2 y.82 Tall Building Design: Steel.of.1.both.site.in. .zones.short-period.seismicity).and. Concrete..0200 0.0 0. the.but.and.or. much.the.taken.32 25 78.the.most.but.specified..for.0.0 25 0 25.used.at. and Composite Systems TabLe 3.acceleration.0172 0.requiring.lost..intensity.maps. Seismic.to.represent. such..region.model. zones.40.reflect.28 25 51.prevent.0050* 0. lines.is.Each.minimum.the.probabilis- tically.also.the.value.allocated.Zone.seismic.maps. United. was.buildings.provisions.6 −0.22 25 −29. contour. Current. zones.a..useful.be.necessary.the.a.are.shown.0368 0.acceleration.0136 0.future.makes.a.expected.11  DeTerMiNaTioN oF LoCaL earThquake hazarDs Until. United.prudent.0102 0.same.0198 0.0216 −0. divided.0783 0. number.5 79.1.lives. as.fourfold.are.value.(see.is.they. which.zone.the.30 25 74.and.saving.0 54.damage.given. to.on.also.acceleration.regardless. divided.24 25 −13. the.26 25 17.0756 0. fault.seismicity.highest.0 0.are. different.These.representing.seismic.10 50 75.acceleration..the.the.given.4 −41.that..0746 0. eq..no.codes.Therefore. seismicity.a.0290 0.maximum.0100 0 0.Also.0154 −0.on.0168 0.6 −0.collapse.0123 0.0 −1. take. States.earthquake.for.3 −0. ft 0.potential.8 −0.0 0. still.intensity.building.all.. that.focus. for.earthquakes.0191 −0.by.many..of.in.0410 0..at.of.(indicating.the.0100 0.calculated.6 −16.building.causative.earthquake-shaking.0104 0. was.least.design.from. ft/s2 1000y. ASCE.all.lives. seismic.6 −49.minimum..performance..affordable.separate.ranged.factor. the. way.1 −0.to.sized. standards.4..actions.be.derived. areas.the.2 7.Within.design. into..maps.0607 a.or.values.. are..earthquake.. 7-10.9 −0.9).directed.codes.18 25 2.0.values. smaller. by.shown.must.zone.the. are.level.

50.United.probability.of.based. 4 2A 2B 1 1 0 3 0 2A Earthquake Effects on Buildings 3 1 1 3 4 0 1 2A 2A 3 2B 4 1 2A 1 2A Alaska 2A 2B 1 0 1 0 2B Kauai 1 1 2B 3 Maui Oahu 1 4 2B 0 Guam 3 4 Hawaii 0 10 3 Tutuila 0 2B Miles 3 4 3 0 100 200 300 4 Puerto Aleutian 0 10 20 30 Rico Miles 0 25 60 Islands Miles Miles Figure 3.States.seismic.10%.The.map.of.exceedance.is..the.UBC.map.9  1997.zone.years. 83 .on.in.

hazard.because.damage.buildings.seismic.described. site.probabilistic..earth- quake.) Nationally.A.standards.times).of. (on.an. is.significantly.size.in..earthquake.previously.from.the.can.of.for.extensively.characteristic.designed.judged.not. because.about.analysis.earthquake.also. new.shaking.same.when. hazard.site. every.as.for.explained. The. and.is.a.with. by. probabilistically.period—one. any.However.the..analysis.the.this.of.it... parameter.word.of..building.Should.hazard.that. region..region.as.period.on.of..since. MCE.seismological. shaking. ground-shaking.the.of. for.more.producing. notably. given.times.therefore. However. several. shaking.risk.three.can. 1.also.Typically.considered.motion.a.judged. a.is. the.although.ground.as. years.even.evaluation.usage..occurrence.greater..rounded. in..to. for.is.a.For.seismic. and Composite Systems For.the.exceptionally.seismic.larger.current.would. previously.level.peak..values.that..at.being.in.change.into.the..deterministic.as. as. It.is. the.including. 2/3. a. times.identified.or.has.the.fault.500. Charleston.can.unnecessary.severe.much. shaking.by.is.the.typically.collapse.. engineers. level—about.average.Finally. national.500-year.regions. to.years. shaking.design.using.assessment.geological.would.as.earthquake.It.the. 500.in.acceleration.large.to. or.return.actual.are.is.a.was.(about.probabilistic.national.understandable.a.horizontal.and. 50-year.assessment. the.site.shaking.on. providing.seismic. building.sought-after.defined.use.capable. earthquake..protection.probabilities.likelihood.codes. direction.with.to.MCE.resistance.shaking. Lake.hazard.that..earthquakes. Memphis..the. Seismic.earthquake. the.active.so.same. Concrete.California.forces.84 Tall Building Design: Steel.particular. was.This. regions..the.specified..be.documented.shaking.longer.provides.particular.1 pRoBaBiListic seismic hazaRD anaLysis Probabilistic.was.DVA..to.and.the.at.and.maximum-magnitude.methods..selected.is.codes. once.these.studies.was.the. Salt.reasons.those. with.terms.mapping. expected. used.regions.5.return. level.. because.MCE. based.of.on.could.deterministic.a. twice.events.several. scenario.parameters.. particularly..event.the.response. level. used. time.a.in.and.acknowledged.California.the.that.probabilistically. in.undesirable. codes. resulting.multiplied.with.the.made.as.a. site.the.rare.often. for.of. design. in. rare. 10%.would.occurring.most. this.. multiplied. involves.of..500-year.design.hazard. The.. areas. result.effects.and. in.years.marginally.be.affect.the. a.of. that.motions.the.building.with.A. of. that..storms.the.rare.in.where.characteristic.sense.the.cover.. are. be. capture.shaking.earthquakes.takes...of.of. very.as..of. therefore. average). period. time.buildings. a.on.years.same. 500-year. has.probability.previously. a.the 500-year event.is.fact.It.common.maximum-magnitude. design. to.being. by. ways:.than.. building.inadequate.uncertainties.make..in.the. of.ground..in. Carolina. would.earthquake.used. acceleration). 3.. chance. intensity.Currently.in. California.decided.level.chosen..of.is.ground.those.in.are.1. shaking.5.in.uncertainty.475.life.. their. codes. of. standard.ASCE..used—providing.the.level. earthquake.the.the.quantified. new. the.for. accordance. .was.as. were. to.relate. the.provide.event..11.occur. Tennessee.the. some.period. been.the.level.be.design.the. of.. new.define.MCE.is. exceptionally.slightly.range. determined. to..as.exceedance.shaking. code. earthquakes.ground.considered.in.the.safety. exceeded.Seismic.before.2. estimated.as.ease.known. being.shaking. California. event. seismic. country.shak- ing. large..of.in. analysis.to.selected.shaking.the.is. 2/3.commonly. If.(Actually..2/3. of. safety.the.floods.location.in. the.of.of.the. not.seismicity. final.500-year. at.which.earthquake.not.partial.the..well.deterministically.could.(50. Utah. existing.2/3. most.a.a.shaking..is. applicable.coined. sufficient....times..or.(known.(PSHA).estimates.such...their.such.areas.the. can.expected.return.high. in.buildings.that.based.determine. two.areas. on.term. City...earthquake.earthquake.parameter.issue.levels.there.in.estimate..of.. South..and.that.additional.to.much.the.occur.rare.only.In. old—were.than.a. seismic. MCE).500-year.been.and.intensi- ties..often. described.practices. parameter. event.significantly.about.of. as.similar.consideration.and.termed. in.an.inac- curate.the.change. building.building.some.than.and.provided.. felt.values.of.be.cause. be.such.California.(such.events.buildings). shaking..statistical.

building.geologic.per.of.in.suffer.indicative.consequence.such.the.Examples.the.large..the.called.the.a.ground.exceeded.include.an.and.ground.example.earthquake..of.fault.or.a..is.seismic.a.during.50.consistency.probability.terms.such.sufficiently.maps.natural.activity.being.exposure.interrup- tion.earthquake.level. Substituting.P. large.loss:.on. derived.of.process. because.exceedance.codes.is. S1.known.of.of.these.The.quantified.repeat.that.peak.as.50.US.Ss.based.a.ground.structures.damage..past.a.ground.earth- quake. which.of.exceeded.period.=.there.the. force.with.replacement. Decisions. loss. involve.the. that.−.costs.in.or.is.social.t.(or.specified.after.(−yt).a.outside.Oregon.to.years.of.the.for.maps.the.of. gives..life.be.475-year.and.frequency.in.475-year.years.will.in..are.as.ground.and.event.to..probabilistic.California. zone.earthquake.1.of. defining.an.text. probabilistic. 475-year.exceedance.is.used.“with.=.for.be. about.high.but.occurred.losses..often. of.achieve.in. sometimes..motion.inflated.related..a. potential.the. (3.years. evidence.life- time.expresses.building’s..evaluate. is.owner. the.=.past.exceeded.loss.is.4) .the.contents.Confusion.now-recognized.exceeded.Wasatch.that.and. estimating.used.Illinois.in.probability P.current.structure.amplitudes.(which.period.between.perhaps. t .have.expo- sure.with.earth- quake. of.life.of.are..occurrence.Hawaii.Washington.an. considering.is.10%.future..period.. Structural.different.hazards.of.building.building.in.which.to..consistent... areas.gives -[ln(1 . zones.the.002107.being.effect.level..labor. in.a.a.or. but.hazard.The.for.and..years..earthquakes.and.acceleration.business.for.high.is.and.of.major.and.in.prob- ability.considered.be.of.to.factors.corresponds.years.maps. in.“that.refers..occurrence.estimating.the. of.logic.at.The.to.commonly.percentage. can.the.ground-shaking.elsewhere.shaking.probability. show. There.effects.exposed.civil.require.=.Nevada.years.1.the..in.occurrence.are.the.future.P )] Y= (3.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 85 well-defined..probability.as.in.the.low. shown. frequency.annual.1/475.a. “What.materials.insurer).2. period?”. for.evidence.on.motion.the.the. These.are. PSHA..Y.seismic.0.motion.fault..historic. increasing. earthquake.seismic.mitigate.3) Rearranging.a.value..through P. which.damage. characteristics.wherein.occur.earthquakes. to.exposure time.building. demand surge).incurs.2%. arises. may. engineers.zone.motion..assessment...of. Arkansas.. the.and.structures.In.expected.assuming.often.also. parts.earthquake.is.effects.United. . fact.motion.active.gives y.of. have..vibration.in.for.design.destruction.is.such.in.on.of.logical..popularly. The. earthquake.year.2%.Montana.hazard. Probabilistic..high.the.probability.like.seismic.nominal.monetary.Idaho.where.of.additional.risk.physical.exp.define.approach.. current.the.a.and.the.a.50. as.occurring.significant.States.Alaska.ground.10%.in.being.defined.is.this.. (a. such..of.of.earthquakes.distinction. This. A.the. estimate.most..earthquake.and.Carolina.Valley.subduction.the.hazard.although.motions.to. geologic.of.believed.a.both. addi- tional.South.to.a.is.Missouri.insurance.0.criteria.relatively.term.loading.of..periodic.major.the.probability.United. studies.periods.the.years.ground.response.occurs.design.being.time.as.of.displacement.structures.Utah.of.an.Loss.. with.50.and..event. is.the.this. period.during.exposure.method.Wabash.in.specific.often.fault.and.in.50.Poisson. a. special.of.probability.the.It.time t. is.during.levels..chosen.a.Buildings.example.and.indicate.the. damage.deductibles.of.time.associated. an.characteristic.probability.Washington.Such..years..Furthermore. return.by.California.and. question..this.quiet.selected.might.the.time.the. or.return..One.occurrences..to.people. exceedance).a.between.50. description.50.States.damage.Indiana.return.

.the.remains..damage.or.experience.low.eco- nomically.most.nor. nonstructural.the.value.easily.restoration.minor.it.and.the.on. discussed.a..However.will.hazard.level.will.to...their. and.poses.codes.building. Concrete.avoided.risk.that.components.more. is.be.The.not.anticipated.the.ground.cover.in.seismic. the.of.7-10.of. integrates.meeting.other.motion.currently. economic.no..building.is.it.that.no.The.damage.PSHA..are.structure).damage.building.property.site.possibly. of. Most.building.to.impaired. those..may.exclusively.can.for.decades.components.during.their. using.range.fragile.the.meeting.to.seismic.structural. beams.life.following: •.probability..the.normal.components.to.has.(compared.labels. deterministic.for.for.likely.such.meeting.are...structure.as.emergency.results.all. probability.typically. in..nonstructural.and.of.2 Range of eaRthquake peRfoRmance cRiteRia These.normal. and.as. and Composite Systems Whereby.nonstructural. damage.in.service.to.risk.several.components..complete.and. performance-based.repairs.shaking...are.of.approach.probability.focus. Immediate occupancy (IO):.be.reoc- cupancy.nonstructural. hazard.magnitudes.required. 3.many.because.. engineer.portions.the.cleanup. a.damaging. and. system. structural.during.is..is.building.the.nonstructural.with.and.immediate.damage.level..from.combination.be.at.gross.buildings..and..massive.building.the.replace.performance.to.Although.safety.forces.be.given.very.the.to.any.its.the.damage.impractical.are.dominant.necessary.including.. The.be.some.to.building.to.the. many.life.state.of.performance.of.required.on.water.Using.their.the.components.engineer.repair. be. against.great.nonstructural.risk.shown.col- lapse.12  NoNsTruCTuraL CoMPoNeNTs For. geotechnical.and.Buildings. .the. system..life.drop.focused.descriptions..Using.the. or. in...exceeding..building.building.full.structural.believed. •. utility.integrated.of.probabilistic.may.selected.recent. Operational:..low..The.a. contributions.utilities.used. •.with.nonstructural.may.buildings.The. for.components. or.function. a. anticipated. earthquakes.minimal.Internal.time.available.mode.expected. both. determines.this.damage. approach. provides.complete. distinction.the.performance.60%–80%.safety. costly.may.itself.cladding.life. assessment.does.criteria.of.safety.exceeding.from.safety.extremely. walls. evaluation.a.is.loss.life.provided.artificial.life.account.this.performance.structural..level. life.low.of.readily.perform.and..the.that.to.to.of.a.sustain.be.of.this. the.significance.. modern.for. applications.be.a.only.will.reasons.deemed.repair.are.this.11.the.sus- tain.specified.of.These.not.local.to.collapse. diaphragms.performance. design.damage.and. could. instances.or.level.will.pos- sible. between.to.may.. 3.in.to.performance.loss. Collapse prevention:.components.that..Buildings.or.sources.in.use.resistance.this.damage. may.partial.earthquake.and. For.. Life safety:. characteristics.a. of.to.ground..exceedance.damage.can.slightly. columns. that.level.life.risk..In.period.be.meeting.seismic. PSHA.their.However.be.structural.building. to.. used. the.. ground-shaking.obvious.to.and.in.Buildings..Although.may.extensive.that. •.ASCE. Using. and.obtained.nonstructural.that.. a.nonstructural.this.that.elements.a. earth- quake.of. approach.await.not.earthquake.although.faults.86 Tall Building Design: Steel.produce.of.before. probabilistic. motions.occur.structural.potentially.experience.some.the.building.adja- cent.to.The.occupancy.minimal.mode.Many.to.suit- able.all.designed.from.and.level.is.reoccupancy. in.severe.be.approach. components.are.assessed. structural.estimate.of.expected.in.ground.and.exceedance. Chapter.those.damage.a.suffer.an.level.the.also. 14.are.the. power. and. nonstructural.concern.deterministic. of..probability..for.. resistance.Structural.and.repair...Buildings.design. is.is.

objectives.disciplines.not.a.the. earthquake.all..as.such.of.that.the.interaction. rule.time.motions.to.its.design.depending..some.to.often.in.to.asymmetri- cally.structural. modify.members.partial.engineering.distance.seen.forces.shaking.discuss. conditions.located.the.address.vertical..introduce.for.be..to.further. ways.tor- sion..distance.nonsymmetric. nonstructural.if.failure.lead.Many.damage.require.is.fires.(San.structural/nonstructural.of.commonly.way..the.protection.assumes.heavy.architectural. a.the.acceleration. While.increase.ground.The.detach.distortion.this.as..however.that.to.design.upon.and.maximum.the.the..increased.in.introduce.attached.and.unnecessary.to.of..often.and.the..create.the.paid.require.may.makes.will..between.potential.a..of. of.Francisco.result.often.allow.nonstructural.stair.short-column.visualize.produce.decreases.however.or.has.The.safety..stacks.result.and.whole.has. Historically.seismic.to.from.completion.structure.the. walls. maximum.designed..loading.of... by. locations.failures.usually.the.of.one.in.regular. response.not.storage. motion.the.is.because. system.for.motions.remodel.in. of.implications. nonstructural.code.vertical.horizontal.into.at.solution. Nonstructural.complexity.resistance.their. from.compo- nents.amplifier.of.act.visual- izing.the.particular.buildings.Examples.vertical.and.engineering. a. thumb.the.described.resulting.do.substantial.best.the.to.as..the.as.condition.between.60.always.the.motion.by.location.introduce.effects.and.form.lateral-force-resisting.between.condition. partial.to.intermixing.may. of.and.may.Structural.partitions.slabs..our..of.designer.should.the.on.components. of.influence.case.interact.system.heavy. This. stiffness.and. masonry. vulnerable.design.structure.design.. the.though.can.vertical.how.due. partitions.complex.attention.in.safety.execute.of.per- haps.are.an.(LFRS).is.follows: •.this.Characteristic.nonstructural..will.torsion.gas.areas.is.columns.can.of.minor.are.tests.also.leave.seismic.seen.focus.library.early. the.not. the.. insertion.partitions.codes.examples.down.are.as.the.stiffness.building.or.The. is.must..bracing.sprinkler. treated.their.can.slab.masonry.distances.floor. forces. forces.general.current.the.column. shaking.involve.little. created.part.such..such.facility.building.stress. generated.structural.placing.systems.little.and. attracts.This.for.to. nonstructural. In.Nonstructural.motions.earthquake.lessen.columns.structure..configuration.electrical.approximately.floor..stairs..issues.Prieta. detri- mental. vertical.even.the.severe.earthquake).The.While.a.system.localized.engineering.the.movement. respond.failures.heavy.nonstructural. short-column. ground.even.act.professionals.of. earthquake.the.and.that.floors. column.in.performance..with. The..60%–70%.most.significant. shapes. that.reference. by.of.component.building..on.nonstructural.the.contents..to.building.resist.concentrations.to.earthquake.the. during.several.Failure. •.bare.building. when. high. forces.to.to...to.components. earthquakes.so.ability.. generally. Since..components.and.walls.quite.response.analysis.was.vertical.Therefore.codes.of.rigidly.whole.prismatic.potential.and..addition. in. vertical.components. structural.dis- tinction. consider.nonstructural.greater.end.complexity.placement.performance.easy.components.and.concentration.torsional.The.fire. components.nonstructural.be.is.Nonstructural.and. large.. the.smaller.cognizant.have.for.damage. between.sit.columns.often.A.evident..an.nonstruc- tural.design.of..torsion.that.Loma.requirements.as.structure.failures.the.vogue.many.torsional.to.a.however.after. •.the.model. are.free.components.earthquake. relative.to.at.buildings.. shortened.damage.components. both.a. with.to.to.with.nonstructural.postearthquake.effects.being.help.its.or.though. It.does.way.once.of.building.caused.guarantee. ground.caused.from.and.interactions.in.systems.analysis.a.does. or...horizontal..visualize.system.may.the.are.not.of.can.structural.can.may.the.that.miles.building.system.the.the.struc- tural.the.the.of.be.earthquake.Nature.is.The..than.model.in.and.later.the.their.to.called.is. As. may.in.it. .stress.this. In. the.often. attached.as.This.introducing.is.damage.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 87 as.no. and.of..the.systems..the.to..text. Heavy.concern. is.to..at. percentage.on.not.. in. a.

building.considered.differently.building.building.a.to. a.side.structure.affordable.as.necessary.the.response..by. the.The.regular.magnitude.periods.are.seismic.and.be.seismic. a.high.equipment. factor.the.are.parameter.be. nonstructural.attached.codes.attached.of.soil.this.accelerations.base.representing.are.ELF. and Composite Systems 3.the.vibration.building. application.the.larger.in.as.combining.the..the.However.to.are.the.more..is.structures.period R.of.that.percentage.close.applied.If.according.is.on.periods.of. ornamentation.the.the.that.is. static.the.the.of.structures.on.buildings.structure.the.considering.motion.procedure.forces.including.this.building.of.the.the.floor.based.the. response..procedure.of. the. The.dominates.building.In.the.including..ground. and.public.shear.large.base.for.1 equivaLent LateRaL foRce pRoceDuRe The.base. behavior. When.the.12.conservative.are.to.for.to.specified.greater.are.systems. the.importance.weight...same.periods.forces. effects.is.piping.respond..from.side.and.that. dynamic.motion.larger.an.building.than.building.buildings.applied.produces.on.the.tendency.weight.funda- mental.the. 3.lesser.dynamically.in.of.of.in.buildings.in.a.forces.of..for.Resonance.of.correspond. reflects.of.diaphragms. seismic-force- resisting.motion.that.the.in.forces.individual.The.and.internal.attached.To.for.seismic.have.an.the.elements.may.most.the.structures.for. ELF.all.motion.back-and-forth..experience.the. that.conditions.the.for.. simplifies.the.than.from.as.attached.The.ground.to.floors.and..than.not.or.the.current.and.loads. Concrete.it.to. reason..to.to.factor.to.may.motions.value.the.to.the.an.anticipated..fun- damental.the..long-term.is..is.cause.the..components. V =..actual.on.redistributes.to..occur.the.motion.forces.allows.effects.and. is.structure.(e.was.the.permanent.that.called.vary.to.natural.1 Response of eLements attacheD to BuiLDings Elements.flexible.of. high-frequency.of.motion.elements. statically. structure. procedure.the.relies.design.structures.height.vibration.design. of.flexible. using.This.much.load.becomes.building.The.to.model.predomi- nant.procedure.5) where V. properties. modification.withstand.elements.con- structed.elements.mass.elements. earthquakes...responds.ELF.certain.motion.than.but.use.forces.same.varies. .vibra- tions.be.forces.ground. to.separately.of..is.configuration.and.g.partitions). structural.the.of.CSW (3.small.ground.earthquake.and.factors.from.to.respond.ground.the.But..mechanical.substantially.attenuation. motion.distance. given.rigid.of.the.manner. the.on.are.with.upper.13.to.the.the.floor.response.the.propor- tionately.the.any.of.contents Cs.of.to.determined.seismic.analyzed.limited.a.the.experience.by.effect.ability.13  seisMiC aNaLysis ProCeDures 3.the..structure.lateral-load-resisting.SDS /(R/I) SDS.restrict.the.between. greater.to.building. model.its.buildings. their.system I. the.time.parts.will.used.to. of.sway.use In.regular..the.88 Tall Building Design: Steel. static.building.short.magnified.less. structure.proportion..structure.building.tend.V..ground.rigidly.floors.substantially.durations.accelerations.motion.the.that.factor W.of.the. by...of.the.the.con- sider.essential.the.to.that.of..building.for.This.diaphragms.to.elements.structure.earthquake..hazardous.will. for.soil. Historically.with.=.the.rather.structure.mode.short.modes.

.demands.that.that.several.If.structural.and.stiffness.Although.in.data.modal. the.four-story..frequently.select. is.the.are.by.analysis....individual.nonstructural. analysis. An.of.structural.are..usually.requires.is. .Elastic.the.structure’s. called.using.a.are.There.by.higher.is.impacts.the.mode.seismic.is.For.this.fundamental...in..complicated.particular.and. to. standards.elastic. 3.shapes.architectural.is.good.permitted.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 89 3.the.a..behavior.of.often.variables.forth.spectrum.examines.a.as.the. responses. routine. evaluating.structural.of.dissipation.have.or.are.The.in.and. and.they. to.time-history. coefficient.design.response...greatly.seismic. When.appropriate.elsewhere.common.modeled.1 eLastic BehavioR The.motion.informa- tion.ground.behavior. linear.require.mode.systems.14.value. dynamically.be.response.deflection.the.the.make.behavior.unknown.or.have.the. complex.created.energy.behavior.Flexible.analyses. linear.natu- rally.shapes.nonuniform.equal.asymmetrical.drift.requirements.from.and.design.forms).pushing. An.but.referred..structural.of.time-history. motion. method.2 LineaR Dynamic anaLysis A.many. resulting. dynamic. response.not.is.systems.irregular. not.first.large. complex.the.understanding.and.Nonlinear.spectrum.dynamic.and.structural.2 posteLastic BehavioR Inelastic.Flexibility.in.of. behavior.will.structure.assigned.it. analysis. more.value..dynamic.performance.better.related.a.of.to.as.of. an.building..often.hysteretic.require.engineering.plot.in.the.that.have. dynamic.simple. earthquake.Mode.the.includes. interaction.structures..and.spectra.the.in. for.distribution.an.it.should..text.selection.mass.are.defined.determine.or.having.influence.a.questionable.higher.ground.an.diminishing.a.patterns.as.. modeling..are.of.. between.on..referred..indication.a.practice.consider.R.its.by.methods.lists. or.ground-shaking..realistic.linear.patterns. Key.ASCE.dif- ficult.a.capable.occur.. insure.a. static.differences.a.and. account.height.ground.an.code. motion.actual.predictable.irregular.system.. sufficiently.ground. future.between.or.of.requires.performance.of.performance.and.stable.7-10. versus. configurations.seismic.behavior.flexible.ASCE.a. ground.nondegrading.explained.and.influence. that.relationship..to.systems.13.drift.the.elastic.buildings..3.amount.is.sense.tend.selection.and.that.complexity.use.of.the.issues.detailed.shape.set.understand- ing. is.is.of.motion.degree.by.mode.on.in.expressed.are.by.7-10. and. systems.buildings.approach.also.that.but.dissipation.not.modes.It. to.Figure.does.in.a.the.mode.characteristics.(such.mass.Designers.The.system.is.primarily.of.does.guidance. shaking.mode. is.of.express.as. shaking.importance.mass.Dynamic.energy.The.cyclic. of.engineering.common.different.back.building.14.method.as..configurations.. have.for.fundamental.to.the.behavior.in.a.regular.because.use.sense..The.R..motion. significantly. ground.behavior. about.building.The. a.and.significant. structure–ground.terms. nonlinear.the.cyclic.acceleration..such.vibrates.they.complex. developing.. records.of.mode. buildings.seismic.a.to. for. a. the...building. structure.design.in.is.many.dissipating.analysis.to.or—most.planning.to.dynamic.. used.available.often. Designers.importantly—energy.. representative.ASCE. seismic.shape. 3.actual.from.This.as.in.response.results.shaking. for.structure.modification.motions.14  sysTeM seLeCTioN Selecting.to.site...5. irregular.using..The.Structural.significant.becoming.mode..provide. influenced.earthquake.dynamic..lateral. the.cyclic.response.ELF.analysis. alternative.motion.Schematics.inelastic.requires.of.shapes.7-10.procedure.significant.performance.each.more.space.been.and.linear.structure.analysis.performance.consider.Common.shown.the.depends.inelastic.that.are.design.is.percent.in.numerous.system.. 3.movement.behavior.response.scale. useful.building.

. or.. structural.damage.energy •.seismic.a. not. of.of.The. dissipation. small. the.the..The.the.should. Inappropriate.a.of.(a).from. Excessive.structural. dissipate..a.however.With. at. Possess.stable.but.are. elsewhere.this.consensus.load.system. level.postearthquake. value.a.large.for.developed.that.(From. constant.building.3.(b).3 cycLic BehavioR A.curve.for.collapse. (b) Horizontal deflection..acceptable.range.behavior:. limited.caused.performance.both. will.drift.in.system.as. design.a.advent.evaluation. We.curve.energy.value.small.14.versus.lateral.drift.that. energy.10  Hysteretic.design.stable.nonstructural.estimate.the. kip 40 10 Horizontal force.structural..not.. Create.structural.The.dissipate. generally.problems.or. and. Brittle. deliver. CRC.Degrading.10).an.seismic.cyclic. Concrete.stable.occur..cost The..learned.hysteretic.full.. necessarily.performance.but. response 30 20 Horizontal force.cyclic.load.undiminished. reduction.of •.of.aforementioned.a.R. drift.necking down.Raton.A. Buildings.damages.represents.for.large. deformation.able.drift •.attributes.they. sufficient.Boca.be.B.selecting.by.. R.Taranath.dynamic.not.represent.. shaking.slowly.a.cyclic.that.without. The.exist.on. to.favorable.was.imposed. ductile.by.is.if..energy.configuration •.the.earthquake.behavior.dissipation.do.cyclic. the.and.be. during. system.show.for.member. length.may.of.value.nonlinear.S.systems..(Figure.should. and Composite Systems seismic.systems.performance..repre- senting.2011.based.serves.directions.be.seismic.shaking.without..curves. seismic.ground. is.large.the.building.loads.realistic.following: •.is.earthquake.Structural Analysis and Design of Tall Buildings.behavior. drift.limited. because.detailed.) .favorable..predictable.A...sufficient. in.building.energy.Press. not.and.with.to. this.conventional.. design.have.they.a.likely. Figure  3.dissipation.nonductile.behavior.dissipation.value. does. has. kip 20 0 0 –10 –20 –20 –40 –30 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 (a) Horizontal deflection. capacity.. energy.low. Dissipate..FL..a.90 Tall Building Design: Steel. Control..good.will.of.of. with.performance.and.motion.investigations. a.representing. in.manner.in.. a.structural.a.unstable.R.substantial. only. correlate.. building. significant. discussed..of. degrade.between.resonance..behavior •.. 3. work.to.measure.repair.possibilities.energy.elastic.failure •.plot..rough estimate.past.with.but. in.of.without.behavior.systems •.If..

walls.on.and.our.location.at.. exhibited.3.15  seisMiC issues Due To CoNFiguraTioN irreguLariTies A...DC:.habits.to.Federal.likely.In.construction.be.the.excellent.a.it.without.faced.and.are.elements.engineers.guide.excellent..ideas.. .in.its.It.with. And.Emergency..with.much.more.architectural.six.previous.with.continue?.passed.earthquake.acceptable..accumulated.11.that.horizontal..architecture.Management.a.because.once.beams.to.an.Designing for Earthquakes: A Manual for Architects.that.to.earthquakes.(From. determines...2006..are.is.related.are.flamboyant.does.Washington.of.manner.building.unique.performance.change.size.in.to.irregular.) Why.all.same.that..constructed.than. tend.seismic..columns.of.Agency.buildings.signifi- cant.bad..same..styles.knowledge..systems.structures..even.essentially. floors.investigation.time.as.roof.such.and.the.takes.is. of.failure.structural.have.and.engineers.performance.all.of.as.structures.in.configuration.system..and.It.effort.schematic. Sometimes.directly.building’s.11  Structural.the.design..seismic.at.techniques.after.acceptable.to..to.Figure.this. are.which.get.finally.structure.FEMA-454.largely.shown.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 91 Cyclic behavior Post-EQ cost Base isolation Minor repair Moment frames w/Dampers Minimum repair Unbonded steel brace Minimum to adequate repair Coupled shearwalls w/Shear link Moderate repair Eccentric braced frames Moderate repair Moment frames Potential extensive repair Figure 3.too.configuration.is.seismic. 3.modification.structural.today’s.

performance.seismic..DC:..provided. Shown..slide.by.Agency.deviations.to. configurations. are.plan.a.the.structural.different.Management.vertical.these.previous.conditions.connected.2006.13.the..to.Figures.in. explained.ways.1.of. Moment resisting frame (a) Braced frame (b) Shear walls (c) Figure  3.summary. on.effects.Figure.openings. to.as. These.systems.See..1  shear walls Shear.no.have.designed.try.site..conceptual..top.structural. and.3. basic.in. systems.transmit.in.alternative.3.systems.are. foundation.detail. conditions.basic. from.A.walls.two.building.lateral.then.occupancy.are.To.number. seismic.material. systems.Federal.irregularities.minimum.materials.examples.choice.to.the.of. of.of.past.and.discussed.offsets. 3.mainly. sections.to.wall.Washington.structural. Concrete. and Composite Systems In.with.of. identified. Four.walls.suitable.illustrated.forces.systems.from.within.basic. problematical..one.solutions.of. are.12  The. FEMA-454.of.15.the.for.the. viewpoint.the. from.are.perfor- mance.them..from.receive.detrimental.run.in. following.fibers.in.and.walls.15.the.effective.in.main.or.shear.types.designers.be.Emergency. seismic.another. seismic.these.shear.Table. as.are.more.ground.members.the. deviations. 3.reducing. the..lateral-load-resisting. regular. a.a.and.92 Tall Building Design: Steel.diaphragms.types. (From.3.earthquakes.2.which.12. Designing for Earthquakes: A Manual for Architects.and. for.related.1 veRticaL LateRaL-LoaD-Resisting systems Seismic.for.predominately.some..forces.using.and..14.of. vertical..are. the.used.which. characteristics.of.in.a.variations.three. effects.number.created.must.3. three.eliminating.(VLLRSs).the. The.forces.of.) .have.vertical.the. irregular.the..and.of.are.

1994. design. architectural.produced. Japan.Alaska.are..link.2 Comparative seismic Performance of selected structural systems earthquake  specific building Performance  structural system Performance and energy absorption general Comments Reinforced.way.San. Steel.Wall Caracas.bracing.between.to. Los.performance.way.Angeles..horizontal.mixed.absorption.meet.the.the. but..1.in..Wall San. Algeria.heavy. on.performed.Japanese. Variable performed.Angeles.Shear.the.structure.ends. Federal.1.another:.Washington.Brace San. protecting.1906 •..15.Agency.1994. bending.the.with.braces.1994 failure ductility.structure.meet.walls.spandrel.1971 •.brac- ing.of.. Details. critical.1965 •.in.1971.Good •..single.of.of.provide.walls. Minor..to.and.and.will..excellent.Poor •.drift.is.is.the.piers..in.and.remainder.FEMA.1966 poorly.shear. Proportion.1971 •.a. They.the.energy.of. ductility.. Configuration is Alaska.or..Moment.frames:. •. Japan.types.same..two.Angeles.frames. Poor.thus.poorly.as.Angeles.members.to.general.the.designed. Uneven.of. There. beams. proportions.pier.3  Moment-resistant Frames A.act.to. Los. Variable failures.deliberately.Ductile.of.a.a.absorption.and.Angeles.well.energy.. link.ductility.critical Moment. Major.. have. Los Angeles Source:.braced.Francisco. Buildings.from. •. Energy.the.and.absorption.bracing. Alaska.in.term.. •.one..detail. the. if. Variable.and.system Steel.In.FEMA-389. 3. . by.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 93 TabLe 3.of.piece.crack •.The..performed.eccentric.seismic. ?.the.Concrete.is. resisted.are.1978 buildings..controlled.DC:.with.called.1971 •.the.however. Los. Concrete. and. Good.frame.Francisco. Los.dis- tance.under.Japan..and..Angeles.Concrete. depending. L-shape.Frame Los.performed.1971/78.performance..in.beam..2  braced Frames Braced.braced.braces.walls.they.generally. •.earthquake. 3. Los.systems.with.are.less...shear.for.the. System.Emergency.Management. more.the. critical.frame. Both. Los.is.is.will.the.no.lines.Primer for Design Professionals: Communicating with Owners and Managers of New Buildings on Earthquake Risk. the.distort. Taft..tension. Mixed.system:. freedom.performance..short.1994 well.and.1952 well.for.Angeles.the.and. columns.apart. which.engineering.story.Good Los Angeles •. forces.braces.1964 Francisco. Energy.15.. in.soft.beam.. design.Angeles.1957 •. provide. their. Los.performed.Frame ?.1994 •. •.con- centric.eccentric-braced.shear. forces.beam. lateral.designed. are.torsion. spandrel.beam..the. and. critical.the. Details.the.concentric.provide. •.for.... •.of.link. in.the..2004.frame.1964 discontinuous. Brittle. Reinforced. detailed.1980 have.purpose.resistance. performance.good.ductile.frame.conventional.at. primarily.center.frame. better.beam.is.beam.than.diagonal.the.point.moment-resistant. In.dissipate.a.some.with.conventional.

. Professionals:.2004.a.frames.in. structural.and.Buildings. systems.one. for.however.and.Washington.the.(From.Buildings..with.systems. Emergency...because..of. Communicating.Risk.with.and. oftentimes..architectural. systems.14  Structural.types.occupancy. DC:.New. some. site..Washington. systems.in..combining. although.Managers. designers.systems.type.between.columns.Earthquake. These.Primer.direction.given. conditions. computers.the.Owners.another.freedom..stiffness..2004.FEMA-389.. mix.Federal. FEMA-389.. (From.Federal. Design. and Composite Systems Site conditions “Soft” site Use rigid building (long period) with short period Shear wall Steel brace Eccentric braced frame “Hard” site Use flexible building (short period) with long period Ductile moment frame Base isolation Poor soils Use lightweight (pile supported) rigid building Steel braced frame Steel tube frame Figure  3.Agency.done.. This. Primer..direction.mainly.joints.New.Professionals:.varying.13  Example.design..are.provide.of. systems for hospitals) damage control Eccentric braced frame Dual wall/ductile Eccentric braced frame moment frame Office buildings Open plan Steel ductile moment Steel braced frame Eccentric braced frame frame Residential Cellular spaces Concrete shear wall Steel braced frame Figure 3.other.Communicating. to.for.the. most.94 Tall Building Design: Steel.different.on.in.Earthquake. alternatives. Concrete.be.DC:..or.them.Management. are..Managers.for..Agency.Design. using.Owners.type.one. for.by.strong.with.of.must.and. .care.on. extent.Risk.) mobilized.beams.) Occupancy High-tech Use ductile rigid (labs.Moment-resistant.Management.Emergency.

structure. it.3.to..deck. The. resistance.on.floor. emphasis.early.gener- ally.action.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 95 (shear-wall.frame.the. are.diaphragm.walls.designed.With.vertical.however.of..that.structural.steel.shear.is.are.With. as.resist. a.of.a.as.run.(VLLR).take.may.walls. its. mixed.that. any. Role.diaphragms See. obtain.shear-wall..stage.from.a.and.the.framing.distributed). diaphragms..For.flexible.used...size. termed.dual.are.a.diaphragm. difficult.frame.of.building.or. Perhaps.systems. However.of.3. depending.to.on.as.flexible. a.roof.must. good.act.seismic- force-resisting.as.an.the.the.be.either.and. as.independent. between.perimeter.for.walls. to.is.of.the.moment-resisting..systems.designed. particular.decking..15.term.design.VLLRS •.diaphragm.Another.the.from. at.frames.between.according. when.as.steel.to.elements. as.the.members.influence. beam.15  Deep.with.major.part. A.combined.The.the.permanent.those. The..braced. such.variation.seismic.Figure.flexibility.the.concrete.to.systems.of.backup.mass.frame.the.a.the. of.shear-wall.and.frame..forces.systems.tributary. Diaphragm.system.serve.influence.are.16.horizontal.with.system.moment.must.the.fail-safe.act.as.is.there.chosen.moment-resistant.building..tension.example..performance.importantly. for.uninterrupted.of.floor.transmitting. in.elements.in.on.design.the.. high-performance.enclosing..systems.design. edges. visualized.of. diaphragm.forms.its.chords. with.is.than..with.transfer.that.perimeter.area.use. 3.manner.shear.topping).of.every.the.the.terminology.or.transfer.the.system.of.by.such.failure.following: •.are.through.of.floor. behavior.a.elements). walls..structures.walls.material.or.resistance.(the.of. they.provided.share. a.use.shear.fall.diaphragm. a.made. it.core.use.to.diaphragms •..forces.the. of.is..major.or rigid.roof.with. to.15).the.without..bracing.lateral. vertical.forces.in.also.frames..much.resistant.. and. with. Shear.slabs.diaphragms.similar.of.and.its.nature.vertical.(usually.has.a.frames. The. balanced.diaphragms.and. horizontal.it.action.in.that.diaphragm. mixed.to. loads.to.stiffer.determining.lateral-load-resisting.and.compression:..openings.planning.case.areas.to.walls.is..walls.(Figure.2 DiaphRagms The.eccentric-braced. components.con- siderable.identify.resistance. . wide.plays.increasing.role.the.diaphragm.proportion.loads..system.diaphragms •.stiffness.steel.(if. time.to.sometimes. is.procedures •.with. can.be.rigid. Collectors •.also.of.able.seismic.diaphragms. Modeling. Diaphragm Beam Diaphragm Beam (a) (b) Figure 3.in.diaphragm.relative. is. discuss.Examples.architecture.resisting. systems.beam.more.a.roof.chords.now.accept.together.building. be.their.evenly.flanges.on.to.effective.beam.whose.of.mag- nitude.if. between).of..at. Types.of.and.systems.interior.con- crete.foundation.are.on.moment-resistant.partly.pattern.or.which.of.concrete. now.has.design. the.rigid.the.in.chosen.limited.horizontal.shear.because.

are.a.. to.shear.will..diaphragm.skylights.(c)..design. also.7-10.roofs. resisting.a.have.tensile.either. diagram.is. vertical. ties.be.a. struts. (Figure 3.96 Tall Building Design: Steel.to. framing.size. and Composite Systems Collector Tension chord beam Collector Drag struct beam VLLR element Floor or roof diaphragm VLLR element Compression chord Fpx/L L (a) Fpx 2 Fpx 2 (b) FpxL 8 (c) Figure 3.16)..more.a.openings.and.for. forces.the.The.openings.see. tension.12.Fpx.force.beam.hard. .(b). unsupported.the.shafts.as.it..For.through.The.vertical-load-bearing.as.visualized. 3.of.such.for.penetrated.to.moment..cut.and.not.that...beam.compressive region. drag.load-carrying.elevators. or. elements.16  Diaphragm.a.15.capacity.flange....to.duct. situation. collect.this. Floors. areas..not.(a).than.atria.1).ASCE.10..force. drag.1.diaphragm.is.can.occur.plan.In.penetration.Section.example. laterally.and.diagram.location.beam.diaphragm.are.bending. when.design.its. penetrations.and.terminology:.certain.flange.in.a.the.often..by.of.be. or.1  Collectors Collectors.staircases. diaphragm.critical.weaken.these. called.seen.2.reason. members.fea- tures..seriously.required.or. .(see.in..diaphragm..of. that.and. Concrete.the.would. from. shear.Note:.effectiveness.

the.to.or.to.of.lateral- force-resisting. distribute.continuous.stiff- ness..is.and.In.lateral-force-resisting. frames.(which.the.floor.edges. In. associated.yield.typical.is.flanges.to.of.. lateral.spaced.forces.frames.of. the.the. Figure.spanning.stability.deck. achieving.that.deck.of.shear.diaphragms.continuous.of.analogous. Provides. moment. Untopped.in.of..as. three.distributes.individual.topping.topping •.forces.loading.on.buildings. stiffness.deck) •. classified.analyzed.stated.would. diaphragms.is.standing.and. 3.usually.web.to. frames.analogous.the. seismic.strength.deep..semirigid.are.diaphragm.a. lateral-force- resisting.and.2.of.in..are.at.requires. stiffness. represent. Semirigid.a.analogous.both. is.direction.such.concrete.2.name.proportion.and.).system.are. commonly.the. elastic.often.lateral-force- resisting.of.beam •.that. the.seismic.many.to. beams.materials.together.spanning.as.design.analysis.between. distribution.rapidly. categories:.the.proportion.A.serve.sheathing In.the.be. the.of. The. are.that.flexible.the.mechanisms..structure 3.(roof. well.at. as.since. one.forces.unit •.that.or.the. oriented.designed.lateral.a..that.by.deliver. the. Concrete. loads.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 97 In...of.the.relative.for.horizontally.uniformly.frames.concrete.. Since.however..as.slab •.. in.elements.of...spanning.supplemental. relative. Behaves.the. (for.the.distribute. diaphragm and.and.this. deformation.con- tinuous.shear.the. Composite.members....supports.as.a. the. as.possess. deformations.continuously.opening.tied.subject. (braced.the.frames. stiffness.and.the. lateral-force-resisting.collector.occur.slab •. rigid.is.roof. to.elements.diaphragm.around.the. diaphragm.as.web. diaphragms..of.that.redistribution. the.the.to..or. and. forces.to.utilized.floor. or. and.manner.structural.moment. diaphragm.a.for.beam. On.as.as.implies. other. Plywood.frames..as.beam.axial.steel.frames.where.the.. in.stiffness.forces. lateral-force-resisting.distribute..of.lateral-force-resisting. the. the.a.noting. VLLRS.of.beams. the.with.deep. Ties.types. .and. analyzed.as.and. collectors).not.is. are.the. the.15.continuous..designed.purpose.flanges/chords.the.supported..forces.are. the. the.steel.diaphragms.in.the. shows. etc. Precast.steel.through.Diaphragms.can.be..3  Types of Diaphragms There.are.the..together. diaphragms.beams..loading.diagrams. the.in.as.15.in.elastic.so.deck.tension.are.members.2  role of Diaphragms Earthquake-resistant.diaphragm.those.hence. Diaphragms. supports.the.it •. Rigid. frames. flexible. into.or.shear-resistant. origin.horizontal.of.deck.to. A.system.to.members.beam).relative.Collector. without.seam.structure.diaphragms. of.roof. Diaphragms..floor. lateral-force-resisting.region.elements.or.and.the.reinforcing.are.beam). their. the.using.and..frames.doing.16.the.lateral.analogy.connected.of. vertically.important.diaphragm.and.independent.to.are.lateral-load. from. semirigid.a.components. the.elements.element.a.considered.and. of.collector.frames.boundar- ies. hand. significant.to.many.diaphragm.they.diaphragms.member.forces.the.a.building. represents..of.as. the.the.roof.the.flexural-resistant. 3.interconnection.compression. Causes.as •.with.stiffness. of.or. of. of.beam.alternates.compression.to.without.in.stiffness.design. Acts.form. truss. as.. simple-span.merits.the.unit. the.the.moment.behave.member.boundaries. that.such.(which.a.act.have.panels.chord.for.VLLRS •. of.lateral.as.an.earlier.beam •. tension. frames.are not.a.to.use.is.Diaphragms.buildings.

VLLR.18b.shear.of.shall.story.same. Figure.completely.stiffness.same. Another.rigid.diaphragm. and Composite Systems As.forces.diaphragms.elastic.than.to.25.diaphragm.that.diaphragm. Therefore.vertical.large. ratio.steel.rigidities.considered. distributes.diaphragm.deck 14.previously.flexible.a.A.diaphragm.It.considerably.5/50.steel.ratio).would.a.name.span.purposes.certain..=.account.flexible.to.categories:.ratio.an.typically.to.classifications shear rigidity g′  Classification  Deck Type  6.flexible..Deck.is.concept).as.interior.is.diaphragm.For.forces.self-evident.of.is..following..be.more...the.equally.completely.the.It.of. to.elements •.conditions.deflection.for. which.practical.rigid. Concrete.between.definition.diaphragms.manual.. Distributes..drift.of.on.design.are.of.and.. flexible.the.diaphragm.of. relative.however.this.itself.all.diaphragm.are.the.(span-to-depth.integrity.the.the.that.elements.deformation.VLLR.is.beam.example.if.shown..semirigid.self-weight.VLLR.attached.Figure.to.into..classifications.when. foundation.is.horizontal.compared.(SDI).rigid.which.The.17. Diaphragm. A.G′.limited.that.is.be.diaphragm.and.flexible.and. It.(see.that.guidelines. horizontal.in-plane.nor. rigidities.order.the.element.diaphragm..The.be.considered.lateral.concrete..in.of. It.Most. Diaphragm.deck.standards.should.span-to-depth.aver- age.now.deflection.following.by.is.implies.and.diaphragm.that. are.slabs.entire.building.accepted.of.. Next.quite.to.important.VLLRS.gives.width.VLLR.elements As.deck Refer.behavior.3–100 Semiflexible Bare.load..to. purpose.62.compare.the.3.deck 100–1000 Semirigid Concrete-filled. .a.for. rigidities. however.if •.areas •.the.is.characteristics: •.and.for.the. of.elements •.18a.resulting.relative.continue.perhaps.design. elements. It.of.structural.the.behavior.diaphragm.rigid. and.us.the.VLLR.the.elements Examples.the.classify.of.explanation.deflection.that..exhibits. diaphragm. forces.250.as.direct.consider.the.is.This.insignificant.are •.proportion.deflection.compared.because.its.elements..be.has.of..is.significantly.diaphragm.a.associated.stringent.applicable.classification.semirigid.cladding.order.diaphragm.the.the.the.with.steel.neither. must.diaphragm.two.will.it.allow.deck >1000 Rigid Concrete-filled.is.the.us.noted.the.the.that.to.three.for. SDI.3.of.stated.the. loads..VLLR. of VLLR.to.a.maximum.horizontal.Figure.in-plane.3 Flexible Bare.because.. semirigid..1.for.considered.rigidity.flexible.and.ft.of.SDI.one.elements.magnitude. system. Composite.limits.VLLR.geometry.may.rigid.removed.diaphragms.elements.a.98 Tall Building Design: Steel.in.in.forces.in.that.untopped.from.the.considered.steel.of. VLLR.the.deck.only.story.times.classification.if.of.(under.be.steel.schematic. experienced..those..diaphragm.may.classified.of.of.under.the.let.be.a.steel.has.to.analogous.to.67–14..of. The..h/400.the.for..and.diaphragm.elements.seismic..the.is. of.relative.diaphragm.to.generally.analytical.tributary.as.example.aspect.diaphragm.out-of-plane.for.an.drift.considered.as.Institute..observed.one.3.VLLR.in.mandate.evident. independent.of.to.the.of.should.horizontal..to.that.to.are.support.deflection.under.judge.Steel.whose.diaphragm.less.is.us.most.applied.on.that.permit.distributes.must.in. of.slabs.based.that.drift.maintain.rigid.in.under. It.conditions) A.shown.lateral.

moment.15.and.diaphragm.is.the.shown..struts.are.The.first.a.trans- ferred.=. there.of.=.Fpx.occur.at.shear.to.and.the..=... design. is.limits.to..In.action.5 ft (a) (Typ) 250'–0''(Total) VLLR element VLLR element 50'–0'' (b) 250'–0'' Figure 3.VLLRS.design.spanning.and.is.or.result- ing.discontinuity.terms.(b). 3.we.25.18  Rigid. this..5.from.This.Note:..is.wall.flexible. is.two.h/400.beams.in-plane.is.the. direct.15.shear.semiflexible.considered..of.a. in.transferred.any.length.ratio.VLLRS.for. 1.ratio.be.3.drift..The.ratio.assumed.due.element. when.with.this.ratio.occurring.to..add.there.transfer.procedures.=. VLLR element VLLR element 50'–0'' 62.collector.20).shear.to.the.diaphragm.design.must.therein.inertial.250/50.the.as.the.second.5  shear Transfer from Diaphragm to vLLrs Basically.resulting.of.bending. required.entire.VLLR.diaphragm.between.the.without.require.are.span-to-depth. beam..understand.of.collector.The.would.diaphragm.to.force.drift.deflections. approach.rigid.schematic.21).with.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 99 Drift ratio experienced by cladding ∆roof – ∆2nd floor + (δroof – δ2nd floor) (out-of-plane): h Cladding ∆roof δroof δ2nd floor ∆2nd floor h Roof plan 2nd floor plan Figure 3.is.beams.or.17  Out-of-plane.(a).3.and.approach.term.the. out-of-plane.stringent.(see.5/50. In. the.Figure.drag.19.approaches.to. 3.shear.diaphragm.behavior. Figure.force.and.define.shear.the.as.design.method.convenient.a.the.elements. 3. as.Figure.the.16).a.level. (see.force.To...(see.2.force.diaphragm.limit.using.the.span-to-depth.generally. The.diaphragm.only.250/50.the.VLLR.shear.5.span-to-width. VLLRS.from.to.of.4  Diaphragm Design Procedures To.this.flexible. Shown.generally.certain.diaphragms.such.diaphragm.is. no.flexible.in.are. unique. .less.to.over.it. Observe.Figure.3.generally.62. that.diaphragm.2.then.diaphragms:.

and.2.1:.VLLRS.is.1.method.partial.transferred.schematic..be.of.and.this. VLLR Diaphragm BM2 Connection 1 Connection 2 Beam 1 Beam 2 V BM1 (a) (b) Figure 3.elevation.directly. Concrete. and Composite Systems VLLR VLLR element A element A below below VLLR element B above diaphragm (a) VB Brace B w (plf ) Brace A L Brace A Diaphragm shear = wL/2 + VB/2 Diaphragm moment= wL2/8 + VBL/4 (b) W = Fpx/L Figure 3.procedures.diaphragm..100 Tall Building Design: Steel..approach.VLLR.In. beams.diaphragm.need.to.and.of.shear.plan.entire.plan.forces. .(b).for. Note:.1.Connections.2.elevation.19  Transfer.and.not..20  Diaphragm.element:.the.designed.the.(b).design.(a).or.(a).diaphragm.

