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Buildings Ordinance (Cap 123)

PNAPs (not legal requirements)


Environmental Permit
Albert T. Yeung, BSc (Eng) MS PhD Noise Permit
MHKIE FICE MASCE
Specifications
RPE (CVL, ENV & GEL) CEng PE
Government Specifications
Department of Civil Engineering
The University of Hong Kong Private contracts

PNAP 1 Practice Notes in Force


PNAP 66 Pile Foundations BS 8004 Foundations
PNAP 132 Site Investigation and Ground Eurocode Code No. 7 Geotechnics
Investigation BS 8110 Structural Use of Concrete
PNAP 141 Foundation Design Code of Practice for Foundations (Hong
PNAP 158 Ban on Hand-dug Caissons Kong Building Authority)
PNAP 225 Ground Investigation Works in
Schedule Areas Approval and Consent
PNAP 242 Quality Supervision Requirements
for Foundation Works

Schedule Area 1 Mid-levels Schedule Area 3 Mass Transit Railway


PNAP 85 - Development in Mid-levels Protection Area
Scheduled Area - Buildings Ordinance section PNAP 77 - Mass Transit Railway Protection -
2(1), Building (Administration) Regulation Mass Transit Railway (Land Resumption and
8(1)(bb)(vii) and 8(1)(1) Related Provisions) Ordinance, Buildings
Schedule Area 2 North-western New Ordinance Scheduled Area No. 3
Territories Schedule Area 4 Ma On Shan
PNAP 161 - Development in the Area Numbers PNAP 161 - Development in the Area Numbers
2 & 4 of Scheduled Areas 2 & 4 of Scheduled Areas
American Society of Civil Engineers: www.asce.org
Schedule Area 5 Sewage Tunnel Institution of Civil Engineers: www.ice.org.uk
American Society for Testing and Materials:
Protection Areas www.astm.org
PNAP 165 - Sewage Tunnel Works - Sewage American Petroleum Institute: www.api.org
Tunnels (Statutory Easements) Ordinance National Research Council of Canada: www.nrc.ca
Section 17A and Scheduled Area Number Buildings Department:
5,Buildings Ordinance, Cap 123 www.info.gov.hk/bd/english/documents/index.html
Environmental Protection Department:
www.info.gov.hk/epd/
Civil Engineering Department:
www.info.gov.hk/ced/eng/

!
" Granitic rocks
# $ Presence of core stones
! Difficulty of founding level
! identification
Difficulty of pile driving

Terzaghi (1955)

Volcanic rocks Sedimentary rocks


Presence of zones of low strength Difficulty of founding level
Presence of zones of high permeability identification
Expansion potential of weathered Presence of interbedding weak layers
materials Problems of potential differential
settlement
%& !
' ! # & !
( & &
$ $
) ! &
& $
! #
*
& #
!
) Karl Terzaghi
Ralph B. Peck

!
Design cannot be separated from
Foundations
construction issues
Construction methods & materials Shallow Deep
can affect capacity, load-displacement Foundations Foundations

characteristics, construction program Spread Raft Compensated Pile Caissons

and economics Footings Foundations Foundations Foundations


$

+ !

Soft soil

With a
piled
Firm bearing soil or bedrock Without a foundation foundation
Vertical load

Rock

Load

!
! # ))
#
# #
)

Horizontal force
Uplifting force

, # ))
#
# ))
#
#
# #
(

$ )
# )
Zone of
! erosion !

#
))
#' & Swelling
soil

Stable
soil

%
Fence

Bored pile wall

Assumed groundwater table

100 mm Grade 20D/20 concrete slab


#
with A393 wire mesh

Proposed 225 U-channel

Existing shotcreted
surface

5 rows of soil nails keyed in rock


at 2000 c/c in both directions

!
- . Configuration
Straight shaft
Large-diameter bored piles Bell-out
Rock socketed
Typical sizes:
800 mm, 1 m, 1.2 m, 1.5 m, 1.8 m, 2 m, 2.2 m,
2.5 m, 2.8 m and 3 m
/ + 0 / + 0
& &
Well established design methodologies Equipment can break up practically all kinds
Soil / rock can be inspected before, during and of obstructions
after construction Construction equipment are quite mobile
Construction materials can be inspected before, Materials forming pile are not governed by
during and after construction handling and driving stresses
Well established construction methods Can be installed without appreciable noise or
Pile integrity can be reliably assessed vibration
Depth and diameter can be varied easily No ground heave
Can be constructed in nearly any type of Can be installed in conditions of low headroom
geomaterial

/ + 0
& !
Installation procedure is complicated - .
Liable to squeezing or necking
Large-diameter bored piles
Special techniques needed for concreting in
water-bearing soils Driven steel H-piles
Cannot be extended above ground level without
special adaptation
Raking bored piles are difficult to construct

& -+ 0 & & -+ 0 &


Pile material and welding can be thoroughly Can be driven very long length
inspected before driving Can be designed to withstand high combined
Not liable to squeezing or necking bending, compressive and/or tensile stress
Easily spliced Projection above ground level advantageous to
Available in various lengths and sizes marine structures
Construction operations not affected by Raking piles can resist lateral loads effectively
groundwater No open hole to keep
High load carrying capacity No bentonite to handle
Displace small amount of soil during Easy installation and economical
installation
& -+ 0 & & -+ 