5 = = 1.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 101 VLLR Diaphragm Axial force in this beam will be approximately V plus one half of the force from the floor above.(e). (b) Diaphragm 30'–0'' Unit shear 25'–0'' 108.procedure..and.in.(A).(a).(c) axial.design.(d).3 kips 30'–0'' B1 (c) PQE = 38.diaphragm.plan.elevation.21  Diaphragm...B1...moment.6 kips Mu = 250 kip-ft (assumed) B1 B1 (d) (e) (A) Figure 3.2:. (Continued) .gravity. BM 2 F F Connection 2 Connection 1 V3 V2 V1 BM 1 Collector beams Indicates welding of beam top V1 + V2 + V3 = V flange to column to transfer (a) axial forces from collector beams..Ω 0.(b).diaphragm.PQE.3 kips Ω0 PQQE = 76.approach.27 kips/ft 85 1.load.partial.27 × 30 = 38.beam.shear.of.due. load.to.Mu.axial.

not.and..beam–column.approach.a.from.no.beam.22).22  Diaphragm.(a).axial.(see.shear.VLLR.force.the.approach.is.to.diaphragm.It..the.V2.that.from.(b). to.carry.no.the.along.BM1.through.3.As.connection..schematic.is.transferred.diaphragm.the.in.diaphragm.carry.this.diaphragm.has.elevation.diaphragm.beams.Because.is.direct.designed.of.BM1.3.designed.drag.34 kip/ft Diaphragm (B) Figure 3.this. diaphragm.102 Tall Building Design: Steel.transfer.directly.VLLR.Figure.plan.diaphragm. BM2.beam.this.axial.(1).VLLR.transfer. between.collector. and Composite Systems Maximum shear = 108.carry.(3).by.element.and.design.force. force..former...diaphragm..be.without.transfer.BM2.forces.element.an.to.shear.. VLLR Diaphragm Axial force in this beam will be V plus force from floor above.adjacent.there.the.to.however.an.shear.be.the.and.(2).Beam.V2.force.the..opening.to.In.connec- tion. BM2 Connection 1 Connection 2 V2 V1 BM1 BM2 Collector Beam BM1 V1 + V2 = V VLLR (a) (b) Figure 3.using.between.with.the.of..of.must.2...to.and.force.axial.force.shear.there.to.beam.to.21 (Continued )  Diaphragm.length.provide.collect.is.but.beam.22.to...Figure.example. the.does.(B).must.for.design.diaphragm.transfer.5 = 25 25'–0'' = 4.opening.2:.collectors.the.beam. accumulated.the.insuf- ficient.procedure. Concrete.diaphragm.when.5 kips B2 Shear in B2 108.shear.approach.the.collector.VLLRS.shear.direct.Note:.does.connection..collector.is.of.Note:.through.the.2:.VLLR.Connections.shown.and.or.not..diaphragm.V2. connection. system.resulting. .1.beam.the.the.

concrete.diaphragms.bottom.And.proper.any.is.analysis.do.in.0.is.of. 15%.from.318-11.we.Chapter.in.based.similar.not.can.. analysis.are. displacement.in.excessive. has.likely.not.occur.joints. diaphragms.=.Beams.part.force.Keep.Note:. dia- phragm.the.that. within.a.beams.for.release..often. 3.in.21.problem.create.much.diaphragm.shall. do.of.6: . diaphragm..6  Modeling of rigid Diaphragms By. (3.captured.processors.that.force.analysis.none.thinks.manual.braced.. not.no.truss.beam.as..axial.axial.not.or.areas.and.in.method.exceed.bottom. Figure.axial.computer.in.end.adjustment.in. 3.a. the.of.trusses.may.are..connected.design.and.be.attached.stumbling.ACI.output.however.be. a.a.strength. lateral.to.mind.problem.truss.that.stiffness.center.the.23  Top. relative.. and..forces.would.concrete.this.the.To..wrong.capture.truss.choice.separate.likely.reported. attached.back.To.subjected.analytical.6) and.the.so.any.gov- erned.. ( Vn max = Acv 8 fc¢ )..truss.is.the.but.typical.cast-in-place.Vu (3.large.story-deep.joints.computer.chords.each.considered. loads.strategically.if.results.analytical.is.overcome.then.revert.building. definition.overcome.>.shall.of.with.of.this.the.VLLRSs. Design.beams.How.infi- nitely. top.ends.instability.proper.not.. and.that.of. bottom.it.computer.to..of.chord.in.rigid. ( Vn = Acv 2l fc¢ + rt f y .but.8) Φ.of. frame. to.without. no.the.the.=.block? One..Atop.beams. joints.mind. chords.is. the. = Joint connected to = Joint released from rigid diaphragm rigid diaphragm (typ) at center of truss H Story deep truss Figure 3.problem.the.when.on.that •.experience.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 103 Cast-in-place concrete diaphragm The.diaphragms.top.deformation.Abot.both.release.60.practice.to.to.tell.post.that.deformation. (see.those.assumed.ksi ΦVn..be.in. loads.is.2.chords.frames.It.axial.story-deep.15.we..is.at.rigid.. A. gravity. correct.release.. diaphragm. Fy.uses. .part.overestimated. in-plane.. seems.7) Observe.to.engineer.of.that.3.and.chords.of.Equation. Observe.of.axial.attempted.analysis.the. rigid.transfer.axial.have..are.VLLRSs.discussed.75.strength •.in.in. If.modeling.are. Thus. kept.sense.there.should.of.23).Therefore.of.model.is.to.are.diaphragms.exceed .force. of.ultimate.chord.if.an.that.by.in.∞.that.that.determination.as...all. the.to.by.rigid.computer.to.the.rigid.of.=. ) (3.

of.from.force.its.walls.(see.major.the. Boundary.follows: •.Fp. •. rigidities.problem.are.the.assumption.incorrect.attention.designed. Connections.horizontal..is.as. lateral.direction.for.be.in.theory.to.various.inertia.diaphragm. •. •.the. diaphragm-related..properly. Diaphragms.the.center.104 Tall Building Design: Steel.used.is.conditions.the.openings.(neglecting.diaphragms.level.loads.rigid.moment.specific.rigidities. among.in.VLLRSs.rigidity.shear. have.at.are.complicated. will.and.vertical.level.defined)..(load.the.model.3. is.. through.proper.of.proportion.the.unless.equal.beams.at.diaphragm.in. Chief. are.are.be.in. Force.contribute.any.the.summarized.checked.of.of.particular.(2).to.is.of.is. Axial. there.level.no.distributed.distributed.considering.diagonals).this.properly.to.a.the. many.joint.shear.force.the.of..their.path.collector.Figures.this.3.least.Floors.beam..acting.and.is.of.The.are. reasons.designed.the.diaphragm.the.loading.are.lateral-force-resisting. The.based.the.modeled.is.not.Figure.the. diaphragm.diaphragm.to.method.shear.are.not.to 2 ITrus = å æHö Aç ÷ è2ø (3.vertical.interrupted.beams/VLLRS.obviously.chord.given.of.are.case.Fp.a.transfer.all.deep.not.is. problems.than.does.a shear.designed.Generally. •.at. Concrete.it. One. them.the.in.In.diaphragms.release.flexibility.to.of.collector.the.and. remaining.are.diaphragm.part..in.a.shear.with.wall.of.floors..large.truss.32.in-plane.(1).wall.more.roofs.and.analytical.23).the.does.elements.not.roof. may.require.attention.not.not.any.total. •.as.that.9) any..of.the. Schematics.design.the. you.loads.3. •.is. why.of.forces.design.system.Notes:.transfer. and Composite Systems Since.clearly.beams.collector.that.floor.rigid.to. between mid floor-to-floor heights) N E W (Loads generated by inertia of mid floor-to-floor heights) side wall mass.both.assumed.must.elements.24. wall.the.not.that.mass.considerations.below.of.in. not.to. Chord..from.circumventing.analysis. Fp (Loads generated by inertia of end wall EW mass.to.due.extend.24  Diaphragm..but. Diaphragm.on.in.incorrect. between Fp (Load generated EW by partition) NS Fp Fp = Loads generated by permanent parts such as the deck and equipment plus any transient live load that would reasonably be expected to be on the deck at time of any earthquake Figure 3.considered. However.that. .for.is.and.differences.capacity.not.

.vertical.deck. resistance.concentrations •.characteristics. Identical.resistance. Equal.or. inclined.seismic.function.truss. provides.both..Earthquake Effects on Buildings 105 Floor slab (web) Spandrel beam (Flange) or wall (flange) Diaphragm depth (a) Roof decking (web) (Flange) (Flange) Diaphragm depth (b) (Flange) (Flange) Horizontal truss in plane of lower chord used as a diaphragm Diaphragm depth (c) Figure 3.reinforcement.the.on.or.analogous. between..concentrations.performs.considered.load..roof.thus.function. Uniform.joints..directions.following.(c).no.25  Various.structural..plate. centers.slab.types.integral.section.or.peripheral.loading.no. mass.girder.wall.or.Note:. Identical.performance.diaphragms.to.the.a.the.axes Eliminates.and.horizontal.column.concentrations •.(a).of.beams.torsional. the.as.strength.beams.and.elements. and.girder.A.shape Minimizes.floor.web. and.may..plan.diaphragm:.in.path Uniform.resistance No. of.as. Seismic-force-resisting.a.weakness •..where.15.in.elevations Minimizes.the.torsion •.floor.flanges.and.desirable: •.minimizing.of.are. diaphragm.stress. Symmetrical. Continuous.deck.all.floor.or.stress.stress.and.resistance .torsion •.diaphragm.heights Equalizes.web.concentrations •. or.be.of.(b).perimeter Maximum.plane.laid.roof. 3.near-optimum.plane.the. eccentricity.of.stiffeners.the.functions.3 optimizing stRuctuRaL configuRation For.stiffness. resistance.diaphragm.at.elements.the. balanced.roof.plate.in.

(d).the. •.seismic.these.semi-rigid.Schematic.26  Relative.the.and.diaphragms.and.rigid.be.Loads.to.cantilevers Reduced. Concrete.of.the. •.affect.spans Multiple.accelerations •.system In.direct.characteristics.the.flexible.to..plan..are.redistributed.(b).effects.is.forces.(a).a.It.this.if.refer.roofs) Ensures.building.in.columns.that.force.diaphragm.of.transfer. and Composite Systems Fp = 30k 30k RR = 4 RR = 2 RR = 4 (a) RR = Relative rigidities Δ-Vertical element V= 24k 12k 24k Deck (b) V= 20k 20k 20k Δ-Vertical element (c) Δ-Diaphragm V= 15k 30k 15k Δ-Vertical element (d) Δ-Diaphragm Figure 3.openings..regular. .columns.. No..has.vertical. No.stiffness. diaphragm.As.redundancy.performance..characteristics.106 Tall Building Design: Steel.to.provide.irregularities.model. Short.lost.from. irregular.(floors.increasingly.becomes..the.. building.lateral..a.desirable.building’s.building.can.vulnerability.as.(c).diaphragm.deviate.building.seismic.some.resisting.lateral.engineers.terms.diaphragm.that.

collector.with.for.through.beam.29  Narrow.designed.in.diaphragm.with. .element.shears.with.no.VLLR 2. VLLR element Chord forces High shear VLLR element Figure 3.direct.results.VLLR.connections.27  Diaphragm.Beam.must.the.these.Note:.to.element.to.be.connection..limited.diaphragm:.and.force. Collector beams VLLR element 2 Open VLLR VLLR element 3 element 1 Open Figure 3.for.connection.28  Isolate.come.forces.VLLR.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 107 High shear VLLR element VLLR Inadequate localized bending element (coped beam analogy) Floor opening Inadequate drag strut Inadequate localized bending (coped beam analogy) High shear Inadequate collector beam Figure 3.a. must.Entire.VLLRS.high.

diaphragm..reentrant. ΔVLLR Δc΄ F Fpx (a) (b) If Δd > 2ΔVLLR diaphragm is considered flexible Figure 3. Shear wall Chord force development Shear length wall Main diaphragm chords Figure 3.classification.in.and.diaphragm.Plan.results.in. and Composite Systems VLLR VLLR element element Open Atrium High shear Localized chord forces Figure 3.stress.(a).bending.32  Criteria.30  Large.a.31  Diaphragm.108 Tall Building Design: Steel.with.and/or.(b). Concrete.high.corner.elevation.for.shear.diaphragm. .opening.in.

not.rigidity.deflection.and.with. elements.moments.the.undesirable.diaphragm.perimeter-resistant.distribute.15.often.requirement. and.condition.this.in.of..slabs. other.plan.component.arbitrary. by.large.contribute.between.L.in.bring.shears. the.is. vertical.created.occurs.may.be.the.as.chord.diaphragm.the.torsion.by.stress.. the.forms.and.the.the.vertical.develop.on.4 effects of configuRation iRReguLaRity Configuration. the. stresses.are.in.of.from.forces.the.distributed.if.reentrant.consists.These.originates.irregularity.walls.of.perhaps.stresses. are.case.as.or.resisting.dimension.concurrently.same...responsible.43.the.diaphragm.arrangement.its.. the. deflection.resisting.. of.the. building.the.building.stories.in. center..be.stresses.of.under.of.=.may.of. concrete.torsional.of.to.is.in.that. dia- phragm.which.few.The.resisting..of.reentrant.forces.is. depending. the.elements.an.its.(cr). vary..the.fails.elements.book.eccentricity.uncertainty.required.by.to.create.Other.the.the.the.in..a.as.beams.of.a.A.whole.chain.magnitude.that.this.the.in. Torsional moment.resisting.such. sustain.reaction.will.forces.stiffness.by..most.of.adequacy.motion.such.the..diaphragm.the. safely.dangerous.same.whose. used.cause.diaphragm.stress.is.discussed.in.sufficiently. to..deflection.more.of.the.concentrations.the.this.elsewhere.by. supported.or weak-story.Torsional.are. resisting.resistance.earlier.plane. short-column.building.at.cg.fail.. the.forces.of.that.transfer.vertical.neglected.few.in.be.cr).. distribution. of.=.corner.direction.diaphragm.flexural.are.in.elements..and.to.to.supports.a.provide.less.the.The.or.flexural.to.particular.diaphragm. with.of.diaphragm. center.failure.is.that.torsion.of.cre- ated.the.the.except.the.may. frequent.strength.component.Fpe.weak.stress..of.or.irregularities.an.the.stiffness.In. induced..is.to.resistance.and.distance.as.moment. 5%.concentrations. of.elements.whenever. the.slabs.maximum. can.the.the.carried. likely.structural.The.acting.columns. The.specific.walls.1  stress Concentrations Irregularities.and.for.web.an.stiffness.the.the.types.the.soft.that.the. building.as..discontinuity.diaphragm.to.detail.the.abrupt.4.nature.determined.the.is. The.used.building.flexural.shown.such.is.of.stiffness. the.The..(Δw). diaphragms. mass.of.else- where.and.generated.sum.elements.the.to.is.configuration.for..and. center.forces. seismic.torsional.occur.the.the.or.of.to.The.cr.of.the.web. and.stress.plan.response.physical.that. the. either.is. diaphragms.For.on.discussed.to.proportional.one.down.in. (Δf).not.horizontal.where.building..diaphragms.produce.that.two.vertical.vertical.a.the.accidental.example.Figure.seismic..to.by.. undesirable.in.created.is..in...exemplified.the.concentrated.dimensional.eccentricity.Soft.to. distribution.is.to.concentrate. Stress.the.beams.deflection.by.T.building. a.book.damage.design.torsion.at.as.of.torsional.discussed.members.beam.flex- ible.be.and. of. by.forces.rigid. Stress concentration.by. laterally.are.of.when.shear.than..stiffness.in. will.is.or.strength.in.plan.level.the.are.as.tend.total.deflection.. diaphragm.eccentricity. rigid. resistance.seismic.resulting.concen- trations.neglected.translational.provided.criteria.an.buildings.conditions.phenomenon.of.eccentricity.(M T.conditions:.(Δd). Diaphragm deflections:.even. elements)..most..distance. symmetry..produce.equivalent. hand.along.largely.plan.from.elements.of.flexural.the.a.The.is.web.created.as.act.first.a.for..be.of.designed.with.second.4.the.of.reinforced.15.2  Torsion Configuration.the.to. .These.irregularity. Flexible.irregularities.the.the. the.is.in.5%.vertical.forces..the.resisting. on.so.elements.translational.can.analysis. an.torsional.forms.corner.cr. of.the.story.is.such..way.15.coincide.at.manner.the.of. of. diaphragm.can.of.is.3.or.may. This.forces.a. torsional. the.forces.assumed..are.torsion.forces.components.cg.also.and.even.lateral.In.in.vertical.e.under.set.diaphragm.sig- nificant.between.a.Negative.cause.component.computed. assumption.reentrant corner.an.to. for.level.code.concentration.concentration.concentra- tions.both.elements.configurations.used.sum. 3. 3.The.which.the.The.of.is.proportion.configuration. deflection.(vertical. on.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 109 3.more.two.by.the. lack. web.changes.assumed.the.accidental.diaphragms.are.in. other.irregularity.The.determined.the.of.and. type..a.of.stress. Cantilever.

other.seismic. damage. analysis.offsets.problem.cause.that.first. Torsional.dimensional.was.as.....it.their..created.and.each.configuration.of.of.localized.com- mentary.judgment.in.offsets.the.ASCE.is. collapse..lateral-load-resisting. than.damage.cause.types.irregularities.codes. that..was.5 configuRation iRReguLaRities in seismic stanDaRDs Many.and.lead.stipulated.extreme. irregularities...illustrate.. and. use.serious. localized.up.irregu- larity.identified.damage.modify..force.the.would.determination.codes.Collapse.Figures.belief.descriptions.characteristics.defined.5.(section.provisions.or.minor.Observe.conditions.must.this.be.in.it. (d)..also.met.effect. cause. failure.serious.irregularity.lesser...depending.Blue.also.particular.given.still. condition.Out- of-plane.their.7-10.which.to.corner. may.the..six.mechanism.15. extreme.this.(e).extreme.by.the.to.VLLRS.in.and.However.century. (plan)...in.configuration.plan. that.in.or.form.of.may.vertical.to.in.to.the.of..20..problems.a.pattern.today’s.code. in.cause.torsional..regulation.for.1988.varies.was..unmodified.provided. may.In.Nonparallel.pur- poses.have.the.horizontal.system.cases. designs.vertical.provisions.at.SEAOC.illustrate. (a).on.how.meet.of.enough. the.may.which.34.no.shown.over.were.present.33.the.require.in.provide.may.attached. importance.a.and. should.only.seismic..a.twentieth.descriptions. consideration.optimized.to.may.the.code. whether.of.localized.is.and..little.significance.text. and. Concrete.and.left.and.to.and. .this.point.the.of.that.the.110 Tall Building Design: Steel. provides.while. is.simple.of.that.of.3.configuration. 1975 Commentary to the Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC) Recommended Lateral Force Requirements (commonly.serious.was.(b).in.conditions.also.to.Book).ASCE.Diaphragm.in.severe.influence.in. and Composite Systems 3. of.in.cutouts.showing.in.with. irregularity.(c).the.examples.collapse..approach.conditions.3.list.This.These.the.the.irregularities.provided. in.eccentricity. including.is.the.observers.engineer.occur.noted.are.specific.our. further.for.were.large.may.called.that.the.vary.for.of.of.form.horizontal.and.by. a. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Figure  3. irregularity.elements.the... involve.The.these. Because.irregularity.degree.Reentrant.irregularities.instability.that.irregularity.also.order.established.as.present.by. early.load.irregular structures or framing systems.7-10.list.method.10.in.Thus.ineffective.irregularities—5.the.added.the. The.diaphragm.elevation). the.damage.form..becomes.six.was.corners.diagrams.33  Plan.that.equivalent.in.static.reentrant.an. rather. dynamic.changes.

34  Vertical. two.that.allowed.corners .to.serve.irregularity..for.in.(collapse.Variations.. 4.forces •. irregularity.extreme.code-defined. Disallowing.be.code.itself.15.rather.story.the..irregularity. the.and.soft.shear.seismic.Reentrant.detail.stories .penalties.that.are.more.perimeter.more.forces.of. 2. (two.solved.most.the. 1.Vertical.imposing.the.procedure •.a.failure).structural..still..serious.problem.design. (common.In-plane..will.design.conditions.checklist.cause.of.eliminate.earthquake). that. Soft..of.strength.noted. collapse.the.the.is. (a). categories It.the.(localized.provisions.weak.failure). to.(c).or.for.stiffness .(d). conditions..some.hope.increased.imbalance. in.(collapse. Requiring.configuration.. potential.Four.code.design.the.their.part. configuration.irregularity.cause.described.with.sections.must. Stiffness.conceptual.1994. 3.in. Requiring.Discontinuous.mechanism.to.possibility.stories.structure..problem.more.extreme.and.in. plan). impact.Increasing.wall .configura- tion.(e).analysis.vertical.the.the.not.the.design- ers.penal- ties. For.much.Northridge.. in.by.in.advanced.to.ascertaining.irregularities.mechanism). and.performance.irregularity.torsional.symptom.seek. The.improving.information.three.be.Capacity.types: •.instances).exist. irregularity.high.solution.the.to. seriously.. have. story. better.. 3. irregularities.in.sufficient.is.design.irregularity.analysis.discourage.provisions.does..6 fouR seRious configuRation conDitions Four.. vertical.and.in.seismic.the.of.(b).provide.to.problems.a..should.be.than.the.treat.in..and..The.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 111 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Figure  3.irregularities.geometric.The. soft.by. deaths. following.design.suggestions.discontinuity.. mechanism.as.damage.are .which.along.the.weak..LFRS.Weight/mass.solve. in.are..(localized..extreme.

(a) (b) (c) Figure 3. among.weak.above.the.in. diagram. Finally.level.flexible.in.36b).shear.the.a.3.floor.above.the.code.soft.the.walls.35  Soft. first.This.story.second-floor.drift.floor.in.to.design..is.stories. at. load.sequence.been.less.weak.(a)..whether.are.soft.1  soft and weak stories The.of.story:.first. stiff.the.3.not.all.first.greatest.concentration.of.walls.severe..first.almost.serious.toward.frame.story.structural.a. Drift Drift (a) Normal (b) Soft story (c) Collapse Overstress Figure 3.form.plane.the.whose.is.a.in.second-floor.is.a.36a).exists.is.cumulative.height.and.most.36c).heavy.created.seismic.second.may.is.first.leading.design.when.ground.shown.story.soft.flexible.result..weak.a.floor.or.under.3.condition.to.more.concentration. that.distinguishes.building.floors. the.structure.openness.and.condition. The..stories.to..discontinuity.(Figure.A.create.than.discontinuity.second.taller.supports..story.shown.more.the.path— and.between.height.caused.floor.however.since.soft.at.creates..soft.continue.second.may.terminated.the.those.col- lapse.stiff.along.story.reasons.distributed.the.drift.35.discrepancy.soft.connections.archi- tectural.in.soft.stress..discontinuous.or.good.but.The.and.which.the.36).is.major..floor. The.significantly.of.avoid.most.first.heavy.in.do.in.the.of.elements.those.commonly.the.an.stress. is.floor.resulting.(c).way.the.35a.drift.With.than.foundation.and.non- structural.by. Three.equally.tends.and.load.Normal..discontinuity.as.that.stiffness..weak.due.that.the.(Figure.There.problem.an. The.6.collapse.less.solution.which.code.(The.second.earthquake.lateral-force-resisting.above..rather. walls.and.the.drift.distortion.(see.and.without.provides.are.(Figure.types.at..to.first.at.of.story.floor.story.strength.and.).the..is.to.above.serious.common.the.commonly.occurs.term.results.This. Concrete.situation.3.forces.joints.floor...build- ing.Figure. any.condition.large.line.less.story.soft.in..soft- story.discontinuity—indirect.upper.problem.first.be.. first-floor.a.between.numerical.the.loads.soft-..112 Tall Building Design: Steel.in.in.weak-story. some.ground-level.at.evaluate.to.is.applied.framing.the.conditions.overstresses.3.condition.soft.superstructure.story.the.story.by.values.base.increase.the.flexible..first.to.top.soft.strength.change. and Composite Systems 3.that.This.the.concept.building.best.programmatic.Figure..the.of.stories:.in..floors.to.The.which.is.in.has.15.have.the.to..first.buildings.abrupt. .3.be.than.created.between.the.weak.a.typical.should.the.stiffness.vertical.open.creates.36  Three.the.stories. than.path.are.elements.is.be.but.most.(c).story.(b).significantly.(b).(a).why.of.occurs.at.upper.35c).a.a..through.where.vertical.Soft.the.above.acting..3.change.concentrates.or.in.in.or.(Figure.This.are.Figure.structure.

terminates.or.floors.be.soft-story...employed.problem.the.from.perhaps.is.interrupt.stories.in.rather.discontinuity.a.its.stiff....first.which.represents.be.must..3. at.was..soft.sacrificed.second.higher.soft-first-floor.of.This.shear.of.is.rest.2  Discontinuous shear walls When.to. to.the.main.roof.cases.by.condition:.soft.the.a.that.shear.upper.and.this.to..Hospital.are.story.an.directly.hold.Figure.be.case.soft-two-story.in.Management.of.38  Olive.result.there.wall.. Agency. the.3.floor.for.walls..purpose.floors.. 2F plaza Figure 3.to.discontinuous.the.main. Olive.error.3.which.structure.serious.wall.general. The.are. wall.shear.a..careful.Emergency.For.this.In..Designing for Earthquakes: A Manual for Architects.each.at.them.a.the.rigid.to..shear.at.to.points. bracing..was.condition.DC:.of.be...the.the.6.stories.system.and.where.efficiently.(Figures.on.buildings. (five..collect.cross.columns..View.earthquake.shown.it.contradiction:.is..the.be.Thus.that.in.last.foundation..loads.penthouse)..con- tinuous. of.a.) .discontinuous.The.through.pos- sible.configuration..concentration.building.(a).vertical.must.damaged. Not..wall.these.major.1971..interrupt.to.columns..methods.reduce.The.add.base.California.greatest.the.columns.at.up.the.conceptual.com- mon.and.for.the.structure.a.37  Design.add.all.the.(c).The.doing. more.a.than.(From.stresses.40).external.A.fundamental.special.element.slender.the.exist.FEMA- 454.of.are.a.walls.hospital.as.shear-wall-plus-frame.strength.represents.in.first.the.condition.Washington.counting.elements.main.leads.(b).Earthquake Effects on Buildings 113 (a) (b) (c) (d) Figure 3.story.design.the.building.load..(d).solutions..show.San.and.a.Some.shear.worst case.foundation.15.discontinuous.of.condition...path.than.high.second. the.but.shear.and.the.four-story.floor.floor.To.design...to.of.transmit. vertical.the.should.no.flexible.discontinuity.of..and.is.was. 3.diaphragm.through..as. represents..severely.problem.38.section.frames.discontinuity.discontinuous.stop.Fernando.lateral-force-resistant.lateral-force-resistant.open.of.must.shear.form.2006.shear.supported.soft-story. the.add.is.wall.overstressing.layer.extreme..walls.37. the.the.can.forces..at.Federal..and..View.soft-first-story.a.form.undesirable.all.stiffness.that.Note:.load.buttresses.first.path.the.the..

If.of.View.provide..in..shear. FEMA-454.shear.the.two.41).but.not.unbalanced.largest.circulation.the.seismic.large.to.resistance.use.intensive.out.plaza. but.accommodate.of.so.design.outside.amount. .of.the. level.not.or..39  Olive.San.building.building.displacement.geometrically.must.Agency.occupants.to.do.center.high..occurred..hence.The.careful.the.design.configuration.will..bases.plumb.mass.and.extends. as.is.working.stiffness.discontinuous. the. from.a.the. A.of.the.portion. Concrete..schematic.(Figure.building.a.of.Figure.fire..their.it.ft. Washington.the.rotate.maintenance.resistance. condition.by.strength. there.If.symmetri- cal.the..is.Hospital.permanently.necessary. Designing for Earthquakes: A Manual for Architects.problem... DC:.Emergency.center.the.incep- tion. stories.the.will.3  variations in Perimeter strength and stiffness This.40).and.walls.and.perimeter.design.and.the.the. Washington.regular.maintenance.from.presence.purposes.occur. around.wide.common.perimeter...3..15.resistant.Note.recognized.damage.that. columns.of.decision. The.the.use.or.second-floor.plaza.walls.early.between.be. plaza.unequivocally.the.for.not.is.2006.soft-story. and Composite Systems 2F plaza Figure 3.shops.unit.of.To.deformation.problems.which.wall. Designing for Earthquakes: A Manual for Architects.nonetheless.1971...for.their.and.may..which.column.in.an.40  Olive.planning. Management.114 Tall Building Design: Steel.of.then..to.forces.walls.size.left.coordination.open-front.and.with.behavior..at..shear.earthquake. such.building’s.subject.location.by.shear.) Figure 3.that.tops.problem.discontinuous.eliminate.was.architectural.to.image.design.Sever. a. (From..it..ground. architectural.so.such.large.seismic.their.indicates.level.design.the.the. Emergency.the.is.and.Fernando.the.is.and.moved.6.in.the.that.and...variation.killed.(see.the. above.made.) floor.and.to.form.collapse.decision..irregular.upper.failed.of.whose.DC:.in.perimeter.in.Management.nature.made.much.elements.influenced.of. A.torsional..View. 3.The.column.may.The.to.a.of..instance.were.in.tend..the.is.FEMA-454.engineering.in.to.create.this.motor.If.cause...strongly. coincide.as.did.moved.the.wrong.care.doors.is.6. is.out.Hospital.was.buildings.3.person.buildings.stations.this.and.to.beginning. Federal..extreme.of.2.2006.Federal.solution.center.around.was.and.of.(From. Agency.the.as.could.

an.problem.shown.conditions.and.sides.balancing.building.be.as.often.around..is.glazed.to.of.of.employed. passage.is.also.with..in.to.store-front-type.around..group.torsion.strength.solutions..open.due.(Figure.this.type.a.41  Torsion.A.reduce.42).are.wide.could.Stories.perimeter.to.front.shopping.individually.as.variation. .a.noted.vehicles.or.store.the.conditions.alternative.in.mall. the.perimeter.resistance.designed.that.design.and..other. boxes.front.stiffness.the.three.strategies.3.solid. can.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 115 Center of mass and resistance Center of resistance Center of mass Force Tor si on Balanced resistance Force Asymmetric shearwall Unbalanced resistance Figure 3.number.by.the. The.the.42  Some.the.unbalanced-perimeter-resistance.The.be.of.for.of.example.used.to.that.possibility. Light cladding Stiff walls Moment frame Stiff diaphragm Figure 3.solution.building.

the..of.use. be.. would.the. open.may.center.these.should.plan.shape.forms. The.from.etc.strong.at...in.a.assume.such.is.long.resistance.to.torsion.frame.be. and Composite Systems The.frame.in.to.corner.This. A.equal.L.shown.of.provided.seismic.and.of.using.can.stiffness.designed. that.noted.moment.braced.of. sufficient.corner.can.third.shapes.concrete..on.to.H..stiffness.never.44).45.facades.walls.characteristic.. to.corner.entire.be.that.of.the. by..concentrations.as.concrete.solution.be.to.and.3.The.perimeter. stiffness.heavy.can.designed.the.for.near....result..done.in.116 Tall Building Design: Steel...44  Stress..long.isolated.depend.opaque.it.the.at. approach.due..(Figures. resist. perimeter.the.frame.at.43  Reentrant.of.a.cladding. Invariably.it..this.stiffness. cladding.moment-resisting.solid.is.by.or.a.to. second.to. rsion To To rsio n Figure 3.the.and.structure.and.Figure.in.by.affect.the.frame.not..of.the.strategy.or.frame.the. However.frames.constructed.braced.wall.be.3.strength.a.approach.the..forms.resis- tance.have. of.the.the.plan.designed. adding.walls. of.walls.it.structure.combination.schematically.possibility.in.of.lightweight. approaches.common.does.wall.4  reentrant Corners The.would.nonstructural. the. increase.these.mass.of.that.materials..steel.of. A.open.reentrant.or.or.to.either.approach.or.face.torsion. shear. facades.43.do.shear. the.of.15.T.the.accepted.the.other.forms.eccentricity.and.The.approximately. Concrete.ability..3.size.through.reentrant.will.6.masonry.ensuring.by..combination.front.capacity. 3.that.the.. .open.building.portion.be.so.center.a.a.of. Figure 3.frames.performance.which.design.are.

simultaneously.analogous.because.hole.of.to. if.intersection.to.two.47).center.the. to.rather.first.stiff.are.a.apartments.compact.their.of.The.torsional.deflections.the.horizontally.the.result.is.location.resistance. effects.this.mass.relatively. for. The.must.difficult.resistance.the.of.that.air..motions.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 117 Stress concentration Center of mass Center of resistance Ground motion Figure 3.lean.. case.lateral.own.height/depth.the.strongly.structurally.plan.right-angle.a. Several.use.and.the.that.notched.arise.more.wing.and.of.lessens.at.structural.and.a..of. Once. without.of.the.rotation.(length. The.than. The.balanced.for.and.tie.the.shapes.is.more.is.the.separation.to.end.building.will.the.Observe.that.notch. There.forms.vertical.the.3.creates.but.of.wings.when. The.shapes.. straight.of.problems.rounded.joint.alternative. The.mass.and.the. access.sites.eccentricity.of.to.that.the.with.proportion) •.of.of.form.of.to.in.accom- modated.caused.the.geo- metrically.splayed.at.. configuration.useful.because.joint.must. particularly.tie.systems •.provides.This.way.area.the..length.allow.together. the.ratios Reentrant.stress.the.of.must.of.be.of. the.separation.it.rooms.corner.stress.separation.are.at.that.and. The.problem.result.than.balanced.free.portion.to.hotels.corner..more.cr.simpler.plate.resulting...be.reentrant.stress.build- ing.together.approaches.for.building.place.large.Collectors.concentrations.of.directions.concentration. located.is.intersection.of. across.a.structurally.local. interruption.into. these.elements.ground.The.building.this.of.their.positioned.region..analyze.forces.calculated.interrelated.be.differen- tial.wings.than.problem.most.center.are.the.is.is.rectangular.however..notch.The.the.most.the. There.possible.of. concentration.in.their. The.The.light.elements.wings.the.only.earthquake.magnitude.may.less.of.stress.fully.decided.two.to.the.entities.with.and. allows. to.individual.a.to.or.is.and.individual.torsion.because.building •.residential.at.Therefore.tapered.perimeter..45  Torsion.separate.the.must.cannot.way.severity.each.made.transfer.of.forces.to..with. To.3.dispense.forms:..other.produce.to.depend.the.corners.aspect.use.different.ratios.across.resisting.a.and.for.tend.at.on •.and.in.would.(Figure.percentage.dimension. extend.separation.form.the.to.concentration.height.a.due.the.is.second.capable.the.structures.is.the. Since..design.motion •.yet.characteristics. stiffening.hole. design.plan.the.is.width.one.building.the. notch.the.of.joints.are.corner.areas.the.ele- ments.reentrant.it.(Figure.is.distorts.two..predict.provide.if.reentrant.basic.forces.drift.the. beam-like.these.the.shapes.can.desirable.vertically.worst.46).space.the.of.on.typically.created.or.separated.forces.type.a.structurally.and.by.are.beam.This.center.their.maximum.statistical.that..The.of.units.high.they.considerations.and.abruptly.between. very.two.tend.be.set..the.in..coincide.the.the.problems.to..urban. an.toward..to.desirable.build- ing.be.mass.the.building.for.all. .decision..sum. members.still.and.steel.or.

occur.to.lateral.a.a.by.resisted.in.turn.analyses. in.10) Therefore. to.is Mub.of.typical. lateral. addition. displacement.48a.indicated...the.in.drift.reentrant.stress.118 Tall Building Design: Steel.1  P-Delta effect When.. (3.is.maximum. and Composite Systems Separation Strengthen ‘notch’ Add stiff elements at notches Figure 3.additional.resulting.horizontal.gravity.moment.structures. moments.very.. to.will.This.model. the.on.However..displacements.PuΔ. by.when.have.displaced.PuΔ. effects.corner.condition.1%.the.+. in..Thus.because.3. the.splay.are.frames. Concrete.forces.must.using.will.Figure.the.also..also...In. cantilever.than.moments.total.small.collapse.hence. secondary.less. Vu.15. ..may. overturning.flexible.and. force.P-delta.47  Relieving.7 otheR seismic issues 3.the.are.be.is..interstory.lateral.produce.corner.15.increase.load.reentrant.lead.subjected.moment..building.increment.Δ.for..=.additional..overturning.of.resulting.instability. 3. produced.further.. moment.structures.that.46  Solutions.base.flexible.7.simple.the.VuH. Figure 3.the.

.3.which.is.the.be. Vertical. P-delta.proportions..phe- nomenon. building.is.lateral.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 119 ∆ Vu Pu ∆mc Wt center of mass Level of H M1 M2 M3 M4 Mu T1 C1 C2 (a) (b) ∆ P P P P (c) Figure 3.MA.as.one.or.frames.building.=. tall. building.however.braced.on.member.plumb.forces.significant.or.P-delta.to.as. is.that.P-delta.VuH.horizontal. is.=.or.This.and.previously. the.overload. proportions.as. there.the.stated. to.walls.of.cantilever..(see.the. the.(c)..cause.the.simple. also.low..than.schematics. forces. of..mass.force.when.the. problem..due.where.Pu∆.of.effect.whole. however.building.P-delta.squat.and.damage. way.and.rather.48  (a).effect.walls.by.weight.even.model.building.may. of..fail. A.that. system.. may. a.is.are.. to.by.effect.part.mass. overturning.should. in.gravity.F.offset. effect. under.delta..a.force.Mu.distorted.by.shear.the.c.the..its.to.the.(b). have. subject.members.if.buckling.+. much.moved.force.or. earthquake. The. will.P-delta.or.P–∆.gravity.provided.columns..to.lateral.. . influence.forces. a. slender. exerts.shear-wall-frame..of. more.resistance.than.Figure.weight.is.as.the.a..extent.of. whether. geometrical.building.It.48b. those. great. which. be. forces.P.the..determines.it.the.effects).or. building’s. may. likely. act.eccentricity. weight.the.a.Collapse.a. the.the.effect:.out. Although. on.for.their.. is.noted.collapse.equation. is.such. pose.of. another.

7.the. corresponding.structures. Redundancy.response. forces. strong-beam.elastic.and.apart.critical.do.earthquake.seismic.structure.plane.these.exhibit..deformations.for..that.even.schematics). ..the.that.the.not.reduces.for.however.(a).beams.awareness.extreme.of.shifted.compa- rable.response.structural.enhances.brittle.over.or.material.Strong.over.the. or.forces.fall.the.shaking.live.inelastic.to..behavior.(see.structures.placement.not.earthquakes.stiff.else- where.the.effect..reason.are.within.and.provide.Inelastic. actual. emphasis.deformations. text.of.the.wind..The..ground.design.structure.will.during.seismic.collapse.columns. and Composite Systems Δ E P P P Ground motion (a) (b) Figure 3.col- lapse.2  strong beam.damage.possibility.are.members.essential. Seismic. Although.of.collapse..increased.range..be. large.member.of.will.extent.generated.49.higher.the.because.flexural.essential.to.Common.exceed.not.design.are.structures.necessarily.the.building.building.complete.openings.On.49  Why.maximum.the.are.to.so.is.as.under. analogous. of. condition.motions.preventing.strong. sometimes.in. particularly.structures.can. this.. at.ground.weakness.motions.This.fall.load. is..forms.energy.down. discontinuities.the.path.for.has.such.Figure.fall..during..prevent.horizontal.risks.8 eaRthquake coLLapse patteRns We.15.that.design.a. a. weak-column.damage.structure..possibility.120 Tall Building Design: Steel.dissipation.earthquake..the.considered.buildings.ductility.over:.excessive.to.is.building.practice.collapse.therefore.an.3.is.nonstructural.of.sever.fraction.back-and-forth.are.hand.being.forces.will.severe.lead.the. setbacks.15.designed. of. 3.the..seldom.or.generally. or.gravity.a.or.behavior.ductility.of.the.load. weak Column Structures.typically.earthquake.can.high.together. 3.loads. that.are.commonly.members. the.windows. to.of.extent.collapse.when.a.under.and.are.characteristics.before. forces.accept.for. introduce.encourages.response.offset.large.essential.resistance. 3.but.than.Inelastic.may.increases.homogeneous.We.that.those. which..the.that.between.if.design.to.seismic.than.of.be.strength.of.from.by.buildings.overturn.by.become.the.loads..discussed.strong. produced.many.filing.composed.ductile.likely.survive.strength.concrete.will.not.expect. in.too.while.under.in..down.setback.The. forces.more.resisted.in. cabinets.failure.earthquakes.seismic.reality.that.that.for.The.structural.other. are.shaking.elastic.desirable.to.it.created.short-column.those. can.then.load.as.causes. columns. Concrete. However.that.forces. plane.shear. walls.is.col- umns.....7.3  setbacks and Planes of weakness Vertical.of. are.Thus.other.severe..inadvertently.homogenous.or..to.filing..design.(b).in.of.such.and.inserted.cabinet.strength..has..causes.subjected. is.reduce..pull.structural.must.provided..elements.compo- nents.loads.the.15.to.connected.its.not.A.fail.for.shaking.the..other. With..to.and..evasion.

larger.ground..the. by. Short column (a) (b) Figure  3. column. including.is.energy.columns.high...plastic.effects.partial.of. be.the. members.unquantifiable.learned.is.reduce.region. such.from.applied.forces.effective. collapse.column.beam/strong.learned.condition.a.the.columns. the.a.simply.of.as.major- ity.stiffness.the.earthquake.base.the.However. is.well- detailed.may. While. of. causes.combined.of.imperative. well-confined.functional.15.conditions. the. the. of..of. will. develop.Unless. particularly.effects.due.be.we.wall. the. infill. otherwise.by.still.b.each.beam.extended.. failures. stiffness.to.of.column.consider. columns. The..can. will.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 121 As. than.unpre- dictable. reinforcement.for.be.such.there.forces. for.at. lowest. level. inadvertent.. follow.been. when..ensure.concrete. earthquakes. is. compression.subjected. to...important. attract.with..closely. even.adequate.lessons. of.increasing.the. would.forces..total.that.develop.to.it.to.compression. one.and.. of.is.potential. loads.of.the.design.1  unintended addition of stiffness A.structural.are..design. techniques.the.in..of. source.from.lateral..largest.still.50a.be. structures.without.results.thereby. of.placed.cannot. than.earthquake. .to.to.. In. stated. damage. lead. instability. used.and. design.column. static.earthquakes. repeatedly..8. displacement. braced. gravity-load-carrying.circulation.have.may. must. during.primarily.the.elements. of.to.the.that. upper.collapse.transverse.seismic..reinforcement.50  Creation.plastic.inelastic.. It.plenty. soft-story mechanism. forces..bending. failure.corresponding.and. it.top.. recognized.deformations. major.. entire.force.about.will...said.seismic.is.plastic. for.levels.hinges.open.during.to.earthquakes. (a).that. in. that. of.This. in.is.shows.and..place.lower.its.arise.column.is.which. building.hinge. typically. As.nonstructural. floor-height.spalling.. the.Figure. interference. When.it.a.that.levels. of.deformations.one.the. that. 3. columns:.desire.the. shear. may.walls.learn. (b).brick.in.form.something.edge.from.Since..strong. the.construction.length. short. may.or. pattern. partial.. resulting.there. common. most.hinge..in. and. wind. is. failure.motions.it.nonstructural.members. weaker.with.seismic. interference. building.moment.. of.spaced. various.. earlier. panel. the.weak.axial.strains.to.take. observed.proportional.3.new.dissipation. the.rigid..the. earthquakes.a.of. horizontal. Therefore.up. followed.to. Well-established.infill. one.in.

it.and.the.have.a.ten- sion.broken.steel.of.beam/column.in.have.The.result.to..sufficient.left.when.structures.b.shear.strength.8.to.can. 3.no.lose.shown.the..15.of.rapid. Concrete..inadequate.gravity.A. and Composite Systems 3.the.mass.and.stop.as.tension.patterns:.. to.severe.52  Collapse.stops.of.be.joints.moment. degradation.occur.2  inadequate beam–Column joint strength Earthquake.122 Tall Building Design: Steel.collapse.as.of.partial.cause.52a.cycling.by.ground.poorly. Gravity Gravity loads loads Gravity Gravity Gravity loads loads loads Compression Tension Δ Δ (a) (b) (c) Figure 3.a.the.can.concrete.slabs.produce.falling.poorly.schematically.51.stability.may.until.these.15.failure.on.compression.can.of.building.strength..punched.to.result.or.damage.failure.columns.be.failure.it.moment-resistant..overturning..and.51  Breaking.up.or.bending.ground.wall.fail.held.supported.or. the.failures.that.walls.lower.frame.condition. back-and-forth.can..is. columns.Figure. In.inadequately..3.more.8.longer.load.concrete.due.A.the.The.at.the.rapid.and.of.usually.may.a.or.in.poorly.earthward.detailed.(b).in.proportioned.tension.very.floors.shaking.columns.by.a.overturning.collapse. is.contents..slabs..pancaking.through.during. P P P P Figure 3.group.inadequate.structure.reinforcing.or.types.beam/column.in.in.causes.The.3.result.resulting.taller.in.that.3  Tension/Compression Failures These.complete.embedded.of.strength.The.unravel.joints.joints.shear.in.by.in.where.that. structure. (c).(a).if.edges.tension.in.loss.condition. pancaked.even.may.columns.and.rapid.wall.Figure.apart.driven.structure..the..occurs.of..Consequently.strength.failures.c).concentrated.the. .of. joints.shear.a.buildings.detailed.(see.the.can..are.standing.occur.frame...is.common.a.the.or.

3.is.offset.weakened.floors..uncollapsed.due.columns..54  Heavy.5  Local Column Failure This.are. the.has..may.a.structure.of.53.of.to.This.sche- matically.collapse.effects.Many.high.15.street-front.shown.the.or.progressive.for.wall.by. can.unable.often.and/or.due.they.lost.parts..If.slabs. subsequent.remain.of.in.become.insufficient..the.area.gravity.as.The.when.partial.horizontal.to.in.that.observed. lost..15.force.. exaggerating.in.when.. corner.in..both.due.is.to.Observe.roof. the.vertical.is.of.due.8.overturn.3. offset.stability..earthquake.a..as..is.an.collapse.concrete.con- tain.that.support.structure.frame.in.each.walls.force.Tall. Wind Quake (a) (b) (c) Figure 3.more. floors.complete.failure.heavy. .6  heavy Floor Collapse Schematically.collapse.collapses.it.due. increase.53  Local.collapse.type.heavy.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 123 3.parts.the.fails.can. from.floor.hanging.shown.stability..this.structures.4  wall-to-roof Connection Failure In.or.and.bays. addition.this. instability..54.. aftershocks.inertial.the.The.out-of-plane.will.system.case.to.to.unstable.the.but.is.horizontal..been..Figure.moment.support.buildings.force.wall.8.the..the.may.by..roof.can.capacity.within.has.collapses.driving.forces.at.Some.15.that.gravity.only.torsion. boundaries.well. caused.to.load.of.collapse.be.. on. column.the.vertical.It.are.8.of..and/or.supported.partially.adjacent.acting.to.structure.gravity. lateral.the.most.bays.lead. loads.is.Figure.off.as. Heavy roof Heavy floor Figure 3.column.part.as.or.structures.frame.collapse.walls.often. uncollapsed.loads. 3.collapsed. 3..loss.their. In.support..usually.disorderly.Major.floor.plan.motion.

significant.as.Examples.frame.they.(see.have.have.buildings.than.stiffness.configured..only.story. collapse..normally.that.eccentric.8  soft-story Collapse This.above.ones. too. infilled.in.The.the.is.walls.short.than.they. many.columns.a..in.building. lower.of. collapse.infill.occurs.may.below.damage. becomes.walls.and.Figure.provided.can.when. openings. by.a.stiff/strong.below.adjacent.above.stories.columns. is.8.bays.the.The.shorter. ..edge.two.(see.no.are.even.when.has.lead.and.124 Tall Building Design: Steel.in..story.different.dif- ferent.the.that.story.a.structures.placement.collide.the.collapse.and.to.lead.above.because.occurs.due.of.buildings. story. Concrete..columns.7  Torsion effects Torsion.to.no.These.becomes.adjacent. and Composite Systems P P P P Figure 3.much.of.Figure.in.effect:.and.walls.collapse.at. weakened..story.floors.than.stiff.occur.cause.can.building.of.has.occur.significantly. resulting.or. when.story.3.building’s.limber.condition.become.15.walls.8.is.first-story.to.to.in.in.may.in.very.56).8.an.more.elevations.such. 3.stiffness.the. 3. 3.columns.midstory.ones.are.with.when.to. collapse:.the.one.a.other.one.15.often.above.stiffer.unsymmetrical.longer.and.15.configured.56  Soft-story.wall.when.8.the.is.55  Torsion.have.column.15.between.fewer.an. that.pounding.are.55).first.and. much.that.cause..parts.stories.limited. can.the. Figure  3.placed.less. below.when.have.failure.the.floor.or. 3.that.are.9  Midstory Collapse This. racked.of.or.3.one.10  Pounding Damage.building.

must.had.Increased.construction.cause. most.branches.design.bring.therefore.nature.of.the.earthquake.be.of.forces.as.of.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 125 3.that.one.detailed. that.of.of..structures.must.of.relieve.maintains.applied.inelastic.expressed.must.with. by.our.branches.out. Otherwise. Aftershocks.building.effects.There.3).therefore.the.load.at.the.in..only.compression.engineering.mostly.at.ground.be.magnitude.of.therefore.and.on.structure.mistakes.random.occur.the.This.pattern.a.the..is..we.lateral.us.a. mass.research.in.causes.foundation.also.failure.earthquake.collapse.all.of.a.structure.dynamic.large.We...building.viewpoint.whose.once.a.to. engineering.and.world.mild.. intense.design.columns..usually..near. or. due.would.forces.damage.tectonic.bending.other.years.This.loads.must.will.live.size..to.3.columns.a.with.caused.percent.are.The.Loma.earthquake.to.to.and.within.plates.to...height.earthquake.signifi- cant.knowledge.number.The.than.terms.of.variables.the.largest.what.earthquake. the.the.with.is.to. wants.this.dynamic. horizontal.the.least. building..vertical.is.was.diminished.of.disasters.of.way.appreciable.and. less.manifestations.near.the.distribution.follow.either.is.orthodox.Richter. produce.a.(6+. the.resistant.along.design.of.floors.uncertainties.earthquakes.mass.of. more.the.the.there.interaction.9 concLusions Earthquakes.generated...but.of.in.is.were.earthquake safe—the. in.When.design.diminish.Add.bring.one..these..idealizes.are. engineering.proportion.con- cerns.manner.magnitude).and.a.two.experience.load.called.(within.50%. oscillate.shaking.where.the.the..regions.forces.to.action.the.. properties.future.to.to.are.would.at. one.is.overload.Earth’s.the.motions.events.so. designing.variables.in..though. destructive.magnitude).accordingly.often..as.have.face.the.design.. horizontal.decreased.more.weight..know.Prieta.structures.confronted.that.of.fortresses.in. Although.portions.similar.increased.loads.change.group.design.reduces..exerted.being.are.quake.lateral.rarely.structures.aftershocks.will.lesser.intensity.of. and. in.with.For.vertical-load-resisting.effects.increase.a..are.are.its.while.forces.to. valid.it.are.within.wealth.of...the.that.high.earthquake-induced.in. a.all.through. aftershock. treated.designed.. plane.buildings.resist.speaking.to.of.it.necessity.by..gravity.also.to. Some.that.have.applicable.of.very.least.earthquake. psychiatry.can.a.surface.and.strength.in.systematically.be.resist.movement.that.over.to.(within. earthquake. simplified.simplified.only. that.weight.faults..approach.in. while.in.0.have.soil–structure.the. uncertainty.deterministic.This. to..the.random.of.nature.loads.5... Book.nature.loads.hazardous.analysis.to.which.even. openly.to.the.but.engineering.compared.above.with.medicine.gener- ated.being.time.to.number.purposes. can.with. The.quake.Earthquake. systems—whose.it. are.generally.forces. of.applied.triangular.15.from.that.of.vertical.is.further.loading.floor.and.this.thus.these.structures.is. earthquakes. may.and.failure.differently.forces.damaged.there.future.week. dead.orthodox...magnitude.In.quake.100.compression.action. still.dis- turbances. are. inertia.with..magnitude)..with. shaking.in.undeniable.a.insufficient.group.being.of.the. and.the.such.at.of.occurs.ground.very.the.when.is.However.random.a.we.column.below.and. original.or.design..of.shaking.of.with.resulting.overload. those.less.in.variables.boundaries.each.under.engineering..in. crust..characteristics.Aftershocks.compression..are.it.1.structures. has.mistakes.objective. mass.. in.occur.smaller.and.aspect..weight.most.large..orthodox.as. lateral. caused.decreased.engineering.They.forces.most.along.structures..in.engineering.from.order. Earthquake.be.applied.made.effects.Chapter.parody.are..moderate.dealing.few. They.all.structure.many.original.destructive.equal.the.very.of..at. The.aftershocks. A..occur.intense. pertinent.and..the.and.with.vary.this.a..of.the.These.prevent.10.vertical. and.to.deal. .characteristics. that.can.longer.probabilities.because. effects.each.and..line.simple.con- siderable...is.gravity.being.had.waves.it.that.the.of..6.makes.when.quakes.also.earthquake.multistory.minutest.the.these.the. back.other..disciplines..dealing.quakes.7.to.first.contend.of.the.earth- quakes.we.modest..on.prove.a.of.the. system.chance.uncertainty..Earth’s.after.makes.of.original.extremely. In. forth.no..(Taranath.on.regarding.reshaking.Richter.the.at.foundation.rest.size.catastrophic.is.are.and.to.still.the.importance.a.They.But.the.greater.remain. of.the.this..number.percent.earthquake-induced.aftershocks.even.In.the.construct..earthquakes—about.Seismically. it.mass. debated.produce.the.viewpoint..unlikely.in.

forms.clear.looking.difficulties.or.7-10.for.load.analysis..engineering.total.extreme.of.When. of. engineering.seismic.the..configuration.simply.engineer.direction.that.is.the..irregular.in.ultimate.evaluate.design. A.to. paramount.earthquake...client.on. be..of. translate.powerful.to.design.merely.enforce.bal- anced.a.the.factors.term.any.go.conventional.response.value.forms.architectural.forces.and.loading.the..or.some..through.that.are.will..the.here.should.enough.for.but..of.motions.varying.make..their. acceptable.the.ground.New.of.to.the.these.these.or.may.distinguish.with.design.highly.suit.is. these..judgment.economical.the.that.outright:.finishes. that.filter.a.mean.successful.also.each.Only.engineering.is.that.taken.trait.to.cannot.determin- istic.analytically. on.design.perhaps.time.stresses.that.configurations.exploits.valid.it.immediate.and.function.if.never.symmetry.high-style.soft.components..the.modest.Similarly. the.in.is.these.architect.when.forms.expect.objectives.that.obtain.the.feeling. building.learn.Book.must.of.3).in.When.It. [SDC].are.time.intentions.a.conflicts.resulting.response.may.loading.penalties.oriented.response.methods.of.(i.it.the..may.architect.irregular.many.static.beyond.on.statistical..be.exercise.Category.encourage. The.architect’s.load.irregular.torsion.and.to.convenient..concepts.configurations..discussions.influences. Extreme.of.building.the.separately.per- mits.objectives.size.analytical.to.are.engineer.everyday..from.aesthetic.the.of..even. and Composite Systems challenging.complex..or.of.to.its.structural.useful.in.will..or.loading.to.a.126 Tall Building Design: Steel..considered.configurations.special.time.and.in..F).solutions.requires.they.only.heights.encoun- tered..Sooner.thus.extreme.but.frequently.a. both.stories.together.in. structural.but.between..imposing.of.those.to..in.be.use. measures.to.of. The. penalties.zones.use.It.they.toward.appropriate.the.oscillatory.rather..which.to.of.innate.and..not.the.in.allowance. In.16  sTruCTuraL DyNaMiC In.require.knowledgeable.begin.going.as.such.sense.its.are.engineering.dynamic.banned.the.looking.be.stories. challenges.type.varies.search.of.and.methods.E.position.and.succeed.building. which.it.and.form.in.costs..the.is.design. build- ing..of.develop.negotiation.dynamic.the..the. may.high.and.project.also.used.is.and.seismic. Regardless.costly.varying..is.6.the. design.earthquake.that.gives.elements.rather.virtues.or.with.not.limited.however.and.design.important.is.addi- tional.dynamic.the.for.irregularities.such.as deterministic dynamic loads.com- mon.they.and.though. information.are..span.and.for. then.is.story.in.soft.seismic..type. methods.origi- nal.that.are.the.on. Such.the.a.continue. .will.loads.the.to.time.than.brief.that.in.engineers.more. into.analysis.forms.architect.response.will.systems.form.to.their.educational. Concrete.dynamic..experience.buildings..analysis.convince.is.indirect.and.Seismic.unknown.different.be..is.load. in.these.of.weak.this.is.on.engaging. Even.needs. likely.and.If.structural..owners.use.should.of.unusual.may.the.interest..how.both. will.outset.larger.seismic.very.fruitful.become. loading.or. The..to random dynamic loads.assigned.superpose.acquire.does.on.measures. static.use.standards..architectural.essential.engineer. Therefore..increased.(Taranath. in.used:.or.conflict.deflections.functional. components.the.the.static.effect.that.dynamic.to.and/or.are.interaction.it.buildings.justify.condition..result- ing.resistance.strategy.be.a. 3.character.two.This.high.dynamic.later.the.. story.intriguing. the. by.design.the..simplicity. earthquake-resistant.quantities.dynamic.magnitude.depends.fragmented.buildings.and.result..of.benefits..engineers.fundamentally..to.Design.of.probably.to.irregular.building.to.but.and.two..architect.the.building.are.seismic.design.technically..buildings.irregularities.. unfair.nebulous.applied.to.visualize.as.route.opposed.random.and.dynamic.be.and.fascinating.able.defined.dynamic.ideal.unsymmetrical..emphasis.thusly.to...be.as.from..nondeterministic.seismic.one.help.many.conditions.character.treated.regularity.materials.called.projects. cost.analysis.e.economy.a.ensure.of.be.be.in.the.. building.perform.and.for.Chapter..methods.and.varied.seismic.ASCE.solution.about.at.the.as.working.attempt.the.be.development.as.on..of.may.enjoy.considered.The.an.of.that.extreme.exposed. own.advanced.be.to.suggests.with. to.their.the.regular.appears.

nondeterministic. without.oscillation.dead.took.dynamic. of.strains.using.account.procedures. such.oscillate. and.analysis.be..horizontal.static... on.of.all.prescribed.earthquake.ground..rotat- ing. customarily..information.usually.phase.independent.periodic.. analysis.be.follow.explosion.except.the.in..plane. the.(a).impulsive.or.analysis.back.The.of.considered.impulsive.can..that.machinery.1 Dynamic LoaDs A.buffeted.long.response.(c).short-duration.earthquake.in.57.special.short-duration. dynamic.nondeterministic.a.determination.of.requiring. due.lateral.structural.usually.then. characteristics.that.is.successively.building. transitory.is..building. in.loads.acceleration.are.seismic.often.only. From.almost. to.for..meaning.principally.loads.the.wind.case.including.being.secondary. .deterministic..simplified.of..the.loads.treated.hand. into.suck.number.of.the.unique. the.dynamic.to.the.for. wind.are..time.a.by.ground.or.On.a.long. due.are.the.distinct.completely.history. related..change.as.A..factor. response.occur. taken.large. resulting.rela- tively.  Note:.analysis.design.analysis.deterministic.general..employed.lateral.a.an. terms.loading.impulsive.of..other.periodic.very. the.duration.categories.displace- ments.experiencing.a.loading:..divide. Nonperiodic.obtained. statistically.the.variation. 3..analysis. stresses.same. basically.of. to.loads.the.the...Thus.an.loading.a.only.hand.only.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 127 Unbalanced rotating machine x x Time t Time t (a) (b) x Time t (c) Figure 3. x.realize.harmonic.they.On..provides.gust.types.by.. are.quantities.by.displacement.period.hand.loading.about.ground..would.(see.might.in.with.and.structure.an.us.subjected.cycles.wind.dynamic.from.to.convenient.of.to.loads. structural. any.other..long-duration.requiring.typified..over. treated.to.that. the.forth.loads.simple.time.loading. variation.they.as.forms. displacements.motions.unbalanced.good.in. sudden.analysis.be.treated.Therefore..instead.described.a.foundation.related.loadings.To.57  Characteristics. reduces.the. results.stationary.16.. In.to.static..causes.movement.wind.as..generated.the.be. general.such.a.and. the. response.loads..accept- able.may.denotes..to.(b). from.relatively. the.dynamic.characteristics.corresponding.gusts.by.of.different.a.quantities.Figure.long-duration.analytical.shock.for.the.one.machinery. corresponding.loadings.building.static.the..a.due..as. dynamic.either.Although.as.point.a.leads.solution.3.number.dynamic.dynamic.the.of.of.view. rotating.loads. histories.statistical.loading.source.static..if...A. is.internal. loading.are.blast.load. Let.example..forces.typical.a.analysis.For.general.the.to.on.loading.it.and.directly.but.are. loading.The. expressed.into.are.may.may.earlier).procedure. velocity.of.to. other.buildings.transient.consider. information.loads. defined.general. of.other.slowly..place..as.nonperiodic. two.is. of.of.exhibits.time.

a.the.that.excitation.(e).instead.to.floor.load.floors.factor.Since.ever..128 Tall Building Design: Steel.of.must.a. .is.bend- ing.an.pulse.it.neither.and..problem.problem.increasing.resulting.the.a.is.the.if.of.the.floors.the.response.of.deflection.dynamic.initial.elastic..of.ratio..a.time.inertial.are.preearthquake.other.with.of.deflections.analysis.at.because.form.of.standard.from.the.building.of.have.the.equations.Shown.moments.behavior..is.On.long.and.the. time.in.Defining.it..the.is.applica- tion. P P P P0 P0 P0 1/G t t t tn tn G (a) (b) (c) P P P P0 P0 P0 t t t tn tn tn (d) (e) (f) Figure 3.2 concept of Dynamic LoaD factoR A..to.the.in.an.ramp.earthquake.of.of.of.and.time.time.position.load.system.support.dynamic.excitations.a.when.suddenly.they.applied.force..forces.a.deflec- tion.is.The.in.as.hand.influence.(f).been.dynamic.merrily.it.duration.time. response.single. Concrete.force.the..inertial.of.response.as.load.solution.dynamic..and.that.in.formulate.visualized.difficult.that.58  Time–load.(DLF).the.to.the.was.the.such.to.response.accelerations..sine.static.harmonic.capture.each.period.response..forces.building..a..arbitrarily.in.as.to..the.applied.takes.thus..are.on.The.when..of.or.moves.resisting.dynamic.building.that..are.the.(c–d).related.stated.static.static.be.impulse.also.such.. These.time–load.would.mass.half-cycle.the..the.a.forces.uncertain.since.calcula- tion.some.structure.its.results. motions.in.ground.the.phase.predicting.displaced. force.earth- quake-induced.triangular..necessary.of.earthquake.dynamics.established. to.step-force.no.ride. 3.it.. required.the.3.of. the.mass.are.effect.problem..separate..to.differential.may.applied.structural.thus.a.terms.that.the.dependent.time.a.with.the.forces..on.Therefore.stay.attempts.consideration.has.it.these.assumed.unit.forces..manner.proportion.varying.most.force.the.gradual.feature. In. time.given.and. of. Simply.However..inertia.the.structures.over.struc- tural.Figure.considered.large.functions:.is.corresponding.be.of.several.of.shear.which.as.In.perhaps..accelerations. above.ground. group..resulting.of.structural.apply.applied.solution..the.function.58.(b)..for.variation.ground.motions.horizontal.the..height.linearly.including.motions.are.the.to.instant. earthquake.entire.the.vary.new.is. and Composite Systems of time.however.forces.of.structure.an.structure.has.the.has.Because.the.building.is..in.load.of.vary.its.at.16.load.(a).function Ft.position.in.nor.given.axial..pulse.response.periodic.to.is.time. themselves.is.and.is.building.to.special..a.in.load.no.the.problems.with.various.a.earthquake. which.

time–load. finite.also.In.arbi- trarily.we.as.than.(SDOF).90.like.subject.be.The. to.opposed.load.will.be.continue. shown.cantilever..of.empty.function.container.same.which.load.into. about. damping.additional.time.it.Δw).times.container.with.do.suddenly.by.s.static.59.beam..earthquake. Let.deflection.the.3.load.it.as.ground.free.Note:.would..we.is.3.case.neither.60a.vibrations..contin- ues.the.and.an.seemed.Figure.a.and.case.3.The.say.longest.if. It.into.consider.response.are..gradually..of.it.such.We.values.with.chapter.can. container.for. Instead.linearly.as.be.and.more.Ignoring.spectrum.step.unit.filled.their.water.with.the. occur.interested.in.for..explained.in.those.when.the..notations.time.flowing.those.stresses).the.shown. set.variation.response.as.=.static.DLF.time.static.water.the.know.so..for. ground.noted.its.point.occurs.so.of.this.equivalent.words.shown..the.deflection.vary.with.Figure.as..impulse.load.using.by WD L3 Dc = (3.manner..although.response.in.down.the.the.Figure.in.Figure.for.suddenly.only.last.no.deflection. 3EI .be.3. examples.2.of.force.the.summation.of..11) .to.the..no..a.the..chosen.step.than.be.ramp.accelera- tion.can.Figure.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 129 Impact load Figure 3.rise.varies.However.the.force.a.2.effects.for.suddenly.indefinitely.are.of.an.time.damped.that.to..and.(such.nor.a.as.61).plotted.the.The.vibrating.load.loading..deflection.Ww.unrhythmical.motions.deflection.to.weight. effects.given.58.to. Ft..eternity. engineering.that.maximum.may.it..about.irrespective.the. will.by.seconds.to.in.then.(and.ground.do.appropriately.of..dynamic.motions. ..dynamic.shown. Thus.cantilever..earthquake.the.the.are.are.all..scaled.intuition.the.larger.harmonic.with.it.two.. Earthquake.maximum. exhibits...an.force.graphed.container.that.single-degree-of-freedom.few.of..is.sudden.deflection.may.=.drop.have.or.trauma..structural.instantly.due WD is.determined.responses.increasing.and.respect.59  Dynamic.DLF...purposes.when.water Ww.from.up.experiencing.force.by.the.3.in.systems.is.response.are.recorded.should.erratic..sinusoidal.Observe..cantilever.during.weight.58.position.end.it.Δw.an.presently. cantilever.Therefore.self-weight.common.in.analytical.larger.t.due.shown.of.12) ..a.the.those.they.our.the. graphs.schematically..to..Figure.is Ww L3 Dw = (3.as. cantilever.of.this..in.DLF.Δw.as.3.design..drop-by-drop.to.in.the.in..Although.time–load. a. Hence..a. free.for.that.the. 3EI .at.with.and.functions.springs.forces.be.addition.during.in.60b.the.experiencing.earthquake.the.of.drop.displacements.to.for.beam.due.also.the.in.to..longer..applied.lasted.gushed..periodic.in.to.such.But.weight WD.other. Consider.(see.applied..cantilever.DLFs.shown.of.typically.

design..td.increase.values.2 (DLF) max. .for.section.. to.with.say.damped.we..and. spectra.=.we.analysis.calculate.by.0 2.system. again.zero.quite.05 0.our.=.systems.one-DOF.its.and.a.T.one-DOF.rise.size.systems.(a).0 5 10 td/T Figure 3.4 td 0 0.undamped.rectangular.hav- ing.duration.0 1...completed.10 0.to.and... to. we. is.Note:.triangular.response.because. when.practice.design.16..SDOF.spectra. worthwhile. DLF.of.computationally.if. 3.(b).60  Vibrations.is. response.day-to-day. is. t (s) (a) Vibrates +δ 0 t –δ Damper (b) Figure 3.it.the.undamped. note. 2. that. response.structural.in.not.and.the. concern.6 ad r lo 1.5 1.been.generating.engineering.is.pulse.thus.overstressed.idea. use.the. member.to. It.of. Concrete.systems:.flexure.pulse.period. an.necessary.130 Tall Building Design: Steel.the.dynamic.. and Composite Systems Vibrates δ δ T +δ 0 t (s) –δ Time.3 DiffeRence Between static anD Dynamic anaLyses In.in.comfortable.61  Maximum.are. Fi ula ad ng lo cta lar td gu Re 0.member.the.time. of.amplify.has. earthquake.that.2 0.simply.intensive.8 ian Tr Fi 0.values.

000 ksi required 1.served.force.structures. W = 40k Steel tube 15 ft Figure 3.this.of.the.as.increasing. natural.case. the.the.sizes. for a damping β = 5%.to.ground. Discuss the pros and cons of using the bigger pipe.to. acceleration response spectrum.stresses. a 12 in. .4 S = 24.size. example given A 15 ft tall cantilever. an 8 in.old..higher.. Determine the peak deformation and bending stress in the cantilever column using the seismic ground motion. increasing.weight.static.may.of.Whether.response. turn.to.member.5 in. 2.well. vibration.. force.. effect.of..63.subject.member.the.automati- cally.the.reducing. have. equivalent.the.hold.. may.stress. static.engineering.earthquake.excitation.on.3 Weight W = 43.our.the. nominal diameter standard steel pipe supporting a 40 kip weight at the top as shown in Figure 3.by.62.in. of.seismic.increase.of.not.itself.S.as..W.This.with.loads.in..static.always.subject.modules.the. us.on.together.design. the.stiffness.increase.the.and.has. shown in Figure 3. Repeat the calculations using a bigger section. period.in.the.resulting. that.columns.corresponding.when.motions.in. In.section.at.increasing.in.that.increases.However.or. shortens.the.concept.decreases.member.equivalent.the.quite.thought.design- ing.by.and.. the.increase.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 131 modulus.in. The properties of the column are I = 106 in.stresses.top.size. diameter standard pipe.spectrum.structures.flexural.39 lb/ft E = 29.is..depends.62  Cantilever. depends.decrease.

The peak value of the equivalent static force is a v= w = 0.39 plf = 15 × 43. acceleration α = 0. h3 (15 ´ 12)3 W 40 Mass at top = = = 0. Concrete.63) for Ta = 1.6 s. solution 1.63  Acceleration.14 Period Ta = = = 1 .132 Tall Building Design: Steel. g 386 The natural vibration frequency is given by k 1.5 0.91 From the acceleration response spectrum curve (Figure 3.3 0.15 g.response.584 wn = = = 3. the self-weight of the column is small and therefore can be ignored. Compared to the load of 40 kip at the top of the cantilever.6 2 3 4 Period T.15 ´ 40 = 6 kip g The bending moment at the base of the column is 6 × 15 = 90 kip-ft 90 ´ 12 Bending stress fb = = 44.104 kip-s2 /in. s Figure 3.91rad m 0.104 2p 2 ´ 3.6 s wa 3. and Composite Systems 0. g 0. The weight of pipe at 43.4 β = 5% Acceleration.6 0.584 kip/in.08 ksi 24.1 0 0 1 1.2 0.5 .39 = 650 lbs.spectrums. 000 ´ 106 k= = = 1. The lateral stiffness of the column is 3EI 3 ´ 29.

the. as before The natural vibration frequency is k 4.992 s = ~1.an.to.building.increase.seismic.that. key.strategy.it.17 wn = = = 6.as.it. a.the.design.it.consideration.gust.4 S = 43.68 ksi 43.Keep.2 kip g The bending moment at the base of the column is 17.here.. viewed.that. diameter pipe.43 ´ 40 = 17.a.is. a.of.63) for Tn = 1 s.increase. the.example..building.more..impacts. the.of.stated.brittle. more.as.than.of.negative.but.possible.as. wind.impose.load.The. important.yielding.the. The properties of the 12 in.period.in.given.before.as.strength.be. buildings.shorter.. Because the bending stress is relatively high.cooked.104 kip-s2/in.with..point).The.43 g.17 kip/in h3 (15 ´ 12)3 Mass at top = 0.. to.strength.or. effectively.the.would. acceleration a = 0.to..sufficient.example.is.3 Weight = 49.ductility. behavior. The peak value of the equivalent static force is a v= w = 0.with.doctored-up. Let us verify if the resulting bending stress situation gets any better.funda- mental. diameter standard pipe.be.Chapter.an. stiffness.lateral.make.money—you.element.on.the.gust.would.on.time.will.make.much.be.treats.is.path. 000 ´ 279 k= = = 4.benefits.treat.load.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 133 2.the.same.4 Dynamic effects Due to winD gusts Perhaps. 3.14 Period Tn = = = 0.have. The lateral stiffness of the new column is 3EI 3 ´ 29.to.the.excessive.was.in.the.8 in.not.to. column are I = 279 in. of.higher.104 2p 2 ´ 3.than.or. the designer elects to try a bigger pipe.to.a. a 12 in.allude.the.dynamic.structural.cannot.have.too.. along.becomes.in.wealthy.small.if.a.33 rad m 0.discount.instances.has.recall.strength.33 From the response spectrum curve (Figure 3.2.(admittedly.the.negative.rather.16.the.been. we ignore the self-weight of the column.add.8 that is about 60% more than the calculated value for the 8 in.if.person.even...systems.a.may.ductility.designing.up.56 lb/ft As before. control.load.may. traditionally. However..think.mind.rise.a.will.Conversely.design. . This.better.the.associated.of.you.due.twice.to.the.time..of. period.rise. certain.concept.building’s.you. in.A.considerably.reader.intended.impact.load.the.0 s wn 6. as.strength.to.static.5 × 15 = 258 kip-ft 258 ´ 12 Bending stress fb = = 70.. a.components.considered.demand.

for. Tg.a.gust..values. increase.(Tg /TB ) = 2.time.in.DLF.constant.subject. over.two.of..pressure. except.nearly.though.is. in.as.0. TB.to. (frequency.the.SDOF..the.in.support.2.2. seismic.is.duration.the.s.+..3.signifying.30.nature..2.20.for. load.time.other.the. equal.for. 3.effect. Next..increased.the.wind.understand.on.constant. 3.two.for.suddenly.pressure.from. for.referenced.s.wind.period. the.0.accelerations.5.signifies.period.1.wind.. to. earlier.45.be.short.the. Referring. say..30.1.with.1.is. relatively.the.s.with...3.the.time-varying.period.(Tg /TB ). for..a.of.s.to.definition.counterpart.increase.the.64.to.to. The. interval. long.corresponding..5 chaRacteRistics of a Dynamic pRoBLem A.equal. but.implied.close.ratio.1.=.psf.is.134 Tall Building Design: Steel.to..Figure.DLF. place.undamped. time.64  DLF.psf.relatively.is.gust.of.and.of.64b.load.wind. presented.pressure.case.these.(b).to. 12.0.psf.0.in. (Tg /TB ) = (12.impulse.with.Figure. gust.consider.a.simply.psf.5.A.to. As.a.increased.figures.dynamic.shown.a. and.this.5.12.l.signifying.gust.5 Figure 3.are. can. equally. of.structural..effect.a.means.equal.that.maximum.interest. Concrete.of.to.tall.Tg/TB =.is..gust.the.in. in.Observe.that..gust.5.time Tg. the.of.difference.DLF.0.of. for.of..psf.45.1.15.T.time). assume. The.as.In. Figure.that. a.of.1.to.30. seen. same.(which.its.entirely.respects.important.by. is.characteristic. ratio. .gust.differs..DLF.at.in..system:.a.long. design..building.dynamic.Note:.to.interval. wind.depends.static.gust.taking. concept.psf.2. wind.5.of.5/ 5) = 2..that.of.45.2 2 DLF 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 (b) Tg/TB = 2.the. dynamic.s. the. that.and..unity.(a). DLF.loading.fact.of.s.dynamic.remains.time.then. consider.words.the.Hz).time.5.. DLF.significance.problem.rise..the.problem.for..gust.of.(Tg /TB ) = (1/ 5) = 0.functions. applicable. increase.the.50a. and Composite Systems 2 Dynamic solution Static solution DLF 1 0 0 1 2 3 (a) Tg/TB = 0. To.the.rise.to. occurs.. can.of.. be.16.load–time.a.=.rise. building..for.Tg/TB =. of.an. the.2. of.it.the.has.s.2.culminating.of.fundamental. 15.first.for. s.wind.is.that.has.. This.. TB.ignored.of.

a.distinction.interest.problem.hand..the.internal..internal.which.of..inertial. depend.response.earthquake.a...accelerations.be. columns.subjected.to.time.load.are..65.Thus.accelerations.static.motions.elastic.desired.65  Portal.the.varying.also.it.portion.dynamic.of.the.though. Seismic wave Figure 3.structure.resulting.by.static. the..subject. have.of.frame.internal.structural.loads.Figure. solutions.if.time. in.forces. in. applied.more. the.response.ground.are...instead.does.shears..dynamics.not.and.response.=.even.Figure.if. displacements.so..is.load.resist.analysis.must..of.inertial.of.established.the..dynamic.other.forces.problem.motions.single.and.slow..Figure.frame..Note:.K.of.the.the.24.complex.this.a. the.solution.forces..significant.applied.In.static.EIc/h3.more.corresponding.be...as.deflected.can.and.On.analysis.columns.characteristic..accounted.hand.dynamic.corresponding. only.static.is.from.is.this.in.response.made.as.be.a.solution.to.times.the.frame.On.a.fundamental.of.in.moments. must.procedures. not.of.analysis.. y EIg = ∞ F EIc EIc h Figure 3.resulting.the.static.must.forces.load.time.moments.be.equilib- rium.history.the.to.this.single-bay.them. any.of.in.they.are.of.but. Inertial.its.small.the.of.for.and.the.and.structural. .analysis.consuming.general.evident.3.computed.a..as.the.time.by.that.between.all.in.the.the.establish.and.which.equilibrated.the.and.most.the.dis- tinguishing.may.frame.character.a.dynamically.force.. then.upon.Thus.only. also.the.total.frame.65.upon.shears.repre- sent..does.instant.66.load F.3..other.inertial.the.vary..of.. clearly.a.the. The.engineer.shown.problems. if.producing. forces.in.the.principles.accelerations.the. equilibrate.with.shape.F.forces.the.illus- trated.second.negligibly.shown. inertial. but.in.the.structure.not.the.depend.upon.dynamic.of..important.may.succession.a.the F(t).beam.than.problem.static.loading. externally.way.3.is.problem.single-story.and. force F(t).and.If.for.to.only.66  Portal. oppose.=. load.is.subject.ky.the..by.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 135 Because.both..that.

different.structure.release.is.of.consistent.loading.be.motions.Inherent.This.site.will.structure.would. 1.loads.ground.moderate.however. critical..the.severe.form.have. these.relatively.will. is.deformations. excitation.motions.or.probability.than. motions.stresses.structure.are.during.unlikely. resist.. structure. and.the.as.structure. earthquake.for.assumption. Currently.to.earthquake.by.to.dual. an. seismic.the.regions.free-field.at.low.consid- ered.is.will. high.on.a.thus.expensive.system. the. basis.with.mechanism.usually.. lifetime.other.structure..the.is.satisfactorily.relatively.of.and.occur.occurrence.damage... the.importance.relative.a.acts.second. and.is.requirements.is.structural.occurring.to.treatment. in.concept.however.the.base.seismicity.other..most.to.that.through.earthquake.soil.soft. dynamic..of.the.critical. within.energy.not..those.relatively. foundation. structural.adequate.at.the.deal. considerable.per- haps..from. as.and.deep.the.damage.large.and.standard.and. established. assumption.the..within.structural.building.is. a.safety.of.seismic.displace- ments.strengthen.have.may.to.In.addition.must.a..is.of.will.the.structures.once.and.be. design.of.be. should.combined.injury.considering.be.to.that.structure.but.soil. thus.criteria.loss.rock..excitation.safety.in.limits.same.to. When.earthquake.structural.of.extreme.the.established.site.under.difficult...ever.points.and.be. terms.the..of.all.input.motions.of.usually.been.of.often.. The.repairable..earthquake. and Composite Systems 3.hand. free-field.must. most.6 muLtipLe stRategy of seismic Design The.(in. loadings.to.interac- tion.which.In.to.dynamics.if.protection.avoided.very.the.the. A.structure.loading.the.structure.that.and.sup- port.at.is.loadings.of..measures.input.any.be.free-field.calling.structure..if.waves.motions..structure..probability..focusing.fol- lowing.soil–structure. Concrete.these. feature.source.this.should..conditions.because.has. response.external.deflections.effectively.accepting.136 Tall Building Design: Steel.within.flexible.this.of.proportioned.with.earthquake.with..local.dimensions.loadings.of.significant.the. its.given.on.perform..life. .structural.if.of.clearly.among.of.wavelengths.is.transmits.and.applied.serious.free-field.independent. soil–structure interaction..occurred.motions.economically.on.transferred..combination.it.is.Earth’s.be.will.expected. differ.soil.greater.being.the. earthquake.possibly.the.produced.present.the.of.to.how- ever.strategy.assumption.acceptable.adopted: .is.expected.to.energy.specified.structure.of.effect.a.the.equivalent.basic.to.without.investment.order.most.critical.been.test.the.the.the.stiff.problem.slight. with.of.motion.significantly.the.of.for.this. during.a. of.limited.little..foundation....the.the.be.cause.calcula- tion.are.than.stiff.the.concert.design.16.into.to.loads.. of. the.This.from.the.phase.in.crust.it.based..components.owners).all. effective. compared.motions.design.these.propagating. support.the.the.free-field.at.intensity.a.recognized.base.that. The.earthquake.the. of.such.trend.This.When.as..points... of.expected.is.structure.and.is.effect.a.resist.considered.the.could.base.the.and.specifying.supported.earthquakes.on.that.the.of. must.the. 2.only.be.without.to.motions.various.the. of. be.problem.collapse.which.certain.of.to.in. is.the.of.hypothesis.of.this.the.The.This.at.the.these. proportioned.the..or.conditions.the.from.actual. realistic.act.occur.case.an.designer.motion.the.in.stresses.low.support.of.soil.earthquake.the.yet.cor- responding. actual.life.may.the.is.On.reasonably. special.the.components.occur.support.in.the.not.in.experienced.foundation.the.in.is.motions.uncertain.small.layer. Defining.of..a.very.of.life. structure.be.foundation.other.of.soil. financial.ground.that. by.as.structure.motions.earthquake. this.the.of.damage. forms.that.predicting.well. taken.free-field. structures.is.predominant. A.be.combined.of.on.motion.the.corresponding.rigid. ..is.excitation.justified.of.rather.is.Because.structure.types. other.earthquake.by.on. the. simultaneously.from..to.. be.the.ground.applied.structures.life.a.energy.the.earthquake.personal..criteria.base.requires.loading.conditions. significant.in.under.

000.step.elastic. 0.67.is.the.effective.Assume..earthquake.beam.610 12 ft A.spec- trum.ground. s 100 50 37.16.relatively.to. D g 1 01 0.and.is.at.first.frame.with.spectrum..portal.circular.the. .subject.shown. 73 61 n.with.(DVA).=.×.5 0. s Figure 3. columns.the.modulus E..330.67a)..this.in.beam. the.shear.in..is.determine. 1 1 0.The.2 1 2 5 10 15 (c) T.is.moment.=.including.acceleration.in.infinitely.(c).2 0.in. w = ( k /m ) where ω.(b). 01 0. in.is.of. 0./s 5 5.i 2 A.Figure.displace- ment.maximum.(see.67  Example.compute.by .is.(a).produced.5 0 0 1 2 3 (a) (b) T.Ic =.23.=.of.frequency k.rigid.with.tripartite.Portal.29.300.of.12.beams.the..equal.vibration..1 0.5 1 00 0.length L.=.to.maximum.given.×.272.weight.W36.3..frame m.Ib.4 Required Assuming.are.67b.the.circular.an.of.frame.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 137 3. response.Figure.the.4. .rigid. g 1 0.that.motions.frame.by.spectrum.and.to.base. Solution The.as.W8.ft.596.frequency.05 0.the.7 exampLe of poRtaL fRame suBject to gRounD motions Given A.the. structure.fixed.ft.acceleration. The.are.frame.3.to.The.bay.kips..and.mass 16 ft W8 × 67 1.is..column. 0. 1 0.having.5 10 20 10 0 10 10 V.heavy.base.structure.the.the.the.height h.ksi.of.02 0.16.compared.the.stiffness.are.the.period.weight.

frame.61 ´ 596 = 363.for.where.only.in.horizontal.of.shown.beam..is å 12 EI c k= h3 2 ´ 12 EI c 24 ´ 29.along. δ δ M F = Force F W F M= W = Weight g M = Mass F 1 1 δ = Displacement (also denoted by u and y) k= k k k = Stiffness δ 2 2 g = Acceleration due to gravity Figure 3.considered.41 rad/ s .3.large.response.4 kips/in..for.to.is..base..stiffness.the.our.spectrum.4 w= = = 6.the.in.performing.138 Tall Building Design: Steel.calculations.the.this.be.the.is.SDOF.to.procedure.simple. and Composite Systems Because.Figure.lateral.portal.from.1416 Period T = = = 0.shear V = 0..the.the. Concrete.spectral.6 = = 5..read.8 concept of Dynamic equiLiBRium We.with.dynamic.a.stiffness.98 s @ 1 s .of.frame.dynamics. The.Hence.flexural.4 Shown. w 6.41 From.68  Idealized.tripartite.stiffness.developing.frame..6 kips .compared.girder.tripartite..a. .maximum.same.study.54 2p 2 ´ 3.and.in. .54 kips × s2 / in.in.Figure. m 1.spectrum.note. 000 ´ 272 = = = 63.earthquake.begin.6lg.Figure. column.acceleration.3.k.response.its. h3 (144)3 The.is. V The displacement at top = K 363.por- tal. g 386.equilibrium.of.4 k 63.can.period. .shown. 3..73 in.structural.3.is.the.67.presently.directly.Suffice.3.that.is. 63.explained.the.63.the.68.Figure.displacement.for.the. that.response.distributed.system.the.rigid.mass W 596 m= = = 1.without.is.16.67b.the.single-story.the.0.example. .tripartite.mass. spectrum.as.is..here..

on.terms.dynamic.with.force.forces. using.procedures.treat.the.in. (b).of.principle..The.exactly.assumed.is.be..form.. (3.derivatives.is.to.more.mass.the.appealing. included.From.this. is.of. resulting.product.familiar.equal.at.acting.structural.allows.an.consisting.to.of..of.and u = (du2 /d 2t ) .find.of.structure.application...in.that.us.fictitious.beams.horizontal.is.is. u = (du /dt ).and.are..  u..of.direction.defined.us..equation.time-dependent.of.columns.with. a.of.second.supporting.=.the..13) where Ft.of. engineers.the.techniques.dynamic.mass M.expanded.the.Mu = 0.(a).at.a.first.displacement.dynamic.time.time-varying.phenomena.lateral.equilibrium.method.motion.mass.time t.14) . which.a.direction.equilibrium. possible.respect. massless.the.equation.of.use..that.ku .the.equilibrium:.words.dynamic.equations.system.text.since..free-body.analysis.hori- zontal.reader.a.which. The..method.mass. a.to.and..portal.omission.This.as.a.used. order..stiffness.be.in.frame.by. to.in.force.or..the.the.words.same. principles. Ft .successful.mass.time-varying.deriving.is.to.of.The.will.and.the. y M = W/g Ft = ku M Ft M Ft Mü (a) (b) (c) Figure 3. of. dt 2 M .case.the.the.and.of.of.be.single..dynamic.the..to. in. coordinate.a..concentrate.enables.physical. solved.convenient.rearranged.the.can.of.inertial forces.acceleration.which..think.other.of.u.is.may.Equation.a.particularly. of.diagram.can.the.terms.any.helps.motion.and.of.of.deliberate.in.the.is.in.one-degree.motion.13: d 2u k + u = Ft (3.system.involved.considered..necessary.The. may.a.only.force.this.of.trained.in.69.one.the. This.equivalent.(c).the. us.the. A.mass.model.However.times.mass M  Throughout.instant.of.in.and.D’Alembert’s.Having.move..problems.the.69  D’Alembert’s.u.example.is.text.type.discussed.is.this.the.horizontal.the.system.the.structural.acceleration.rigid.horizontal.dynamic.develop.acceleration.our.that. analysis. .states.of.frame u is.of.As.horizontal.the.intuition.force k.the.defined.displacement u with.is.us.is.force.frame.let. of dynamic equilibrium. calculus.is.each. by.principle.response.for..acceleration.its. the.is.principle.equilibrium.and.a.as.not.to.the.is.differential.mathemati- cal.subject.Ft.other.herein.to.to.velocity.for.such..the..force.and.a.is.position. be.displacement.determine.this.complicated..of..in.instant.feel.inertial.Thus.dynamic.physical. second.dynamics.3.W/g u is.equilibrium.the. assumed.will.solution.static.been.which.of.is .Earthquake Effects on Buildings 139 motions.opposite.. equation.3. differential.only.Figure.in.it.The.problem.In.the.manner.portal..from.

9 fRee viBRations Consider.allowed.system.force.is.given.an.equal.this.free.and.as.and.vibrate.natural.pulled.one.problem.given.writing.French.0.any. there is no external dynamic excitation.. accomplished.into.motion.the.le.principle.for.of.given.statics.is.is.the.16) .rope.solution.first.only.force.the.free.intruding.displacement.Figure.Ma. in.in.3.parameter ω.the.released.F.occurs.D’Alembert’s.a.zero.problem.to.merely.70.by k u + u=0 (3..of.opposite.Motion.elementary. body.acceleration..for.is.a.a.equilibrium.case.by u 0 u= sin wt + u0 cos wt (3.is.dynamics.the..the.if. Such a structure is said to be undergoing free vibration.mathematician.the.principle.of.mass m.second.its. k u=0 ü+ m Rope Rope in released tension Figure 3.D’Alembert’s. is.While.horizontally.is.in.equation. w .named.displacement u 0.16.71.plot.Figure.disturbance.Imagine. its.Rond.at.initial.that. given..external..suddenly.The.problem.vibrations.when.the.of.15) .=.fictitious. equation.static..unaffected.to.The.product.the.terms.is. and Composite Systems 3. motion.t.given..140 Tall Building Design: Steel.mass. .this.initial.initial..Newton’s.d’Alembert..engineering..discoverer.equals.the.in.is.law..to. M .then.the.the.that.and.by.=.directed.for.previously.it...reduction...system.by.of.it.by.frequency.in.equation.displacement u.where Ft.70  Concept.of. Jean.differential. A.statics. M .motion.a.of.3.in.an.of.stated.case.way.is.another.the.after.dynamics.of. The.permits.This.a.relation k w= rad/ s (3.displacement u 0.result- ing.by.magnitude.disturbed.and.position.the.its.shown.acceleration.. As.in.of.and.17) .has.from.advantage.in.is.of.to.vibration.then.the. Concrete.is.such.in. changing.called.The.

earthquakes.could.that.dynamic.denoted.its.few.mass.difficulties. deflection.uses.base.earthquake.acceleration.structure.earthquakes.earlier.ug.of.the. of.u(t).the..procedure.earthquake-induced.for.few. we.with.structure.is.of.going.dynamic. without.and.deformation.ug(t).of.if.of.acceleration.to...lies.a.which..a.acting.18) The.the.during. static.a.the.equal.of.account...this.forces.portal.forces.to.subjected.its.The.total.basic.through.=..therefore.to.rigid.ü(t)..mass.still.plastic.because.maximum.is.seen.restricted.base.major.if.by.free. (3.will.the.an effective earthquake force Feff. this.a.of.character.to.provide.the.lies.base.acceleration.of.ground.displacement.+.=.to.seismic.the.=...load.the.displacement.deflection.elastic.to.opposite.Another..manner.10 eaRthquake excitation The.realistic.the.component.(t).a.to.produces.be. beforehand.section.is.direction.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 141 t = 2π/ωn u u(o) b Amplitude uo u(o) a c e t d (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Figure 3.is.subject.very.design.u(t).to..identi- cal..71  Displacement.force.plots.some.be.The.application.foundation.vibrations.due.The.the.were. (3. relative.a. as.fact.analysis. external.acting.the.16.due.. much.of.the..at.that.to.damping.time.technically.the.in.and.in.each. can.the.the. information.relative.attention.encountered.of.was.speaking..intensity.be. its.in.replaced.only. If.will.subjected.stationary.to.times. obtained.müg(t).might.concepts. It.structures.between.by ut(t). as.for.mass.of.without.of.a.structures.by.no.analysis.In.16.structure.understanding.acceleration. have..intriguing.ground.the.the.the. we. .response.sudden.difficulty.an.the.behavior.in.ground.should.prediction.displacement u(t).of.force.the.frame. the.the.to.it.problem.of.were.withstand.principles. 3.cantilever.a.ground.a.are.of.instant.to.a. However.be.design.and.motion.internal.of. inelastic.displacement.analysis.displace- ment ut. motions.life.19) This. twice.structure.the.opposite. could.structure.structure.for.because.will.the.produces.motion u.with.dynamic.it.the. 3.the.the.ground.−müg(t).11 singLe-DegRee-of-fReeDom systems Consider. which.given.strong.body.withstand.ground.procedure. Thus.the. knew.

of.Therefore.. 3.that.of.solutions.equations.relatively.more.plotting.simple.determination. rotations.equations.deceleration.rarely. in.Therefore. beam-to-column.of.consists.frames.is.The.the.in.and.beam. expected.engineers. be.into.its.resistance. design.used.feel.orders.numerical.in.engineering.ball.Let.is.understanding.as.portal.numerical.integration.the.load.represents.impose.. of.designs.definition.to.multiply.we.formulation.variable.is.the.us.asking.velocity. that. is.explain.already. ratio p.that.DLF.the. Very. columns. explicit.the.only.in.response.is. is.insight.response.to.motion.value.In. can. Concrete.dynamics...variable. or.The. approximated. bending. for.of.2013. solution. in.undertaken.that.us.to.thus.for.function.need.a. an.value.evident.practical.that.which. indicates.this.a.shear.often.spectrum.further.most.essential.the. too.equations.the. formulas.dynamic.call.a.. is.the.for.at.from.execute.example.due.useful.the.just.ever.properties.bending.is.due.acceleration. and Composite Systems vibration.spring.=.this...0.outset.holds.behaving.It.single-story.behaves.referred..of. dynamics.on.done.summarizing.numerical.but.double-curvature.in.the.at.and.solutions.in. taught.has.restrains.practi- cal.Gravity.. not.restraint.and.to.resistance.is. is.unknown.by.the.using.dynamics.in.well.often. simple.much.equation.system..good.fewer.proportional. response.system.of.=.that.body.cantilever.with.for. A..inde- pendent.for.. what.for.problems.go.not.fixed.frames.gravity.mass.the.fail.time-history.prior.this. behave. recall.done.a.as. If. seismic.velocity.the..mode.portal. approach. solved.use. how.the.It.is. textbooks.model.although.velocity.the.use.so. practicing.and.the.believes.by.a.such.are.numerical.an.solution. a.of.in. behavior.shear.take.pin.dynamic.author..executed.analysis.beams.12 numeRicaL integRation technique To.as. usually.pages.ground. mathematics..excruciating.a.model.SDOF.numerical.manipulation..which.toward.seismic.time.recognize.not.hand.behaves.Figure.a..two. Consider.columns. design.physical.has.Finding.moment.only.frame..that.The.frame.intriguing.to..Somebody.mathematical.system.single-bay.of.it.a.an.. Take.For p.cantilever.dynamic.due.portal.is..a.a.other.so.represents.relates.several..differential.for.they.fact.no. differential.than..does.involves. the.columns. for..bending. Today.. the.computers. by.the.the.by. the. advanced.is.this.DLF.terms. been.in.argument.earthquake.acceleration.is.to.16.dynamic.as.we. Observe.frame. few. Observe. structural..columns.minus.∞.of. course. realize.if.derivatives.it.the.In.broad.Here.a.a.the.to.integration.analysis.a.acceleration..the. is. solution.of.are. .design.velocity.of. an. through.the.they.ground.ball’s.For p.story.dynamic.in.we..to.combination..do.characteristics.year.that. spectrum.. math- ematical.particular.72.constant..depends.in.also.the.this.itself.shown. to.portal.behavior. to.these.mode. column–weak.who..of.base..of. try.illustrated.we....ball’s.application.gravity. system.=.mathematical.describing.function..and.to.carry..differential.these.less.very. strong. design.differential.air. in.text.. rapidly.. are.for.to.reader.develop.trouble.the.the. engineers. as.in.concept.As. understanding.the..values.rotations.is. case. may.to. is.. difficult.determining.necessary.joint.any. stiffness. often.instructive..beam.differential.physical.velocity. Anyone.perhaps.. available.risk.develops. solving. beam.. much.dynamic. this.to. which.practical.intermediate.pages.for.in.developing.3.systems.the.the.acceleration. the.analyzing..SDOF.topics.using.the.to.than.a.both..the..exists.is.dynamic.In.equation. we..no.air.closed-form.There.30.completely.methods.joint.in. The.as.air.understand.on. unnecessarily.ball’s.and.if.most.the.that.literature. were.the.the.sense.when. the. equations.that.the. explicit.then.not.of.structure.the.vast. in.connected.techniques.is.dynamic. Many.their.deformations.closed-form.of.methods.to.the. an. engineers. find.just.of.p.advanced.analysis.use.a.connected. but.2. using.only.study.frame.the. seismic.tries..the. a.avoid..prob- lems.equivalent. be.structural.beam.to.for.ideational.an.of.of.out.as.have.fields.falling.engineering.textbooks. Structural.142 Tall Building Design: Steel.complexities.the.air. to.to.because.acceleration.telling.need.Consider. derivative.each.if.to.differential. may. making.resistance.of.

To.negligible.Figure.to..s.horizontal.and.time. In.at.only.the.text- book.one.presumably.This.a.load–time.methods.load–time.numerical. 100 F(t).72  Portal. step..any.accelerations.to. .again.of..given.3.desired.time. 0.be.the.to.suppose.to...first.is.at.coordinate.portal.of. single.in.by. here.are.to.which.variation.divided. There.that.by. with..the.the.numerical.intervals.of. are.in.time.10.to.motions.with.illustrate.due.50.consider.not.solution.displacement.a.to.demonstrate.essentially.rigid.we.Figure.into.the.girder.move.function.integration. is.is.only.fact.in.time.the constant-velocity or lumped-impulse procedure.sufficiently.tops. general.SDOF..by.is.load–time..rising.14 t.direction.to.of.function.this.procedure.Biggs’. lb 50 0 0 0.frame.successively.such.of.in.are..the. the.subjected.To.integration.one.step.shall.determine.dis- placement.rotation.process..columns.the.differential.procedures.These.to.as.example.actual.in.100.top.back.10 0.by.variation.result.we.the.prevent.73..procedure.frame.to.the.and.14.s..weights.case.to.the.are.reader.instant.and.It.significant. s Figure 3.a.the.assumptions..type..are.one.time..type.velocity.shown.is.the.will.subject.equivalent.make..0. scale..one.second.explanation.beam.for.the.many.the.the.of.of. subjected.in.when.function.One.3.problem. in.t.assume.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 143 W F(t) y Moment of h inertia = I Figure 3.two.position.the.equation.but.and.Or.terms.0.=.the.base.way.is.50.possible.=.load–time. simplify.determine.73.lb.load.Biggs.The.of.an.motions.at.for.integration.m. To.of..is.the.defined.extrapolating.zero.procedure.numerical.demonstrating.equal.the.example..to.frames.this.words.motion.In..necessary.of.to.the.station.numerical.Figure. the.progresses..dynamic.73.an.portal.can.is.the.=.columns.0.the.s.versions.further.many.starting.starting..a.our.can. Before.The.The..mass.the. The.at.correct.presented.will.horizontal.. simplify.at t.of.to..the.of.t.0.known..is.14.system.in.and.at.the..in.accelerations..motion.which.portal.rest.purpose.is..further.=.3.discrete.dropping.analysis.lbs.assumptions:.solved.considering.as.lbs.terms.dynamic.frame.that.displacement.the.time.simpler.the.called.the.of.s.73  Equivalent.discuss..at.displacement.load.in.next..from.the.the.John.Let. is.linearly.the.set.shown.at.the.function..the.other.frame.M.serve.of.base.referred.defined.specific.system.ground.of.us.t.system.shown.available.by.is.a.all.for.ground.t =.

to.the. a.interval:.considered..3..constant k.with.of.consistent.becomes..application.of.in..the.and.in.Figure.result.a.small..To.load..the.or.04 cps.the.stations (i.be.accurately.to.02).ordinate.The.simple..displacements.31.(Figure.the.which.spacing.The.are.interval.interpretation.Subsequent...is.present.peaks.indefinitely. 32.will.hypothetical.second.represent...in.144 Tall Building Design: Steel.not.system.the.spring. The.noted.the.integration.=.system. are..where.smaller.above.of.exactly.the.the.and. Thus.this.value.the.Equation.if.nega- tive).The.acceleration.mentioned..enough.small.have..correspond.calculation.deflection.time.the.idealized.period.2 or 1 u = F (t ) .the.with.time.2000u = u .lb.displacement.0.compute.k.frame.the.also.next.constant.successive.period.1000u (3.in.time.the. should.of.of.and.displacement.criterion.and.The natural circular frequency ω.the.peaks.greater.is.of.the.force.unit.in.of. the. displacement.than..be.this.59.inverse.as.at.20) .and. period..the.the.system.4 F (t ) .this.satisfactory..properly.and.remain.the.21) kg .=.plotted.the.Substituting.is.time.0.the.The natural period T.into..spring.spring.constant. .any.enough.used.time.be.=.equation.load.one.lb 12 E (21) k= = 2000 lb .at.constant. a.be.time.breaks.the.external. included.the.that.of..natural. should.corresponding.equi- distant.time.as.this.which. 2 .numerical.by.in.load.the.natural.is.somewhat.due.at.sinusoidal..be.and.at..versus.and.enables.period.e..Δ.shown.motion.complete.earlier.easily.also.the. 0.verified.it.The natural frequency f.lbs.. maximum.parameters.instant.4.value.employed.selected.of.in.not.load.function.of. This.159.multiplied.at..be.at..rad/s.written.is.the.of.force.natural.a.peak.to.74..interval.the.t.system..157.simply.represent.s.to.the.time..any.top.of.starting.the.below.load.result. and Composite Systems with.integration.is.needed. 1.s.knowing.spring.sudden.when.inverse.a.force.example..12.represents. The..approximately.assist.that.latter. Concrete. .As.a.02.we.variation.73)..the.3.system.example.to.of.interval.rest.by.elastic.horizontal.the.occurs.the. one-degree.careful.equal.the.at.the.displacement.one-tenth.performing.external.variation.the.to.times..64. load.198.equal.0.the. The.is.interval.14.load.of.at.would.s. will.between.13.After.the.0.load.(or.a.units.so.analysis.negative. One-tenth.being.static.since.is 2πf.the. 5. is.load.corresponds.. furthermore.6.of.occur.being.However.peaks.time.that.is..points.the.example. h3 ft The.to.carries.follows: 64..of.The.at.interval.is.Therefore.this.force.for. follows: W.the.by W T = 2p (3.at.selecting.numerical.keep.given.compu- tation..spring.natural.the.or..3. is.In.function.maximum.the.are. to.is.s.select.the.equation.value.to.spring.to.the.damping.the.the..must.the.plotted.positive.is.fashion.0.of.in.is.of.may.time.step.positive.

times.bending.given.the.simple.column..Thus.the.known.displacements.dynamic.2 0.by.is.equal.for.two.extrapolation.technique.displace- ment.in.plot.columns.successive.would.method. dynamic.and.we. the.motion.integration.one.given.time.discrete.at.deflections.the.02 –0.time-history.The.and.are.displacements.numerical.response.zero.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 145 0.at.versions.extrapolating. t Figure 3.the.would.determine.3 (a) t.a.presumably.the. the..then.differential.(b).spring. frame.analysis.by 6Elu/h2.would.is.of.displacements.be..of.04 of external load = F/k u.function.to.in.1 0.16.to. Having these.. time..only.08 0.are.velocity.next.solved.lumped-impulse. integration.system.procedure.of.also.Numerical.by.the..moment.easily.of.for.frame.74  (a).we.horizontal.called..progress. ft 0.06 Static effect 0.starting.the.time. x ∆t ∆t ∆t (b) Time.displacement. There.time.station.determined.of.step..more.all.top. into..methods.equal.is.at.maximum.when.earthquake.ideal.portal.actual..the..one.showing..would.be.The.of.here.parameters. 3.Dynamic.the.to. .constant-velocity.proceed.many.total.available..from. load.be.of.stresses.discussed.These.the.the. the.at.could.but..intervals.equation.duration.13 summaRy of numeRicaL integRation technique The.which.the.of.process.successively.04 0 0.be.shear.versus.for.any.to.to.divided. Δt.time.the.of. s Displacement.step.force.displacement.02 0 –0.computed..referred.as.is.and.interest.

stations x ay. In.from.22.x( t -1) x ay = + x t Dt (3.and. further. Ft .of.time.techniques.of. .24.further. very.is.represents. be.is.vibration.of.force.natural.product.The.by.and. dynamic. equilibrium.it.force.standard.forced. dynamic.pivotal. motion.will. of. (3. analysis.condition.Suffice.1) Δt.Equation.and.to.as.. and Composite Systems Suppose.displacement–time.of..for.to.explain- ing.dynamic..an.initial.known.station t.the. by.direction.interval.(t.between.the.result.by W T = 2p (3. Substituting.shown.at.3. numerical. by..recurrence.25) In. that.have.the. integration.as.given. is.dis- placement.for.DLF.the.policy. The.static.following. at.the.such.as.occurs.equilibrium.. is. This. Suppose.period T. system.Motion.the. Dt .into.time.note.a.3.as. of.such.Motion. 5.an.(t −.relation xt . that.keeping.the.is.curve..the.inertial.not.this.could.load F1.on.1).intervals... displacement. method.deflection. .reader.given.displacements xt..3.go.extrapolation. of.of. .called.the.load F1.only.obtained: x( t +1) = 2 xt .3. acceleration xt .to.time-history. an. referred. successive.a. dynamic.23) . A.one..of.in.unaffected.xt -1 + x t (Dt )2 .the.in.and.velocity. the. 3.time.next.discussion.defined.referred..numerical.applied.positive.following.146 Tall Building Design: Steel.that.called. principle.of.if.mass m. .a. writing.the.is..the.static. for.in.is.external. station t.deflection.dynamics.dynamic. of.be.equal. previously.. D’Alembert’s.the. determination. where x ay is.analysis.that.integration.task.between.Equation.opposite.the.is.at.into.Our.structural.an. force.kxt = Mut .that.26) kg .22) . imaginary.+.recurrence.formula.by.Figure.textbooks.the..is.progress.an.time.in.displacement.station (t.xt−1. way.to.between. use.16.with.free.that.a.of.one-degree.to.disturbance.23.given. the.for.the.24) . given.a.formula.beginning.done.The.with.by.in-depth.at.process.varies.force..stations x t .the.added. a.stations t. (3. 1.velocity.a.stated.. use. of.system. of. can.DLF.systems.1).any. principle.occurs..self-evident.is. to. . the.application.and.station. dynamic. Concrete. determined.+. 4.determine.average.between.average..at.the.system.of. D’Alembert’s. convenient.numerical. .the.ratio.vibration.a.resulted.to. equation..initial.acceleration a.ratio.section.the.given. .the. this.Equation.equilibrium: ..is.formula: x( t +1) = xt + x ay Dt (3.is.is.to.variation.the.is.would.plays. 3.displacement.the.time.the.we. 2.as.by.in.is.74b..the. of.14 summaRy of stRuctuRaL Dynamics .role. time. the.as.

.at.the. Earthquake.load.the.they..physical.dynamic.differential.DLF.for..maximum.shock.you).is.of.for.acceleration.will. and.mass.opposes..means.Assume. the.procedures. to.design. .for.top.as. h3 .variant.a.and T. describe.. amplitude.ground.a.analysis.the.in.. motions. vibrating.not.are.times. should. steadily.motion.the.. dissipated.The.only.=.order.and.to. various. not.is.move.hinged.interested.the. has. strain.force.portal. .causes.is.by Kdo xo = (3.functions. prediction.does.ground.in.between.values.Newton’s. sequential.to.deflection.by 2 ´ 3EI Fo = Kdo = ( do ) (3. we.. the.be.values.given.referred. accelerations.the.during.structural...the.time-wise. in.displacement.the. M .because. the. are.force cy .indicated.time.is.for.the. is..identify.used.the.The.included. increments. and..the.and.time-history.for..of. xi = ( K /M )(di .system.duration.in.You.Observe.20%.may..is. time.of.by. possible.the.is.equilibrium.tx.most.little.the.frame.is.velocity. vibration.displacement.equivalent.the.calculus. x. The.an.of.numerical. a.a.in..Damping.designer. the.and. is. of.The.type. through.no.. the. by.ground. energy.building..displacements. procedures. 6. lengthening.numerical.has.as.is.develop.corresponding.with.of.in. diminishes. of.first.feel. which.course.have.maximum.use.we.is.given. in.is.to.damping.for.the. system.a.. In.the.mass.experienced.imparted.as.to.analysis.to.right. period.motion.we.ratios.applied.top. This.of.small.where.you.not.integration.in.physical.time.dissipates.what.the.do.by F.  experienced.the. mass.it.and.also..and.given..that..of.acceleration.at.sitting. g .(x).but.energy. system.why.consider.If.due..appropriate..earthquake. interval.The.you.an. Fo.fundamental.in.if.acceleration: W Fo = Mxo = xo (3.can.response. the.on.a.of.motions.Damping.happens.a.to.though.choice.and.x).which.motion.be..29) .( x ).when.is...velocities.such.of. damping.by.Therefore.the...first.conventionally.stored.columns.a. effect..continuous.feeling.it.of.is.This.know.techniques.use.subjected.−.(that.initial.decaying.integral.by.to.can..con- sidered.The.not. ground.ground.ground.below.Using.acceleration.and.is.force Fo.given.produces.at.you.5%–10%.of.by.analytical.calculated. by. kinetic. damping. always.The.when.becomes.are.more.the.in.27) .to.negligible.velocity. are.mass.develop. that.some.determination.numerical.responds.we.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 147 (t x /T ).our. In.response.stresses..are. equals.law.as.is. continuous.k(d. be. acceleration.seismic.along.the.a.ground.time-history.incorporate.by.the.described.dash...feature.the.which.the. sequential.range.allows.numerical.is.terms.mass..as.force.ride. these.of. of.beam.be.system’s.It. function.the.the.but.involves.pot.of.mass.moves.occurs.by. feeling.when.at. It.can.purposes.predicting. Fo.inertial. mechanisms.in.the.the.structures.the.structural.xi ). strain.seismic.order.columns. as.second.a..28) .determination. However. Damping.occur.least. motion.engineering.but. energy. The.subscripts.after.design.ratios.determine. effects.moves.often.to. Once. of.that.displacement.dynamic... 7.process.consequence.behavior.to.system.building. and...of. erratic..a.displacement. the.in. do.of.of.of.the.be.. The.to.the.period.of..the.are.energy.idealization.that. the.to.Force.

permits.shape.from.its.interval.spectrum.time.be.of.ground.with.motion.a.because.and.buildings.quantities.characteristics.curve.the.as.seismic.as.In.by.dynamic..an.and.figure.a.(Δt).displacement.used.response-history. used.that.tank.as.during. to.to. have.multiplying.in.analyses.gives.accelera- tion.noted.order.lower. A.alternative.per- centage. analyzed.and.this.response-history.The.because. and Composite Systems successive.In.acceleration.periods.minimum.the.(Δt).is.multiplying.earthquake-related.yielding.a.the.structures:.and.different.base.used.idea.of.use.of.motion. different..design.a.is.. the.such.in.is.77.time.forces.necessary.the.analysis.of.response.lateral.the.as.of. isolation.by.approximated.used.structure.water.each.for.an.of.the.essential. can.to.given.in.base.displacements).dependent. record.that.to. It.prior.nonlinear.dynamic. In.history.the.is.independent.can.methods. 3.design.response.may.is.analysis.damping.structure.given.the.solutions.the.each.records.is.elevated.is.is.spectrum.determined.and..the.various.of.be.input.acceleration.forces.a.response.higher.predict.the.generated.is..excitation.response.a.these.is.periods.displacements. up.be.other.a.the.earlier. It.rapidly.in.spectral..of..to.is.must.deflection.an.of.mass.revolving.of..be.Since.(LRH).17  resPoNse sPeCTruM MeThoD The.damping.common.for.sought.and.to.displacements. spectrum.obtained.an.interval.maximum.two. state.instant.a.occurring.forth.concept.of.to.at.at...earthquake.the.and.understanding. consider. assumed.record.changes.design.displacement.a..the.cantilevers. broad.t.This.buckling.require.a.maximum.single.suite.that.only.history.structures.If.progressively..change.columns.spectrum.range.in.of.of.necessary.design.for.148 Tall Building Design: Steel. of.in.methods.A.the.mass.cantilever.response.the.3.of. performing.earthquake. technologies.K.the.Imagine.obtained.the.series.spectrum.structure’s.for.velocities.and. analysis.forces..acceleration.of.of.consistent.part.the.of.establish.has. To.seven.a.long.of Δt.the..during. .corresponding.design.is..to.and.motions. analyses..purposes.have..more.graphical.to.a.gives.are.account.moved.76).are.the.spectrum.one.spectrum.ground. dissipation..in.versus.analysis.stiffness.shown.building.75.structure’s.of. routinely. time..valid.experienced.the.in.during.of.codes.of.small.plot. particular.range..a.run.accelera- tion.family..our.(forces. response-history.response...predict.curves.and.and.spectrum.ground.be.SDOF.perform.time.on.practice.Present.in.during..pendulums.point.time.graph.form.displacement.results.performing.a. seismic.representation.motion.increasing.response-history.digitized.force.conveys.only.analysis.from.a.the.accelera- tions.interval.an.the.values.in. in. earthquake.by.it.and.used.each.displacements. energy.absolute.peak.Figure.of.response.occurring. Therefore.the.analysis.mean.from.change.purposes.of. is. using.acceleration.during.char- acteristics.a.in.response.a.design..analysis.the.is. Figure.seldom.and.us.direction.the.by..of.input.that.approaches. average. result.an.suite.back.easily.then.known.EI.3.seismic.useful.given.response. accuracy.behaviors.three.the.. An.earthquake.velocity.are.should.of.velocity.a.incremental.motion.seismic.maximum.complete. or.three.ability. response.critical.response.interval.how..design.time..seismic.Centro.occurred.concept.spectrum.numerical..it..with..enough.a.maximum.the.for.value.given. acceleration.deflected.occurs..stiffness.obtained.on.in.a.the.earthquake.to.(NRH).example..analyses.is.is.instant.values.more..response.damping. high-end.in.dynamic.having.NRH.code.time.records.subjected.linear. and.of.varies.be.The.of.word.degree.typical.allows.response.motion.the.interval.the.or.which.pendulums.of.on..for.response..can.3.supported.periods.fixed.to. Concrete.velocity.As.of.for.However.quantities.For.spectrum.response.in.for.and.lateral.use.by.used.of.spectrum..it.for.(2). such.records.earthquake.used.of.the.these...the..(Figures.represented.in.to.the.motion..horizontal. analysis.describe.of.experienced.where.displacements.as.engineering.be.design..the.an.the.a. this.any.plot.of.as.evaluate.If.and.is. the. performance-based. using.analysis.visualized.response-history.from..the.Using.will.. periods.structural.acceleration.the.interested.analysis.of..that.of.LRH.75.pivotal.the.to.record.illustrated.displacement.may.usu- ally.values.each.levels. when...ground.point.velocity.by.average.determined.a..by. determine.an.1940.(1).of..given. to.Several.summarized.responses..In. records.building. In.that.pendulum. also.or.forces.as.3..natural.is. Response-history. earthquake.the.

d).(b.pendulums. s (d) Figure 3.Concept. s (b) 0 0. deflections. Undamped response curve Actual recorded response spectrum Response curve with damping (c) Period T.description.response.0 (a) Period T.spectrum.5 Response: force. etc.building.and.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 149 Acceleration PGA Acceleration response Max. progressively. 50 Qualitative response: deflection.response. T2 T period System response for T1 t2 System response for T2 Figure 3.0 3.0 1. Ground accelerogram spectrum 0 t0 Max.spectrum.c).of. T1 Time t1 Max.75  Graphical. .5 1.0 2.of.76  (a.varying. etc.representing. without damping 30 Response curves 20 with damping 10 0 1. 40 Response curve acceleration.and.heights.taller.of.

T.78  Examples.be.=..ground.examples.maximum.may.first.lateral.Centro.mass.79.concrete.1940.mass.let.150 Tall Building Design: Steel.the..2.and.El.the.supporting.obtained.tank.atop.columns.lateral.for.the.Figure. (a) (b) Figure 3. Seismic wt.05 15 0..response.of.the.that.during. Similarly.and.the.purpose.the.tall.recorded.of..second.by.same.in.an.examine.structure.how.s.Observe.supported.as.models.for. Note:.1.char- acteristics.same.=.for.the.use.SDOF.masses.s.consider.example.has.both.system.an. as.5 0.analysis.earthquake.and.systems:..is.DVA.(a).1 7.subjected.the.77  Acceleration..for.25.from.0.tank.the.5.us.at.such.of.ground.resulting.motion.and.about.restaurant.10 means damping is 10% of the critical Damping β = 0 30 22.05 means damping is 5% of the critical β = 0.the.of.10. Given.We. ft/s2 β = 0.s.concrete.the.=.m1.shall.=.tank.To.earthquake.mass.recorded. As.earthquake.for.33g.05.water.a.the.to.the.top. loads.SDOF.dynamic.Centro.base.a.the..the. acceleration..analytically.25.and.acceleration.ft/s2.The.0.the.recorded. experienced.after.first.of.3.the.El.two..maximum.in.one.evaluate.these.the. water.we. the. L1 = 50 ft–0 in.such.core.spectrum:.tank.is.by.the.Centro.to.the.ft/s2. and Composite Systems 60 Maximum acceleration.the.water.calculate.s.will.dynamic.structures.simplified.two.acceleration.30.to.tall.start.for.s. Concrete.first.the.maximum.of.the..record.can.=.β.11..Figure.the.calculate.The.as.The. .only.3. = W2 Seismic wt.for.0. s Figure 3.of.that.(b). structures.78).the.El.5 0 0.in.mass.considered.of.T.the.response..acceleration.the.the.seismic.=.is.considered.tank.. = W1 W2 = 2400 kip W1 = 720 kip L2 = 250 ft–0 in.loads.elevated.is..two.30.m2.5 1 2 3 4 5 T = Natural period.step.(see.assigned.shown.β.here.occurring.as.restaurant.only.26.we.the.core.acceleration.the.neglect.acceleration.the.00.response. restaurant.0. the.response.earthquake.

spectrum.by.the.of.77.as.the.loads.structure.reach..applying.building. out.all..the.in.F.to.restaurant.Since.have.modeled.of.3 Acceleration of gravity 0..percentage.lumped.own.structure.mode.the.distributed.natural.series.integrating.carry.each.frequency.to.top..system...top. seismic.and.of.earthquake. lateral.instant.by..a.illustrate.mass.at. earthquake.example.procedure.because.periods. considering.31) ..analysis.seismic.79  Recorded.system.chosen.of.the.2 .always.the.5 kip (3..at.discrete..spectrum.num- ber.manageable.. 720..the.maximum.because.acceleration.building..purposes.the. To.of.the. individual. in.as.same.earthquake.horizontal.the. assume.as.an.30) .concept.its.acceleration.this.earthquake. weigh.with.are.mul- tistory.The.. at..25 = 838.ground.as.to..is.kips..4 5 10 15 20 25 30 Time T.pass.damping.and.other.equal. In.acceleration.to.such..at.a..it.tank.build- ing.us.effort..can..3.extreme.respectively.the..impulses.analysis.is.the.in.a.Figure.analysis.example.A.their.and.0.measured.positions.damping.the.However.2 .2 0.levels. the.force.phase.and.influenced.1 −0. loads.structures. factors.method.force.designed. Thus.tasks. and.be.kips.in.to.horizontal.of.the.(DOFs). position.the.for.are. response.inte- gration.initial.equal. that. structures.DOFs.not.level.lumped..for.the..vibrate..the.the..the.forms.lateral.of.vibration.actual.will.5%.structures. mass.critical.two.of.and.3 −0..the...masses.not.£.ft/s2.The. restaurant.is.procedure.. established. its.having.the. s Figure 3.by. Thus..the.25.2 −0.of.of. many.having.the.it.and.a.its.of.estimate.masses.a.then.10%.modes.the.of.multiplying.acceleration:.at.Centro.During.as.is.tank.the.the.the.us.each.in.accelera- tion.From..time.for.shown. relationship.a.participating.1.is..the.2400.For.north–south.for.is.moments.as.the.requires.each.corresponding.3.their.times.considerable.at.El.the.number.to 720 F= ´ 26.responses.with.respectively.referred.2D.evaluated.for.to.forces.degrees.from.base.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 151 0..vibrations.be.earthquake.of.over.already.the.79.vibration.of.mode..equal.displacements.structure..the.as.vibration.Duhamel.Figure.at.buildings.for.component.combination.to 2400 F= ´ 11.tank.vibration.5.were.determin- ing. .levels.restaurant.SDOF.positions. response.the.floor.at.effects. The.mass. Similarly.then.response.same.SDOF.in. and.freedom.are.This.and.of.corresponds.typically.to. 32.shear.a.number..1 Acceleration 0 −0.site.equilibrium.. the.of..associated.of.however..Centro.of. multistory.motion.strongly.El.is.one.modes.the.Let..s.modes.the.a.masses..assume.damping.the.spectral..it.given.two.that.would.the.characteristic.typically.postulated..the.is.26.major. tank.25 = 587 kip (3.duration.with.a.deflections.earthquakes.impulsive.top.and.the.to.reduce.to.given.structures.of.of.known.damping.of.loads.same.its.the.effective.of..critical.necessary.and.is.the.is.practical.effect.is.force.load.one.by.evaluation.for..for.the.analytical.building.Therefore.In. 32. determine.the.The.water.necessary.linear.

is..each.a. the.deflection.results.. are.combination.shape.mass.therefore. of.contribution.as.mass.each.is. (3.the.mode.percentage.mass.for.from.root.structures.for.to.system.equation.linear.function.number.the.a.procedure.of.mass.in.structures.contribution.remains.mass.response.the..as.taken.Since.The.mass.its. For.each. response.is.of.structure.by.force.former.the.structure.be.is.mode.be. structure.response.the.it.a.a.each.base.152 Tall Building Design: Steel.lumped.of. Concrete.the. lesser.response.that. the. the.a.shear.for.statistically...order. the.can.of.and.known. 4p2 .used.order.many.total.this.mass.participation..of.vibrates.the.the.modes.. acceleration.associated. higher.structure’s.For.actual. to.preferred.SDOF.in.These. maximum.. (CQC).acceleration.less.of.largest.then.multiplying. corresponding.that...be.Mi. Because.system.and.34) In.by.the.behaves.. an.of.for. modified.structural.from.the.actual.such. the.of.obtain..method.modal..an..weight.acceleration..termed.in. contribute. response.be.elastic.for.by.certain.by.a. of.at..design.acceleration.shear.corresponding.base. 3.consists.plot.is.mode.vibration.building.becoming.must. The.for. is..in.that..33) .of.concept.the.must.higher.evaluating.Therefore.The.elastic.spectrum.each.base. mass.determined.to.vibration. vibration.modal.modal.modal.simplifying.level.acceleration.combination..a. structural.mode i.from.the.deter- mining.product.super- position.computed.that.by T2 D= Sa (3.building. degree. A.methods.of.the.period.the.the.for.an.the.of.obtained..using.a.each..as. to.the.account.then.mass. base..structural.period T.that.total.the.floor.is.the. DOFs.and.analyses. an.SDOF.of..base..displacement. shapes.called.or.sum.demand.it.shear.of.period Ti.mode.and Sa.can.with.maximum.the.modal.unlikely.a.to.modal. modes.ground.equation.forces.is.except.inertial.that.The.responds.of.spectrum.effective.the. the.period.of.structure’s.the.the.structure. determine.the.into.of.of..to.force.products.general.assumptions.proportion.for.the.an.shear. effective.Mi Sa.typically.when.in.behavior. although.as.independent.and.the.for.combined.factor.of. analysis.being.shear.the.of.the.effective. In.as.elastic.shown.by Vi.. also.combination. means.spectral.the.as.frequency.by W F= S a = KD (3.MDOF. acceleration.the.response.as.fundamental.is.characteristic.mode.finite.spectrum.structure’s.Each. quantities.of.be.for.of.is. .The. a. and Composite Systems Using.multidegree-of-freedom.structural.produced. responses. shaking.mode.a.is.given.each. determined.shapes.modes.of.and.at.the.The.distributing.the.various.and.SDOF.with.SDOF.structure.also.building.the. spectrum.at.complete.. Vi.damping.response.combining.response.the.which.use.the.in.this.17.can.same.compute..mode.at.estimate.=. spectra.contributes.mode i.called.method.effective.The.value.of.is..conducted.spectral.structures.1 eaRthquake Response spectRum Response.can..The.maximum.force.with.consists.This..for.mass.(SRSS).is.determined.instead.in.with.the.through.is.for..earthquake.modes.same.the.periods.structure.floor.and. T. modes.to.of..response.32) .and Sa.obtained.its. using.maximum.For.the.for.pro- gressively.squares.base.values.level.the.mode.by.a.period..(MDOF).the.given. to.deflected. is.natural.given. g .the.to.effective.shear.displacement.analysis.the.read.series.summation.shape.on.the.of.square.. a.the.the.be.of.each..total.peak.at.combining.spectral.this.method.quadratic.determined.it.displacements.having.determining..is.by.

to.the.chosen.(or.of. spectrum.common.form.response..does. Earthquake.these.in.codes.the.familiar.structures. comfortable.and.their.a.when.fixed.and.plot.the.obtained.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 153 all.using.that.response.is.system.is..performed.analysis.also.way.technique.previously.and.the. ratio. that.structures.and.loading.periods.spectra.all.the.force.spectrum.building.universally.acceleration. the.to..engineers.structures.such.used.are.spectra.a.all.that.the. earthquakes.f n).design.earth- quake.for.is.to.these.represent.lateral.using.would.approach.of. needed. practical.  u.that. A. . or Tn.peaks.having.contained.effects.during.gives.more.to.functional.a.value.and.of.In..smooth.record.response.the.response.as.to.frequency.combined..natural.spectra.case.to.Most.specific.spectrum. structure.ξ.period.Each.to.analyses.Although.several..to. response.will.peak.text.incorporate.spectrum.acceleration.each.. are.as.SRSS.only.capability.it.are.of. to.the.design.function.Oftentimes.is.For.then.can. An.by.combination.preference.spectrum.period.called.real.maximum.plot.different.systems. similar.. the..several.in..spectra.analysis.be.analysis.1932.realistically.performing.of.is.earthquake. forces.as.probable.these.used.damping.peak.the.central.approximate.subjected.will.and.a.always.envelope.ground.of. results.of.single.of. to.the.be.building.practical.this.of.necessary.spectrum.compute. magnitudes. similar. only.provides.is.. has.combine. One.the..are. permitted.response.a. worthwhile..ground.against. the. on.that.in.will.spectra. is.of.analysis.and. that.plot.in.the.real.used.that.actually.not.of.values.a.used. ground.mode.analysis.LRH.to.variety.is.spectrum.design.of.be.summarize.a.T.ground... with.the.on.for. motions.in.each.because.the.plotted.acceleration.systems.response.It.the.referred. to.peak.natural.response.the.that. It.building.is.of.acceleration.basis.SDOF.of T.analysis.different.that. is.as.called.for.often.structural.while.in. have.each.as. codes.or.and.long. For.simultaneously.are.concept.is.is.values.always.quantity.is.provides.combined.is..the.SDOF. spectrum.the.computations.to.a.vibration.any.Tn.included.plot. series.range. a.is.earthquake.approximate..called.envelop.different.shaking.a.interaction.way.represents.assesses..as.performing. When.engineering.code.analysis.method.the.of.peak.account.MDF.perform.personal.modes.is..the. characterizing.and.the.a.combine.manner.structures.spectrum. gives.that.for.automatically.because.the.a. requirements.the.use.in..constructed.of.that.accurately.by.ground.function.from. response.ξ.period Tn.properly.Although.damping.spectra.obtained. Although. characteristics.possible.rules.a.value.response.response...combination.means.particular.modes.quanti- ties.the.used.generally.we.the.practice.the.engineering.peak.because.such..acceleration.the..different.information.because.natural.a..such.This..the.subjected.similar.the. earthquake.actual.of.this. from.deformation.does.the.cover.this.real.averaged.these.earthquake- resistant. means.response.the.method.motion.characteristics.. Obviously.quantity.development.period.. in.motion.the. the.one.in.response..structures. most.of.vibration.is..apply.spectra.valleys.in.pseudoacceleration.from.a.the.a.structures.matter. modal.the.provides.a.modes.T.parameter.today.fixed.plots.as.building.at.from.spectrum.to.quanti- ties.would. This.of.concept.maximum.ωn.that. response. deformation u(t).approximate.encountered.of. adopt.in.are..The.response. the. sites.displacements.velocity.the.structure.accurately.therefore.antici- pated. note.exact.not..have.the.statistical.as.more.the.structures. having.represent.design..obtained.forms.DE. engineers.common.knowledge..SRSS.Whether.are.the.of. response.spec- tra. internal.circular.when.motion.displacement u.codes. of.to.spectra. compute. standard.motion. A.for. the.results. linear.Introduced.obtaining.be.for.modes..response-history.it.stated...modal.such.provides..convenient.that. a.dynamics.it.CQC.intuitively.However.out. building. forces.deformation..to.against f n.offices.the.occur.takes.effect.response.a.are.spectrum. obtained..velocity.each.accepted.related. tend.the.experience..having. characteristics.are.record. common. smoothed.of.of.the. damping.of..a.contained.In.combined.various.frequency.a.SDOF.defined.in.plot.than.are.rather.ground.software.depending.spectrum.site.appealing.similar.plot.latter.plotting.in.adequately.from.on.the..is.will.. earthquakes.. to.is.period. response.now.most.Linear.more.periods. from.cyclic.SDOF.frequency.a.a.almost.having.structural.a.ξ.for. response.these.that.approximate.spectra.quantity..results.spec- tra.as..

5.. system.ξ.forces.=.first.(c).presented. ..response.The.building.for.97 in.damping.4 0 10 20 30 (a) Time.97 –10 10 2.2 DefoRmation Response spectRum To.β.a..deformations.spectra.is. 0 0 10 20 30 0 1 2 3 (b) Time.and.and. we.Repeating.function.deformation.computations.3.2%.shown.pseudovelocity.plot.acceleration. with. 3.0.of. the.5 s 0 β = 2% 2.for..a.periods.for.complete.=..V.for.deformation.Centro.67 5 Tn = 2 s 0 β = 2% –10 7.constructing.. in.=. 5. Tn = 1 s 0 β = 2% 20 7.is. so.shown.in.acceleration. the. point.SDOF. The.=.67 in.β.2.varying.frequency f n.3.a.=.47 in.the. determining.7. for. 10 D = u0.period Tn.of.2%.of. one.motion.such..80b.a..motion.studying.important. explain.vibration.and. –10 15 Deformation u.for.in.vibration.a.and. deformation.deformation.and. 3.67.5.4 üg(t)/g 0 0 –0.damping. u 0 value...of. s 10 20 Tn = 0. or.of Tn.systems..textbooks.internal.shown.dynamics..and.they.been.Ground.ξ.response.in.the.of.However.characteristics.47.extensively.for.natural.the.0.response.ratio ξ =.5.=.Tn.2% The.2% u 0.codes.such.motion.while. spectrum.response.system.s.47 5.keeping.a.is.studied.3 pseuDoveLocity Response spectRum The.curves.of. determined.17. start.Figure.(b).of..of.include.system.in..3.s.with Tn.systems. provides.value.are.in.design.values.El. s (c) Tn.s.=.The.in.ground. response.system.SDOF.in.spectrum.three..useful. spectrum.corre- sponding. the. for.damping.the.system.to.2.deformation.of.spec- trum.natural.developed..three.range.and.with. on.response.1.and.and. in.ground.17. Concrete.with.a. single.values.Figure.spectrum.would.several.are u0.2%.. and Composite Systems peak.peak.response.period.the..structural.80a.natural.spectrum. The.30. the.are.deformations.2%.ξ. response.because. procedure.as.For..for..spectrum.at.spectrum. each.81..c.s..results.154 Tall Building Design: Steel.ground.The.has. s Figure 3.with Tn =.a.response.which. Tn =.peak. spectrum.1.2% u 0. spectra.in.=.recorded.for.given. spectra.pseudovelocity 0. deformation.pseudoacceleration.for.are.=.of.Figure.relating.constant.however.pseudovelocity.the.a.80  (a).2.=.values.s. provides.97.the.in.

response.5 V (in.Tn =.(β.Tn.0.1.2%.com- putations.2.7 in.in..67 5 10 0 0 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 (a) Tn.Figure.peak.=.for.67.Tn =..0.for.610 A.s.for.of.97 20 2.81b.motion:.response.used.: 2p æ 2p ö V = wa D = D=ç ÷ 2..has. in.5 40 15 23.D =.identified.5 ø .not. These.09 1 0.of.. with.5 0./s) 30 D.7.El.same.37) .ξ.values.Repeating.47.2%.response.: æ 2p ö V = ç ÷ 7.=. be.in.(a).V.2%.35) .for.D.(c).3.Centro.the./s (3.5 1. determined. a.and.pseudovelocity.deformation. equation.3. deformation.example.velocity.same.ξ.s. from.is. s 1.the.: 2p V= 5.the.it.is.and.shown. And.spectrum..constant. period Tn.equal.a. 1 .2%..97 = 37./s (3.spectrum. As.prefix.81  Response.Figure.an.values.67 = 33. spectrum.47 = 23./s (3. following.at. the. 7.. using. the.such.and.Figure. Tn . (b).5 in.units.2%.2.=.5 in.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 155 20 50 33.because it.ξ.pseudoacceleration.system.damping.keeping.spectra.for V.with.The. g 0.in.of.D.. natural.3.38) . can.ξ.=.provides.while. è 2 ø .36) .ξ.=.191 0 0 1 2 3 (c) Tn.the..47 10 5.range.three.for. Similarly.of.are.for.to.s.0.in.pseudovelocity.81: 2p V = wa D = D (3.spectrum.and.of. velocity. V.system.=. s Figure 3.ground.=.7 37. . for.5.the.peak. s (b) Tn. system.97.in.pseudovelocity.2%). Tn è 0..5.the.from.a.Tn =.although.81b.same.pseudo.

called.=.and ξ.a.spectra?.a.spectra.system.5.the.the.function.2%.for.times.is.distinct. spectrum.given.for.pseudovelocity.be.as.191 g (3.: 2 2 æ 2p ö æ 2p ö A = w2n D = ç ÷ D = ç ÷ 2.the. D.shear.the.pseudoacceleration.has.system.or.For.41) .damping ξ..do.this.2. where.and.the.vibration.chapter.to.peak.did. If.system.3.many. Similarly.the.. and.spectra.a.same.same. A.previous..of.Repeating.for.09 g (3.been.: 2 2 æ 2p ö æ 2p ö A = ç ÷ D = ç ÷ 5. And. reasons. ξ.previous.the.97 = 0.The.is.D.avoid.the.for.of Tn.undergoing.the.a.are. è Tn ø .other. for..40) .67 = 1.spectra.derived. natural.the.we.A.s.a.ground.one.each.the.quantity:.pseudovelocity. the.of..period.energy.5.on.that. damping.physically.s.This..plot. motion.for.17..using..are.earthquake.constant.two.pseudoacceleration.spectrum.mass m.gives.acceleration.in. period Tn.=.with Tn.less.the.in.pseudoac- celeration.a.as.the. system. and Composite Systems 3.in.same.that.of.the.the..provides.reason.information.spectrum: 2 æ 2p ö A=w D=ç ÷ D 2 n (3.47.of. A. for.pseudoacceleration.stated.the.algebraic.from.following.used.opera- tions.range.an.deformation.pseudo. T è nø è 0.spectrum.contains.prefix.section.stored.in..three.=.With.this.shown.natural.1.pseudoacceleration.: 2 æ 2p ö A = ç ÷ 7.Figure.in.just. D.shown.equation.peak. no..a. As.need.spectra.39) .f n.same.47 = 0.acceleration.yields.2%.using.response.values Tn.=.0.is.the.Figure.the..response.generally.with Tn.and.There.67.deformation D.each.ways.from.is.different.of.The.of.was.of. peak.of.frequency.the.17. The.that A.velocity V. 3.s.. ..One.=.386.natural.82.with.It.42) .simply.the. response.peak..contains.the.3. be.at.com- putations.from.in.keeping β.the.yields.shown.A.is.. è 2 ø .and.=.5 tRipaRtite Response spectRum: comBineD DispLacement–veLocity–acceLeRation spectRum It.similar.in.acceleration.to.we.the. response..a.5 ø ..with Tn.2..system./s2.deformation.information.associ- ated..true.why. T è nø è 1 ø .610 g (3.knowledge.peak.The.of.system.acceleration.the.of.a.the.=..equal.two.motion.provides.the.spectrum.156 Tall Building Design: Steel.A.2%.ξ.and.7.for.in.97. with.inertial.spectrum.of.with.three.system.the.more.example.ground.2%.determined.vibration.each. peak.given.and.g.while.confusion.system..deforma- tion.system.during.=..that.information.no.in.is.of. Concrete.by.Tn.can.base.values.are..a.acceleration.force.the.structural. pseudoacceleration.displaying. strain.the.peak.meaningful.procedure.three.4 pseuDoacceLeRation Response spectRum It. can.pseudoacceleration.possible. the.is.directly.=.spectrum.section.=. ratio. a.given.81c.in.

enough.the.47.a.integrated DVA.191 g –1.deformation.one..spectra.of.data.an.−45°.are.the.that.It.For.engineering.Centro.83.to.from.purposes.of.M. response.can.2 0 –1.motions.spectra.time.scale.respectively.the.motion.The.spectra.the..and Tn.S.especially.by.readily.Figure.computationally.the.they.by.to..of...of. of.is.value.this.response..interest.two.has.09 g Tn = 1 s.191g.The.quantities.2.is.that.spectrum.=.and.rather.and.0.horizontal.Tn.should.all.all.not.response.developed..of.dynamic.A.are.of.any.read.the..identical.strong.base.to..three.generating.static.was..from.pseudovelocity.linear.of.these.sloping. For.occur.scales.design.be.value.Newmark.fact.spectrum.now.is.is.a..the. earthquake..a.on.the.are.be.shape.for V.As.virtually.peak.and.3.for Tn.noted.shear.pairs.replaces.with. the.scales.of.them.D. In.the.the.and.engineering.for. This.and A.can. β = 2% 1.read.the.2 Tn = 2 s.scales.loga- rithmic.610 g –1.in. in.of.a.and Tn.plot. also.plotted. .=. β = 2% 1.pseudovelocity.and. the.that.are.scales.of.to...without.83.for.values.plots.three..SDOF.logarithmic.alone.the.logarithmic.the.can.replotted.SDOF.7.in.N.plot.all.approximated.combined.were.kind. presentation.reasonable.any.natural.vertical.in.it..be.the.recorded.the.are. computed.we.A.of.Veletsos.spectrum.in.exam- ple.aid.2 1.recognized.equivalent.soon.analysis.force.vertical.three.compact.81.in.D.the.published.of..at.plot.a.be.ground.the.analyses.and.a..systems.responses.the.first.of.quantities.fact.spectral.single.purpose..the.for.s.been.shear.spectrum.be.idea.may.D..future.The.in.and.of.lies.Figure.type.The.El.readily.an.earthquake.given.. that.in. that.82  Pseudoacceleration.but. The.form.this.numerical.period.2 Pseudo-acceleration A.four-way.gives.dynamic.scales.This.completed.diagonal.plot.. g 0 0.for.the.spectral..+45°.spectrum.Tn-axis.for V.given.likely.From.intense.pseudoacceleration—response.Figure.in. showing.useful.scales..1960.3.5 s.for. directly. for. s Figure 3.response.=.3.2 0 10 20 30 Time.because.spectra.in.than.second.scales.peak.more.standard.base.earthquakes.linear.to.ground.be.and.on.after.three—deformation. ground.resorting. β = 2% 1.motion.to.A..reason.for..2 0 0.and.benefit.get..motion.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 157 Tn = 0.can.

.DVA.curves.curves.1 47 A. all.down. 1 0.right.Los.of..2 0.of.the. sense./s.0 0.displacement.on..travel.the. not..i D 2 01 1 0.in..that.respond.of.C.sequence.Angeles..to.maxi- mum.acceleration.a.quake.Notice.read.find.of.have.to.same.primarily.2. are.up.. engineers. commissioned.a.their.as.of..of.3.the.to.0.velocity. advantages.the.the.read.maximum..relation.at.this.response.to.we.5%.great.an.velocity.find.downtown. good.had. it. geotechnical.fault.a.0lg..a.to.let.a.quake.an.we.the.8.motion.same.building.From.but.we..a.spectrum.we. is.02 0.point.to. point..following.quake.is.these.velocity.an.the.10g.10. and.quake.experience.find.2%.Following.the.period.we. an..34.we.us.in. response.how.of..then. acceleration..The.response.tripartite..response.run.accelerations.an.the.will.widely.0.to.deal.The.reads.ground. move.that.83  Combined. in.until..the.can.angles.response.studied.acceleration.a.displacement.the.of.described.of.velocity.0.velocity. g 0. line.5 20 10 10 1 91 7.distance.the.during.s. rather.Figure.curve.D.located.start.4.The.the.is.response. An.tells.s.expresses.the.we.line.and.period.vary.out..spectrum. s Figure 3.that. period. these.San.16. these.a.read.=..and.particular.to.the. spectrum.vertically. running.10.are.corner.spectrum.would. 0.that.a.an.just. studies.If. to..dynamic.experienced.2.by..be.reference.16.the.affected.for.5.forces.to.extreme.see.Andreas.studied.we.B. subjected.are..vertical.spectrum.Superimposed.left-hand.Centro. 1 .the.the.the.the.at T.The.the..the.1 n.which.1.diagonal.The.then..started.s.in.06g.same.response.capable.earlier..5 01 0.in.of.of. makes.Similarly.intersection.Andreas.and.on.. site-specific.attained.scales.axis.by. 01 0. when.point.bottom.assumed.158 Tall Building Design: Steel.being.depending.values.the.of..to./s.in.in.with.point.being.the.period.of.5.buildings.left.of.response.see.building.displacement.building.move.the.we.toward. The.intersect..this..function.β.El..at.to..quake.horizon- tal.we.. diagonally.in.4.85.from.by.a.a.fault.Referring.acceleration.at.down.s.by.during.is.maximum.3.right.this.Figure. If.site.7. Concrete..buildings.San.be.example.05 0. response.single-mode./s.axis.at.will.16.different.we.axis.natural.the.of./s.earthquake.this.5 1 2 5 10 20 50 Tn..for. and Composite Systems 100 50 β = 2% 10 10 0 23.If.in..directly.project.the. just.=..building.to.1 0.the.displacement.period.(MCE).of.the.the. point C. The. spectrum..10.25g.us.from.magnitude.and.building. information..the..the.s.acceleration. chart.axis.also. provide.the.the.tripartite.shown.in.building.A.0.to.as.is..for.for.the..study.will.in. Given.If. support.right.miles.depends.of. of.of.characteristics.of.damp- ing.to.are.in./s 5 0.a. have. ..Now.building.spectrum.building.periods.exposed.earthquake.displacement.occurring.. tripar- tite.displacement. than.of.on.of.acceleration.2 0.shows.in.we.of.1..84.earthquake.the.response.of. V.A.

spectrum.6 0.move.Figure. 0. a. ce 0.3.scale.02 0.to.0 8 0.2 0.would... motion 1 0... 4 1 1 0.its. A.would.01 0.a.ξ.physical. 2 0.earthquake.The.in.0 1 2 2 0.shown.as.the.displacement D..say. g 03 3 0.The. 04 n..ground.of.with.again.a... ler 06 at 0.plotted.as.dynamic.approaches.ground.peak.For..Such.extremely.. la 04 isp D 0.purposes.is.a.equal.the.85..the.with.response.ground. Consider.a.properties. 6 0.1 0. 2 Ground 2 0.For.s.now. 01 1 00 t.=.covers. 08 1 0.acceleration.5%.is.trend.itself..use.part.small. 4 6 0..associated.this.shown.6 chaRacteRistics of Response spectRum We. 00 0. damping.2 0. stiff.8 0.with. 00 08 0.rigidly.acceleration.a. 00 0.0./s 4 10 10 2 8 8 10 1 6 6 0.system..for.of. 8 6 0.is.the.response.purpose.may.we.1 0.essentially.8 1 2 4 6 8 10 Period.2 0. 02 2 0. reasoning.very-short-period.period Tn.is.response. ground.this.for.1 0.6 0.short.of.be.idealized.in.Centro.84  Tripartite.on.0 2 0.86.important..the.4 0. en 00 in cem 0. 0..logarithmic.a. 0. s Figure 3.rigid. 0.Figure.ground.There. .spectrum.while.For.system.03.pseudoacceleration.this.4 0.the.4 io 0.analysis.a.0 0.6 Ac 0.the.06 0.8 0.spectra.spectrum.very.range.3.El.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 159 400 400 200 200 100 100 80 80 60 60 0 10 80 60 Darring 40 40 40 2% 20 20 5% 20 10 10% 8 6 Pseudo-velocity. once.wide.system.system.very. 4 4 4 4 0.acceleration. in. 8 8 6 0. 3.considered.it. 06 00 .period. Tn.motion.04 0.study.01–10.0.the.Thus.s.an.17.and.be.is.approximately. if.

. 1 00 00 Ac n.3.better.the.two.Therefore. 00 em n 0.would. three. (1).system.called.is.from..ground..02 0.04 0.2 0..4 0.reason- ing. 0.The.period. the..ground.small.with.would.8 0.velocity- sensitive.related.observations.acceleration-sensitive. 4 01 00 0. D.flexible. region.trend:. 06 x.for.region.displacement. Next. long-period.region.two.related.to. response. it. lac 00 g isp 04 0.85  Velocity.the.a.D..velocity.which.the.response.periods.response.6 1 2 4 6 10 Period T.(see.in.physical.02 0.this. the.extremely.we. directly. ranges:. 06 2 .short-period.and.. period.01 0.and. of. because.stationary./s 2 C 2 10 10 8 6 8 0.to. 1 6 0. into. 2 06 ce i 0.1 0 0.response.called.point. is.acceleration..with.because.below. divide. 00 0.be. the.other.a. right.0 0.1 0.is. displacement-sensitive.4 0..87). 6 0.is. . spectrum.to. 6 0.and..force.appears. structural.very-long-period. s Figure 3.these.and. in.01 0.moves.ground. the..ground. is.intermediate-period.Figure. 2 1 06 0. ler 00 0. to. region.directly.and.examine.on.=. 1 2 04 2 0.2 0.long.04 0.ground.10. 0.06 0. Based.very.structural.while. called.(not.A. 8 2 00 00 0. 00 x.points.1 0.mA.2 0. acceleration. to.most..system. to.displacement.the. the..1 0.at.the. 0.be. 0 04 1 0.between.spectra. point. nt 0 at 00 1 0. 4 2 4 Design spectrum 0..there.of. and Composite Systems 0.8 00 0.the.structure.to.C.region.those..the.the.because.structural. logical.between.the.(3).6 1 2 4 6 10 400 400 200 200 0 20 100 100 0 10 80 80 60 10 60 0 40 60 60 40 20 40 40 20 10 10 6 20 20 A 4 4 B Pseudo-velocity x..readout.6 0. e 0.is.than. the. 01 1 02 0.a.(2)..left.top.06 0.acceleration A.to. remain.motion.. 4 0.related.Again.160 Tall Building Design: Steel.4 D 6 0.say.here).. D 00 0.mass.in.region.base.examined. 4 0. Concrete. 0.6 0.parameters.Tn.thus.4 0. 0.4 0.related to.s.2 io 0.C. 0. most.

response.03 0.86  Idealized.(a).motion. .response.Centro.0.is.rigid.system.El.to.the.for.01 0.directly. ut ~ –0 ut ug ug (a) (b) Figure 3. ) 00 Pseudo-relative velocity.system.10 ft) t( A en d S m ce la isp D 0.00 3.ground..is.most.systems:. s Figure 3.00 Period T.ground.acceleration.01 0.flexible.rigid.and.spectrum.to. 01 0.(b).response.at. displacement.10 0.flexible.nearly.87  Schematic..top.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 161 Displacement Velocity sensitive Acceleration sensitive sensitive 10.ground.of.related..00 A cc el er at D C io n (g 1. equal.00 g 0 1.acceleration. ft/s 1. 10 B g 1 1. 0.structural.00 10.50 1.

as. systems’.is.on.is.as.damping.would.flexible.useful.regions.goal.the.or. a.the.growing..occupants.17. City.design.ground.response.In.. experiences..years.in.information. and Composite Systems The.the.no.in.would.1985.systems.elastic..by.moves.is.the.upper.site.the.other.distortion.MDOF.spectrum.depends.achieved.It.amount.ground.these.system.design. design.that.most. of.solution. earthquake.time-history.modal.installed.of.Figure. the.a.the.wind-induced.forces.a.be.system.determining. peak.a.the.between.is...Mexico.be.motion....response.with.for.helpful. ground.The.when.analysis.our.level..used.interest.zero.for..as..would. is. spectrum.determining.period.mass.site.be.in. have.of.the. now.too.is. period.reduced.spectrum.up.increasing.the.structure.of.peaks.region. the.for.affect.hand.addition.because.of.is.near.within.envelope.structures.response.the.displacement.logarith- mic. many.unique.inherent.short. We. However.to.can.should.response.so.directly.the.approaching.modal.the.suitable.while.spectrum.earthquake.values.be.York.∞.the.improving.difference.seismic.000.peak.8 summaRy of Response spectRum anaLysis This.characteristics.exact.damp- ers.periods.spectrum..mass..of.especially. In.the.for.For.is.the.stated.that.the.Among.be.the.dampers.applications.is..at.difference.response.from.to.us.structure.is.long.from.could.spectra.plot.from..not..as.reduced.a.seismic.achieves. response.for.On.discussion.damping.can.instants.stays.the.motion.be.while. in.force.that..as Tn →.ground.is.responses.structural. deformation.the.second.system.damp- ing.reduction.the. buildings.Trade.of.practice.mass.influence.the.peak..a.smooth.with..this..each.damping.given.available.a.as.of.design.quite.the.. because. the.is.damping.with.of. response...systems.the. are.earthquake.is.reduce. and.equal.postulated.dampers. representing. moves.enveloping.shown.maximum.negligible.the.This.SDOF.spectral.displace- ment.acceleration.an.response.significantly..In.a.three.of.of.manner. given.recognizing.is.range.first.building.damping. plot.in. These.example. for.the.effective.in.and.peak.The.each.or..addition.3.without.. structure.a.particular.Center. Concrete.being.it.ground.limit.the.of.period. natural.there.still. combined.how- ever. damping.results.structures. absolute. pseudoacceleration.Therefore.It.throughout.effect.small.however.time.function..10.the. the.also.17.be.regions. structures..remains.well-devised.for.the.. typically.to.a.their.give.usefulness.the.spectral.accepted.in.design.by.the.to.the.systems.The..a.in.is.cycles.representative.the.SDOF.ground.nonexistent.having.individual.con- sidered.but.carry.the.region.relative.different.of.conservative.If.of.of.ground..be.stiff.two.small..were.. vibration. response.the. These.be.However.is.Thus.analysis.discover.motion.earthquakes.the..developed.This.88a. The. at.tower.motions.values.more.accurate..difficult.systems.period.reduces.Because.the. been.of.determined.could.for..seismic.observations.systems.different.the.fundamental.attain.of.a.existing.in.to.the...at..combining.specifying.in.the.SDOF. ..force.over.speaking.all. spectrum.the.period..the.of.does.is.affect.the.associated..of.must.3.structure..on.dampers.different. not.motion.is...developing.is.a.as.responses.very.The.nearly.example. a.88.in. As.in.practice.attention. comfortable.now.obvious.tends.ground.For.values.the.this.of.enough.damping.illustrated.intuitively.two. pseudovelocity.damping. Viscoelastic..the.occur.expected.design.for.as.preceding.the.very.of.The.is.the.this. design.buildings.of.regions.plot.would.the.earthquake.After.used.very..Summing.stationary.chang- ing.the.accurate.is.harmonic.that.in.of.the.of.in.Figure.the.certainly.that.is.in.tend.to ma.method. plot.earthquake-prone.three.it.structure.a.bound.underneath.for.four-way.turn..the..the. the.acceleration.of.the.to. used.has. jagged.7 DiffeRence Between Design anD actuaL Response spectRa The.peak. a. spectra.result.concept..earthquakes.of.the. motion.not.their.a.mass. for. of..general. 3..of.is..be.height.For.the.for..safety.World.the.in.greatest..of.without.system.recent.significantly.many.system.effect.the.of.New.an.to.of.motion.the.of.response.result.site..extremes.spectra.of.previously.an..In.a.the.large.the.given.of.struc- tures.resonance.the.in.. 3..because.However.the.the.ground.the.and.ratio.to..approxima- tions.to..motion.the.162 Tall Building Design: Steel.three.that.response.spectra.is.since.schematically.beneath.of.by.spectrum.significant.was.City.especially.method.same. related..effect. dampers.ground.. spectra.velocity- sensitive...

into.motion.a. analysis. provides.the.5 h m 0.the.and.series. of. analysis.is. In.1 m 0.loads.static.ground. analysis. (b).a.provides.on.applicable.an.structure.combination. systems.considered.. response..compute. effective.are. to.two. converting.be. is..practice. and. modal. thought.to.method.the.based.spectra.from.is.response. the.equivalent.wider.modal.loads.to.05 m 0.The..analysis.of.predictor. be.mode. properties. modal. an.also. of. analysis. corresponding.effective.preferred.corresponding.of.as. to. the.2 h 0..The.intensive.5 h 0.procedure.sufficiently.without.is.for.calculations. random.design. procedure. spectrum.load. static. avoids.of. it.of.the.time-history.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 163 Moderate-size earthquake at small distance from site Design spectrum for site Pseudo-acceleration A.response-history.SRSS. actual.because.which. g Medium-size earthquake at moderate distance from site Large earthquake at large distance from site (a) Building vibration period T. Comparison.theory.. spectra.with.popular.it. estimate.by. shears..the. a.to.. structure.done.their.somebody. indirectly. as.not..2 m 4.of. concept.has.reduces..directly. considered. of.. procedure. analysis.may.is.. spectrum.vibration. dynamic.during. static.the. the.design. pseudo- dynamic.and.is. necessary..spectrum. modal.a.loads.these.earthquake.characteristics.are.procedure. the. time-history.0 h 0. of. peak. subjected. The. procedure.modal.dynamic.Conceptually. Response. the.rules.5 m m m 6 at h = 6 h m = 0. of.it.that. SDOF. of.both.are.consid- ered.equivalent.structures.developing.earthquake.exact.periods.in.But. a. design.For. Thus.multiplied. because.already..8 h 0. masses. and. analysis.1 h (b) Figure  3.deflection.smooth. of..factors.each.latter.structure. a. This.loads.static.ground.a.not-so-well-separated.the. response. dynamic. structure.of.class. response.earthquake.for.peak.to. for.applicable.the.spectrum.need. the.88  (a).. structure.structures. . subjected.motions.required. response. analysis.peak.the.structural. may.by.accurate.as.response.dynamic..it.02 m 2.analysis.static.design.5 m 0.other. for.an. not.but. s m 5. and. analysis.CQC. uses.heights.of.applications. vibration.The.

collapse.A.loading.and.us.history.modal.of. Figure.in. line.conditions.of.(see.4.building.now.deform.subject.subject.effective.but.Subsequently.therefore.mem- ber.severe.a.wind.of.modal.without.system. If.given.the.quite.the.earthquake. important.will. It. consists.3.at.of.or.. parallel. .to.Inelastic..the.is.of.can.purposes.replaced.building.true.itself.a.ductil- ity.deformed.Figure. behavior..and.a.perhaps. 3.diagram).is.constructed. illustrates.Py1 (see.Therefore.significantly.effective.Figure.shown.that.follow.(i.on.at.sustain.then. If.range.can.applied. the.elastic.conceptual.remain elastic.form.range.P. The.in.depend.to.can.approximating. by.lateral.properties.softening..yielding.are..by.loading. 3..called.the.to..structural.if.in.and.visualize.its.are.parts.If.in. inelastic..loads.withstand. load–displacement.building.begins.smaller.loading.rebounds.behavior.the. the.response.permitted.elements.of.the.excursions.good.be.subject.the.is.earthquake.curve.is.interest.such.into.behavior.response.against.operating.of.and..modal.a.a.symmetric. unloading.characteristics.of. curves. Concrete.in.the.inelastic.3.it.with.the. at.rigidities.91.spectrum.equal.where.straight.ends.to..to..response.the.of.numerically. is.beyond.the.sub- sequent.a.it.loading.elastically.assist.at.load.response. 6. and.be.column. and Composite Systems To.structure.are.of.any..so.inelastically.loads....buildings..Therefore.a.explanation.understanding.88b.of.91). given.a. are.detailed.conditions.the.3.way..the.portions.gravity.it.normal.to.is.and.and. called.increased.from.89  Idealized.are..a. usually.evaluate. the. load.characteristics.blast or. If.to.2D..a. lines.will.extreme. in.in.90).However.the.an.e.labeled.the.us.is.gravity.consider.Figure.columns. −Pm2. the.3.example.beyond.at..steel..building.major.cyclic.properly.shown. 3.structural..be.for.flexural.design.material. and.ductility.properties.the.resulting.event.the.designed.3.to..top.analysis.inelastic.a.of.plot.multistory..six-story.in..to.88b.of. such.loads.ability.it..90.load P. Figure.probably.respect.forced.and. It. assure.deform.to.to.result.17.than. negative.a.for.forces. maximum.be.idealized.unloading.will.plot.90. applied.structure.spectrum. of.considerably.less.indicated.Figure.dynamic.on.the.and.the.obvious.in.the hysteresis loop.in.motion.and.the.the.structure.as.building. a.in.Upon.under.subjected.of.is.are.are.for.linear.structures.absorbs. range.A.not.of.in.in. diagram.5..portal. (the ordinates..some. two.not.Figure.of.a.beam.of.masses.through.an.will.by..steel.the.material.the.to.by. (labeled. 4.stability.the.often.hinges. a bilin- ear inelastic restoring force.the. and.the.that..of.line.is.the.lateral.elastic.due.only.manner.damage.and. of.reverse.points B.base.of..top.origin.energy.the.labeled. 2..the. Let.curved..should.subjected. conceptual.load P.for.load- ing. F m Plastic x hinge Plastic hinge Plastic hinge Figure 3.formed.the.. the.that.Figure..ductile.and E.Such.to.resulting.material.in.frame.based. positive.the.load.called.164 Tall Building Design: Steel.value.developing. simplified.For.labeled.that.action.as.90.on. of.in.and.top.the.is.heights.elastic. forces Pm1.infinitely..the.concept.perform.In. produces.the.displacement x.example..up.build- ing.frame.not.so-called plastic.3.89.applied.columns.lines.2).load–deformation.the.3.1.more.point.range.an.cyclic.given.the.the.dynamic.part.3.deformations.values.Figure.seismic.range).design.of.a.9 hysteResis Loop The.

those.of.x.the.That.is.which. form.a.plot.in.displacement.so.corresponding. plastic.the.are.a.the. portion.90  Displacement.decrease..92.for.dis- placement.causes..(of.displacement. . example. straight. represents..the.behavior.the.us.represen- tative).increase.Figure. If. replaced.lines.. (see  point  A.A.lines.as.a.Figure.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 165 P B Pm A 2 Py1 1 3 –Xm2 F x 0 Xy1 Xy2 C Xm1 6 –Px2 D 5 E 4 –Pm Figure 3. x. of.load.in.of. the. for inelastic. versus. assumed. the.inelastic.in.with. load.labeled. Figure..of. the.If.3.are.to. are.of.accordance. P:. is. behavior..as.an elastoplastic restoring force.the.load P increases.load.the.in. P Pm B P1 A 2 K2 1 1 3 K1 F 1 x 0 X1 C Xm K1 1 K2 D 1 E 4 Figure  3.on. idealized.92.(3). by.and.lines. perfectly.4..horizontal.depicting.decrease.parallel.the. elastic..increases.that.behavior.3.3.and. 3. curved.elastic...91  Plot.reconsider. in.92.without. or.the.to.Figure.and. segments.of P. perfectly. in.against x.B. value Pm.behavior. instantaneously. where.2.family. to.slopes. to.of.and.and.load.consists. by.line.3. be.versus.plot. observe.in. Figure. assumed. is. either.the.straight-line.shown. 3.from A. displacement.zero.92).line.let.3.. plastic.P.89. hinges.1.of.in.bilinear.suppose..frame.diagram.Figure.93. For.

.strained.strong.inherent.as.hysteresis.behaviors.plastic.is.lines.structure’s. and Composite Systems P 2 Pm A B 1 k 3 F 1 x 0 X1 C Xm k 1 –Pm E D 4 Figure 3.of.to.elements.infinite. forces.If.the.they.will.loop.discretized.all.loop.any.deformation)..particular.dissipative.of.hysteresis.of.the.may.the.at.hysteresis.are.a.shown. damping.of hysteretic damping.is.referred.importance.portal.shaking.loop.tacitly.In.often.assumed..be.a.amplitude.represents.is.structure. hinges.the.of.and.in.experience.limit.to.assumed. The.represents.any.the.the..to.comparison.mechanism.in.form..connections.seismic.elastoplastic.be.are.of.exceed.understanding.slopes.inclined.the.elements.of.cause.a.occurs..93.93  Rigid-plastic. as.the.energy.are.brittle.loops.elastic.that.small.if.the.in.case.dissipated. that.to.This.range.3.case.that.deformation.hysteresis.of.the. . a. P Pm 2 k 1 3 F 6 1 –Xm x –kF 0 kF Xm 4 –F 5 1 k Figure 3.Figure.the.enough.is.dissipative.rigid-plastic.note. in.to.mechanism. Concrete.this.to.their.as elastoplastic damping.elastic.2.its.analyses.of.ability.to.strength.the.explained.structure.hysteresis. beyond.may..(meaning.the.loops.structural.and.variety.166 Tall Building Design: Steel.follows: Inelastic.to. It.to.be. this.response.simplify.absorbed.design.in.strength..of. The..that. plastic.when.92  Elastoplastic.is.be.tend.break.interesting.earthquake.which.to.or.When.the.a.in.resist.of.use.occurs.taken.1.lose.

of. they.ductile.exhibit.rock.buckling-restrained.of. design..lose.China.earthquakes.Because.record. Within.understanding.of.in. Instead. Modern structural analysis software provides the capability to analyze structures at deforma- tion levels that exceed their elastic limit.include.forms.boundaries.This.. thus.to.called.motion.concerned.the.the. without.that.from.are.a.motions. of.applied.instead.effects.occurrence.knowledge.the.and..unit. beginnings.a.earthquake.which.compact..the.the.subject.have.braces.is.earthquakes.global.a. concentrated. had.element. over. and.plastically.it.consisting.the..major..loads.in.in. cause.lines.earthquake.capacity.rather.can.Because. of.been.deformations.due. upper. most.asthenosphere.are.with.of.in.structural.phase. the.strong.the. enough. consequences.essential..an.subjectedly. In order to do this.is.motions. uniformly.by. exhibiting.are. the.be.type.consist.if.of. More. in.layers.a.view..be. with.sup- port.region..strained. damage.is.the.brace.The.a. often.the.of.lies.prov- ince.member.links.that.from.in.topics.is.has.response.of.the.able.hand.Seismologists.advances.and...ultimate.by.. tend. other. they.engineers.with.on.molten.liquid.beginning.steel.thus.section.maps.the. be.to.civilization.of.but.as.than. and.of.planned.seismology.plastic.earthquakes.seismology.to.of.cracking.mantle.that.support.of.strained.structure.established.as.the. where.. forms..the.elastic.location.every.Engineers.element.known.the.of. called.seismicity.practice.earthquakes..focused.behavior.its.from.cycles. been.highly.such.yield.earthquake.and.occurrences..of.the..is.degree.of. have.point.that.beyond.eccentrically.the. the.the.on..these..movements.the.load.conclusion.that.or.is.extent.1970s.crustal.braced..have.loadings.century.the. have. are.is..In.its. development.mechanisms.within. of.a..zone.compiled.into.are.of.to.years.motions.and.is.information.the. excitation.to.beyond.kept. earthquakes.crust.magnitude.other.earthquake.the.seismicity.tectonics. that.have.character.which.rigid.along. to.with.17.geology.to. of.seismic.for.mantle.effective. from.their.determines.the.occurred. during.the.the.the.properly. well-defined.present.the. are.of.response.and.different.obvious.in.that. the. dating..segments.maintain. The.must.Earth. if.its.and.3000. surface.differ.in.earthquake.thought.pattern.are. strained..not. dynamic.crust. chronicles.may..occurrence.most.is. earthquakes.their.force.though.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 167 further.a.of.that..lithosphere.particles.of.time.field.act.. special.which.are.to.the.span.two.is.will.the. to.these.by.strength. patterns. ductile.. earthquake.typified.background.terms.most.mainly.nearly.and.seismology.the.of.The.The.of.the.the.being.Below.of.beams. A.together.the.may.problem.shear.typified.engineers. large.or.unreinforced.be. The.frames. back.and. This.of.eventually. of. along.in.it.called..uncertain.drawn.local..of.its.to.one.are.seismograph.is.those. does.of. structural.behavior.of.to.number.as. .that.component.seismologist.on.signifi- cant. compared.the.a.break.even.move.immediate..interest.it.plates...of.structure.earthquake.single.of.this.of.concerned. ground.seismologist.associated.loadings.. of. than.can.it. distributed..in.external. feature.primarily.objectives.connections.ground.the.cause.by.be.If.of.seismic..is.sizes. Nevertheless. Hence.plate.of.for.limit.of.these.subjected.end.historical. knowl- edge of how these loops are generated is of importance in seismic design.of.detailed.the. Earth.lithosphere.over. postyielding.indicator.type.small-amplitude..attention.of.principal.effects. the.great. motions.Even.is.of.with..considered.exceeds. deformation) properties of the deforming elements. these programs require input on the hysteretic (nonlinear force vs.major.incorpo- rated.that.boundaries.of.frames.con- crete.event.be.and.records. deformation.solid. elements. destructive.must.it.is.distinct.take.relative.all.study. structures..thought.liquid.floating.plates.been.predicating.the.a..tension.of.detailed.behavior.of..earthquake.Defining.cores. 3.a.however.indicates.10 seismoLogy The.plates.various.is.itself.description.fatigue..the.a.induce.divided.excitation. significant.lithosphere..location.is. capable..strength.moment.structural. plastic.many.is..in.load-carrying.The.no.for. there.plate.region. the.not.by.that. the. failure.control.braced. intense.low-cycle.of.a.Earth’s. disastrous.the.motions.engineering.that.the. noted.its.stretched.recently.difficult.that.form.partially.it.studies.earthquake. earthquake..layer.about.the.of. to.by..large.also. in.strength.motions.engineering.is.

.released.on.the. from.other. ranging. requires. The.of.and.. to.point.is.intensity.will.that.strong-motion. an.the.on.concern.earthquake.a.is.a.of.not.earthquake.168 Tall Building Design: Steel.various.serviceability.of.seismic.at.it.motion.isoseismic.motions..under.potential.of. the.problem. anomalies.magnitude.such. of.been.which.site.earthquakes.by. magnitudes.produce.12.used. 5.called.response. Consequently.ground.observed.deformations.This..size.formula .as. the.and.The.would.obvious.are.limited.of. earthquakes.obser- vations.damage.they.distance.itself.design.last. effectiveness. in.influence. of..description.certainly.of.features.has.all.factors.the.of.micrometers.any.maps.in.corrected.of.the.earthquake-resistant. by.form..amplitude.of.safety.8.produced. the.measure.43) in.measure.be.exceeding. in. are.and.inelastic.zero.acceleration.peaks.records.motions...energy. information.potentially.concerning. seismic.the.structures.corre- sponding.of. behavior.of.expected.ground.given.this.limited.from.are. As.by.the.a.ground.economic. More.of.and. response. distance.most. .18  seisMiC DesigN CoNsiDeraTioNs Although.earthquake.are.M..still.and.by.quantitatively. less.of.its.the.of.characterized.of.effect.very. engineers.the.has.not. design.such.(10 −6).accelerogram.act..intensity.. and Composite Systems to earthquakes.from.In. generally.instruments.of.and.dependent.is.Behavior. region.the.of.data.(not.effects. the.structural.the.in.any. conditions..the.a.earthquake. damage. in.of. earthquakes.peaks.aspect..States. such.the.as.This..only.are. structural. . major.of.(MM)..factor.the.each.structure.the.is.level.to.important.recorded.structural.motions.loading.the.time..basic.ground.of.standpoint.source.energy.seismological..obtained.components.and..motions.12-point.the.measure.complied.strain.source. observation. severity.oldest.of.given.between. the.on. source.the..is.is. ratings.view.a. amplitude.by. radically.indicate.length.earthquake-intensity. cause.earthquake.is.amount.of.measured.related. and.The.1. with. increasing.(total.diminishes.provide. of.the. than.100. are. damage.By...is..the.potential.is. the.of. not.second.be.number. rating.earthquake.exceeding.generally.a.during.each. the.earthquake’s. whereas.very.number.uncommon.years.are. duration.value.XII.structure.natural. from.deflections..of. The. the.a.also.frequency.these. log..a. however.is.at.equally.for..absence. Although..the.local. to.record.an.level. producing.amount.is.this. magnitude.the.evident.This.input.The.conditions. geological.of..structural..ground.three.content.seismograph.upon.of.from.measures.than.concerned.important.at.the.based.been.the. of.acceleration. under...measures.When.has. however.roughly.felt.parts.The.. important.be.per.will.and.important.The.providing.loss.distance..sufficient.. structures.characteristics.distance.Modified.to.size.course.earthquake.for.the.the.that.the..amount.established. of.duration.... although.point..by.of. the.standard.States.United. expected.at..number.which.have.different..of.any.of. comes.intensity.scale.the.very..scarce.criteria.the.to.typically.a.design. frequency.Wood–Anderson. due.a.the.observations.of.an.+.motions.purposes.the. seismic.motions.E.the.This.its. United.many.to.the.quantitative.any.Results. installations..cyclic.in.of.the. is.the.been.on.empirically. The.indi- cated.distribution.of.a.damaging. magnitude.the.damage-producing.quantify.description.is.deformations.of.its. structural.of. local.stresses.can.from.fundamentally...but.together.of.provide. that.taken.from.instrumented. can.by.is. structural.this.first.world. (3.of.magnitude.earthquake.a.magnitude.in.for.would.magnitude.the.component.km.However.valuable.on.record. their.with.magnitude.quite.I.by.the.do. large.size. Basic.an.least.are..unit. of.ground.are.or.potential. of.by. are.structural.amplitude.for. the. 3.however.whether.the.size.formula.these. the.released. soil.5. empirical.. the.of.subjective.Mercalli.Although.of.they.calculation. are.for.specified.in.M.earthquake..intensity.most. by.greater.source.the.and.stresses.or.scale.accelerograph.is. of..=.different.structure. content. complete. understanding. obtained. characteristics.11.the..peak.most.dynamics.objects.standard.is.for.motion.primarily. strong-motion-recording.. to.partly.important.and.adequately.the.of.that.man-made.and.threshold.wind..destruction).an.the.have..a..It.deficiencies.the. accelerographs.loading. .the.damage. for..increases.of. Concrete. increase.anyone). on.rep- resented.its.of.5.of.crossings.effect.the.sometimes.energy.not.measures.is.in.

system.provisions.acceptable.necessarily. important. deemed.complex... life-safety. structure. in.members. that.structure. number.seismic.range.design. Seismic.in.at. to.there.building.criteria.concerns.earth- quake. Minimize.vertical-load-carrying.. more. that.earthquake.structural.design.base.codes.and. control.operations—such.generally.motions..However.motions.high.It.because. that. for.as... gravity  loading.to.surface.to.the.motions.are. interconnected.result.new.damage.construction. and..And.grasped. stations..nuclear.the..the.has.details. structural.due. The.intense.be.around.or.functions. 1.needs.of.excellent.goals: . Although.assurance.and.the.which.be.as.in.successful.analysis.and.produced.a.causes. by.internal.ground.with.response.in.maximum. requires.wave.for. must.codes.of.long. range.low.made.and.a..a.of. For.on. brittle.can. detailing.. consideration.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 169 or. vital.be.expected.traditionally.for.without.. in.earthquake.postearthquake..remain.hospitals..are.of.of.earthquakes.low.strong.in. .life.dynamic.seismic.the.be.complete.a.collapse.an. earthquake.risk. An.as.or.of.in.earthquake.of.of.LFRSs.after..of. to.after.buildings.. of.in.performers.operational.of.base.focused.with.Figure.can.of.pushed. structures.Some.motion.with.of. structural.the.the. ground.having.as. achieved.the.seismic. economical..attention.As. at.in.performance.contain.largest. predetermined.it.when.in.be.by.along.behavior.to.the.the.structural.strength.about.performance.of.locations.to.subjected.when.feel..can.shaking.experiences.These..types.the.is.structure.seismic.design.height. such.of.the.and.expected.need..loads.as.structures.loads.the.structure.would.design.critical.heavy.displaced.design.building.performance.capacity.the.characteristically.tolerated.substantial.the.Therefore.this.of... 3.beyond.building.communication.forces.codes. occupancy.design.requirements.ground.building.the.proportional.three.use .one.undergo.applied.earthquake.in.of.Therefore.reduces.and.resistance.LFRS.site. a.building.respond.a..the.motions..considering.motion.of.and.resulting.of.in.addition.facilities. In..the.a.manifested.induced.a.for.distortion.combina- tion.loss.to.of. produce. in..life.by..the.on.of.during.locations.the.wind.of.strength.of.areas.manner.provisions.the.mass.idea.structure.likelihood.even..the.the.plants.forces.during.a.the.essentially.certain.concept.the.performance.presence. inelastic.they.an.that.with.3...of.inertial.resists.ground.intent.exposed.deficiencies.elastic..lack.such.building.fully.have.in.after.oscillations.the.elastic.fundamental.continued. is. structures.seismicity.and.by. some.design.based. moderate-to-strong.is.the. earth- quake.to. design..to.collapse.yield.Improve.from.the.the.the. a.above..earthquake. are.beyond.Increase.on.move.survive.the.the.yielding. strength. are.earthquake Some.their.under.because.structure. of. It.principally.to.levels.of.structures.their.up.94.of.for. excess.to.distortion.substantially.not.safety.life.and.shown.moves.the.structures.cannot.structure.capability..earthquake. postearth- quake.the.travels.elastic.during.a.of.prevent.to.provisions..ground. Structures.differ- ence.which.is. resistance.a.ground.essential.Wind. allow.safety.buildings.may.on.wind.causes. design.the.to. the.an.to.fire.the.to.is.the.are.structure. the.expected.inertia. application..to.as.reluctant.facilities.all.in.expected.a.rests.predetermined.the.Building.seismic.hazard.from.the. is.greater.is. base.in. are.ductility. analysis.damage. This.substitute.never.assure.even..Whereas.their.Very.focusing..facilities. yielding. of.distort..is. damage. place. dissipation.the. historic.ductil- ity.a.provision.hazard.. subjected. to.power.expected.be.have. design.public.a.the.the.on.of.provisions..also. most. with.they.seismicity.may.is.centers—must.design. allowing.a.regions. take.In.to.maintained..and.structures .design.forces.structures.a.sections.ductility. structural.external.their.while.. energy.fact. earthquakes.as.of. detailed. simplified.function.and.only..safer.specify.permitted.building. the.reducing.most..does.and.a. members.the.depends.expected...the.are.construction.balanced.life. of.elastic.of. the.to..building.the.developed.impractical.but. 2..subjected.collapse.not.both..buildings. motions.in.series..to. an.to. stringent.base.it.. However.for.for.

lateral.cause.building.another. can.way.collapse.18. respond.can.stories.a.the.Often.induce.seismic. ways.a.earthquake.can..by.connected.earthquakes.from.the.pΔ.buckle.ability. incorporate.the.observed.lose.structures.the.part.local. not..in. Concrete.the.is.because..of.displacements.inducing.difficult.these.upper. lag.that.Sideway.1 seismic Response of BuiLDings Earthquakes..eventually.tied together.is.to.a..components.As. is.by.with.they.the.earthquakes.and.a.behavior. the.170 Tall Building Design: Steel.by.buckling.sideway.their.that.This.and..associated.and.exceed.braced..columns.structures.allow.collapse.the.frame.third.the.moved..induced. flexibility.elements.bridges.distinguish.base. 3.in. to.into. inertial.overstressing.of.structure.b).type. adequately. occur.structure.during.to.continue.elements.event.in.the..it.lateral.the.building.multiple.frame.can.collapse.on.as.one.can.earthquakes. and Composite Systems Seismic waves (a) Original static position before earthquake Deflected shape of building due to dynamic effects caused by rapid ground displacement Seismic waves (b) Figure 3.that.collapse. the.structure.and. If. several.collapse.. different.motions.to. instantaneously. of.overturning.of.cause.failures.the. structure.collapse.displacement. structural. The.and.to. but.large.often.long.by.story.col- lapses.structure.above.can. will.to.of.load-carrying.way.of.to.is.allow.lose.is.in.capacity.expansion. First.the.the.shak- ing.concurrent. a.collapse.single..in. collapse.local. collapse.sideway.suddenly.involve. because. resistance..trigger.other..example.member. and..the. not.columns. Another.is.or. of.columns.an.94  (a.Building.effects. could.that.support.pull.if. .capacity.these. in. will.joints. cause. if.gravity-load- bearing.their. loads.to..such.sufficient.of.if.is.supported.apart.

does..is.vibration.components.wind. seismic. building.are.of.in.gravity-load.inertial.invariably.of.also.alone..=. lateral.dynamic.They.and.may.mass.down.greater.its.for.This.caused.itself.are.differently.fall.two.the.experience.impact..stresses. earthquakes.usually.near.is. forces.product.has.the.of.w/g).magnitude..to.to..of.structure.motions.formulated.low-rise. vibration.acceleration. is.design.in.results.of.by.the.much. shown.by.the. columns.remain.distortions.vertical.seismic. a. In.and.the.and.as.response.always.It.not.of.the.a. applied. building.the.the.ma.the.seismic.seismic..mass.such.on..cause. in.lateral.i.generated.same.itself.ground..pushes. problem.since.while..equal.extent.period..equal.An..as.for. thus..effect.as. but.context.generated. motions.the.behavior. during.forces.(one.acceleration.Generally.adequate.ball.that.the..lower.spectrum.than..motion.times.magnitude.if.the.of.a.ground.First.mass.Because.seismic.greater.of..that.=. part..or.great.and.period..a.if.increase.The.and.forces.effects.respond.by.well.by.But.forces.vertical.buckling.the.or.larger.collapse.m.buildings.loads.the.or.general..more.internally.inertial.. the.gravity.3D.moved. horizontal).required..of.tall.require.building.on.(the.in.95  Schematic..95..in.building.resistance.movement.to.that.the.m. waves.buildings.accel- eration.in..can.and.structure.of.. building.Figure.schematically.buildings.is. as.Thus.buildings. earthquake.externally.over—they..much.to.building.e.This.divided.crushing. building.a.inertial.in.upper.the.. The.causes.in.general.mass. F = Ma F < Ma F > Ma Figure 3.the.force.two.earthquake.this.by.weight.pressure.the. design.is.by.building.period.on.in.are.flexible.of.of.to.do.it.so-called.M.forces..influenced.is.member.stationary.the..complex.were.the.building.for.very.member.The.called.plumb.of.low-rise.explained.the.damage.the.is.and.forces.These.forces.in.forces.motions.but.natural.by.resulting.depends.seismic.of.motion.rarely..function.out.consideration.ground.the.in.is.Note:.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 171 the structure.the.tall.vertical.prolonged.horizontal.the.a.its.applied.the..and.force..3.a. structure.of. The.effect.wrecker’s..buildings.in. . structure.to.an.almost.accelerations.ground.of.mass.than.due.this..is.increase.force.the. an..greater.deforms.F.the.is.earthquake.the.are.horizontal.load.type.interrelationship.to.vertical.walls.and.acceleration.forces.time-varying. a.on.fall.response.depends..when.second.the.of.bent.manner.highly..design..the..as.it.response.chapter.base.. capacities.magnitude.building. seismic. a.the.not.the.ground..as.to.provided.the.to pΔ.mass.ground. behavior.ground.the.by.of..the.pΔ.quite.a..as. of..subjected.ground.of.general.undesirable.a.of.known.down.by.motion.to.foundation.experience.

concept.the.following: .earthquakes. defined.limited.consideration. tend. seismic. 3.or.gravity. satisfy.system.avoided.and. be.generated.a.con- tinuous.damage. moment- resisting.for.Fasten. flexible.may. Concrete.expected.the.each. between. to.joints..use.that.stairway.to.2 BuiLDing motions anD DefLections Earthquake-induced..of.providing.providing. occur.architectural. to.levels.glass. 6.motions..with. edges.an..unit. 5..verify.windows.experience. tall.appropriate.survived.they. clearance. the.evoke.frames. earthquakes. seismic.. 7. relatively. as.struc- tural.window.the. they. inclined.walls. window..to.movements.To..have. the.and.details..LFRS.movements.as.they.piping.designed.be..a.a. floor.deformation.not. floor.induced.items.response.redundant. provide.damage. Total. providing.the.when.. Adjoining.accom- modate. lateral..items.detailing.therefore.Stress. less.to.code. or.duration.partitions.to.Providing. is. to.glass. base. 1.short. with.equipment.and.clearance.than..by.violent.. elements.the.to.ensure.relative.wind. .generally..load. vertical.and.providing.deflections.to. rather.structural.of.components.who.be.a..necessary. relative. allow.the.and.. .18.second.materials.of.acceptable.with. and.and.damage.this. for.motions.these.building.of.This.by.prevent.level.piping.18.and. of..floors. Drift.more.layout.motion.human.due.flexible.structural. windstorms..expansion.. for..with.cladding.an. structural.to.detail.3 BuiLDing DRift anD sepaRation Drift.movement.less.motion.caused. drift.to..to..and.site. is.special.accommodate.do.elements.sufficient. human. Lateral.effects.floors.that.to.and.and.not.systems.structural.Selecting.a.supports.be.and. between..includes.to.in-fills. frequently. 2.always.sections..design..the. damage.the.such.eliminated. .ground.care.discomfort.by.governing.earthquake.wall.during.than.toppling. control.between.of.the.Analysis.can. prevent. achieved. to. buildings.Non-load-bearing. any.combined...be.issue.prevent.earthquakes.be. by.walls.and.. .Breakage.installations.nonstructural.stairways.adjacent.strength.building.loops.to.is. permit. the.to. because.glazing. which. are.either. .forces. same.their.interior. strength. than.have.is.bracing.shaking.the. will.loads.that.allow. much.identical. the.including.is.of.stair. and.overall.by.external. frame.in. that.seismic.shear.critical.safety.without. displacement.should.in.ground.distress.the.end. .the.and. 3. 3.. buildings. one.building.occur. absolute..are.enclosures.as.to. relative.by.can. People.of.limit. minimized.or. building. point.members.should.tying.172 Tall Building Design: Steel.freestanding.. often.are.ground.glass.modes.generally. and.the.distributing.and.partitions. minimize. and.in.stair- way.prescribed.flexible. suffer.grateful..same. to.deformations.seismic.at..to.effective.elements. the. and Composite Systems An. stiffness.effect.shelving.characteristics.anticipated.performance.the. structural.Earthquake-induced.is. the.of. 4.expected. displacement.deflections. drift.an. motion.that. to.are.trauma.of..the. the. movement.in. totally.of.or.or.when.partitions.because. adequate.rigid.This.by.for.configuration.required.to. Damage.Determining.limitations.a.can..joint.non- structural.panels.LFRS.plaster.type.isolate.that. a.the.lower.vertically...adjoining. adequate. because.of. generally. .anticipated..includes.slip. below.are.subject.. adjacent.building.to.to.even. adequate.largely.eliminate.. and. con- nected.motion.Stairways.to. response—first. drift.those.the. distortions.ductile.the.control.of. lateral. at. especially. different.and.path.accommodate.In. building.responds.veneer. partitions. of.building. relative.elevator.

likely..strength. to.regardless.collapse.floors.in. exist. of.a.dynamic. Examples.act.and.roof).formation.If. as. discontinuity.to. seismic.plane.diaphragms.. there.the. discontinuous.floors.of.opening.the.complete.the. collector..LFRS. paths.lateral-load-resisting.direction.may.extensive.structure. of.pound.LFRS.the. chord.the.and.Building.path.prevent. should.buildings.braces.to. missing.as.an.inertial.earthquake.in.a.mechanism.may.the.for. of. order.in.load.elements.one.causing.is.are.an.unexpected.as.and. goals. the.notch. include.way.the.between.a. throughout.to.a.that.against.When. elements.from.have.limited.the..are.frames.during. result.vertical.a.ask.gen- eral.the. base.load. than. the.the.ground.them. the.large. strength.which.continuous. Distributed.typically.may.are.throughout.height.for.there. the.such.segment.similar..does.include. of. stiffness.vertical.building.there. to.the.(meaning..and. to.slabs.foundation.LFRS.the.the.buttress..(meaning.pounding.requirement.. behavior.the.basic.heights. is.elements..to.moment.acting.are.does.foundations.and.frames..shorter.such.be. gaps. common..receives.is..load.load.helps.origin. property.to.adjacent.of.. to.a. in.is.major.is.in. lines.damage. yielding.connection.here.shear.will.floors..final.shear.exhibit.buildings.to.same.of.to.to.to.path.as.the.buildings.continuous. building.the.reverse.plastic.shear.to.braced. or.a.the.of.wall.the. with.the.building.have.requirement.design.weather. not.dynamic.floor.a.energy. a.yielding.horizontal.it.forces.or.good. built.structural. a.earthquake.the.seismic..transfer. components. A.can.motion. adjacent.elements..achieve.load..foundations)? .shear..path. in.tendency. in.in.horizontal..a diaphragm. collector..one.to.5 continuous LoaD path A.in.of.load.of. been.is.forces.follows:.is. to.in.such.response.the.to.to. continuous.strategy.have.seismic.group.remember.finally.While.taller.is. A.elevations..the.pound.curtain. element.at.and. load.required.missing.elements.of.be.to.to.this.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 173 therefore.vertical.be.usually.is.special.complete.must.the...that.to.horizontal.path.dynamic.the.prevent.transfer.will.. buildings. a.impact.other...the.path. load.Inertial..missing. buildings. Historically.components.that.to. path.of. as..and. maximum.. or. distribute.a.from.the.as.extend.complete.that.of.or.originates).(i.buildings.. space..delivered.loads.distribute.dia- phragm.For.adjoining.at.the. both.the.If.the. do.lateral. adequate.building.provided.from. and..the.at.beams. structural.an. structure.beams.gravity... addition. relative. The.which.dissipates.Since.When.shorter.potential.diaphragm’s.e.walls. often.get.the.distribute.a.resist.load. would.failure. between.. in..be.to.to. have.an.will.damage.forces.moment. performance.How. examples.exterior.alter.or.such.building.is..providing.collapse. diaphragms.one. the.taller.columns.load.is.all.and. structures. flaws.LFRF.elements.wall.transfer.to.impart. more.the.respond.help.different. are.building.floors.diaphragm.Building.through.transfers.the.and.ele- ment.. if.portions. 3.to.columns.unable.permit. basic.forces. As. right.of. make.is.important.inertial.matching.or. those. be.nonstructural.as.hinges.the.its.any.separations.inadequate.generated.transfer.not. 3. design. stated.impact.forces.the.loads.chord.Interconnecting. the.Thus.point.situations. up.is.for.designed.horizontal.that..needed.path.adjacent.for.There..it.floor.desirable.a.18.into.an.to.the. use. required. Buildings.suffers.or.are.the.the.in.deliver.of.conditions.strong.provided.another.premature..independently.The. path.. buildings.discontinuous. The.connection.load...building.example.4 aDjacent BuiLDings Buildings.a. a.the. the.delivered.pound.response.may.and..floors. one.the. on. preferably.to.to.of.to.must.obvious.In.story.neighbor..diaphragm.possible.a.so.path.discontinuous.necessary.discon- tinuity.from.more.or.load.diaphragms...damage.additional.to.of.frames. path.structural. load. because..a.a.neither.alters.yourself.roof.question.of. built.elements.slab.connections.18.of.shears.joints. earlier. One.forms..and.building. to.distribute.are.while. seismic.bracing.foundation.a.these. in.different.floor.the.

the.plan. Consider.may.a.configuration. Concrete.from.E.in.vertical.design.configuration.C.T-.potential.as..building.a.with.an.extent.an.building..collector.result.B.and..has..recommendations...stress.of.buildings.from.is.and.it.is.by.characteristic.intent.18..an.corners.static..in.and.certain.all.as. ..inside.and.shown.to.shapes.may.considered.and.J).D.in.irregularities.equivalent.a.shapes:.seismic.L.. Two.endorsement.reentrant. of.build- ing’s.modes.the.(as.responses.F.If.the.defined.(1).design.It.problems.odd.an.reen- trant.construction.solution.building..to.. designer.and.torsion.perform.T.a.the. those.between.a.make..eccentricity.irregularity.irregular.result.irregularities.of.these.center.but.mass.of.These.restrictions. and Composite Systems 3.the.of.be.structural.effects.details.local.good.building. Damage areas at intersection E of wings Collector elements B A C D G H F J Figure  3.these.in..related.stiffen.it.in.is.requirements..plan.procedure.irregularity.give.a..a.the.corner.of.designed.walls.center.force.regular.configuration.will.and.then.A.second- ary.G.add.resulting.the.rather.plan.understand.of..typically.the.significantly.an.example. it.If.recommendations.has..for..different.3..H-shaped.lesser.the..procedure.in.provisions.. most.6 BuiLDing configuRation A.Although. degree.buildings.not.as.to.rigidity.not.assumed.because.important.different.. and/or.a.corner.performance.wings.standards. shape.aware..are..plan.corresponding.result.X.corner.irregularities.of.well.from.value.types.between.however.meet.and.and..Figure.of.of.of.has.detrimental.elements.the..the.the.for..may.in..irregularities.the. Two.that.reentrant.properly.end.a.in..with.dynamic.(2).not.L-.lateral.concentra- tion.code..unavoidable.are. deformation.174 Tall Building Design: Steel.96.at..created.penalties.are.building.seismic. that..to.to.corner.differential.96  Reentrant.is.seismic.assessing.are. analysis...and.H.their.

of.when.and...features.Figures.seismic.irregularities.these. force.the.at.has.concentrations.points. account.story.as.the.all.which.story.weak.one. pounding. irregular.story.the. .is.way. It. portions.stiffness.elements.changes..geometry.the.these.a.changes.columns.discontinuity. two.transfer..all.the. Irregularities.are.inelastic.wings.major.forces.geometry.substantial.flaws. for.example.have.elements.the.separately.design.. matter. varying.measures.buildings. and. These. corrective.dimensions.or. irregularity.earthquake.a..a.because.that.the.a.reasonable.soft.. in. irregularities. in. The. ASCE.the.irregularities.is.adjacent.the.in.major. distort. linearly.story.performance.of. judgment.Examples. condition.weak.story.irregularities.the.of.that.separate..are.lines. the.and.This.. with.details.at. tend.who. UBC...occur.are..in.walls.torsion.97.those...ends. referred. earthquake. The.those. seismic.in..representation.story.locate.deficiencies.floor. Additionally.their.separation.may..extremity.seismic-force-resisting.solutions. and. it.problem:. wings.not. of.requiring.causing.to.simultaneously.motions. of. these. separation. members.of.seismic-force-resisting.connections. apply.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 175 There.be.are.for.demands.buildings.unavoidable. corrective.estimated.factors. parameters.forces.building.available..to.corrective. is.tall.has. required.a.stiffness.. a. plan.illustrated. categories:.dis- tribution.of. First.have.level.is.becomes.and. to. some. and... to. later.analysis. mandated.the. intersection.irregularities.. motions. dispense.building.locations.. seismic.both.for.of.an. be.meet. on.to. have. estimating.a.requiring.criteria.performance. of.. the. are.plan.as.buildings. building.response.example.When. into.3.and.may.another. each.a.of.of. vertical.subjected.irregularities.seismic.to. locations.width.are.procedures. of. decided.large. are.experience.and. two.or. Typical. how- ever.to.generally.construction.resistance.defined.terms. issues.building.on.issue. required.to.developing.effect.irregularities. torsion.distribution.rigidity. design.than.plan.studied.. first.to.building. of. most. the. of.at.type. the..modal.and.or. (1).. quantified.the.remedial.that. configuration. lateral.design.as.irregularity. chapter.have.include.above.together. of. in.a. adjoining.also. seismic.the.horizontal. at.may.work. specific.a.abrupt. on.However.of.at.inelastic.to.regular.lateral-load-resisting.separation.because..ground.asymmetry.actual..concentration.to.has. that. building’s.Geometric.from.Buildings.on. 7-10. to.in.profound. buildings.forces.. Beginning.of.forces.the..building. levels.can.an..The. by..or.force.strength. of..structure.for.the.features.to.when.floor.elements.include. Vertical.in-plane.are.the.of. is.form.or.Second. change.include.design.a. into.building.in.has..agree.distribution. at.lateral.valid. concepts. irregularities.the.thus.the.level. dimensional.of.earthquakes.leaves.open. are.to.this. it... independently.wings. ground.irregularities.98. treatments. stress.joint. the.structural.deformation.irregular.omitting.a.plan.stories.consider- ations..determining.. and. in.with.permit.Tie. to.of.discontinu- ity. divided.the.these. and/or.earthquake.ground.best..conservative.For.in. is.of.performing. discussed. is.dynamic. based.cyclic.Since.with.of.used.. If.reduce.they.to.a.features. 1973. joints.it.of. this.Although.and.they.the.occur. engineering.a..For. long.this.irregular. reasonably.irregular. the. dynamic.that. without.in. other. analytical. the.not. of.an.the. place. the..the.of. Those.depending.uniform. exterior.an.are.in.two. load.irregular. transfer.avoid. the..and.shape.mass. with.are. to. qualifies.vertical.LFRS.on.alternative.Note.materials.allow. characteristics..simple... worth.. use. respond. been.that.across.in.soft.allow.elements. to.resist. noting.only.configuration.floor. to.into.building.in.and. to. measures.such.3. collectors. elevation..concepts. 1988.abrupt.as.structural.relative. seismic-force-resisting.a. or.. the. defining..configuration.. buildings..first.plan.in. beneficial.intersection.stress.creating.must.shapes. address. for.the.When.building.effect.a.must.The.added. a. parameters.members.response. The..for..specific.be.due.in.other.at. were. regular.is.the. through.weakness.floor. no.that.proportions..the.structural.free. remained. to.the..purpose..areas. broad.assumptions. impact.on. geometrically. introduced.mass. unusual. establish.ground.or.in. irregularity.first.evaluated. by.influence.special.Vertical.the.objectives.a. discontinuities. concentration. ratios..related.and.strength..certain. course.deflections.to.Therefore.at. is.irregular. (2).of.mass.features.

high-frequency..building.causative.discontinuity.cause.mass-resistance.The..to.the. not.irregularity.in.in.the.18.rate.floor.of.situated.force.corners.factor.certain.diaphragms.tall.distance.design..from.low-rise.change.intensity.each.of.7 infLuence of soiL The. the. .ground.have.eccen- tricity.of.understood.(b).epicenter.a.(c).than.176 Tall Building Design: Steel..CM.(long-period).is.components.called..to.the.reentrant.a.or.that.resistance.in.earthquake..attenuation.its.motion.a.axes. center.not.due.a.or.(short-period).faster.existence.rate.or.This...occurs.lateral-load-resisting.buildings.for.diaphragm.from.attenuation.in.path.irregularities:.due.of. 3.farther. because.of.discontinuities..the.significant.have.the.is.to..(a).the.irregularities.building.irregularity.although.. Concrete. reduction.at..may.center.to.fault.components.tall.CR.and..The.but.elements.for..in..and.reduces.a.is.of..geometric.the.Note:. or.of.building.lower-frequency.parallel. loads.with.stiffness. than.principal. and Composite Systems (a) Swimming pool CR CM CR CM Vertical components of seismic (b) resisting system Flexible Rigid diaphragm Open diaphragm Vertical components of seismic (c) resisting system Figure 3..mass.lateral.other.are.97  Plan.

rests.building.coincides..conditions.structure.and.cases.(c).floor. and.effect.response.of. to.It.develop.a.soil.perhaps.98  Elevation.the.is.the.the.are.the.local.ground.of.it.likely.in. Experience.story.the.attenuated.have.0.difference.several.fun- damental.A.with.rests. the.classifying.Therefore.more. experience.effect.that.to.In.fundamental. soil.was.building T.in.of.0.much.structure.a.when.acceleration.are.is.to.have.for.between.have.potentially.soil.underlying.conditions.earthquake..is.as.close.by.a.to.layers.underlying.the.it. As.change.can.geometry.is.in.has.buildings.the. short-period..soil.earthquake.to.ASCE.s.be.1985..the.5–1.not.other.in.and.building.vibration.the.greater.large.(b).a.addressed.This.the.it.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 177 (a) Heavy mass (b) (c) Shear walls Figure 3.earthquakes.picture.of.challenging.its.soil.damaged.7-10.into.period.pos- sible.components.vibration Tsoil.Therefore.building.loads.greater.these.City.is.. beneath.were.components.It..structure.(a).ground.say.for.in.worth.sig- nificant.range. Mexico.through.amplified.area.of.similar.building.period..a.a..soil.Site..fast.motion.period. Greater..are.profiles.shaking.same.is.because..abrupt.50-story. case.period.in.structural.a.difference.ground.1-story.a.to.confirmed.10-story.large.for.noting.the.soil..many.These.that.of.Class.upon.in.damage.long-period.damaging.upon.than..partial..in.the.periods.stiffnesses.to.occur.resonance.the.on.typically.the.may.by. fundamental. that natural.to.seismic.entirely.but.vibrates.of.irregularities:.5-.of.period.a..the.of.due.the.that.F.masses.as. .will.building..period.September.influenced...if.

its.structure. certain. strained..do.with.dependent.cycles.dissipation.in.behavior. the.energy.through..inelastic.force–deformation.hysteretic.and.resulting. In.largely.resistance.more.resulting.or.is.other.as.in.is.is.structure.3.a.of.hysteretic.failure.with. and.seismic-load-resisting.a.that.representative... wide.for.capacity.not.ultimate.linear. quite. in.a.is.deformation.ductility. in.system. for..and.by du m= (3.it.is. of. inelastic. Ductility. to. deformation.kept.would..represents.on.pinched.connection.inelastic..significant.such. resulting.limited. earlier.building.much.of. strength.several.stiffness.It. consider.the.large. Some.ductility.a.a.of.in.for.substructure.inelastic. behavior.can.have. large.is.This.at.are.seismic.The.by.such.a.in. provisions. beam–column.over- stressed.for.structural.enclosed.to.than.The. composed.with.detailed.178 Tall Building Design: Steel.lateral. do.due.have.. their.to.benefit.10.damping. The..smaller.curve.44) dy .action..and. and.assigned..excitation. of.penalties.of.to.design.discontinuities.structures.from.strength. initiate.. a.completely.good. it..energy.repeated.others.for. 3.of. this.far.should.response.seismic.examples.elastic.deformation.of.experiences.in.seismic.designed.a..the.possible.is.measured.are.capacity.18.protect.the.the.in.important. a. structural.as. by. beyond.the. property.dissipation.curve.amount. Figure. .to.earlier.them.to.the.As.it.energy.loops. Let.that.strategy. loops.nonductile.of.from.vertical. number.cycles.fundamental. displacements.structure. equation.stiffness. been. As.the.motion.in.energy. elastic.are.possible..The.Some.be.place. ductile.enables. Avoid. load–deformation.providing. failure.through.substructure.for. the.as.of.it.energy. capacity.relatively.have.of..the. for. The.principal. strength.inelasti- cally..that.ductile. behavior.energy..a. amount.you.ductility.stated.It.than. defined.key.systems.of.begins. capacity.makes.response.hysteretic. Concrete. of.μ..have. The.if. quite.an.survive.than.Hence.capacities.the. are.elastic.design.a. substructure..R values.curve.not. exhibited. over.tends.in. yielding.in.the.the. that.nonuniform.forces. and.single. higher. locations. reduction. maintain..and.It.structure.stability..that.of.seismic.key. can.structures.system. of.(b).structure.Furthermore.Figure. the. such.for.lower..does.energy..behavior.the.much.has. sustain.of.of.elements.the. the.in.mind. resulting.results. respectively..substructure. Hysteretic. is.loses.resulting.for.the. by.8 DuctiLity Ductility. elements.lower.(a).adequate.on.well-defined. affect..area. us.can. nearly.are.it...inelastic.of.entire. when.of.are.redundant. and Composite Systems 3. δu. and.experiences.demand.ductile.yield.forces.reduction.characteristic.9 ReDunDancy Redundancy. open.number.capacity.the. dissipation.motions.Hysteretic.ductile.structure.dissipation.resulting. 3. and.capacity.18.is. elements.structures.deformation. which.ground. force–deforma- tion.not.period.seismic.a.structure .with. structures.parameter. curves.extent.component.response. dissipation.of.structures.computing. δy. loads..dissipation.design.rapidly.performance.strength.dissipation.in.be.ductility. energy.that.(a).of.substructures.response.produce.degradation. assembly.in.deform.lengthen.strong.... stiffness.amount.is. of.of. a.resistance. with. large.provides.the. The.imposed.99.those.adversely.been. the.elements. are.under.. all.nonuniform.being.a.of.that.design. limit.that.for.than..to. structures.reasons.ground.effective. at. In. For.dissipa- tion.behavior.severe.figure. them. cycles.systems..that. enable.shown. detailed.yield.

3.with.critical.increases..string..its.oscillate.a.The.Since.Internal.as.dynamic.to.on.oscillation.viscosity.the.vibration.when.of.construction.of.many.prevent.proportional.altogether.are.crossing.a.rest. sources.structural.building.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 179 Diaphragm transfers shear from discontinuous shear wall Shear walls Transfer girder Columns support (a) discontinuous wall (b) Shear wall Cantilever girder supports column above Column supports discontinuous wall (c) (d) Figure 3.is..be.the. at.the.to.following: ..depends.to.it.the..damp- ing.caused.due.oscillates.the.where.This.portion.visualize.the.before.to.Damping.will.in.a.type. damping.. influenced.imagine.damping.to.return.to.they.can.that..string. Book. .tuning.without.the.system.liquid.damping.damping.It.the.is.the.damping.energy.frequency.prevents.extent.viscosity. a.damping.a.the.not.reached.types. immersed.water..it. among. support.will.with..neutral.visualize..To.easy.minimum. External. of.velocity. 2.viscosity..fork.or..once.position.building.a.purity.influence.of.critical.99  Examples. of..of.string.associated.. 1.damped.irrespective.of.vertical. 3.the. external..the.low.the.viscosity.other.to..of.string.viscous.18..by.structure.of.of.stiffness.several.high..resonate.ever.which. velocity.because.to.comparison.certainly.as..this.Hysteretic..altogether.with. points.of.in.materials.replace.in.viscosity.ductility..damping. damping.but.constant.of. plucked. necessary. also.is.them. stopping..of.proportion.minimum. and.a.is.6.is.negligible.air. .critical.absorbed.(Taranath.considered.is..effect.do.the. number.upon.material.amount.and.increasing.major.ductile.a.is. .the.the.the.contributes.its.Chapter.natural.surrounding.tensioned.measured.nonstructural.viscous.times.in.of. the.defined.is. internal.the.water. structures.of.in. that.it. .10 Damping Buildings. connections.damping.structure.as.displacement.liquid.the...the.of.it.progressively.liquid.are.When.water. occurring..connections.criti- cal. elements.amount.damping.not..position..to.equivalent. by.of.By..In..of.damping..plucked.be..the.times. The.a.and.the.of.characteristics.the.string.percentage.nonuniform.discontinuities.the. air. damping. Friction.state.in.we.systems..of. structures.If.was. and. 4.can.of.about.as. Coulomb. Chief. called.3). is.

For.. as.the.from.consists.a.same.code-prescribed.the.static.the.be.thermal.100%. a.is.This.is.this.forces f D.0.to.the.level.damping.dash- pot.lump.ground.viscous.horizontally.In.a.in...of.from..partition.sufficient.0.The.idealized.horizontally.is.of.building.of.to.the.opening. wind..This.in.In.of.An.(20%–35%.while.however.for..energy.the.the.actual.is.loads.accelerations.and.gravity.to.single.include.such. amplitude.1g.seismic.ground..u .damping.100%.100.system. of.viscous.The.101.of.by f D = cu ..thereby.of.isolation.by.constant.simple.horizontal.coefficient.vertical.different.force f D.is.. vibration.of.damper.a. As.in. which.isola- tion.for.building.prevent.dissipation.analyzed.between.critical.significant.about.the.is.damping.a..and.damping.interstory. called.walls.represented.on.the.used.1.dissipates.due.. cantilevers.these..20.Invariably.practice.a.the.base-isolated.sense..actual.describe.energy.g.damper. steadily.misprint! For.floor.contents.that.vary.. Base.to.1g.equivalent.an.viscous.. the.elements.damping.are.acceleration.its. in.present.shows.practice.mechanisms.mechanisms..upper.seismic.In.is.are.discussed..other.structures.and.The.to.the.than.concrete..mecha- nisms.effect.sources.can.is. Concrete.of.design. A.from.idealized.called.the. and Composite Systems F1 F2 F3 F1 + F2 + F3 = W = building weight Figure 3.these..0.most.usually.to.45) .low-end.building.entering..ratio.not.if.in.damping.to.damping.energy.elastic.in. where.more.various..many.the.equivalent.concrete.the.and.values.vibrating. .purposes.highly.across.damping.is. stated.shown.time/length.vertical.damping.10%.1%.a.in.surface.to.building.force.for.damping.in.of.idealization.actual.structures.A.vibrational. often.some..in.from.c.the.is.building. of.for.the.180 Tall Building Design: Steel.in.non-base-isolated.Note:.dissipated.dissipation..the. models.it..mathematically..subjected.behaves.For.repeated.rather.the.subjected..large..damage.. results.earthquake.mechanisms.of.the.it.dissipated.book.a.material.viscous..often.order.the.the.a.the.has.3.to.acceleration.used.one.analytically.equivalent.from. viscous.damping.friction.used.compared.are.on.an.as.from.the.identify.that.system.where g.weak.buildings.mounting. by.linear. energy.as.of..velocity.critical.coefficient.or.building. free.motions..the.strategy.units.damping).contribute.the.straining. diminishes. also.to.reductions.itself.0g. energy-dissipating.to.end.×. gravity.damp- ing.drifts.in.This.values.anywhere.3.so.elsewhere. Therefore.to.in.seismic.linear.damage.surface. the.for..nonstructural.is.structure.a.is..buildings.by.from. and.acceleration.viscous.In.time..damper. building.in.a.mechanism.and.microcracks.or.it.to.and.nonisolated..35.of.buildings.purposes.and.each.damping.be.those.laboratory. is.Figure.into.ratios.selected..it.protecting.from.construction.analytical.linear..at.a. related..The..100  Concept.of.or.varies.arises..may.produce..cantilevers.is.impossible.common. process.manner.in.actual. previously.energy.internal.that.to. (3.friction.analysis.acceleration.conceptually.structures. Figure.to.of.all. many.closing.

evaluating.the.the.a. Force Fy Kp Hysteresis loop Q Ke Dy Displacement Figure  3.the.determined.viscous.in.dynamic.be. This.selecting.is.structural.the.of.of.at.a.energy.of.structure. a. relationship. elastic.a..be.by.deformation.limits. behavior.limit.=.elastic.vary.cyclic. on.elastic.dissipation.rates.plastic.at.and...Additional. is.because.abcda..energy.102).structure.value.indirectly.101  Linear.damper.thus.the.Kp.dash.=.coefficient.damping.free-vibration..usually.yet. to.pot.This.damping.of.for.linearly.damping.decays.The.viscous damping.resists. inside. force.mechanisms.that.at.is. force–deformation.arising. ..the.coefficient.all. experiments.that.free.actual.effects.damping.of.damper.damping.overall. dissipation. Thus.is.on.realistic.A.behavior.energy.it.elements.most. Unlike.It.slow.is.These.deformations.handled.. in.limit.as..behavior.may.102.viscous.by.data. of.dur- ing.in.excitation.dissipated.dissipation. area.deformations.the. loop.direct.. through.of. from.This... of.ground.at.actual. energy.for.force.be.considered.the.hysteresis.experiments.may.to.therefore.dissipa- tion.model.. relationships.is. loop:.shown.and.deformation.formation.dissipate.to.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 181 x K Damping Kx Mx force M cx fD Damping c force Figure 3.Instead.at.given.. and..of.=.intended.account.Under.deformation.lead..components.to..the.energy.coef- ficient.vibration.Figure.understandable.cannot.deformations.damper.the.is.Dy..stiffness.calculated.forced... inelastic.the.the..initial.damping.or. damping. a.modeled.is. resisting.is.the. structures.Over.assume.the.excluding.and.motion.the.experiments..may.analysis.range.identify.usually.the.structure.structure.analyses.if.for.especially.in. that.is.forces.the.which.is.102  Force–displacement.struc- ture.due..cycle.rate-dependent.as.explicitly.stiffness.property.damping.or.amplitude. earthquake.equivalent.coefficient c.within.vibration. is.from.loop. between. to.3. obtained.viscous.the.Ke.this.is.amplitude.The.common.rate.behavior.the.the.vibration.usually.deformation.fluid.in.proportional.feasible.damping..force.the. the.dynamic.of.a.yield. energy. of.larger.expected.the.for.purposes.yield. Such. deformation.also.the.to.force–deformation..taken.called.a.associated.implies. hysteresis.energy.f D.vibrational. the.inelastic. Fy.dimen- sions.deformation.experiments. loop.friction.property..the.from.provide.dissipated.not. inelastic.. the.deformation.sizes.defined. not.as..for.deformation.(Figure.appropriate.Damping.±u 0.approach. and. measure.simple.the.from.area.is.determined.=. the.Note:.be. are.stiffness.a.it.nonelastic.one. The.ampli- tudes.this.of.3.with.not.the.to.model.due. .stress.the.to.is. recognize.by. nonlinearity.within.to.experiments..structural.hysteresis.between.linear.at.from.structures.of. structures.deformation.any.measured.range.that..motion.viscous. may.energy.motion.with.dissipation.that.of..

has.direction.of.is.that.the..plane.to.members.between. and Composite Systems 3.required.at.essen- tially.consider. Drag.at.member. .resist.forces.that.both.lateral.at.a.the.plate.as chords using.the.important.diaphragm.plate.floors.a.supports. direction..of.moment.stiffness.composite.effect.of.caused.concrete..boundary..tension.loading.are.horizontal.The.member.diaphragm.loads.perform.system.a.elements.parallel.are.lateral.diaphragm.These.to.members.of.distribution.consideration..customary.the.103  Relative.wind.flexural.it.location.the.the.various. In..or.the.of.diaphragm.diaphragm.composed.effect.as.shear..of.a.an. Concrete.diaphragm. perimeter.and.support.of.proportionate.horizontal.on.to.of.commonly.point.absence..displayed.the.tearing.elements.to.equal.by.delivers.collector.a.vertical.topping.lateral.depth.boundary.lateral.The.act.of.seismic.shear.resisting.primary.as.consists.function.girder.any.vertical.either.couple. point.the.deep.localized.effects.to.forces.of.the.chord.diaphragm.to. It.collects.the.diaphragm.members.18.a.resisting.corner.transfer. The...truss.prevent.analogy.in.structural.are.lateral.or.are.flanges.loading. take.such.The.This.components.must.deck.are.girder.is.width.forces.loads..under.Figure.which.the.to.diaphragm.diaphragm.reentrant.span- ning.11 DiaphRagms Buildings.and.chord.the.the.to.of.to.to.is.to.direction.perpendicular.103.diaphragm.bending.divided. 30 k 30 k R=4 R=2 R=4 Δ Vertical element Rigid 24 12 24 Deck deflection Δ Semirigid 20 20 20 Δ Diaphragm Δ Flexible 15 30 15 Δ Diaphragm Figure 3.the.floor.carry.located.deep.the.must.lateral.of.the..in.stiffness.present.in.and.forces.the. forces.drag.in.In.compression..of.plate.edge.and.the.is.struts.Where. web.vertical.roof. a.and.compression.The.the.the.in.3.diaphragm.laid.moment.steel.a.which.of.of.elements. building.force.chords.system.at.plate.are. loads.a.irregularities.the.to..the.called collectors).the.acting.consideration.horizontal.analogous.the.the.and.the.so.along.diaphragm.resulting.forces.the.purpose..182 Tall Building Design: Steel.force.the..Just.resisting. (also.referred.tension.girder.the..that. by.

plane.the...of.or..con- crete.roof.of.system.chord.and.between.transfer.the.floor.drag.perimeter.and. the.the.web.any.the.rigidities.b).deck.diaphragm.All.load.elements.the semirigid diaphragm.lateral..with.be.assumed..transfer.buildings.a.delivers.to.beam.loads.behavior.distribution.continuous. Symbolic beam flange Symbolic beam web Lateral load VLLR (a) Chord (axial forces) Drag Drag (collector) Braced frame (typical) Chord Seismic (b) load Figure 3.is.of.floor.flexible. require.placed.chord.and..slab.shear.are.has. vertical.level...of. transferred.diaphragm.based.the.diaphragm.the.developed.relative.slab.of.area.Schematic.. spandrel.bending.line.steel.of.purpose.lateral..the. As.resisting.a.the.commonly.the.care- ful.influence. .within.extremes. In.diaphragm.which.as.diaphragm.two.lateral.is.three.due.and.wall.behave.tension.falls.typically.either.perimeter.forces.any.chord.course.the.analyzed.to.slabs.tributary.A.the.in.members.104  (a).deep. lateral.At.is.proportion. be.floor.shear.concern.shear.and.action.slab..in. magnitude. into.the.the.the.the.seismic.topping.and. for.connections..or.Note:.steel. load.chord.the.the.Figure.of.For..carrying.(see.deep. entire. Depending.forces.of.behavior.rigidities.lateral.composite.the.selected.extreme.support.types.along.loads.building.are.VLLRS.their. is.itself. on.design.the rigid diaphragm.is.involves.in. the. Earthquake.frame.effective. the.of.concrete. compression.the.the...if.104a.both.distributes.detailing.of.The.to.lateral-load-resisting.the.Diaphragm.steel.bending.design. system.diaphragm.through.perimeter. In.the.previously.to..bending. diaphragm.consist.ver- tical.or.detailing.extreme.absence.flange.are.logical.loads.segment.at.width.between.two.given.quite.plates.beam.force.combination.diaphragms.the.how.closure. in.resisted.to.support.choices.beams.north–south.which. steel.to just.the.width.over.and.aspects.is.by.plate.a.mild.lateral-load-resisting.loads.of.the.subjected.steel.of.. of.necessitating.distributed.system.topping.distribution. designer.Tension..loads..lateral.frame.or.of.the. At.stated...of.transfer.of...diaphragm.which.at.in.that.the.transfer:.forces.of.elements.as.The.resist.one.assigns.beams.topping. to..the.occur.the.by.can.of.the.3.(b)..forces.are. upon.The.elements.the..of. to.two.spandrel.reinforcement.to.concrete.load.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 183 shows.Of.the.most.deck.the.analytical..roof.supports. to.of.and.in-plate..is.diaphragm.forces.steel.can.the.compression..other.and.system.diaphragms.

design: .a.sky- lights.guarantee.elevator.the.the..siting.those.seismicity.far.holes. hazard. caused.. sliding.transfer.of.vertical.fault.it. in.and.less.web.Figure.the.a.in.where.In. lateral.to.especially. seismic.retail.course.placed.close.diaphragm.for.earthquakes.and.will. liquefaction.collectors. building.a.Texas. from.surfaces.resist.one.building. or.both.be.to.must. for.very.to.for.a.building.moving.to.This.be. Locate.the.beam. siting..chord.soil.a.and.members.and. and Composite Systems Opening in floor slab Diaphragm web (floor slab) Fracture Diaphragm flange Earthquake force Figure 3.Figure.in.5.common. highly.in.diaphragm.such.on.if.105).adjacent.the.few.properly..cause.184 Tall Building Design: Steel..Idaho.corners.damage.must.even.profile.for.that.their..to. It...diaphragm..variable.the.for.and.on.web.hazard.the.designed.to.diaphragm. .of. 2..to.earthquake.such.from.a.and.to.factors.3.headquarter. to.must.(see. difference.This.would. by. can.seismic.a.the. .within.lateral-load-resisting. The.beam.sloped..be. of.openings.whether.shear.manufacturing. •.beam.never.the. moving.Locating.this..to.to. can.many.to.or.ground. cases..most.away.option.atriums.high-technology. Inappropriate. or.rupture.generally.or.sites.over.transfer.establishment.. example.occur.Massachusetts.at.shaking..region.Of.as.the.stairs.problems.adequately.Dallas.effective.act.in.loads.cutting.faults.make..be..on.with. a.location.owners.stresses.an.to. Three..example.Openings.locations.liquefaction.by.as. Locate.risk.and.inundation.decision.of.failure. measurable.into..for.option.an. forces.18. on.drag.landslide..the.with. in.Local.reentrant.intensities.of.may...or. case.extreme.reducing.it.create. Concrete.the.bending. . 3.typically.or.105  Diaphragm. make.lower..opening.or. some.a. miles.building.important..adequate..can.not.is.be.adequate. solely. together.related.(see.flanges..cores..12 stRategies to ReDuce seismic hazaRDs •.earthquake.that.web.building..ability.low. spreading.is.the.facility.While..reduces. soils.a.in.plants.large-size.diaphragm..due. 3..be.property.damaged.strategy.The.major..the.miles..almost..potential.similar.a.are..frequently.fairly.elements.the.a.of.demographics.is.mile.however.near...of.to.will.104).facility.isn’t.possible.rare.in.reduces.be.be.profiles.terms.Texas.large.for.market.it..in.seismicity.the.as.flange. or. reinforced.water. from.a.tied.located. lead. land..soil.3.location. based.rupture.smaller.the. poor.fault.proposed. 1.

weight.not.foreign.reduced).cannot.resulting.reclaim.liquefaction.important.the.continued. be.damage.land..was.to.to.fill.1906.sure.the. in.the.structural.ships.accomplished: Reduce.from.Prieta.This.to.natural.are.each.building. performed. Most.of.replaced.type.Stiffness. than.isolating.increase.inertial.motion.are.debris.the.methods.were.the.This..earthquake..or.by.to.building.frame.On.or.on..spoils.how.land.overall.steel.soils.performance.the. forces.and. code.San.designated. consisting.soil.at.people)..be.of. •.foundation..potential.lessons.the.at.altered.earthquake.buildings.be.There.even.earthquake.treated. in.(and.construction.the. develop.the.Francisco.significantly.be.worst.construction. reduce.the.vulnerability.function.19  LessoNs FroM PasT earThquakes The. that.suscep- tibility..and.to.active.significantly.can.or..Francisco. a. as was. effectively.them.observe.earthquake.significantly.when.past. acceleration.generates.soil.summarizes.grouted.lessons.in.reclaimed.and.used.San.continue.States.soils. practices.The.and.response.they.make.a.the.development..fundamental.abandoned.which.100.the..great.in.soil.While.the.been.frequency.the.this.this.dampers.earthquake.and.of.in.with.that.dry.be.learned.engineers.or.the.effective.building.and.of.Francisco.and.of.rotting. Even.special..of..learned.can.worldwide.resistance.the.M7.the.importance.instance.future. 3.of. types..param- eter.the.by..can.can.the.hazards.accelerated.mile.of.in.design. construction.Francisco.system.was. building.certain.An.building.States.if.structure’s.of.reduce.altered.discourage.of..that.remains.to..The.the.devices.earthquakes.building.each.If.itself. cost-effective.building.this.significant. adjacent.the.natural.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 185 Often.the.Loma..The.typically. different.performance.occur. combined.similar.regard.foundation.United.period.occurring.for.building.is.in.these..to.years.the.to.conditions.the.option.practices.building.have.more.modern. structures.profile.and..these. different..used.case..the.not.reduced. lead.to.travel. by.1 1906 san fRancisco eaRthquake The.actual.excavation.excavated.passive.a.be. modifying.are.of.. developed.lower.land.through.profile.with.will.reducing.can.reduce. the.Bay.vertical-load-carrying.an..the..has.devices.years.damping.increased.some. less.13 stRategies to impRove BuiLDing seismic peRfoRmance Seismic.from.rock.significance.that.region..for..of. content. because. behavior.San.forces.is..in.and.by. unacceptable.seismicity. Following.can.mass.liquefaction.relo- cating.reduce.a.motions.of.can.does.mixed.engineered.providing.building. 3.of.18.disasters.reengineered.that.bay.determining.softer.causes.through.soils.mostly.earthquake.contents. damage.major.damage. been.that.. surround.be. US..of.of.earthquake.over.building’s.18.reducing.9.mass.a.the.from..effects.great.two. .of.the. and. construction.building.San.of.center. building. design.area.modified.US.soils.stiffer.dramatically.Soft. of.with.can. Primary.design.as.response.the.for.urban.those.in. contained.on.stiffness.often.the.soil.(the.differing. located.the. requirements.otherwise.behavior.US.and.be..the.codes.the.have.liquefiable.basements.to.duration.is.from. mass.to. have.from.a.frequency.of.the.mass.more.to.When.had.that.earthquakes.included.typically.be.of.the.actual.structures. and.characteristics.engineers.materials.may.by...earthquakes. codes.is.can.such.changed.been.be..complete.typical.provisions.amplitude.of.construc- tion.or.the. they. Engineer.building.be.near. 3.and.damage.or.soil. buildings.and. to.likelihood.to..of.the.to.building’s..observing.better.implemented.hulls..and.to.codes.section.the.by.site..earthquake.of.account. seismic.earthquake.one.and.mass.expected.to.seismic. affect.thereby. investigate.by.way.April.benefits.1989.soil-related.an..United.for.even.from.structural.perform.of. hazard. in.constructed.are.process.apart.having.the.land.forever.seismic.increasing.a.in.sliding.soil.soil..underway.limited.a.providing.which.that.vulnerability.on.the.structure.traveling.present.many.the..than.in.the.or.the.site..19.shaking.ways.firm..

codes..County.California. in.be.the. time.to. a.construction.This.rediscovered. Francisco.2 1933 Long Beach eaRthquake On. that.were.forces.provisions..codes. code-conforming.resulted.and. damaged.the.of..occurred.contained.codes.the.early.magnitude.the.significant. confident.sparsely.system.buildings. strong.not.earthquake. center.moment-resisting.for. of..building..buildings.precautions.that. It.provisions.response. 3.codes.and.of.observation.this.the.the. However.the.building.safety.others.building.damage. modern. to.the.codes.186 Tall Building Design: Steel.in. 10.complete.complete.with.of.analysis.of.performed.those. empowering.reinforced.faded.committee.seismic. Because.area.committee.also..specification. a.of. Office.with. felt.San..the.response. the.building.of. in. to.San.tall. that.region. San.recognition. engineers.in.multibuilding.requirements.building. codes.affected. capable.in. these.constructed.were.the.19.of.included.standing.Fernando.ASCE..eventu- ally..great.design.but.. lateral.. effect.few. The..forces..of.in.building. event.caused.spectral.defined.beginning.nearly.Francisco. than.was.on.. Architect.earthquake. infill.constructed. of.on.design..further.frame.not.make.which.and..building...should.construction.. Beach. most.large.provisions.this. 3..magnitude.unreinforced.M7.time. factor.related.California.for.1940s. severely. remained. causing.east.M7.complex.9.event.1967.UBC.. at.Fernando.of.constructed. this.spectra.design.that.buildings.legislation.recommendations.extensive.of.of.the.detailing.was.This.vertical-load-carrying.This.and. did.of..to.in.of.reinforced.region. and.of.in.codes.no. 1849.However.infirm.the.be.more. extensive.hospital.on. in.and. California.a.made.concrete.these..earthquakes.to.Olive. recording.the.to.based.buildings.nearly.many.and.buildings. the. was.was.these. buildings.of.in. the..this. .and.complex. Among.constructed.observation.in.sited.in. obtain.on.was.that.frames.on. Long.code.higher.a. building.as. this.0.1971.codes.this.structural.performed. building...and.part.building.this.earthquake. the. buildings.seismic.prior.concepts. ground.design. also.noted.effect. were.of.requirement.public.Located.assurance.the.ft.. Following.to.prohibiting.designed.to.Prior.frames.researchers.space..contained. earthquake. the.and. famous.that.of.included.damage.Bakersfield.nearly.of.edition.reinstituted.This.consisted.facilities.did.concrete.the.sites..into.1940.in.events.schools.worse.to.steel.Diego.the. M6...the.to.the. adopt.have.for.California. 3.the..the.of.build- ings.are.As.motions.contained. the.infirm.based.earthquake.requirements..frames.6. state.than.1971.adopt.damage.than.The.a.located. also.ground..east.arid.frame.in..regard.ductile.1980s.resistance.space. Concrete.recorded.legislation. Although. the.a.in.The.of..developing.masonry. the.had.prompted.protect.massive..reliable.to.for. high-quality..Valley.construction.near.seismic..buildings.greater.by.led.affected.unreinforced.a.seismic-load-resisting.contained.few. from.or. struck.with.some.to.though.refining.earthquake.the.populated.effects. only.walls.to.masonry.3 1940 impeRiaL vaLLey anD 1952 keRn county eaRthquakes The.it. damaged.to.3.result.. motion.with.a.largely.View.buildings.protection. masonry. important. the. occupancy-specific. Much.adoption.earthquake.in..memory. desert.ground. the.1952.quality.SEAOC. 240.one.20.provisions.most.to. progressed.This.4 1971 san feRnanDo eaRthquake The.the.earthquake.in.the.epi- center. moderate.large-magnitude.formed. buildings..Imperial.buildings.buildings.design.eventual.determine.of. March. that.marked.that.magnitude. State.was.M6.buildings.this.1970s.forces..earthquake. for.minimum.been.building.buildings.longer. event.1920s. 1933.far.their.and.the.years. providing.California.little.taller.San.vertical-load-carrying.a.these.for.field.joint.was.It. the. of.on. many.series.and. of.limited. that.to.its.significance.damage.in.earthquake.4.recommendations..19. in. of.large.seismic.building. and Composite Systems Observers. USGS.required. codes. commercial.. observed..natural.prior.requirements.work.with.have.present.San. of.oil.had.devel- oped.of.February.earthquake.Kern.therefore. near.19.

away.to. steel.resist.emergency.not.ductile.suggested.overstrength.. importance. the. separated.7 1987 whittieR naRRows eaRthquake The.order.Investigation.to.M8.welds.forces.system.buildings.same.again.is.story.present.below.This.from.building.introduced.once.seismic-load-resisting.6 1985 mexico city eaRthquake Prior.the.discontinuous..columns. of.ductile.the.types.design.to.a.in.ground.Mexico.did.requirement.little.seismic-load- resisting.to.intensity.collapsed.the.resulting.. above.to. following.collapsed.two.special.the.vehicles.Fernando.border.section.shear. related.a.be..affected... most.that.built-up.irregularities.to.adequate.seismic.revisions.of.mandatory..19.story.of.buildings..building.code.the.the.had.one.code.considering. Another.structure.and.1979.to.damage.and.to.and.both.seam..similar.led.16-story.overturning.had.then.this. categories.19.been. change.buckling.site.These.great.supported.first.unrepairable.mechanism.1985..buildings.consider.Building.population..of.occupancy..frame. the.in.the.in.offset.section.regard.major.essentially..other. of. in.into.steel. consideration.applied. This.the.of.had.a.of..voluntary.structural. the.buildings.the.the..structural..region.box.building.site.the.seismic.design.the.to.local.not.introduced.Narrows.that.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 187 design.code..character.columns. of.arcade.overstrength. 3.the.at.tall.forces.Services. important.of..hospital’s.frames.event.and.leaving.prompting.building. Overturning..concrete.the..systems..columns.level.for.were.columns.. Research.the.and.and.the.modest.ordinary.building.the.buildings.that.intermediate. important.above.at.building..other.building.seismicity.experienced.were.the.introduced.columns..housed..to.design..today.can.design.accommodate.Following. built-up.The.this. the.in.in.other.and..of.19.California–Mexico.in.columns.17.1987.hospital.the.damage.utilized.Later. to.and.wall.introduction.an..the..ground.with.the.made..six-story.noteworthy..structure.whether.to. 3. to.maximum.main. changes..the.to.to.in.Valley.the.moment.of.the.main.classifications.crushed.formal. .below. contained. six-story.and.City.. years.codes. formal.the. motions.between.amplified.above.and.the.large. more.number.the.. recognition.buildings.sections.design.of.of.into.steel.public..However.to.of..plate.the.event.which. building.columns. the.these..columns.19.led.higher.into. 3.frames..had.prec- edent.engineers.5 1979 impeRiaL vaLLey eaRthquake The.for.damage.of.Imperial.record.in.to.first. began.feature.steel.. occupancy.the.earthquake.relatively.tall.by.However.9. of.be.structures. of.Imperial.the.building.a.failure.fell.first.required.damage.of.irregular.of.walls.did.essential. the.. these.. the.present.seismic.some.in.to..single-story.shear.was.drift.was.and.structural.sparse.walls.October. of.in.to.been.formed.resulted.walls.level..of.towers. was.hospitals. when.damage.with.4.earthquake.of.at.resulted.any.the.ambulances. One.this.system.and.other.out-of-plane.imposed.for.frames.significance.great.requirement.observation.detailing.frame.safety.box.1.delivered.design.near.the.the.forces.there.shear.provisions.modern.few.be. Additionally.or.requirements.the.for.high-rise.22-story.codes.the.due.boxes.relatively.earthquake.the.of.in..those.that.with.and.affected.San.earthquake.15.resulting..into.concept.axial.earthquake.of..the.imme- diately.frames.it.the.one.on.buildings.the.and.the.code.mandatory.soil.systems.systems.experience.response.design. determining.following.proportion. the..effect.forces.provisions.permanent.regions.requirements.M5. the.for.code. size.and.October.of. frame.an.first-story.forces.braced.buildings.this.Whittier.of.from.above.were.County.the.walls.. In.However.deemed.con- crete.in.in.the.to.recognized.included.in. determination.were.requirement.strength.Stair.performance.into.the.the.. building.M6.cause.classes.This.September.this. that.high. Perhaps.led.several.not.which.the.forces.behavior. beneath.significant.

9 1994 noRthRiDge eaRthquake The.relatively.of. earthquakes..when.this. the.that.the.lesions..the..in.and.the.San.in.buildings.the.. many..experience. 1992.factor.earlier.and.within.A572.prior.time.requirements.approximately.floor. four.near.chev- ron-pattern.severe.miles.introduction..affected.modified.However. regard.resulted. but.17.the.the.designed..provisions.and.beams.commonly.Northridge.that.that.to.the.validated.practice.result.making.tensile.the.of.The. of.for.San.American.the. following.result.to. fractures.the.the.editions.lighter.near-field. of..resulted.the.1989...to.use.of.These. code-conforming.century.to.beams.apex. variety.testing.events)..form.70. the.as.struc- tures.factors. The.were.from.away. of.field—that.in. Loma.together.were..associated. available.of. The.Northridge.building.significant. recordings.low.Welding. other.M7.been.a. this.basis.research.as.of.earthquake.ordinary.Big.structures:.different.1997.little.of.processing. A36.this.shaking.had.with.this.employed.that.use.moment..these.in.unbalanced.the.the.regard.in.since.most.including.. weld.of.at.shaking.This.valuable.in.small.earthquake.restrictions.after.of.geometries.buildings.. Perhaps.center.because.bent.of.effects.. restraint.toughness.Francisco. also.of.the.had.ASTM.of.from.rupture—is.the.one.motion. the.code..of. braced.M6.concrete.is.and.the.based.attributed.limited.Observations. in.code.than.frames.only.earthquake.at.seismic.deviated.earlier.the.years.. the.most.of.ground.braced.was..with. in. restrictions..of.limiting.January. and Composite Systems changes.the.1.experienced.(AWS).Another..these.the.the. design.damage.variations.of.within.data.implemented.to.damage.were.near-fault.led.the.1994.joints.7. Fernando.was.the.used. well.19.of.parking.array.also.were.was.Savings.the.was.chevron-pattern.downward.of.from..seismologists.that.ductility.steel.steel.joints.the. motions.practices. 1971.relatively.dam- age.braced.commonly..earthquake.and.codes. buckling.. 3.the. significant.of.ratios.....following.roofs.the.recent.earthquake.wide.the.the.used. width– thickness.Northridge.subsequently.also. earthquake.with..earthquake.braced..wood.allowed..of.area.design.use.these.the.fractures.code.it.in.revisions.region.modern. San.that.of.of.which.with.filler.testing.to.on.chevrons.south.. unlike.frames.the.kilometers.was.specimens. frames. at. from..concentrations.provisions.for. event. (such.extensive.strong. present.initial.learned.the.data.editions.earthquakes.by.welded.sus- tained.and.large..years.steel..had.connection.buckling.of.braces.but.buildings.provided.for. members.region.for.that.that.design.instru- ments..of.characteristics. building.the.high.zone.the.ground.building. and.rupture.and. and.Over. permissible.the.in. observation.key.of.damage.steel.braced.UBC.the. significant. .significantly.observations.California. farther.The.relatively.to. hollow. braces.braces.were.impor- tant.redundant.discovery.a.of..precast.and.welded.This.few.concrete.systems.those.the.effects.on.very.strengths. the.these.the.participating.the.of.elements...contributing.in.stronger.braces. in.of.frame.and.As.occurred.the. With.and.again.188 Tall Building Design: Steel. fractures.event. the.occurring.Prieta.in.into.to.One.wealth.only.of.analyzed.the.requiring.were.adherence.is.to.1989.of.one.tilt-up.buildings. concentric.actually.fault.ground. structural.steel. caused.that.present.the.metals.grades.obtained.welding.account. section (HSS).Bear. resulted.zone.struck.unexpected.motion.highly.significant.braces.caused.material..floor.buckled.not.forces.yield.Recordings.compression.Federal.most.. 3.extensive. much.California.changes.failures.modern.of.building.Francisco.data. Landers.8 1989 Loma pRieta eaRthquake The.observation.on.to...damaged. Concrete. the.19.and.these.(OCBF).in..with.construction.use.structures.few.obtained.when.frame.were.damage.of.causing.It.7.Bay.structures.by.this.SEI/ASCE.1994. Prieta.company’s.types.to.apex. on.building. damaged. However.the.to.in.to.older.the.the.common...it.in.past.poor.earthquake.connection.pulse-like.to.many.of.frames.stress.made.Society. obtained.NEHRP. noted.of. modern.damage. to.like.earthquake.identify.members...was.engineering.a. as..determination. steel.moment-resisting.construction.of.of.requirements.performance.sections.large.frames.Loma.unanticipated.

if.reduce.had.strengths.is.applicable.building.with.for.and.limited.specimens). provide.capable.more.all.require- ments.structures.of.any.struc- tural.quantify.suffer.number.in.not.observations.in.understanding.that. to.for.the.the.an.AWS.introduced..structural...components.elements.number.materials.and..It.in.response.a.so.demonstrate...damage.judgment.building.the.selected.the.structures.nonstruc- tural.to.of.by.calculations.are.basic.metals.be..seismic.to.current. a.in.earthquake-resistant.of.concept.engineer.it.He.that.design:.or.the.experience. is.the.that.basic.rather.design.building.as.of. who.and.a.such.rates.seismic.engineer.the.building.apply..the.detail..rewrite.joints.(1) archi- tectural.construction.she.the.tying.a.proper.of. used.341. of.. structure.with.calculations.as. conforming.of.to.yield.requirements.analysis. safety.(3).redundancy.minimum.guidance.are.have.that.at.major. operating.certain.l.of.and.structural.is.as.stress.criteria.that.seismic.codes.buildings.costs.interested.but.damage.damaged.maintenance.cannot.advance.provides.design.the.in.but.Generally. rated.improved.the.types.stress.and.lower.and.may.the..connections.stated.the.in.will.building.art.in.differ.strict.coefficients.to.applicable.and...systems.structures.together.in.on.into.damage.must.in.filler.requirements.vertical.the.better. These.of.structure. Another..on.of.any.inelastic.high.of.building.moderate- to-strong..the.stress.a.Significant..less.the.concepts..to.not.and.a.vertical).observation.and..minimize. in.from.economical.of.introduction.have. purpose. seismic.toughness..design.and.of.instances.(2).requirements.a.as.a.so.where.the.development.of..ratios.by.requirement.accepted.design.building.is.with.serviceability.complexity.own.the.service. adapt.do.his.was.damage.or.risk.increase. stringent.from.improved.a.three.backing.not.that....must.profound.won’t.The.as.design.the.serviceable.attain- ing.structural.emphasis.demands.major.in. public.and. of.Code-prescribed.full-scale.the.requirements.permissible.of.they.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 189 was.consistent.techniques.laboratory.are.are. . provide.good.design.design.owner.practice.ASCE.her.engineer.of..the..structure.based.of. building.ASTM.supplement.longer-life.but.damaged.earthquake-conscious.reduce.of..changes.concerned.adjust.the.little.adequate.based.understood.the.with.reasons.. (through.are.configuration.detailing.upon.A992.20  seisMiC DesigN wraP-uP Current.visualize..the..earthquake. shaking.and. There.fenestration..a.redundant. was.can.steps.placed.Performance. and.great.the.Assumptions.paths.establish.seismic.the.inherent.weld.with.Northridge.this.proper.stringent.code.that..moment.tabs.performed.with.a.controlled.number.earthquake. were. bars.quality.all.to.requirements.the.the.tensile.following.are.the.and..the.structure.the.because.to.requirements.to.engineer.responsible.compliance.discovery.to.stereotyped..introduction.and..the.to.This.the.that.as-built.in.of.specific.quality.standard.of.has.the.remove. code.in..respond.few.to.Dl.the.of.the.details.order.have.the.in.left..which.to.all.repairable..an. structures.the.as.details.cost..that.safe.drifts.the..assure. definitions.on.are.occupants. as.frames. techniques.to.occur.practice..standard. to.engineering.struc- tural.owner. seismic.seismic-load-resisting.not.property. dominated..earthquake-resistant.notch.earthquake. This.until.costs.structure.in. areas.repair. earthquake.judgment. 3.earthquake.be.yield.for.these.should.expensive.than..the.desire.sound.concept..prescribe.and.is.resulted.success.protecting.severely.isolation.feature.or.not.components.vari- ables.changes.of.structures..testing.the.vital.minimum.the.well..will.many.be.to.seismic.detailing.codes.begins.AISC.and.are.criteria.is.there.not..of.D1.and.in.by.the. Codes.component.the.may.the. structural.of.to.only.(both.to.and.these.code.earthquake.the.in.7-10.well.or.or. to.AWS.will.critical.can.new.concept.and.weld.earthquake.the.lowering.the.of.more.heavier.will.so.weld.after.calculations.this.refinement..simplified.necessity.codes. basic.Details.of.be.damage. concepts.earlier.realize.architectural.minimum.be.ground.the. on.in.8.forces.distortions.included.to.structures.redundancy.of.for.use.earthquake-resistant.and.and.wind.motions.horizontal. The.vari- ous.nature. designed.modern.been.seismic.to.Foremost.among.severely. The.problem.the.more.The.codes.influence.that.built.several.deformation.these.and.all-inclusive.act.to.in.unit.steel.to.the.and.better.insurance.produce.or.and.to.forces.pre- vail.grade.Consequently.for.structural.than.was..assumed.improved.

the. is.behavior.range.of.the.been.ordinary. Concrete.to.that. that.substitutes.the.intensity.the. vibrations.motions.in.no.to..be.in. joint.the.observations.force.effect.show.to. premium.expected.the. to..as.scale. between. When. damage.Thus.of.prediction.the. a.cause.a.and.a.response. consequence. earthquakes.tilt.of.Alaska. vertical.on.the.a.will.design.of. distinct.a.waves.site.an.be.the.sudden..190 Tall Building Design: Steel. 3.description. sometimes.(M).each.it.the.the.strong.direction. those.erratic.earthquakes. of. released.seismographs. responds. earthquakes.better.Francisco.this.the.pro- posed.earth- quake.of.energy- absorbing.will.than.by. in.. consequent.structure.of.buildings.ground.to.a.viewpoint.the.precast. (linear).displacement.functions.will.(up.earthquake.is.proper. energy. is.of. the.compo- nents.floor.environs. this.building.predict.(3).that.determined.of.in.characterizes. involves.. at.and. moderately.ground.does. location. motions. Destructive.the. emphasized.duration.energy.a. in.to. or.great.. tectonic.released.if. (M).on.site. motions.the.the.move- ment.and.motions.be.By.of..of...vibrations. deformations.found.rocking.adjacent..dynamic.to.and..quantitative.forth....forces.connections.1 DeteRmination of eaRthquake LateRaL foRces An.a.(4).deformation.of.back. cause.. of.motions.ground.causes.produced.are.miles).basic.earthquake. theory. ground. a. deflections.structure. of. motion.earthquake.more. (2) the. (2).direction.the.(bedrock).the.building.catastrophic.response.response.it.of.deflections.code.ground.motions. frequently.building.it.there.from.developed.the.major.structure..seismic.The.of.by.characteristic. to.not.than.performed.(1).Vibrations.motions.that.the.. improperly.that.in.fracturing.forces.that.of.From..the.with.reasonably.base.seismicity..components.greater. accepted. and Composite Systems engineer. as.simple.of.time.earthquake.fault.zone.planning. can..for. these.which. structures.the.and.same. (1). these.under.loads.the.deform.at..damage.and. designed.of.response. motion.details. between. team.of.ground.considerably.are.and..in.snakelike. elastic.static. .vibra- tions.as.to.. the...a.of.directly.structures.deformations.static.vibrations. and.to.a.horizontal. not.of.the. The. are. earthquakes.the.an.As.static.design.is.a.as.a.be.beyond. all.floor.direction.a.each.of.in. rebound.may.while.fault.have. Principal.Such..(1906).coordination.to.and.tolerate. Seismic.the. the.analysis.motion.the. structure.would. earthquake.of.ductility. due.loadings.of.ground.available.is.a..on.code.mathematics.in. for.but.. to.building.code.earthquake.San. design.required.during..oscillating.only. available.intensity.ground.the. are.computer.result. cost.the. of.random. maximum.accelerations.rock. constructed.that.alternately.highly.are. amount.and. that.Further.20. generally.It. well.are.principal. response.significant.opposite.crust. and. desirable.that..deflect.found..energy. cause.particular. better.severe..Richter. the.interested. apply.at. Such.cause. joints.strong-motion seismographs.based.structure.a.can.ground..vibratory.approach. made.typical.prestressed. may.motion.and.large.moving.or. released.application.computer.components.building.in. steps:. two..motion.will.structure.the.The.. of.motion.initiates.150+.static.the.influence.magnitude.each.nearly.of.elements.typical.the.the.Earth’s.earthquake.time..earthquake.according.weaving.damage. significant. records.increase.moving.. Field.The.a. destructive.execution.of.to.selection.a.faults.under.immediate.ground.. of.which.one.that.to.the..intensity.a.an.a. without..will. joints. According. the..(nonlinear).specific.in.However. from.cause.deflects.an. special.the.forces.and..deformation.total.actual.structure..happens.dynamic.responding.elastic.earthquake.any.act.of.capacity.complex..result. resistance.depends.such..in.such. them.different.the.strain.ground.when.as.the.development.be.of.concepts. components..and.essential.building. intensity.the. secure.engineers.recorded.collapse.earthquake.the.motion.of. just..record. adequate.deform. the.. and.. to.such.. actively.without.of.will.buildings.at.that.the.just.is.motion.to. resisting. elements.of. primary.analysis..base.a.at.the..site. dynamic.may. . fashion.(1964).too.structure. by.amplitude. defaulting.three.surface. quite..Hence.mechanism.in.be.structure.been.loading. horizontal.at.are.Unfortunately.. (2). the.are..the.have.along.how. several.Earth’s. rotations.intensity. design. fault..in.as.a.particular.Using.their.can. stresses.of.. function.the.absolutely.and.classify.mass.one. during.significant.of. as. distance.facility.poorly. following.from.Seismologists.inelastic.truly..abnormal.of.floor. observations.near. (1).at.the. Large.to.ground.

earthquake.not.adding.in.standard.factor.using.is.underlying.. by...are.called.diminishes.structure.2 stRuctuRaL Response The.there.considerably.. application.5–2.in. Ground.the.by.of.certain.deformations.to.apparent: . soil.that.predicting.a.limitations.theo- ries.obtained.destructive.defined.future.displacements.is.the.for.amplification.. 3.However.records.structural.masses.that.. .the.are. Base..to.appropriate.estimate.might..of.appears.degree.g.the.effect.the.stiff.trend.analysis.math- ematics.1..result.structure.it. motion.separately.may.small.the.loadings. generally..well.of.factors.the.to. of.sustain.known.Shallow.upon.given.input.is. characteristics.it.study.to.differ. in.considered.. 5.erratic.ground.of.subject.of.direction.be.evaluation. the.to.the.characteristics. foundation.some.the. 2.elements. the. the.is..to.response.the.nonlin- ear.other.vibra- tory..The.static. forces. for.Such.obtaining.properties.and.for.taken.of.loads.to.of.can. duration.dynamic.intensity.structure.the. the.the.by.some.caus- ative.and. from.other.The.are.be. will.20.to.of.future..with. theories.terms.is.stiff.determination.motions. analysis..be.motion.an.substantiate. distortions.amplifica- tion..directly.. foundation.springs.in..and.not.with. inertial.motions.the.bedrock..analysis.in..physical.motions.motions.point. rests.of.assumed.are.Deep.having.many.qualitative.which.and.problem.(quantitatively).ground.if.short-period.capability.applied.distance.the.predominantly.hand.to.amplification.in. and..elastic.of.from. induced.the.as. .Mathematical.intensity.any.be. shaking.properties.. which.that.developed.excitation.an. essentially.earthquake.Hence. .prediction..previously. the.dynamic.the.to.and.for.be.the. its..and.of.cannot.are.the. of. and.deflections.generally. the.to..response.formulation.predominately.dynamic.displacements.However.static.earthquake.the.these.of.so.theory.of.properties.short-period.the.during.of.as.distance.guide.dynamic.yields.the.such.that.as.soils.large. analysis.records.of. gravitational.general. are. 1.The.these..dynamic.for. the.fault.On.where.and.linearly.and.semiquan- titative.site.and.is.earthquake.time-varying.increase.be.subjected.is.The.mentioned.applicable.structure.and.new.sensitive.give.solved. on.the. (3)...and.very.but.Qualitatively.on.site.the.here..of.has..the.that.4.it.simplified.intensity.forces.in.motions.Since.characteristics.problem.period.vibration.as..magnitude..valid.smaller.it. of.of..For.result. . characteristics..In. appropriate. principle.damping.stiffness.the.of..appropriate.guide. it.the.the. be.as.result.be.completely.sediment.most.structural.static.motions..behavior. vicinity. the.is.the.one.by.provide. and.earthquake. Seismological.available..and.best.involving. 3.formulated.by.If.for.available.strong.the.mechanics.earthquakes.earthquakes.movement. and.analysis.deposits.an.deposits.future.ground.dynamic.the.convenient. must.out.problem.due.bedrock.varies. to.of.at.consider. allows.mechanics.properties.is.structural.will.. the.procedures.able.total.structural. the.But. earthquake.specified.suffice..and.too.sufficiently.the.frequency.of.in.of.general.input.dynamic.are.Thus.be.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 191 structure.results. motion..indicate. character.from.response.critical..system. Earthquake.are. .loading.should... loadings.a.The.firm.analysis. material.these.textbooks.forces).the...then.case.in.characterized.situations.with. amplification.and..various.Since.input.during.the. loads. causative.or.motions.Although.even.selection. unknowns.a. mass.time-varying.(e. in.. strongest.these.. the. these. the.damping.are.for.been.accelerations. intensity..will.fault..the.the. ground..motion...the.stresses. ground.used.a. estimated.the.that.from. the.the.more.the. fault.increases.idealized.bedrock.fault. thickness.structure.by.(inelastic).analytical..having..soft.analysis.is.bedrock.distance. magnitude..soil.plastic.recognized.in.the.certainty.the.model.addition.the. general. related.response..to.vibrations.velocities.a.have.the.in.in.predict.conditions.order.with.is.Each..superposition.previous. sequence.or.the.superposition.of.of.the. structural.. 4..solved..be.histori- cal.to.is.response. structure.of.from.of.structure.foundation.the.assembly.Assuming.very.the.basis.amplification.earthquake..any.regional. of.interconnected.the.or.following.soils.earthquakes.must.of.unknown.to.the.

or.the..similar.motions.earth- quake.modeled.earthquake. Cs = 0.following: S D1 Cs = for T £ TL æRö Tç ÷ . 1.exact.equivalent.Our.seismic.This. to.base.is.computed.coefficient.exceed.structure. a.to.the.The.V...approach.=. S DS Cs = æRö çI ÷ . and Composite Systems requires.are.to.01 In..experience.must..ASCE.system.stress.within.impractical.ground.solution.shall.=.expected.each.entire. rewritten.of.CsW.for.recorded..the. Concrete.shear.the.where.results.properties.yield..are.on.any.formulating.not. (3.specific.to.Cs.calculated. . than . 2.0.is.limited.192 Tall Building Design: Steel.model.be.it.structures.Therefore.be.shall.design.be.be.theory.a.less.complete.=.Unlike.lateral.given.far. qualitative.response.is.may.computations.of.6g.obtained.S1.than .20.that..knowledge.Cs.form.of.stiffness.structures..is.seismic.and.compact.we.static.a.cannot.the.is.time.response.most.less.the.following.predict.necessary.developed.economically.be.of.resist.and...their.structures.of. è Ie ø S D1TL Cs = for T > TL æRö T2ç ÷ .of.forces.damping.qualitatively.some.of.to.need.substitute.greater.Cs. interest.for..coefficient W..object.in. If.5S1 / ( R /I e ) .is.in.to.that.the.severe.response.seismic.to.earthquake.damping.mathematical.from.are.our.or.mass.46) where Cs.formulas..exceed. capacity.dynamic.this.However.the. Cs = 0.equal.computers.response.instant.of.recognize.a.the..buildings.being.the.located.than.for.value.using.structural.assumed. 3.addition.portions.apparent: .separate.follows: V.strutures.buildings..simplified.some.of..will.analysis.of.stresses.design.of.attempts.elastic. and.It. to.effective.in.the.044S DS I e ³ 0.history.the.forces. motions.be.maximum.the.will.not.The.during.not..available.one.range..analysis.for.important. the.3 equivaLent LateRaL LoaD pRoceDuRe In.weight The.true.motion. è eø The.deflections. è Ie ø Cs.that.capacity..as.this.capacity.the.

are. value. shear. value.will.the.constitute.once. ASCE..are..compared. of..Therefore. particular.qualities.the. dynamic.be. and.acceleration R.the.limitations.construction.be.empirically.s. absence.major. are. fit.are. the. uniform. historically. a..the.will.are.life. SDS.shear.of.meant..ground.important.forces.of.modification.the. a.structure.few.to.is.coefficient.cycle..of.a.previously.ductility.a.and.the.of..the.in.the.as.varying.R.upon.of.since.which.the.to.have.effect.formula: Fx.the.in.case.with.distribution.dynamic. justification.structures.to.engineer. values.code. in..of. though.is.building.high.are.recognize.engineering. weight).any.and..seismic.used.with.is.the. may.basic. forces.up.avoid. considered.acceleration TL.analysis.absorption. maximum.spectral.that.is.strong.the.in.forces.the. spectrum.they.static. attempt.period.is.shear.deter- mined.the.they.actual.ASCE.to.to.selected.input.base.structure.on.the.the.the.structure..The.are.is.derived.principles.structures.methods.of.conditions.Important.limitations.basic.inappropriate..are.factor I.the.crude. the.1. period.least. application.equivalent.to. . section. Accelerations. ASCE.the.type.to. forces.of.a.roughly. has. smaller. the.problems.the.structural. .7-10.These.could.earthquake. corresponding.assumed.are. to.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 193 where SDS.(and..response. .a. coefficients.in.energy.factor T.of.in.in.assignment..The.by. .resistance.they.of.mapped.requirements.of.period .elsewhere..the.design.the. empirically...the.general. (for. the.unusual. recognize.necessary.surprisingly. envelope.of.requirements. the.the.not.period.comes.making.of.design.shown.load. the.judgment. and.elastic–dynamic. based.applicable.to.the.building.quite.these.equations.diagram.structure.to.designing. constructed.manipulation.design.and. The.ASCE.response.response. conditions.the.sound.or.defined.for.decisions.empirically.with.earthquake.a.should.in.ASCE.marginal.apt.site.indicate. from.shear.shape.used..of.transition.When.small.earthquake.restricted.of.code.the..value.numbers. site.architect. intent. 2.design.the.of.must.the.spectral.height.specified.1.and/or.attempt..=.struc- tural.. base.that.vertically.of. by.assumptions.an.involved.of.determines. obtainable.is.need.in..aid. would.merely.book).over.with.to.structure... formula.certain. of.types. Invariably.analysis.20.under.to.4 aRchitectuRaL impLications As.Further.Any.to.. 1. T.the.type.their.coefficients.is.only.gravity.ground.relative.50%.The.Therefore.approximations.concept.earthquake.as. effect.types.earthquake..(G).from.is.motion. analysis..corresponds.relative.and. the.analysis. no.motions.ASCE.a.short-period.The.intensity.CvxV wx hzk Cvx = å n Wi hik iwl These. detailed.incumbent.degrees.ade- quate.this. coefficient.moderate-intensity. in.response.used. design. 3.is.spectral. 4.of.forces.more. of.design.that.s.terms. made..of. in.the.at. The. specified.ordinary.G. SD1.simple.3%–13%.forces.cooperation.along.in.earthquakes.lateral.period S1.with. been.explanation.be.by.the. established.using.case.It.further.indicated.are.be.accordance. lateral.of.the.must.the.develop.actual.at.to.resistance.be.with.in.indicated. expected.structures. the.compared.conditions.to.. analogous.importance. 3.is.of. and. Even.specified.a.be.. than.in.accelerations SD1.In.disastrous.. that.of.in.except.. to. the.assure.the. an. be.certainly. and.determined.be. certain.the.type.refined.

the. U-shaped.materials.. of. approach.effect..is.regard.must.and. the.to.as.the...physical.a.shape.and.be.symmetry.efficient. with.sacrifice.be. magnitude.team.walls.design..neglect.a.building.design.to.accordingly. walls.an.be.all.costs.open.T-.. the.the.and.vertical. or.down.the.The.eliminated.with.the...and. basic.cannot..unusual.ground.building.abrupt.components..openings.In.of.tall.foundation.will.the.configuration.systems.some.refinements. 4.cost.considered. Participation.detailing..open.be.the. and.to. architectural.to.architec- tural.of.compromising.make.the.about.is.proper.the.without.in..available..two.floor. .that.deal.great.hand.very.employed.lateral.of.consider- able.of.fenestration.money.or.costs.a.building.horizontal.from.be.must. and Composite Systems before.con- sider.or.to.decks.be.structures.to.the.on.This.foundation.the.Skillful.basic.. 3.be.are..some.will.at.partitions.thereby..features.as.competition.to.cost.initial.from..the.be.col- umns.selection.however.and.walls.in.forces.the.of.the. of.compatible. .or.the.to..The.start.and. a.on..level.extra.of.course.in. creates.importance. safety..building..analysis.approach. system.effect. methods.walls.develop... and.architectural.credit.first.considered.floor.will.L-. .avoid.of...and.equal.of..nature.is.simpler.omitted.cost.in..calculations.in.contractor’s. in.Of.the.of.the.and.construction.especially.or.filler. building.affect.the.be.total.overturning. before. A.save.of.columns.in...a.slight.uncertain.Architects.the.made.ensuring.much.to.(freestanding.reasonable.and.considerations.is.resist.In..partitions.and/or.following: .of.engineers.at.5 stRuctuRaL concept The.a.forces.such.may.in.its.at.itself. Usually.can...and.is.distress.realize.elements.usually.by.the.to.and..flexibility.or.particularly.in.cases..As.paper. advisable..project.the.higher.to.costs.function.. 2.of.the..reliability...to.sub- stantial..construction.fund.of.add.distortions.of.with.due.nor.for.have.appearance.story.cause.materials.major.. .not.pro- vided.is.both..on..shear.the.the.of.factor.to.responsible.limitations.level. fire.to.the.design.measured.the.mathematical.stated.and.an.mostly.lateral.a.that..methods.not.many.instances.the.larger.lateral.effects.Reentrant.early.reliability.walls.or.big.structures.because..can.the.all.great..all.the.concept.type.exterior.pay.If.It.may.the. and.due.of.determine. low.many.be.to.It.as.considerably. maintenance.earth- quake.accommodate.of.of. 1.its.a.are.reality.risks.the.accomplished. construction.no.may. play.change.or. additional.a.over.sensible.space.lower.this.desirable.to.the.well.the.building’s. 5.that.most.that..objective.and.cycle.are.only.and. .may.options.stress.without.to.wall. change.to.and..in.as.all..buildings.fenestrations).increased.is.the.fictitious.costs..will.cost..of..forces.necessity.Omission.costs.detailing. and.partitions.walls..design. construction.in.walls.stories.causes.feasible.exterior.materials.since.analysis.lateral.basis.schemes.the..must. profound.dividends.details.left.of.agency.partitions.points.bidding.not.structural–architectural.to. distribution.is.to.a. in.The.should.appearance.must.enters.shear.the.and.filler. wall-like.provide.planning.sophisticated.are.concept.must.certain.moments.structural.first. by.suited.avoided.Including.recognize.conceptual.building.inherent..building.use..reserve.earthquake-resistance. hazards.only. operating.of.the.the.an.and.repeti- tive.Desirable.is.difficult.selection.considerations.design.in.story.to.related.facility.step.a.on.that..and.reinforced.detailing.of.On.disciplines.all.be.first..construction.making.in. Concrete. 3.little. forces.architectural.to.per- mit.selection.an.tough.axes.requirements.materials.engineer.design.Generally.create.be.life.as.other.but.Frequently.is. and.more.fact.building.but.only.forces.quality.and.forces.etc.most.at.detracting.demands.arrangement.of.to.detail.layout.a.along.this.problems.roof.corners.potential.that.of.stage.construction.In.Of.rigidities.construction.the.(both.important.have.the..carry.the.20..systems.response.objectives.ground.exotic.greatly..unconventional.proprietary.and.materials..leaves..another.most.major. the.layout.the.framing. shear.columns).Final.are.minimum. earthquake. easily.capacity.to..and.the. requirements.feasible.lateral.efficient.194 Tall Building Design: Steel.response.factor.of.requirements.of.made..stage.a.judgment.partitions.of. of.function.To.planning.the.simple.are.performance. other.problems.the. study.of.elements.in.code.resistance. causing..saving..reducing. are.these..most.of.to..of.usage.a.competitive.nonstructural.reduce.with.determined.of.This.the.

further.joints.design.cost.distortions. likely.earthquake. the.the.In.being.to.the.in. to.of.Breakage.techniques.and...in.structure.is.be.earthquake.equal.a.of..that.minimize.construction.repair.it.an.costs.damage..to.horizontal.motions.and. allow. An. but.been.rigid..and.greater.vulnerable.reha- bilitation. 1..minimize.. providing.relative.even.joints.A.minimize.and.to.between.seismic.major.design.forces. is.which.stairway. behavior.Procedures.to..structural.However.earth- quake.and.a.the.to.detail.effect.ensure. glass.approach.excessive.of.damage.finan- cial. stairways.to..foundation. 6..in.will..with.type.undertaken. 1. clearance.rough.forces.should. when.to...loads.are.the.as.details. rigid.plaster. .follows: . by.frame. is.and.used.upon.the.to. to. and.than.the.strong.be..forces.that.not.foundations.following. con- nected.required.experience.Special.and..paint. partitions.the.a.a.against. to.the.loss. edges.develop.parts.at.type.this.structure.earthquake.may.nonstructural.relative...items.to.since.times.second.each.seismic.without. inhibition.things.designers.seismic.these.the..the.the. damage.cost.from..structures.Damage. 3.is.must.lower.This. it.after.follows: .. acceptable. between.structure.the.features.which.motions.of.the.limit.to.earthquake.movements. .of.tipping..7 techniques of seismic Design For.strong.. of.earth- quake.deflections.regard.will.accommodate.design..minimize.constitute..Adequate.resort. .damage.seismic.installations.provisions. the. greater.is.damage.loops.at. geometry.adaptable.. .a... windows. nature.at. limits.the.the.If.forces.to. .of. 3.to. Provide.from.the.a.walls.above.in.and.relative. for.practice.floor.seismic.the.the. members.guide. elastic.four.possibility.to.structural.20.between.otherwise.design.6 Damage contRoL featuRes The.gravity.possible.Hence..the.structural. can. of.important.are.deflections.though.design. responds.. nonstructural. building. minimized.from.top.the.to. extra.to. often.As.of.heavy.lateral.need.(story.piping.materials.to.With.depending.without.accordance. important.lowest.meet. can.of.piping.that.facility.be. accommodate. displacement.between.. control.cause.can.items. locating.the.foundation.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 195 design.partitions. factor. at.assumed. largely.attached.such.. is..the.to.in.lower.cosmetic.discussed. mind.a. be. seismic.from.by.conditions.indi- viduals.over.that.other.number. be..of.do.are.handling.structural..design.tem- perature.minor. Damage.of.aid.resulting.it.avoided.motions. to.for..a.be.glass.Lightweight mass.other. within.vary.the.without.floor.can.to.and.be.on.various.deformations.a.permit.of. .can.A.to.as.left. eliminated.may.can..20.features.prevent.cannot.damage. adjacent. keep.number.major.construc- tion. avoiding. may. 3. 5.under. to.movement.. of.repairs. 7.of. or. However.expensive.and.the.enumerated. Adequate foundations.of.to.required.total.the.that.bellows..Differential.seismic. between.open.within.plaster.drift).especially.deflections.construction.impractical.providing.and.be. 2.detailing.are.allow.resistance. 2.movement..performance..care.Fasten.eliminate.has.event.providing. to. superstructure.concept. the.by.and.loads.effort.expansion.collapse.the. bracing. during.to.not.in. drift.Concrete.partitions.seismic.columns.the. .contributing. 4.strength.the..equipment. suffer.floors. elastic.of.structural.to.due.often.done. damage.result.only.would. the.elements. in. horizontal.are. design.damage. them. to.necessarily.damage.long-standing.elements.damage.an.that. by.floors.team. .Lightweight.will.list. away. earthquake.increasing.shelving.movement.mass..be.for. due.things.expected.

.value.coincide.or.can.floor.be.at.a.are.of.walls.the.material.compression.its.diaphragms.the.all.load.deform.nearly. be.medium.forces.so.with.a. main.less.and.be. .near.structural..center.and.horizontal. a.reduces.structures.structure.(overturning.and.wall.the.The.as.on.have.or.The.deflect.stressed.whole).since.loads. greater.a.several.resists.to.improved.wall....and. Nonisolated.diaphragms.to.ground.overturning.that.by..unless.be.framework.the.of.small.be.this.a.. low.columns.the.resist.steel.walls.or.result.vertical.and.steel..or..can.or.horizontal.essentially.effect.effect.than.This.it.of.an. to.into.structural.the.columns.reinforcement.to..flanges.resulting. structures. 3. obviously.external.is.(out-of-phase).in.horizontal..plane.types.be.and.of.classified.of.combined.as. that. (or.the..and.to.earthquake).to.condition. symmetrical. participate. shear.antiseismic. The.provide.slabs.to.improved.can.when.to.web.other.building.a.a.or.wall.L-.both.shear. openings.function. to.by.be.can..tend.vertical.the...or..example.exist.combined. .isolated.horizontal.shown.of.the.using.stresses.cover.may.mode.effect.the.distinct.than.vulnerable.the.wall..prop- erly.horizontal.pilaster.flange.maximum.buildings.frequently.may.is.dissymmetry.of.(wind.loading.plan. 7.reinforced. of.the.wall.damping..forces.type. forces.separating.in.moments.steel.Any.resisted.in.such.of.not.of.generated.caused.conceptual.to.Horizontal.structural.parallel.a.of.are.foundation..horizontal.amount.be.be. by.called.loads.insertion.unsymmetrical.roof.wall.in.Ductile. the.forces..by. and.structural.the.concrete. nonstructural.shear.damping.flexure..resists..response.for.highly.the.mobilized.resisting.any.of.type.be.Columns.as.must.common.forces. walls.partition.or..failure.resist.(and.performs.by.higher.a.flat.greater.load.used.either.the.other.it.to.ground.Brittle.parallel.and. damage.as.the.forces.roof.or.flexible.rear.is.resonant.beams)..of.of.a. . Dissymmetry.to.as.as. partitions.rigidity.resisting.and..has.of.index.major..to.and.from.resistance.Where.by.is.normal.itself.Diaphragms.wall.rear.may.hooping.edges. wall.or.also.concrete.which.walls. will.complete. parallel.damping.design.torsion.acting..overcome.this. neighboring.anchorage.T-.gravity.to. Ductility.governed.a. 6.its.these.eccentric.due. and Composite Systems .unless.that.. regular.combination.the.weight.this. on.vertical.earthquake-resistant.strength.concrete.vertical.which.with.to.end.are.units.by.diaphragms.concentrated. .failure. standing..forces.made.for.Damping.slabs.the.vertical.parallel.by.seismic.masonry. buildings.be.A.reinforce- ment.of..lateral.The.to.levels.Such..(solid).the.must.response..own.the..lateral.of..so.modifying.more..wall.of.at.forces.due.. classified. vertical. the.is.significantly.wall.of.under.plate.that.carries..loads.of.is. The.Past.own.. a.of.except.rein- forcing. Concrete.tensile.on.not.However.spiral.subjected.ten- sile.into.Too.very.as.damping. the.planning.eccentric.A.strength..wall. a.a.elements.wall.Structural symmetry.by.. partitions.one.desirable. forces. a.buckling.they.In. is.parallel.dissymmetry.is. continuous.individual.to. as. dissymmetry.walls. in.they. than.function.and.from.connection.of. have.the.than.(gravity). overturning.structure.for.in.may.the.the.. 4.effect.judicial.of.used.is.use.of.a.concrete.by.not.its.stiff..customary.of.a.of.Shear walls.flanges.plate.the. wall. and.a.not.with.induce.the. 5.a.integral. (foundation). degree.. be.steel.the.effect.usually.better. be.of.wings..at.characteristics.both.force.stiffness. earthquake.a.forces.wall. forces...experience.it.reinforced. deflections.In.loads.and.any.stiffeners.is.vertical.spalling.be.shear.of.wall.functions.called. must.materials.horizontal.junctions.level. loads.the.floor.may.forces..floor.Under.allowance.oscillations.mate- rial.by.the..of..U-shaped.cantilever. web. considered. designed.eliminated.196 Tall Building Design: Steel.spandrel.means.considered.girder.vertical..to. in.and.is.or.withstand. shall.forgotten..or.with.girder.avoided.is.unit.carrying.to.as.and.front.nor- mal.seismic.shear.the.Any.vertical.rigid.or.or.and.vertical.analogous.a.wall.the.make.by.boundaries.can..the.horizontal.Buildings.by.surface.flexure.of.transferred.has.partitions).the.shall.where.strength. loads.as.on.elements. .joints.of.long. The.as.usually.large.with.structural.a.wall.to.for.because..lateral.to.motions.be.of.reserve.system.the.weight. susceptibility.for.floor.have..and.bearing.forces.cr.elements.the. plan.for.shear.. Walls.elements.a.structure.a.the..In.due.wall. .to. Wall..at.to.

.to.that.phases.construction.the.response.the.carried.building. structural.to.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 197 .acting.expansion.a.both.prescribed.(structural.Since. the.walls.for.a. growth.shear..frame.x.consisting.identify.Under. 9.be.of.the.If..and.Design parameters. major.of.calculated.have.axial.the.3.for.amount.the.of.shear.of.columns.harder. since.design.. the.will. be.manual. the.initial.seismic.shows. prepare.. must.can.... and.they.the.moments.the.the.increment.start.the.for.shown.as.structural. .are.dynamic.criteria.Experience.be. Past.be.spring.for.horizontal. will.electrical).separation.The. into.. . to.systems.forces.for.shear.the.motions.in.is.inertial. If.by.stiffness.Design..con- trol.the. related.will..and.and.separate.that.beams..at.the.must.drawings.is.nonstructural.1 singLe-DegRee-of-fReeDom systems Consider.forces.relation W x= (3.related..a.force.a.provide. freedom. is.for.varying.the.and.control.resulting. seismic.steel. of. better.the. stress. W.spot.shown.3.ground.all..the..including.of.of.spring-supported.the.by.which....stiff.frame.engi- neers. and.system.. lateral. foundation.transferring.design.to.of.forces.for.between.and.facility.during.cause.with.operations. there.(2).of.between.points. 3.a.bending.it. greater.certain. into..two.solution.to.first.structure.dynamic.vertical.vertical. flexible.the..and. connections.x.the. it.is. far.deficiencies.investigations.are..conceptual.in. when.vice.forces.structural.due.and.getting.107b..the.materials.requires. Tensile..designing.establish.of..foundation. for.formulate...interruption. k .for. tensile.in..from.trouble.a.expansion.and.edges.shear.(3).an.the.second..of..calculations.the.and.suspended.mass.have.designing.the.any..moments.the.21.connections.a.When.. 8.x.establish.Figure. (1).of.because.stiff.design. a.Future expansion.are.damage..the. over.deflections.forces. anchored.loadings. building.most. divided.design.during.the.construction.k.W..Connections.equations.problem.a.at.building.as.capacity.must.required.that.changed. future.single.solution.selection.strong.elements. Because.quality.. that.an. contemplated.elements..the. of.inertial.is..develop.of.spring. dia- phragms.the.to.extension. steel.time.themselves.beam.For.and.as..of.earthquake.by.Figure. a.the. 10.spring.the. floor/roof.of.to.very.maintain..cantilever.to....portal.detail. future. be..the. Theory Earthquake....latent. response.and.designed.In.period.the.bending.not.in.also. be.. in.for. generally.. between.collaboration.larger.forces. 3.expansion.check.of.be.. experience.by.in.than.visualized.is.future.less.of.damage. is.entire.increment.and.for.vary. complete.and.the.the.to.from.the.3.dependent.a.increment.first.each.for.differen- tial.and.inspection.small.box-type. the.site.are. of.load.provided.walls.perform.the. is.spring.and.parts. vertical.architect.beam.of.Therefore.seismic.program.is. can.detail.mass.action..structure.earthquakes.107a.construction...the.design. primary.phases. capable.time.that.planning. expansion.The.horizontal.between.the.stress.in.. forces.instant. floor.both..duration.bear. planning.as.connections. roof.as.and. and. also.plan..building.increment.con- centrated.through.cost.mechanical.as.the.weight.is.with.is.or.106.vulnerable.earthquake.about.infinitely. elements.wall.are.of.existing. determine. shown.instead. b.forces.Since. boundary.. distribute.shop.large.walls...and. .a.shall.shown.conditions—before.after. plan.equally.compared..to..proportioned.additions.Figure.share.time.to.check.21  DyNaMiC aNaLysis.condition.negligible. has. than.of.made.terms. horizontal..function.include..accelerations.necessary.a.be.be.versa.surveillance.the.a.time. locate.47) .be..of. extend. rather.struc- tural.When.cap- ture.and.lateral- force-resisting.construction.forces.supported..to.otherwise.entire.specific. .

a.per.rest. The.198 Tall Building Design: Steel.106  Single-bay.an.a.acceleration.Newton’s.spring.frame.( W + kx ) = -kx (3.W..kip.and.up.The.second.expresses.equilibrium.vertical.forces.to. moves.applied.required.in.suddenly.motion.the.and.(a).natural.in.and. position.weight.load.forces.the..spring.108.SDOF.to.produced.spring.spring.the..by.condition.acting.of.the.At.given.shown.horizontal.of.weight.is.force.of.Such.W.governed.has.or.in.function.the.between.the.are.in.stiffness.system.x.are.an.vibrations.is.stem:.removed.Figure 3.the. displacement.the.W.its.of.extension. spring.therefore.a.a.force.single-story..the.stiffness. g .and.+.vibrations.have.48) .in..product.k.spring.model..free.47..on. Concrete.the.with..the.preceding.postal.are.If.by.equilib- rium.of.are.extension. dynamic. Equation.called. and Composite Systems x W Figure 3.W/g.acting.the..constant..Kx.weight.to.(b)..relation W x = W .is.inches.for.the.the.in.down- ward.acceleration...t.three.any.and. maintained.denotes.mass.equal.the.force.motion.or.the. .of.the..equilibrium.x.subjected.spring.are.to.is. dimension.and.model.models. The.along.that.by.internal.for. that.down.and.the. of.body:.there.elastic.107  Analytical.will.the.spring.the.and.produce.force.of.the..instant.to.The.and.product.of. These.is.body.the.extended.and.x.a.the.force.in.is.comes.by.3.the.the.force.equation.force.in. If.the.derivative.the.equal.the.spring..resisting.or.x.for.undamped.kip.mass.familiar.called.static.acceleration.dynamic.stiffness.state.W.inertial.force.system.of.position.applied.W.of.position.inch.respect.of.t.length.to.vibrations.time.in.externally. x Spring stiffness k W W x (a) (b) Figure 3.of.law.after.measured.unit.by.given.the.

cx c k W dx Ft (a) (b) Figure 3.velocity.in. by.was. The.52) .the.is.and.potential.consequently.the. (3.energy.of.a.of. 2 .to.is.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 199 kx .by.is.  m x.analytical.+.0.the.the. done...system.the.by 1 2 V= kx (3.oscillator.The.kx.total.due.no. x.virtual.selected.asso- ciated.are.diagram.follows:.principle.work.can.the.oscillator:.Ft δx.a.is.equal.without.and.is.=.system.  where. .con- servation.the.108.kx.must.of. The.shown.is.done.force..be.damping.displacement.the.is..Figure.the.with.by..to.and.and..law.two.virtual.arbitrarily.is.is.is.done.108  Damped.work.readily.work.spring 1 2 T= mx (3.The.is.static.51) 2 .the.includ- ing.dynamic.forces.the.constant. (3..3.during.+.3.by  m xδx.developed.first.forces.49) .for.in.energy.force.the.energies.energy.  (m x.−.of.+.D’Alembert’s.kx.in.various.energy.of.oscillator.to.equation.principle.system.kxδx. The.establishes.states. .there.53) 2 2 .damper.all.+.Figure.motion.dynamic.to.of.forces.time-dependent.applied.virtual.mass.again.c  xδx. Let..equilibrium.equilibrium..be.the.the.with.damped.then.in.to.the.oscillator.the.remain.=.the.dis- sipation.work.of.motion.model.constant.spring.in.can.and.acting.force.equation.this.be.time.=.equilibrium.of.potential.a.Newton’s. Since.that.method.of.its.It. 1 2 1 2 .the.in.+.subjected.is.+.The.alternative.it.instantaneous. to.no.in.the.energy.δx. The.the..the..free-body. Although. Consider.energy.constant.a.of.of.shown.as.an.by.in.c  x.spring.done.an.given.Consider.energy.damped.by.c  x.0.derive.system.kx .of.to.virtual.the.zero.system.zero.The. subjected.be.Ft ).system..are.δx.Ft..system.δx.Ft.δx.principle.(a).mass.method.must.kx.on.spring.derivative.of.kinetic. The.0 (3.the.0.used. motion.also.m x .oscillator.to.total.by.of.as.forces.work.the.50) This. problems.external.undamped.for.be.3.is.displacement.Figure..−.during.problems.can.differential. The.−..For.this.if.inertial.(b).respect.The.stated.108b.of.a.principle.108.forces.be.shown.energy.obtained.as.Thus.+.total.=.system.equal.using.kinetic.and.motion.can.from.the.work...given.

of. by.all.the. (3.greatly.a) (3.given. Maximum. Concrete.. a.The.methods.zero.is 1 2 Vmax = kA (3.system.limited.form x.+.and.of.0.iner- tial.simplified.to.equations. is.are. 3.56)  x.has.regular.maximum.T. the.solution..is. DOF’s.+.of.the.complex.we.values. these..(ωt.Although. by.with. equating.properties.natural..displacement ωA.in. maximum.systems.infinite. replacing.=.material.such. number. as.response. 1 1 m ( wA ) = kA2 2 (3.components.by 1 m ( w A) 2 Tmax = (3.sin.oscillator.is.kx.entire.the.+. finite.of. obtained.an.can.number.(ωt. x.are. and..of. 2 2 .structure.in.=. energy. known.continuous.a.analysis.structure.by.number.is.54)  Since.is.entire. determined. .of.multidegree.a.=.A.structures.frequency.with.potential...of.kinetic.kx   x.wave Maximum.we.energy. 2 . potential.the. Rayleigh’s.However.0.velocity a.the.mass.This.methods. displacement.the.uniform.at.be. kinetic..ωA cos.true.The.cannot.t.for.differential.the.systems.to.. where A. Since.of.natural.simple.the.be.58) .mass.describe.=.are.maximum.these. limited.which.geometry.partial.a).the.is.because. systems.phase.equation.are.to.points.particle.the. assuming. or k w= (3.x.and.21.with. coordinates.behavior..effects.is.by.by.60) .55) This. and Composite Systems Differentiating.formulation.=.V.frequency.each..number.the. requiring.+. This.59) .determined.200 Tall Building Design: Steel.get m x x. m .of.analytical.the.structures.displacement.only.2 muLtiDegRee-of-fReeDom systems In. of.the.discrete.a. energy. (3.the.the. configuration. is.of.available..displacement.get  m x. maximum.is.method.evaluating.. displacement.energy.of.respect. is.the.method.concentrated.57) 2 .of.differential.

x1.by.free.matrix  {x}.motions.is.system..velocity {P}.will.sin.justify.vibration.the.function.harmonic.is.of..the.having.[C]{  x}.is.in. solutions.first.of.is.vibrations.used.as.+.the.shown.DOFs.stiffness. free.in.be.right-hand.Equation.column..follow.column.the.The.damping.not.damping..the. tend.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 201 Load tributary to floor lumped as equivalent mass n mn n–1 mn–1 n–2 mn–2 n–3 mn–3 n–4 mn–4 3 m3 2 m2 1 m1 (a) (b) Figure 3.frequency.3.of.dropping.structure.Neglecting. are.with.matrix {x}.undamped.term. equations..dynamic.Equation.solved.rigor- ous.resulting.for. methods.61a) where [M].in.of.treatment.form .solving.ω2t ⋮ xn..in.damping.of.  [M]{x}.damping.form.sin.During.a1..become..the.of.the.results.usually.equations.free.=.  [M]{x}.109  Multistory. Therefore.=.in.form . Writing.harmonic...3. be.[K]{x}..the. simple.forces General.to.a.would.equilibrium.the.which.Figure..second..to.can.the.motion.problems. of.vibrations.mass. equations.dropping.about.in. (3.with.structure If.does.is.a.the.vector.accelerations [K]..be.masses.oscillates.displacements..all.of.matrix.the.problem.same. these.=.absence.the.The.vector.masses.3.the.general.61b) where [C].means.column.of.vector..{P}..61b.of.and. motion.or.sinusoidal.ω.is.=.the.n.a.the.109.stationary.analytical.the.of.similar.column.more.ω1t x2.Thus.effect.model.external.are.precise.in.ωnt .=.is.matrix  {x}.identical.vector.is.lumped.sin.on.included. neglecting.equations.inertia.angular.damping.=.in.[K}{x}.the.the.system.limiting.an.the.the.results.The.the.data.equations.position.methods.are. available. Consider. but.of.a2. to.building..is.simplified.0..written. manner. of.. (3.+. cumbersome.problem.multistory.61a.that.seismic.side.

are.The.Setting.other. describe.differential. the.is.considered.as.solutions. Concrete.likened.from.values. mode.to.problems. smallest.the.the.area.analogous..y.of.encountered.masses.buckling.be.in..of.critical.determinant..mode.of.with.pattern.can.The.amplitudes.coordinates..understanding.of.We.to.the.independent.each.polynomial.all..system.to.in.of.the.n. The..elements.moment.structure.see. a. corresponding.called.of.possible.known.are.to..of. is.the.exactly.its.use.as.of.coordinates.and.rule.in.is.the...for. Unique.eigenvalues.those..stability.to.individual..the.called.real.nontrivial.because.that.an.to.the.expanded...3.the.values. the.analy- ses:.problems..relative.a.sense..amplitudes.or..the.algebraic.similar.a..mode.on.eigenvector. broad..of.natural.the.obtained...be. In. states.DOFs.of.vibrations. be.system.etc.of.an. relative. structural.mode.The.or.set. root.the. of..unique.in.of..a.and.If.or.all.the.loads.polynomial..for.equation.values.the.pattern.any.sin.4 noRmaL cooRDinates In.terms. 3.equation. by.and. the..transformed.rule.example.the.the.is..therefore.be.into.of.method.characteristic.hand.k11.it.vector.etc.that.able.normal.Equation.determination. is.amplitude.0. the.the. obtain.characteristic.types.geometric.the..of.a.frequency.equilibrium.m1.modal. Such. .side.this.or.absolute. of.amplitudes.the.is.motion.the.{an}.if.dynamic.frequency  Substituting.its.of.of.exist.the.response.for.shapes. modal.can..mode.values.in.21.properties.particular.expression. unknowns. 3.similar.equations.of.particular.is.equal..expressions. substitution..of.to.evaluation.simultaneous.the.equation.problem.each.cannot.results.vibration.individual. equations.ωnt where {an}.of.n.known..vibrating.structure. and.to.vibration.m2. solved.can.the.set.21.202 Tall Building Design: Steel.coordinates.upon.a.vector.a11.leading.of.motions.its.because.but.the.the.the.for.be.notation.stiffness.equations.values..quantities.modal.mode. expressions: -w2n éë M ùû {an } + éëK ùû {an } = 0 (3.or.critical.mathematical.a.and.{x}.system..for.to.q.a12.of.n..and. {x}.column.matrix.vibrating.a.we. it..method:.are..0..The.fundamental.of.for.The.of.as.….amplitudes.frequencies.are.concepts.static.the.which.procedure.one.of.mode.a.The.equations.of.coefficients.for.of.can.response.Hence.while.eigenvalue. called.of..the.(1).position. equal.first. and Composite Systems or. coefficients.the.in.for.that.structure.for..not.mode ωn..or.position.the.are.right-hand.with.determinant.n.is.represents. represent.amplitudes.characteristic.and. to.{x}.=.(2). ω2.is.homogeneous..x..and.properties.solved.the.obtained.value.k12.preceding.of.modes. displacements..n. .terms.be.to. .equation.frequencies. obtained.by.that.61a. Using.similar.and.x1.by. values.superposi- tion.that. Cartesian.determined. frequency.derivative.the.modes..values.as.Cramer’s. analysis.the.gives.….3 moDaL supeRposition In.known.ω2.the.a.are. is.nth.normal.61c) .ω2 for.the. system.vibration. fundamental.equations.total.superpos- ing.the.rotation.set.set.planar.However.in.determination. of.results.are.xn.used.can.0.are.the..orthogonality..respect..are.to.displaced.second..Two.solution.of...for..of.of.characteristic..characteristic.are.to.meaning.the.for.the.vibrations.of.the.coordinates.determining..corresponding.obtain.the.the.in.determinant..describe.inertia.looked.only.to. static. such.necessary.a.magnitude.For.property.amplitudes.are..of.shape.for. a.loads. common.

can.considered.modes..combining...primary.factors.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 203 restrained.indulge.are.and.of.the. simply.red.generalized.shown.following.beam. of.blue.colors. obtained.to.of.110.system...be.the. case.in.primary.complicated.point.the.independent.sinu- soidal.no.the.as.recall.means.. the.displacements.simply.represented.deflection..as.y.110.is..of.may. others. proportion.the..use.the.equals.coordinates.as.deflection.Considering.the. may.being.beam..coordinates. (3.included.sufficient.primary.be.at.number.beam.the.one-third-sine.In.rotations.by.using..vertical..series: sin px sin 2px sin 3px y = a1 + a2 a3 .generalized.displacement.Figure.only. DOFs.to. be.curve.of.reinforce.problems.system.number.of.are.series.free-vibration.The.move.analysis.by.structure.of.coordinates.110  Generalized.only.describe..supported.mode.modes.dynamic.concept.nothing.form.3.in.considered.the.represent.sufficient..upon.colors.obtained.one-fourth-sine.to. primary.and. one. color.however.by.the.Figure.the.is.superposing.The.can.of.their. combination. displacement.(d)..normal.by.stipulation. (b).While.any.. the. of. curve. (a).as.themselves.advantageous.to.modes.of.idea.the.green. full-sine.of..and.of. shapes...similar.primary.62) 1 1 1 Geometrically.x.curve. as..colors.the.referred. number.proportions.a.about.analogies. can.horizontal.mathematical.normal.distinct.orange. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Figure  3.(e)..the.description.For. further.is..each.3.if.and.identi- fied. but.to.The.the.commonly.coordinate.a.this.intriguing.trigonometric.loads.. a.modes. of.curve.and.also.in.the.a.the.can.similar.of. scale.Let.simple.can.direction.known.be. such.or.is. secondary.the.pink.curve.consequence.be.yellow.displacements.curves.represented. concept..to.of.deflected.only. beam...To.that.which.None. loading.These..shape.. any.coordi- nates.can.there.any.coordinates.some. supported.normal. .. a.looked.are.the.bring.in.of.shown.to.these.other..it.be..in.colors.capture..the.properties.deflec- tion.their.colors.to.created. colors.subjected.in.can.with. as..be.while.be.example.be.that.a.as.primary.to.normal.us. (c) half-sine.curve.to.home.is.their.bending.

accuracy.number.demonstrate.determining.mass.maximum.in.orthogonality.same.frequencies.in. shown.a.it.we.first.vibrating.during.in..65) This. .This.is. of.this.series.depending.vibrations.while.first.an.can.shapes.can.to.to.{xa}.. structural. the.one.a.111.is. w12 m1 x1b + w12 m2 x2 b = w22 m1 x1a + w12 m2 x2 a .or.we.will..work.{xb}.as.reference..the.equal...procedure.matrix.The.done. (3.written.waves.vibration.free.in.loading.ω2..considered.dynamics.of.desired. (b).great..a3.loads.that.vibration.during.ω1.a2.due.a1.get ..lumped-mass.is.shown.considered.We.terms.theorem.reciprocal.on.said.Betti’s.to.to.etc..5 oRthogonaLity This..two.and.the.0.Equations.deflection.rarely.of.. Concrete.the.the.3.orthogonality..system’s.the.similar.second.be.of..set..curves.significance..ordinates.displacements.condition..and.set. 3.curve.due.By.=.orthogonal.loads.loads.known.with..series.that .the.the.the.to.derivation.called.represent.the.is. Consider.w22 ) { xb } éë M ùû { xa } = 0 T (3.second.by.be.204 Tall Building Design: Steel.to.in.are.of.of.and.best..term.62.forces.is.a.Betti’s.matrix.problems..using.but.not.the.two.conditions.a2.condition.the.≠. If.the.the.etc.acting.forces.to.Figure.3.(a).two.second.shown.a3.of.represents. the.coefficients.work.be.the. be.of.force–displacement.shapes....full-sine.respect.use.states. {xb}T[M}{xa}.set.111  Two-story..different.with.of.theorem.Figure.3.elastic.get .system.is. 1. .modes.the.due.coefficients a1.lumped.Using.form or (w12 .numbers.64) ..the.the.111.conditions..term.two-story.the..first.used.illustrating.mode.degree.By. on.that.deflections.This.of.the..as.of.in.by.mode. (3.subjected. acting.111.system.static.done..=.etc.the..in.explained.2.a.the.theorem.the.model.half-sine.66) x1a x1b m1 m1 ω21 m1ω22 x2b m2 ω22 m2 m2 ω21 x2a (a) (b) (c) Figure 3..lumped-mass.63) This. The.mode.to.to.with.. {xa}T[k]{xb}..theorem:..on.Figure. number.are..(c).represent.[M]..can. (3.3.. and Composite Systems The.theorem.vibrations.can..any.reciprocal.deflections.etc.3.to.21.the.second.0.relationship.curve.example.of.as.

is.as.is.to.further.that. direction. displacements.and.2.of.terms. (3.to.mathematical.the.and.the..convenient.k2.and.are..x.bring.2.. dynamic.matrix.masses.general. in.for.Therefore.used.they. {xa}T.m1.forces.and.+..x1.therefore.having.=.normal.consider.is.−k2 x.of.and.the.free.m2.(a).masses.unit.the. c.method.damping.vibrations.equilibrium..m1.it.0.motion.The.out.be.can.masses.relative..(x2.are.112  Two-story.to.c{xb}. analysis.no.analysis.the.m2.=.the.therefore. in.by.of.analysis.essentials.(x2.of.orthogonal.. .produce.will. model. shown..move.in.dynamic..orthogonality.Using.with.gives m1 x1.m2.theoretical.connected.−k1x.floors.. (3.the.building.mass.addition.is.third.stiffness. (3.+.the..stiffnesses.method.show.horizontal.The.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 205 The.the.system.in.68) m2 x2.0.vibrating.by. (3.and.orthogonality.+.x1).modal.in.69) Rearranging.a.first.the.In.can.required. damping.stiffness.basis.=.masses.mentioned.the.structures.building.free.with.level.levels.free-body.We.+.given.is.each.1. Consider.analysis.second.necessary.also.previously.and.−.−.to..in.levels. equations.k2.equivalent.two. It.a. subject.the.dynamic. To.diagram.and.=.x1).system.springs.to.assumed.condi- tion.of.1.in. a.the..vibrations:.condition.it.k2 x2.k2 x2.modal.with.0.the.mode.respect.the.model.analyze.two-DOF.k2)x1.a.be.k2.to.by m1 x1..the.are.the. (3.coefficients.to. are.restrained.method.only.considered.of. building.to.and.and.the.k2.system.for..=.superposition.(c). a. each.(k1.for.−.matrix.then..masses.orthogonality.k1.and.to.to.two.(b).71) x2 x1 x2 m2 k1 k2 m1 m2 m1 (b) x1 k1x1 k2 (x2 – x1) k2 (x2 – x1) m1 m2 m1x1 m 2 x2 (a) (c) Figure 3.conditions.case.damping.convenience.modal.the.that.70) m2 x2.the. of.mathematically.at.direct.there.at. how.to.by.no.are.applies.that.shapes.has. make.to.the.these.112a. respect.ground. shear. 3.Newton’s.form .with.with. two-story.−.other.the.equations.law.67) is..simplified. Figure.a. through.m1.matrix.mathematical. and.This.+.shear..the.assumption.

70.k22 = 0 .k1k2 As.=.determinant.k2)] c.ω2. 2a .yields. of.m2(k1.and. (3.the.the. 3.frequency a.k1k2.the.ω2.x2.values.72) x2. 3.the. (3.+.mentioned.and.80) . gives.form x1.w m2 ) û 2 .74) k2 A.w2 m1 )(k2 .which.=.+.form 4ac w12 = -b + b2 .for.=.of. and.two.w2 m1 ) -k2 ù ê ú=0 (3.=.m1k2.B.−.of.be.this.the.solution.for.B.amplitudes.of.the.of.72.can..the.k2)ω2.the.and. Equations.w2 m2 ) .(ωt.+.frequencies.sin(ωt.equal.76) ë -k2 (k2 . following.represent.sin.equation.the.0.quadratic.uniquely.be.+.x1.0.the. the.=..relation .−[m1k2. 3.m2(k1.w2 m1 ) A ..the.ω2 m2)B.73.a).considered.+.a). 4ac w22 = -b + b2 .two. (3.and.maximum. .assumed.previously. The.of.masses A.≠.=.system.angle.must.the. Equations.the.represents.of. (k1 + k2 .case.the. (3. where a.of. (3.angular.B.73) where ω.71..solution.motion.the.to.of.the.and.gives. (3. substitution.+.intrinsic.the.vibratory. equations: . and.be.m1m2 b.75) To.be.of. é(k1 . (3.ω1.displacements. A. (k1 + k2 .206 Tall Building Design: Steel.+.k2 .B. 3.+.represents.of.77) or m1m2ω4.determinant.A.motion The. into. .for.0.(k2.are. 2a .phase.−.of.k2 B = 0 .nontrivial.0..coefficients.two. and Composite Systems The.=.expansion.obtain.solutions.determined.to.78) The.Thus.79) .A. (3.proper- ties.harmonic.can. Concrete.

the.larger.B1.the.2.modal.vibration. .terms.laborious.in. A2 k2 r2 = = + k2 ..ratio.the.+.we. system.summing. (3. (3..method.Equations.86) The.the.form.contain.+. expressions.sin.As.of.82) .Consider. The.this.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 207 The. B1 k1 . (3. subject.A2/B2.have.use.w12.frequency.of.=.system.r1B1.ratios.and.x1¢.again.r 2.amplitude.demonstrate.masses.for.section.of. in.get x1¢¢.81) . the.−.(ω1t. vibration.3.two. x2¢¢ Thus.can.and.=.of.they.=. (3.motions.geometrical.mathematical..the. (3.motion.w22 .interdependent.m2.instead.1. F2..dynamic.uniquely.are.=.. larger. Substituting.=.coor- dinates.a1).is. of. fundamental.properties.Thus.of.be.displacements. Equations.determine.idealized.+.72. and. mode.for.k2 x2.. called. consider.sys- tems.the.x2¢¢.and.two-story.determined.simultaneously. ratio.88) These.w12 m1 (3.84) These.undue.equations.for.the.a2).natural.a1).become.describe.(ω2t.shapes.shapes.respectively.and.simplified. x1¢¢ x2.the. can.+..is.building.having.+. analysis..is.Although. terms.of.free.stated.DOFs.get x1¢.and.−.to.solutions.=.previously.of.able.of.+.be.of. superposition.the.of.ratios. ω2.how.F2.modes.by.and.amplitudes.of..m1.used.(ω2t.w12 m1 (3.mathematical. and 3.solved..we.the.and.equations. Substituting.difficulties.mode..the.equilibrium.vibrations.r 2.the. x1¢.are.+.sin.general.magnitudes. the.r 2 B2.the.(ω1t.the.equations.in.85) x2¢¢.but.amplitudes.both. corresponding..72. ..=.B2.be.a2).unwieldy.which.levels.method.=. we.we.unnecessary. also. functions. without.analysis. at.the. the.the..indeed.because.represent.displacements: x1. in.vibration. F1. (3. angular..and..+..A1/B1.to. the.=.the.x1.x1.angular.r1. time-varying. r 2.73.previous.corresponding.response.similar.ratios.The.(k1. x2¢ . A1 k2 r1 = = + k2 .k2 x2.F1.sin..These. B2 k1 .are.be.corresponding. to.x2. process. and..second.of.system.sin.r1.k2).We.was.in.called.makes.to. describe.r1.cannot. will. the.the.modes.by.and.ω1.unknowns.for.using. mode.systems.modal.displacement. force.obtained.two.modal. the.73.and.orthogonal.B.multidegree. first.can.the.given. of.shapes..damping.by m1 x1.and.The. and 3.two.+.A.k2 x1. 3..will.the. system. of.87) m2 x2.obtained.the.get.83) x2¢ .mode. frequency.neglected.=.but.of.for.frequencies.The.

.49.k2).linearly.equations.F2.of.For. as. (m a 2 1 11 + m2 a21 2 ) ( z1 + w12 m1a12 + m2 a21 2 ) z1 = a11F1 + a21F2 . Equation.a11z1.for.system.3.offers.3.we.independent. P1 = a11F1 + a21F2 (3. (3.that.done.Since.one. system.. a12.adding.into.only.−..+.and.+.other.time.abbreviations: M1 = m1a11 2 + m2 a21 2 (3..Equation.+.93) .1.and.98) .differential.uncouple.have.to.91. to.of.and. frequencies. obtain.Equations.orthogonality.=.form.seek.be.example.equations.–.of.seek.=.(k1.of.89) x2.a22. (3.to.written.are.solving.the.at.the.uncoupled.z1.get 2 m1a11z1 + ( k1 + k2 ) a11 2 z1 .looked.requiring.x1.a11z1.at.97) .Instead.and.equations.and.Multiplying.problems. (3.for.+. values.k2 a12z2.equations.the. solution.two.form. the.or.of.x2.combination.3.a22z2.simplified.48.an.form x1. section.the.of.and z2.method. M 2 = m1a12 2 + m2 a22 2 ..by.the.x2.mak- ing.94) Similarly.92.the. modal...m1a12z2.are.5. mode.of. The.we..the. the.coupled.their.the.of.a12z12. Concrete.+.values.Substituting.k2 a11a21z1 + k2 a21 2 z1 + m2 a21a22 z2 .properly.dynamic.k2).alternate..90) What. and.upon.−.by. equations.in.a22 F2 . (3.+.conditions.the.95) Equations.scaling.assume.x1.resulting.independent.x1.system.two. .1. and Composite Systems in.by.to.con- tain.derivatives..solutions..and. (3. K 2 = w22 M 2 .for.88.a2z1.transform.equations.or.further.3.we.solution. K1 = w12 M1 (3.equations. (3..can. can.the.96) .the.F1.of.modes.92) We.we.preceding. simultaneous.91) m2 a21z1. P2 = a12 F1 + a22 F2 .we.such.3.in.function.208 Tall Building Design: Steel.uncoupled.coupled. equilibrium.using.independent.and.3.. super- position.a11.is.interdependent.−.k2 a22z2.Equations.of.as.get m1a11z1.by.k2 a11a21z1 + m1a11a12 z2 + ( k1 + k2 ) a11a12 z2 .of.a21.give.simplified.unknown.(k1. shapes.x2.These.a.greatly.multiplying.and.equations.and 2.3.preceding.each.87.Let.and.and.a11.us.following.88).combined.use. previous..the.preceding.by.and.91..+.92.−.a.original.and.we. (m a 2 1 12 + m2 a22 2 ) ( z2 + w22 m1a12 2 + m2 a22 2 ) z2 = a12 F1 . 2 m1a21z1 ..are.87.get .k2 a21z1.the.k2 a22z2.levels.are.functions.the.is.to.displacement.which..and.mode.k2 a11a22 z2 = a11F1 (3..a12.express..linear.=.obtain . for.a12z2.level.displacements.x1.shapes. .3.in.procedure.(Equations.scaled.be.(k2 a12 a21z2 + k2 a21a22 z2 ) = a21F2 Adding.of.m2 a24z2.+.are.a.k2 a21z1.k2 a11z1.=.−.5.

buildings.design.solving.the.the.is.of.been.obtained.the.instead.100) The.modal.given.essential.various.used..Earthquake Effects on Buildings 209 where M1.direction.the.equal.methods.buildings.the.the.as. CQC.be..a.have.M2.given.buildings.that.means.any.analysis. of.Since.vibration.the.each. reader.physical.values.combinations..k2z2.as.necessary.translational.given.forces.are.equation.complexity.are.total.values.mobilized.mode.Equations.present.similar. modes.damping.account.more.response.each.uncoupled.by..is.One. 6–10.appropriate..procedure.too. combinations.a.of.also.conservative.by.modal.of. response..sufficient. is.the.is.95..the.static.The..simple.for.of.equations.reach.of.to.number.can.analysis.of..to.evaluated.DOF.it.floor.In.determined.generalized..in.The. used.others.by.meaning.effect.the.The.employed. (3.=.forces.dynamic.model.a.equivalent..+.called.the.a.constructed.standard.is.level.forces. The.seismic.to. design.of.the.a.discrete.dynamic.mass.of.and.various.Free.each.the.of.SDOF.is.to.systems.of.statistical. load..factor. The.from.earthquakes.usually.yet. of.to.their..are.To.response.to.are.the.to..found.the.effective.values.is.it.of. because.building.displacement..P2.mass.solution.of.forcing.as.of.generalized.can..response. natural.statistically.integral. widely..spectrum.analysis..form.not.of.mode.natural.is.problems.use.K2.this.root-mean- square.the.same.a.acceleration.occur.of. DOF.method.corresponding.The.direction.undergoing.and.generalized.as.building.summing.3. mass.displacements.torsional. always.DOFs.system. method.3.it.as..is.modifying.experienced.however.limit.the.the.spectrum.on.be.to. effective.each.in.earth- quake). these.three.one.the.section.two.response. conservative.the. probability.build- ing. maximum.textbooks. and.of.eigenvalues.worthwhile.shapes.give. property.procedure.a.structural.Mode.scale.particular.. not.of.an.response.acceleration.do.adjusted.the.amount.(estimated.lateral. features.at..has.and.when.dynamic.while.essentials.or.are.to.CQC.that.function.of.mass..modal.quantities..However.mass.the.is.has.3D.the.and.to.method.alleviate.summarize.vibra- tions.of.maximum..the.indicate.multiplied.percentage.deformation.as.deformations..function.model.each.Each.obtain. value.of.orthogonality.P1.shapes.system: M1z1.without..the.The. mode.lose.is.of.by. to.approximations. more.mode.unavoidable..which. .MDOF.. modal.the.dynamics.together. determine.shaped.of.engi- neering.are.modal.direct.this.idealizing.in.total.resulting.Duhame’s.the.certain.characteristics.the..for.irrespective.forces.the.so-called.mode.the..design.analy- sis.damping.used.based. of..which.the. (3.Although.mode.performed.response.of.for..frequency.percentage.the.taken.considerations..+.frequencies. motion..two.solving.notations.related.takes.responds.combination.SRSS.for.of.upper.building.equations.the. The.each.obtained.by.name.the.these..Since.by..period.in.these.In.such.Lest.this.94.function.in.are.that. been.superposition..a.only. forces..nearly..an.for.buildings. number.the.general.of.any..for.has.Generally.The.stiffnesses P1.consideration.in..=. earthquake.modal.of. into.spectrum.would.simultaneously.and..mathematical.evaluate.loading.masses.has.particular.of.. in.of.to. number.called.of.corresponding.differential.a.probable.them.the.it.dynamic.is.damping.maximum.As.modes. the. a.k1z1.combina- tion..considered.live.static.no..are.predetermined.many.for.each.method.described.of.number.are.of.has.lumped...quantities.modes.multiplied.the.on.would.implies.(RMS).as.provides.forces Using.A. it. The.used.each.shapes.determined.a.with.that.the.than. more.regular.by.be.product.spectrum.a.a.mode. modal.is..the.SRSS. of.to.during.cases.mode.masses K1.to...gives.at.one.equations.proce- dures.its.is.a..out.a.can.be.maximum.mode.of...dead.by.employs.The. responses.can.one.level.In.shape.P2.planar.of.each.for. required.and.the.These. adequately.a.analysis.steps.analysis.under.model.to.total.have.each.modal.SRSS.these..of.the.dynamic.has.is..the.shapes.problem.such.mass.The.the.99) M2z2.be.example.considered.of.values.load.for.representing. design.of.seismic.bring.generally..presentation.corresponding.a.evaluating.aim.by.in..vibration.an. the. predictor.including.

has.in.modal.base.a.that..and.value.W/k.any.the mth.=.programs.base.W.angle.is.applied. The.to.for.the.maximum.weight.the. δst = 5.the.101) where Vm.the.given.excruciating.determined.−δst and.shear.in.suspended.elongation.the. twice.to. Concrete. .modal..mode am.displace- ments.pt.in.is.of.accelerations.dynamic.fundamentals.of..analysis.amSamW.sudden..Wn.to.displace- ment.building.by.is.is.mode. .of.base.its.weight.used.base.=.participation.harmonic.mode.+. u(t).calculated.displacement.load.of.the.mode Sam.and.=.statistically.vibration.the.the.motion.band.from.the..and.of.origin.t.factor..and.techniques..from.weight.of.ground.velocity.the.second.band.static.the.a.each.mth..the.oscillate? Solution:.base.that.are.this.shear.Hence.conclude.of.displacement yo.application.weight.perhaps.the.4 oscillations/s ..at.band.until.is.in.=.the.it.example.performed.without.for.will.application. load.as.the.examples.programs.contributed.of.If.and..is.t) When.attached.understanding.total.weight.the..maximum.is.is.is.the.modal.each.equilibrium.band..response.for.weight. (3.gradually.δst We.in.character- istics.of..the.the.the.mode.other.raised.analysis.−1.is.W.con- sidering.of.am..first.the.This.moment.analysis.load.cos.is.the.SRSS.the.acceleration.of.positive.combination. instructive.enhance.spectral.due.our.simple.end.determined.modal.conclude.combined.static.static.factor.what.zero.and.presented.scrutinize..in.is .in.participation. γmax.equilibrium.portions. Two.release.rubber.π.computer.downward.released.In.=.elongation.using.the.that.21.displacement.same.method.suspended..produced.22  aNaToMy oF CoMPuTer resPoNse sPeCTruM aNaLyses Now.part.shear.dead.of.weight. will.the.it.the.story.total. and Composite Systems 3.pt.then.by l g 1 386 F= = = 1.initial.the.in.frequency.W.from.tension.cos.equation.spectra.for.produces.building.and.positive.loads..as.mth.shear.position.the.(1.have.when.will..the.to.the.is.mth. velocity.the.we.illustrate.A.instant.produced.the.that.mode.that.is.In.Taking.including.the.the.of.the. the.by.forces.frequency.6 Design exampLe: Dynamic DispLacement Given:.for.motion.by.determine.performed.sudden.210 Tall Building Design: Steel.−.of.is.the.computer..from 2 æ å ö n wi ç fim ÷ i =1 g am = è ø å å n w n w i fim i 2 i =1 g i =1 g . 2p dst 2p 5 3.be.the.are.superposition.each.and.at.W.analysis.the.have.given.y.dynamic.we.the.shear.initial.initial.learned.determined.position.part.the.loads The.0.from Vm.produced.internally.The.with.when.what.detail.using.how.of.spectrum W.applied.elongation.

22.level.1 exampLe 1: thRee-stoRy BuiLDing Given:.analysis.the.PFxnSam.level.The.at.for..=.the.5.determined.modal.=.mode.2.under.of.the.for.δxm.displacement.and.modal.the.for.7.i ϕxm. Weights.amplitude.mth.illustrated.mth.is.participation.mth.from.Figure.vibration.236.spectrum Tm.example:.is.period.=.113.the.kip-s2/ft W2.is.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 211 The.=.is.3.consideration The.lateral.for.the.of.dynamic.from æ å ö n wi ç fim ÷ i =1 g PFxm =ç ÷ fxm å n w ç i 2 ÷ fim ÷ ç i =1 g .=.2.is.mth.determined.is.is.mth.the.236/32.story.the.n.the.. .mode Sam.102) where δxm.mode. è ø where PFxm.33.spectral.modal.is.mode.kip-s2/ft.187/32.mass.the.=.=.mode wi/g.participation.x n.level.story.building.PFxm.W3.to.=.kip m2..from δxm.at.displacement.m3.mth.determined.of.i ϕim.is.level.the.187.the.level.level.response.=.factor.kip MR.x.the.assigned.model.81.is.the.acceleration. Roof WR = 187 kips Third W3 = 236 kips Second W2 = 236 kips Figure 3.x.in.at.amplitude.the.mth.the.masses WR.at.example.113  Three-story..lateral. (3.mode 3.of.is.

0 Sa.seven-story.for.if.. regular.160 .in.overturning.indicate. response. 3.shown.4%.These.of.weight.8%.3.SRSS.spectrum.300 ..=.example.1 0.mode.and.=.shears.0.and.mode.14.roof..for.shears.analysis.the.forces..first- mode.It.7 0.From.3.mode.mode.effective.response. each.0 .80 1..importance..participation.SRSS.89%.first. g .060 Figure 3.3.for.6 0. 3.0..2 Sa3.the.mass.20%.SRSS.factor.at.14 .this.been..shear.story...through.have.the.1%.the..and.shows. Periods Spectral acceleration:. building.at.the..modal.the.modal.2 exampLe 2: seven-stoRy BuiLDing Given:.5.114  Three-story.the..9 0.roof.0.mode.95%.the.the.the.for.am.8 0.used.when.Figure.the.=.25.=.the.41g.22.0 4.compari- son.mode.of.also. g 0.Story.base..91%.50%.become.80.of.212 Tall Building Design: Steel..modes.the.or...displacements.The.3 Required ...are.5 2.floor.on.and.0 0.shear.analysis.0 3.the.the.5 Sa.79%.that.for.to.first. seconds Period 0.for.0 Period.accelerations. Modal...=.lg.at.in.149.=.results.second.building.1 Sa2.25g.0.and..this.shown. 8%. 99%.. and Composite Systems 0.response.are Sa1.noted.illustration.combinations Solution:.response.mode.second.relative..analysis.mode .first-mode.of.should.second.080 .each.obtained.for.building.a3.response.with.. 1.4.third.spectrum.While.in.0.586 .of.the.and.for.be.modal.4 0.120 .as.048.basis.the.shears.SRSS.in.is.is.story... that.0 1.second-mode.the.only.0 4.of.spectral.the.of.a2.determine.Tables.increasingly.taller.mode. of.at.0 1.0. 2..example.the.For.would.41 .accelerations.the.5.The.combined.with.base.3.for.804.For. .0 2.6%.mode..at..dominates..See.in..moments.9%.3.building.In.third.and.of.the.0 3.3 0.had.in. Concrete.first.three-story..114.115.Table.we.the.important.shear.240 .the.higher.Figure.are.shears .the.third.3.the.0.percentages.lateral.buildings.irregular.2 0.accounts.in.floor.the.a1.SRSS.the.

2201 −1.43.g v.45.000 0.=.086 –0.048 Sm(Smf2 ) sa 0.=.=.41.of.1410.by.=.=.3320 R2 = 0.2044 31 32 33 0.=.384 −0.2384 1.330 0.288.=.W5.964 0.315 0.001 Smf PFRam .sum. a m = 1.=.0713 –0.4143 0.1460.611 0.0860 0.m6.1460/32.306 −0.the.have.7.W4.αmSaW 132. å mf m =1 b.that. Periods: T1.kip mR.45 4.and.8040 0.149 0.496 0.0.054 −0.=.355 −0.34.56.2075 −1. 2 = 1.m3.630 0.=.3 Three-story building: Modal analysis to Determine base shears Tm1 s 0.3320 1.0713 0.factors.of.=.212 PF2m 0.0.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 213 TabLe 3.340 2 7.=.0.349 0.416 0.kip m7.251.m 4.41.factors.182 R1 = 0.kip m2.the. Note.normalized.and.s T2.83.W3.745 1.2936 2.kip-s2/ft.829 0.participation. W2.so.0.577 0.2154 −1.2.0.=.WR /g. Weights.s T3.2201 –0.=.ϕR1.2154 0.=.32 0.=.030 3 7.the.W6.shapes.2.been.m5.=.computer.kips 13.346 −0.g 0.kips 40.=.=.055 1.289 (Smf)2 αm = 0.1.program.2075 21 22 23 0. PFxm = 1.base.kips-s2/ft.929 0.g 0.385 0.modal.631 ∑ 20.000b −1.modal. The.1830/32.2936 Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3 æ k ×s ö 2 Level Mass çç ÷÷ ϕx1 mxϕx1 mx fx21 ϕx2 mxϕx2 mx fx22 ϕx3 mxϕx3 mx fx2s è ft ø R 5.s .640 0.mode.=.880.32 0. m =1 å 3 participation.the.2384 R3 = 0.kips å 3 a.0.that.=.1830.519 0. W7.0.164.356 0.2.2.shear.149 0.kip-s2/ft.=.070 Smf2 PF3m 0.2044 1.81 0.masses WR.79.1410/32.362 0.sum.=.9863 1.

275 1.346 0.116a. a.7 1416 2005 0.087 −0.2 772 0 0.shows.349 0.028 0.002 −15.101 2 0.829 0. in. that.response.9 112.the.5 0.Sa.1 1233 772 0.337 3.500g Sa3..407 3 0.000 3421 (b).parts.spectrum.Mode.072 1. accelerations.157 0.000 38 (d).the.6 132.the.791 0.the.989 0.195 0.Figure.Mode.065 1.476 63.208 1. and Composite Systems TabLe 3.91 40.3 R 0.format.214 Tall Building Design: Steel.0094 0.379 3.9 −31.1 0.384 0.From.=.) ∆xm (in.Figure. format..=.070 0.369 48.3.3.018 2 139.5 Three-story building: Comparison of Modal story shears and the srss story Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3 Level VSRSS V1 V1/VSRSS (V1/VSRSS)2 V2 (V2/VSRSS)2 V1 (V3/VSRSS)2 R 71.094 2 49.0.information.599 −20.1 5.212 0.5 67 0 −0.0 40.791 1.89 0.000 97 (c).1 R 1.the.066 2 0.038 1.500g Observe..of.2 0.812 0. 1997.892 1.0.038 0. similar.and.SRSS.416 −0.three.212 −1.2 0.building.202 5.of.contain.related.all.Figure.155 20.116a.083 13.Only.3 −168 67 −0.9 −389 0 −0.037 3 −0.2 R −0.184 0. Concrete..793 −31.006 3 119.029 0.spectral.3 132.923 37. and.5 139.3 13.0 0. UBC.289 2.182 3 0.208 0.c. a.893 1.3 0.2 63.118 0.0 867 0 0.171 −0.9 0.spectral.accel- erations.3 1246 867 0.420 5.3 112.953 0.0 139 −101 0.98 5.0 63.116.148 0. tripartite.2 0.2 57 −389 −0.0.are Sa1.0 71.Mode.116b.8 113.  and Displacements ∆oTMxm  oTMxm  mx fxm F Level PFxm Fxm (k) Vxm (k) (ft · k) (ft · k) axm = xm δxm (in.) åm f x xm wx (a).to.acceleration.276g Sa2.184 1. is. accelerations.2 429 −332 −0. 3.179 28.251 3 64.is. in.5 5.different.813 3423 TabLe 3.8 −15. . IBC-03.the.same.periods.870 35.79 −31.combination R 71.011 2 0.that.009 Spectral accelerations:..through. to.087 0.7 0.362 0.=.3 1486 2035 0.3. response. Figure.4 Three-story building: Modal analysis to Determine story Forces.

are. by. story.modal.in.are.to.7' T2 = 0.the. the.tabular. accelerations. force.08. and.kip.be. 2.0.First-.the.shears.is.The.3.with.the...periods. a.close.distribution.for.shears.of.dynamic.being.base.288 s 4 w4 = 1460K T3 = 0. assumption.in.and.shears.summary Solution:.lateral.The.to.are.static.Tables..the. the. Story forces. mode.included..static.adds.level. story.and. the.to.in.is.From.modal.the.eigenvalues.participation.value.values.normalized.SRSS.and. building.modal.... force.respectively. and displacements:.program. story.that.used.calculation.each.to. determined. å w mode.. used.each.In.analysis.results.in.the.design. the. is.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 215 Roof wR = 1410K 8. accelerations.3. dividing.by.WΦ/SWΦ.200. the.more.building. from computer analysis 8. on.for.the.117.three. PFxm.. Modal.Figure. 1..the.normalized.the.the.Modal. g uppermost.am. 3.computer.2498.overturning.in.Φ.displacements .SRSS. by.0. F 2 = 1.noted.used.set.6..164 s 8.determined.3.986.analysis..0.up.modes.procedure.7' 5 w6 = 1460K T1 = 0.a..forces.the. Required .The.previously.Figure.are..and..second-.and. are.of.second.programs.dynamic.base.through..shears .to.distribute.procedure.similar.These.described.. most. to.same.moments.third-mode.of. It. forces..116c.880 s 8.should.kip.6.analysis. shape.7' 3 w3 = 1460K 8.is.story.1.third.sum.up.632..the. .factors.response.a.spectrum.. In.9.2408..These.shown.the.example. Wh/ΣWh.0...the.analysis.the.determine.7' 2 w2 = 1830K 13..first.for.1. Modal.story.is.and.analysis.force.In.the.is.to.respectively.format.in.in.for.manner. method.7' 6 w7 = 1460K First three modes of vibration.and.shows.3.1. response.for.5' Ground Figure 3.in.the.additional. determine. accelerations.participation..shear.velocities.story.example:..of.indicate.values.the.The.at..accelerations.combined..modes.used. straight-line.are.3.and. of.and.base.. distribute.representative.considered.base.Table.to.some.displacements.that.man- ner.115  Seven-story.the.

1 .3 0.(b).50 0.0 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 20 30 40 50 60 80 100 (b) Period in seconds Spectral Acceleration.38 0.5 0.216 Tall Building Design: Steel.24 0.three-story.06 0.09 0.16 0.50 1.6 8 0 6 4 1.192 0.13 0.0 . .09 0.6 1 1 0.0 1./s ch 4 in Ac 4 n ti 40 ce 3 en le ra 2 em tio lac 20 n 2 sp Di in 1.. .15 0.16 0.8 0.0 6 .116  Response. T(s) Frequency in cycles/second 100 80 60 50 40 30 20 10 8 6 5 4 3 2 LO 0.25 2.08 7% 0.11 0.5 0.50 0. 2 0.12 0.0 (a) Period.7 Special acceleration Sa (g) 0.0 0.2 0.27 0.8 1.0 .11 0.10 5% 0. 4 0. .1 β = 10% β = 20% 0.6 0.0 0.64 0.09 0.4 0 .05 (c) Figure 3.8 0.7 0.08 0.5 0.representation. .08 0.13 0.08 0.0 .22 0.0 .example:.spectrum.37 0.04 .38 0.for.03 0.30 0.4 0.00 1.(c).0 8 1 01 1 .03 0.18 0.3 β = 5% β = 7% 0.00 02 2 2 0.4 β = 2% 0. diagram.5 2.0 .spectrum.2 .01 0.44 0.2 0.4 4 0.137 0.1 0.10 0.07 0.02 0. Concrete.38 0.5 6 0.27 0..20 0.16 0. .00 2% 0.0 0 3 4 .80 1.13 0.spectra. .59 0.8 0 0.44 0.28 0.00 04 4 0.75 1.06 0.and. 2 0.12 0.1 0.4 0.5 0 6 .1 0.10 0.50 0.10 0.0 0.2 0.00 2.17 0.0 0.response.75 2.20 0.25 0.3 0.48 0.50 3. Sα(g) T β 0.building. 2 .8 g 10 0 .096 0.15 0.17 0. and Composite Systems 0.02 0.01 80 60 50 40 30 20 10 9 8 10 7 0 6 5 β = 5% es Velocity in in.64 0.5 1.numerical.44 0.00 08 0 6 0.9 3 2 0.8 .tripartite.08 .066 20% 0.6 0.48 0.8 0.0 1.20 0.3 0.07 10% 0.06 .24 0.30 0. .0 2.27 0.107 0.04 0.(a).acceleration.6 0.5 3.

360 .(c).analysis.modal.overturning.5 125 –267 219 367 Ground (a) Δh (ft) Roof 8.7 2283 −365 −19 2312 2 13.story.7 2098 −46 −175 2106 3 8.93 −.3 443 –19 –166 473 5 39.068 −..96 −.52 −.19 .04 1.7 1816 283 −169 1846 4 8.modal.225 −.12 .315 4 1460 .219 .12 −.338 .6 371 –216 –163 459 4 30...107 .story.16 .lateral.48 3 .00 1.57 6 2.362 6 1460 .303 −.75 7 2.324 5 1460 .5 2408 −632 200 2498 Ground (b) Roof 0 0 0 0 7 4420 −2871 1479 5474 6 13137 −7378 2871 15338 5 25709 −11719 2819 28394 4 41508 −14181 1349 43884 3 59761 −13781 −174 61330 2 79623 −10605 −339 80327 Ground 112131 −2073 2361 112175 (c) wt (kips) Roof 1410 .120 .kip.30 5 1.story..201 Ground (d) Roof 2.57 .moments.117  Seven-story.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 217 First mode Second mode Third mode Ht (ft) T1 = 0.(d).146 . displacement.modal.04 2..193 −.30 −.93 4 1.74 .01 −.11 .summary:.013 −.04 2.275 2 1830 .kip-ft.880 s T2 = 0.297 3 1460 .7 508 330 170 629 7 8.53 Ground (e) Figure 3.inches.7 508 330 170 674 7 57.modal.288 s T3 = 0.00 2.121 .2 185 –319 156 409 2 13.004 .7 1445 499 −6 1524 5 8..and.97 2 .18 .254 −.forces.kip.02 .164 s SRSS Roof 65. .007 ..(b).9 282 –329 –6 431 3 22....story.modal.accelerations.129 −.building.04 .(e). shears.127 −.234 .112 .(a).148 −.modal.7 1002 518 160 1139 6 8.46 −.446 7 1460 .0 494 189 –10 529 6 48.g.114 .

Concrete.000) (927.166 0. and Composite Systems .0745 3.0604 2.000 1.0.16 0.448 7 45.6 seven-story building: Modal analysis to Determine base shears Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3 srss w æ k .828 = 0.194 −0.Damping.148 −0.880.0042 −0.0684 2.0023 −0.kips.weight.201 1 — 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ∑ 327.85 0.85 0.120 = 0.500)(10.93 0.060 0.001 0.362 0.120.101 0.52 1.53 0.24)(0.27 1.52)2 α Eq.factor.=.86 0.127 −0.254 −0.986 (327.−0.sec Sa 0.g 0.180 −0.g.500).229 0.47)(0.92 0. β.0718 −3.14 0.kips (0.Site.276 0.=.632.99 0.19 0.65 0.kips (0.500).000 3.141 0.37 3.0684).×.0.31)(1. å çè g ÷ø.=.s2 ö w w 2 w w 2 w w 2 Level ç ÷ ϕ1 f1 f1 a1 (g) ϕ2 f2 f2 a2 (g) ϕ3 f3 f3 a3 (g) ax (g) g è ft ø g g g g g g   Roof 43.34 0.013 −0.31)(1.11) (0.106 0.201 0.=.×.237 æwö W.(3. (16.g 0.226 −0.0.220 0.0666 3.0425 1.147 0.47 (0.038 ∑.188 −0..g 0.=.111 0.276)(10.2.304 −0.kips.05.076 −0..=.119 0.=.000 −6.9) = 0.219 0.000 1.38 0.10.g.0697 −3.124 0.08 1.=.12)(0.0149 0.0644 −2.500.=.27 0.082 0.sec 0.18 0.27 0.=.8) (0.539).004 0.g (0.314 4 45.46 -6..34 0.0747) = -0.362.539.0630 −2.500.g aroof Eq.007 0.325 5 45.(3.46)2 (-6.298 3 45.0467 −2.000) (327.kips 2498.31 (0.10 0. AG.=.Building.261 0.83 0.276.24 ∑.0.001 −0.001) T 0.0794) = 1.74 0.(3.0.2408.20.252 0.539).828)(0.=.=.035 0.013 0.038)(0.g (−0.48 0.0794 3.26 0.=.120 0.0747 3. 218 TabLe 3.448 V Eq.46 1.31)(1.PGA.0279 1.02 0.275 2 56.235 0. Tall Building Design: Steel.001 16.34 0.0471 −2.(SRSS) V/W 0.019 0.0558 2.000 −0.500)(10.31)(0.34 0.276).129 −0.0677 3.32.=.86 0.(3..34 0.0040 −0.164.31.234 0.52 PFroof Eq.78 0.113 0.327.068 −0.001 .205 0.200.0.10) (1.31 16.364 6 45.340 0.1.27)2 (3.539).sec 0.235.0411 1.288.744 −0.

799 25.×.7 1460 0.0 8.338 0.572 13.009 5 −0.0.000 3 −0.146 0.022 6 0.122 0.×.×.719 0.0747 65.862 59.181 0.5 1830 0.0471 39.5 1830 0.0.709 0. 0 0 0 0 0 112.522 −330 −330 −2871 0 −0.5 13.000 2408 112.5 13.632.2 8.127 0.0666 48.031 5 0.2882.137 0.191 g F a.010 0.623 0.×.219 0.154 371 1816 15.010 0.423 267 632 8532 −10.0.007 7 0. Displacement.7450 57.131 0 0 ∑ 1.214 0.211 508 508 4420 0 0.077 185 2283 19. TabLe 3.acceleration 4p =. 2 .acceleration.508 79.005 4 −0.068.193 0.043 0.148 0.7 1460 0.010 6 −0.117 282 2098 10.0718 30.7 seven-story building: First-Mode Forces and Displacements T1 = 0.7 8.010 Grd.015 0.7 1460 0.014 7 0. Displacement.7 1460 0.0794 65. g  wf story ϕ h ft ∆h ft w kips (V1) × (6) ∑ (7) (4)–(8) ∑ (9) (7) ÷ (5) δa ft ∆δ ft å wf Roof 0.005 2 −0.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 219 TabLe 3.761 0.0411 57.205 494 1002 8717 4420 0.129 −0.001 0.7 1460 0.288 s Modal base shear V2 = 632 kips (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) ∆oTM  oTM  F kips  V kips  K-ft  k-ft  accel.6 8.303 0.520 329 46 400 −14.0697 22.7 1460 0.068 0.0558 59.0.052 125 2408 32.360 0.015 0.d x1 = ´ T12 ´ 4 p2 w 32 =. .×.781 0.7 1410 0.0425 30.030 19 −499 −4341 −7378 0.9 8.7 1460 0.880 s Modal base shear V1 = 2408 kips (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) ∆oTM  oTM  F kips  V kips  K-ft  K-ft  accel.016 0.×.0467 13.7 1410 0.057 2 0.6 8.d x 2 = ´ T22 ´ 4 p2 w 32 =.234 −0.999 632 −2073 g F a.504 319 365 3176 −13. 0 0 −2073 0 0 ∑ 0.192 0.9 8.7 1460 0.039 4 0.253 41. 2 .3 8.0149 13.042 3 0.7 1460 0.228 0.acceleration 4p =.2 8.0 8.297 −188 −518 −4507 −2871 −0.043 Grd.013 0.acceleration.184 443 1445 12.7 8. g  wf story ϕ h ft ∆h ft w kips (V2) × (6) ∑ (7) (4) × (8) Z(9) (7) ÷ (5) δa ft ∆δ ft å wf Roof 0.254 0.341 216 −283 −2462 −11.882.225 0.0279 22.3 8.8 seven-story building: second-Mode Forces and Displacements T2 = 0.080 0.161 0.605 0.508 0.009 0.0042 48.7 1460 0.

.shows.between.121 0.mode m Sam.m.the.7 1460 −0.(β.it. from.response.002 3 0.spectrum Tm.values.by.the.essentially. are.third-mode.the.0684 65.164. From. Figure.a.calculated.moments.000 0.is.288.mode.curve.because. and Composite Systems TabLe 3.the.by.using.88. the.0.taking. 0. Concrete.0644 48.117.001 2 0.of.The.094 219 200 2700 −339 0.the.curves.7 1460 −0.3. and.×.mode.003 7 −0.is.3. by.120 0.642.factors.basis.the.003 6 −0.is. story..analysis.story.in..0023 30. .curves.7 1410 0.0604 22.0 8.. s.for. Displacement.for.0.is.3.quite.0. calculated.response.778 156 −19 −165 −174 0.damping.of.of.164 s Modal base shear V3 = 200 kips (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) ∆oTM  oTM  F kips  V kips  K-ft  K-ft  accel.112 −0. stories.2 8.story.107 0. and.lateral.the. g  wf story ϕ h ft ∆h ft w kips (V3) × (6) ∑ (7) (4) × (8) ∑ (9) (7) ÷ (5) δa ft ∆δ ft å wf Roof 0.220 Tall Building Design: Steel.849 170 170 1479 0 0.On.force.values.s.0.shears.through.5 13.story.05).vibration.are.displacement.forces.multiplying.9. 2 .5 1830 1.forces.. The.shapes.5%.obtained.and.displacements.through.shown.7 1460 −0.and.7 1460 0.deter- mined.6 8.7 8.to.114 −0.acceleration.004 0.of.3 8. shapes.003 0.×.determined.interstory.0630 39. The.that.building.is.period.mass. accelerations.uniform.spectral.0. modes. are.003 0.000 5 −0. Tables. 0.from.7.modal..Tables.813 −163 −169 −1470 2819 −0.accelerations..and.shapes.modal.period.the.are.3.the.level.accel- erations.003 Grd.from.3.117.similar.the..d x 3 = ´ T32 ´ 4 p2 W 32 =.acceleration 4p =.the.000 0.6.story.is.second-.The.002 0.are. of.9 8.276g. second.vibration Modal. and.modal.0677 13.as.mass.9.spectral.at.x.summarized.in.with. periods. weight.=.determined.Figure. period. 0 0 2361 0 0 ∑ 0.830 −166 −6 −52 2871 −0.×. using.participation.003 0.of. the.story.following.028 −6 −175 −1523 1349 −0.overturning.9 seven-story building: Third-Mode Forces and Displacements T3 = 0.difference.of.3.acceleration.051 −10 160 1392 1479 −0. the.drifts.displacement.a.computer.by.7 1460 −0.0040 57. the.. è 2F p ø where δxm.of.003 4 −0. respectively.adjacent.the.022.critical..are.are. vibration.acceleration. third.. Modal.007 0.003 0.equations: 2 æ T ö d xm = PFxm Sam ç m ÷ g . of.fundamental.999 200 2361 g F a. displacements.calculated...

the.the.modes.become. .a.first.values.the.of.3.become.for.in.of.greatly.Earthquake Effects on Buildings 221 Figure.It.different.. Figure..modes..the.and.while. displacements.the.a. 3. the. modal.The.predomi- nance.second.of.accounts.accounts..the.SRSS.shows.SRSS.of.forces.of.from.does.modes.significant.from.d ifferent..because.same..to. divided.of.are. fundamental.larger.less.are.of.become.which.due.of.various.SRSS.higher.third.do.response.the.for. the.the.Figure.that.the.to.values.curve.story. mode.direction. cancel.accelerations.is.the. taller. the.the.reversal.and.direction.to..are.second-.that.forces.the.by.however..period.role.curve.first-mode.significant.less.value.reversal.essentially.the. significant..shows.shears.should.each.com- bination. Figure. .117c.displacements. predomi- nates.shows.play..the.accelerations.modes.because.tend.individual.Observe.the.The. Figure.the.Again.building.it.the.for.summation.modes.the.higher.accelerations.modal.the.shape.higher.the.differ.displacements.because.overturning.proportional.shapes.fundamental.modal..not.any.levels..greater.maximum..be.higher.story.insignificant.substantially.and.to. in.the.of.3.While.displacements.moments.story.3.in.differ.first-mode.third-mode.relation.mode.the.substantially.accelerations.the.from.squared.3.mode.The.do.is.individual..modes. Observe.in.the..117b.mode.story.combination.modes..The.relatively.of.influence. that.buildings.equal.shape.is.117e.and.force. to.some- what.not.of.the.accelerations..that.SRSS.at.other.117d.irregular.an.of. the. shows.for.structure’s. The.noted.will.117.

.

Some.4..tables.pertaining.are.of.7-10.are.factor.belonging. 4.a.for.13. Sections.Detailed.abbreviation.pose.can.do. tornadoes. on.this.several.and.the.provisions.Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. To.frequently.and.. highest.mph.for. buildings •.in.In..chapter.of.of. are.is.following.are.with. wind.and..of.life.and.Chapters.to.for.used.than.various.wind. in.discussions.the.of.equations.can.the.with.of.equations.are.addresses.correct.tall.provisions.the. and.standards.Section.It.at.the.dedicated.Section.dynamics. Civil.4.of.(ASCE).sections..wind... much.it.along.000.first. the.for.of.of.in.information.wind.and. storm.velocity..reading.7-10. of.wind.12.The. ASCE.several.this.an.chapter.various.wind..copy.pre- vailing.regarding.outlined. To.“T”..and.in-depth.through.to..it.for.table.provisions. is.references.refers.publication.provides. with.the.can.hurricanes.is.effects.ASCE.used..respectively.explains.explain.11.ASCE.as.determining.by.7-10.During.on.4..Subsequent.load.the.figure.wind. hurricanes. engineering •. is.concept.winds.wind.deal.otherwise.10.gain.the. names.present..section.it..chapter.chapter.assessing.sections.discussion.discusses.regarding.are.limitations. chapter.concepts.the.procedures. wind.the. by. 4 Wind Load Analysis of Buildings Preview This. the.of.of.this.Section. earth.engineering.155.tables.to.is.advised..tables.7-10. is. wind.to.wind.and.caused. different.apply.ASCE.offers.major.the.sections.and.Engineers.In.time.assess.buildings.understanding. 4. in.tunnel.examples.on.zones..for.. •.about.of..and.ASCE.7-10.key.structures. provided.that.this.with.on. make.testing.tables.7-10 The.can.the. Hurricane.deal.5.pressure.sustained.wind. called.the. ASCE.calamity.wind.of.4.in.calculation.the. The. different.wind.codes. To..7-10.ASCE. and.while.and.use.. energy.to.they.reader.to.tunnel.7-10. 10.loads.The.with.natural.American.between.... the.the.effects.ASCE.Hurricane.advantages.design.of.a.in.7-05.history.differences. cases.order.Sections.standard.few.loca- tions.4..as. fundamentals.7-10).. refers. ASCE.is.6.tall..expend.to.forces.to.a.forces.chapter.wind.designed.and.factors.ASCE.this. They.Society.requirements.landfall.provided.the.in.chapters. wind.sections..the.are.the.4.organization.of.The.structural.has.a.of.1  Major Causes oF wiND ForCes Lateral.the. interprets.figures.low.United.and.loads.several.major.30.much..the.in.a.and.their.wind.loads.interpretations.An..the.figures.for.the.interpretation.chapter. buildings •.concepts. describe..term.to.Where.7-10.winds.wind.is.through.of.27.on..Even.greater.buildings.to.4.in. of.the. To. by.provided. buildings •..hurricane.disasters. To.loads. bombs. effect.three. 223 .of.ASCE.calculations.Section.of.ASCE.on.States.the. as.keeps.greatest. as.7-10.loads.of.design.building.for.fundamental.... incorporates.book.general.discuss.effects.explain.the.in. caused.the.locations.of. how.ASCE. parts.“F”.guidelines.figures.ASCE. nuclear. 7-10.of.or. (ASCE.4.goals.7. general..7-10.reference.buildings.wind.understanding.

reducing. the.winds.at.and.or.landfall. winds.into.and.Storm.and.the.velocity.air. warm.speed.in.Now.get.the..a.ft.destructive.from.of.of.“Tropical.the.warmed.scale.making.eastern.of.the.com- pressed.air.pressure. Tropical.compensate.layer.the.. air.However.at.specific.the.“baguios”.are.over.in the.source.aloft. between.atmosphere.surface.rains.a. storm.the.warms..wind.which.tropical.the.and.wind. buoyancy.and.system.the. the.formation.air.when.is.is.will.rises.rises.These.and.meeting.and.created.of.hurricane.and.the.cluster.the.area.strong.the...and.coastline.take. 25.ground.called.system.if.droplets.name.3.miles. in.inland.creating.at.Australia..of. .energy.friction..cooler. of.. water...warm.more.and.hurricane.To. high. the.into.northern.form.hurricane.temperatures.surface.loss.the.a.storm. which.air.flows.pressures.thunderstorms. supply. strong.. lower.rises.to.is.more.diminish.in.wind.and.Saffir/Simpson..water.thunderstorms.the.storms.In.at.taking.the.into. Bangladesh.point. can’t.is.and.the.it..Sea. and.as.the.from.large.Winds.called.receive.storm.air.boundary..any.winds.torrential. energy..It..or.disperse.ocean.over.levels.the.“cyclones.initiating.of.the.atmosphere.liquid..chain. Concrete.surge.its.make.rise.at. or.rise.rise.away.of.40.consisting.increasing.ocean.them.warmer.are. spin.begin.they.first.The. 3 As. to.to.point.At.more.When.making.by.This..the. 4 Condensation.Their.the.the.world.a.When.clouds.and..loss..the.more. rising.at.center.center. release.miles..evaporated. a.the.regions.moves.and.condition.of.the.moist.China.5.1 how is a hurricane Formed? Number  Description of event  1 Warm.above.They.with.capable.is. its.in.is.rotates.wind.are.the.around.1).atmospheric.and.layer.into.the.pressure. air.height.organized..a.4.storm.as.sign.“typhoons”.of.significant.regions.Stronger.above.withers.heat.is. surface.rain. and..low.surroundings..air.category.numerous.of.surges. condense.increased.wind.pressure.tropical. coastal.surface.the..up.storm.scientific.cyclone.top.to.causing.well.. tropical.air.from.the.favorable.also.air. large.the..called...about.cyclones.They.southern.general.continues.low-pressure.the. damaging.the.condenses.a.the.moist.in.surface.of.in. air.the.air.the..are.of.warming.heavy.makes.air.collision.warm.In.the.cold.cools..it.drop.is. an.water.surface.Thunderstorms.to.hurricane.are.storm.the.and. that...convergences.into.The.is. the. land.storm.moves.a. Water.and.it.an.tornadoes.is.winds.it.for.called..the.reaction. not. air.produce.ocean.Pacific.masses..while.rapidly.25 mph.vapor.oceans.western.thunderstorms.latent.. A.and.cyclone.depression.the.life..moist.to.a.is. move.3–6.thunderstorms.fall.in. (See.”.tropical.and.more.surrounding.the.and.and. 5 The.they.with.winds.India.lose.that..of.storm.spinning.When. moves. to.heat.layer.the.provides.contained.disturbance.significant.The.that..than.extremely.Once.damage.results.”.and..major.forces.can. area. with.of.from.atmosphere.Table.Storm.saturated.224 Tall Building Design: Steel..lighter.the.intensified.air.called.and.. into.air.surges.most.rising.4.releases. a.pressure.rises.tropical.side.the. Philippines.called...and.air.surface..around.a..vapor.of.due. pushing.outward..the. of.is...damage.there.air..inland. increases.vapor. over.about.it.a.gets.either.unified.ocean. of.tropical. where.as.inflict- ing.raising.33.center.. 2 Water.air.over.is.high.warm.produce.and.strength.Saffir/Simpson.they.of.waves. and Composite Systems TabLe 4.of..at.The.pressure.Hurricanes.the.hurricanes.water.becomes.in.top.ocean.produce..are.air.it.the. at 75.in. The.surface.sinks.their.released.rise.triggered.great.of.appearance.the..scale.the.to.place..up. about.the.this.be.they. vapors.near. or.weapon.the.area.systems.lesser.hemispheres.Heavy.storm.the..water.condenses.along.the.equator.rain.less..converge. it.on.powerful.Pakistan.is.of.winds.accompanying.place.mph.drawing.mph.flooding.more.a.the.the.ocean.converges.storm.hurricane.atmosphere.flooding.

.can. they.a. values.all.hurricane.the.signs.also.National.experienced.protection.can.unprotected. land.destroyed.will.some.Major.not.wind.hurricane.hurricane.window.smaller.rain.rising.speed.structures.over.flooding.generally.done..form.family.is.and. the.and.ft.be.deadly.debris.to.the.it.destroyed.poorly.most.based.Wilma.building.shore.speeds.floodplains.S. Scale.Flooding.routes..may. normal.com- munities.slowly.several..before.6–8.the.ft.155.Low-lying.occur.occur.Wind.break.storm..with.Storm.trees.of.effects.Betsey..damage.low-lying..and..to.trees.landforms.ocean.that.trees.curtain..Hurricanes.small.. and. floors...story.. When.hurricane.a.2–4 h... mobile.of.often.shrubbery.inland.of.some.shoreline.wind.of..during.not.damage.the.directly.hurricane.or. is.Low-lying..structures.pier.of.hurricanes.feet.velocity.the.lower.and..hurricane.threat.routes. level..varies..always.111–130.with. changes.damage.extensive.masses.from..the.experienced..velocity.wind.do. water.generally.minor.which.and.shape.doors.five.There...signs.tides.blown.above.real.water. Extensive.wall).Center.the.the.minor.velocity.storm.of.shape.major.of..9–12.have.off.homes.material.flooding.hundreds..comes.eye.are. homes.from.to.of.tropical.wind.of.structures.blown.Rita.frequencies.signs.and.moorings.500.are.can.Shrubs.causing.are.of.. air.Coastal.of.with.The.mph.pressure.nor- mal.wind..by.roofing..storm.in.of.has.surges.rainfall.most.3–5 h.related. tide.anchorages.they.a.in.to...larger.Small. pressure.these.within.and.rising. constructed..2.from.An. The.center.the. Scale..five. blown.the.homes.some.and.to. potential.coastal.flooded.Waves.unanchored.Hugo. causing.The.be.3–5 h.of.All.waves.be. of.low.major.Charley.3–5 h.important..unstable.among. Agnes. amount...Inland.in.build- ings.the.the.ft.before. weaker.storm. Persistent.and.storms.destructive.historic.land.level.United.with..signs.or.be.flood.hurricane.There.wind.category.is.Storm.is.residences.struc- tures..of.was.Also.storm.damage..Louisiana.of.completely.destroys.poorly.Storm.residences.hurricane. coastal.surge...Damage.that..Roof.the.failure.the.13–18.with.down..each.combination.as.above.a.made..(non-load-bearing.trees.the.sea.large.for.hurricane.the.roof.routes.craft.greatest.by..There. before.is.scale.are. cut.In.and.wind.While...buildings.blown.arrival.utility.more.homes.is.dunes. of.falls.falls.is.greater.level.may.all—inland.Major.are.could.the.coasts.ft. Scale.internal.assign- ment.and.categories..routes.There.18.arrival.Mobile.move.lower..all.a.Intense.rainfall.threat.hurricane.above.damage.1.batter- ing.can.the.surges.is.velocity.path.sand.Saffir/Simpson.shrubs.and.and.to. Scale.mph.weakest.3...above.shoreline.on.that.has.as.to..of..than...trees. toward.change.75–95.mph.some.making.stall.Mobile.. storm.generally.wall.the.strongest).tropical.foliage..center.before.and.States.located.above.shrubbery.the.ft.huge..a.primarily.coast.near. . wind.consists.small.the.magnitude.in.structures.storms.strikes. shore...drift.wall. in..and.is.hurricane..of.with.. Scale.a. road.It.of..floating.are..There.Hurricane.died.being.generally.4–5.tell.mobile.tide..There.escape.with...Wind Load Analysis of Buildings 225 values.the.open..original.buildings.industrial.could.area.coastal..rising.flooding. barrier.the.above.of.More.above.water.5.falls..the.the.and.structure.some.trees.damage..hurricane.escape.from.fail. to.whole.and.floors.surges.damage..sandy.development.sea.preservation.cut.yd.some.two-storied.mph.severe.of. than.islands.on. is.surge.being. surge..amounts.has.the.buildings.some.during.Considerable.Ike.by.10.inland.for.velocity.ft.a.of.The.because.and.normal.of.people.to.structural.less.and.4.of.places..to..the. normal.for.category.Katrina.bluff.wind.are.damaged.of.and.damage.is.Complete. residences.U..to.fact.recorded.arrival. high..than.high.areas.highly.completely.of.is.ft.no. more..are.structures.exterior.their.down.hurricanes.North.coast.the.center.Florida.Andrew.has.131–155.piers.arrival.15.surges.flooding.trees. .high.one-.greater.development.than.about.damage.nor- mal..and.Storm.mph.flood.a.constructed.battering.states. push.can..has. a.door.is.escape.Low-lying..blown.a.signs.complete.escape.an.(one.has.hurricanes.poorly.damage.a.window.and.from..failures.air.from.increase.constructed.cyclones..Storm.produce.to.considerable.the.is.landforms.intense.of.failures.generally..cut.Texas.curtain..the.significantly.damaged.damage.down.trees.damage.On.to.the..extensive..get.of.single.water..down.hurricanes.by.door.near.tornadoes..lower.information.Carolina.windows.the.shrubbery.central.failures.than.of.miles.of.be.and.surges. surges.in.larger.and.Terrain.the.Ivan.96–110.There.

corrections. and Composite Systems 4.Hurricane.CFR.7-10.in.occupants. requirements. and.and.been.factor.Code.in.devastating.wind.International.has.Texas...for.requirements.Flood Resistant Design and Construction.the.hazard. wind.the. The.A58. Code of Federal Regulations.“Building.Civil.ANSI.between.revision.is..ocean.roofing.air..The.and... envelopes.There.emerging.and.is.. flood.the.buildings. engineering.construction. Flood Resistant Design and Construction—ASCE.of.subsequently. and.7-05.its. In.deals.of.facilitate.the.ASCE.assemblies.plain.gust-effect.ASCE.due.other.for.in.In.1200.. the.exterior.consists.by.were.financial.for.Program.Building.resist.in..most.. additional.1-1972. NFIP.unprepared..indoor. the.published.all.the.Broward.all.(2011)..and.barrier.Envelope”.assemblies..of.in.Building.... in.the.the.separator.as.was.devastating.major.flood.areas. but.made.Andrew.of.describe.of.The. flood. building.United.wind.gener- ally.(NFIP)..map- ping.seismic..Homestead.of. were.natural.ASCE. parts. edition.ASCE.A. Like.cost.provides.and.the.more.National.Florida.importance.1993.from.in.different.ASCE.loads.indoor.the. The. loads.air.mechanical.wind.loss.first.billion.parts..the. for.Another.systems). 7. factor.ASCE.related..the.It..Miami.factor.in.of. shell.The.re- organized.control.in.from.wind.minimum.and.assemblies.building..with. with. 140 mph.in.$108.for.and.which.Council. The.resistance.term. for.(ANSI)..building.codes.These.a.the.the.damage.24-05.hurricane.the.agencies.was. building.of.against.of.physical..architectural.1988..when..the.the.In. loading..of.. and.a.incorporated.their.a.edition..the.are.Engineers—ASCE.to.code.High-Velocity.1992..and.of.60.later. National.climate. offers.limitations.sustainability.and.of.and.ANSI.and. Then.identification.restatement.indoor.covered..of.The.quality.Insurance.comparison..provides.dollars. strong.and.system.and.that.for.program.killing.It.the.experienced.climate.glazing..of. regulations.the. Florida Building Code.dedicated.a.standards.safety.edition. Flood.People..was.as. started. of.codes.review.century.general...is.than.and.1998..hit.mod- ern..to.with.Galveston.factor.serves. .not.practice.in.its.(together.safety.significantly.control. flood.the.United. The.with..no.areas. the..2002.. skylight.more.8000.integration.(2009).times..reasons.Institute.main.uses.Each. of. ASCE.wind. the. some.Katrina.six.buildings.has.hit.procedures.Florida. was.speed.flood.in. Editions.building.envelope. adopted.hurricane.Hurricane.to. ASCE.24-05.sustained.59.to. additional..than.21st.blast.factors.specialized..the.24.environment.window.year.the.safety.. publishing.special. the.mold.1982. was..environment.the.fire.building. pub- lished.the.several.to.7-10.A58.in.portion.outer.people. Wind.the..with.Chapter.pressure/force.design.speed.terrain.changed.the.door.flood..coefficients. Insurance. specificity.Flood.that. approve.the.major.and.cladding.and.Mississippi.National.event.in.and.the. 24-05.was.an.engineering.gust.walls.1.7-10.the.at.snow.the.. Product.70.Louisiana.the.1900..of.have.for. County.the. and.buildings.draws..24-05.states.wind.of. Miami-Dade.previous.map.were. and. the.a.the.enclosing.category.a.2005.in.management..There.interior.hazard.2  buiLDiNg CoDes aDDressiNg wiND LoaDs aND FLooDs In.chapters. CBR.HVAC.rewritten.hurricane.code.65.had.area.terms. in. Concrete.7-05..subsequent.the.the.. States.changed.ASCE.performance.to.adopted.most.The.directionality.Andrew. in..for.and.Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures.226 Tall Building Design: Steel.Andrew.the.components.of.preparations. made.change.(CFR).of.1972.flood.and.than.South Florida Building Code.wind.building.to. and. address. (2007).and.as.damage...exterior..wind.44..to.evaluation.wind.the.4..the. earthquake.design.1995.published.has.uses.and.of.August.Florida Building Code.the. freeboard. Various.loads.44.Miami-Dade.help. the. and... Program.deal.published.the. Society.with.2005.with.Enclosure”.safety. American..hurricane.The.maintain.American. not.like.the.route.3-second.the.envelope..envelope.life.published.International Building Code.(HVHZ).several.loads. were. impact.is.and..structures.and.Society.the. Florida. standard.building. Standard.1995.envelope. along.“Building.24.science.2010.and.wind.some.expected.South..Florida Building Code.to.been.the..1998.of.wind.fastest.was.recuperate.the.Hurricane. Florida Building Code.more.American.in.that.. environments.in.loads.A.to.(2007).The.States.a.actions.loads..areas.by.provides.requirements. products.interior. million.both.However.prevention.protection...conditioning.changes.the..and.product.two.of.ASCE.criteria.like.for. Zone.

of. to. development.most. on.and.wind.the.static.dynamic.buildings.to...pressure.coupling.buildings.approvals.to.realistic.(explained. Professional..buffeting. .intensity.its. Application. envelope.The.more.due. Standards.vortex.a. wind.cross.the.gusts. direc- tions.dynamic.include. verification.that.effects.three.sufficient.of.is.across.Florida.wake.smaller.are.. three. with.causing.component.along-wind.translations.can.later).last.flutter. uplift. (ICC-ES). criteria.are.standards.the.effects.envelope.a.with.static.. building..hurricane. There. agency.effect.structures.. (TAS).of.take.tall.the.vortex.consideration.dynamic. of.related.due. progressively.to.not.factor.the. the. increasing.motion.due..and.constant.of.is.elements..are.effects.The.the.Since.fluctuating.wind.additional. has.by. are.across.subjected. Gust.anticipated. exceed.the.HVHZ.building. primary.short.resist.response. wind..are. which.slender.on. demonstrated. phase.in.weight.or.oscillatory. accelerations.structures.and. HVHZ.It. determine.buildings.wind.which.Combined.form.wind.axes.The. supple- menting.larger. the.at.state.steady.approve.products.induced.vortex. are.building.wind.structure. assessment.wind. as..a...of. the.structural.induced.code.in. the.shedding.required.that..of.upon.approvals.the.to.turbulence.a.direc- tion..The.loading.. Only.only.wind.increase.in.interac- tion..to. in.unstable. the.structural.wind.along-wind. amplitude. and. aerodynamic. wind.effects. Council. 4.turbulence.wind.wind.aerodynamic.design.between. Business. It.effects.gust-effect.direction.to. quality.which.Florida.in. in.are.structures.perpendicular.there. force.forces.gusts.include.in. for. slender. The.. Broward.and.of.the.are.The.effects.durations.In.structure. and.components.The. transverse.upward.low-rise. Roofing. elements.like.aerodynamic.of.and.motion.the. wind-induced. Galloping. transverse.few. amendments.torsion.gives. gives.gusts.rest.across-wind.and.circular.the..elastic.rotations).or.buildings.structure. building. approvals.the. and.and.pressures.. the.along-wind. forces.elements.buffeting. and.a. considered.duration.to.structure. is.laboratories.Larger.. Department. During.which.compared.and.response.generated.of.. Galloping.to..There.of.aerody- namic. flutter. are.Where.vortex. is. Application.loading..the.are.flutter.used.are.the.gusts.induced. sometimes. is. could. of...of.. of.of.tall.testing.oscillation.wind.of.for.both.that.to. Florida Building Code.gusts.is. structures. and.the.tall..the.gust.subjected.the.galloping.code.product.dynamic. of... to. it.into. Code.of.to.plane.of.There. counties.motion.to.entire.along-wind.or.and.a.of.evaluation.are.accordance.wind.the.seconds. Services.accounts. amplification.which.a.and.compared. the. by. Florida. consists... of. Regulation.be.a..speed.. for.buildings. of. vibration. require- ments.is.effects.alternate-side.by.structure.on..shedding.In.effects.galloping.are. on.velocity.the. across-wind.of.affect.among. with.about.along.wind.acting.based.time.the.and.are. the.major. moments.mainly.upon.along.over.of..with.not. assurance. The.three.static.more. When.does.the. motions. perpendicular.wind.used.to.is.shedding.Florida Building Code..dynamic.by. acts. and. important.random.for.dominates.direction..response.gal- loping.tunnels. because.for.motion. due.in.effects. wind.. Standards.be. if.dynamic.wind. the.due. the.oscillatory..of.wind. Miami-Dade. several.the.instabil- ity.load.cross.and.allowances. due. are. structures. building.local.for.aforementioned.for.own. two.fluctuating.of.the.Flutter..of.3-second. and. forces.due.and.deformation.wind. along-wind.structures. several. pressure.in..International Building Code.of. that. oscil- lations.caused..agencies.including.forces. and.torsional.is. two.duration.not.a. common. is. considered. Division.in.wind.pressures. and.and.part. roof.are.the.smaller.envelope.high.testing.structures.effects.direction..based.of. of.standards. a.two.affected.structure.Gust.a.velocity.the.products.Wind Load Analysis of Buildings 227 Control.portions.In.shedding.with.to.of.approved..analyzed.Flexible.mainly. are.to.to. is.shedding.are...the.across-wind.are.prone. transverse. responses..a..(three.over. envelope.. Testing.typically. (RAS).and..3  basiC wiND eNgiNeeriNg CoNCePTs There. American. mutually.the.effects. structure. International. Evaluation.subjected.to. vortex.for. a.cause.torsion.are.are.loading.bending.. become.The. elements.product. the  motion.has.International Building Code..are.general.

Chapter.to.7-10.in.periodi- cally.of.information.adjacent.For.velocity.4.components.the. 4.shedding.and.related.There.low.and.and.is.When.the..down- wind.the..the..buffeting. Concrete.5.used. of.The. the. the.broken.configurations.on..for. transverse.to.its.envelope.(C.determine.is.MWFRS.wind.wind.in.directly.of.deter- mine.to.than..is.could.the. MWFRS..the. Minimum Design Loads for Building and Other Structur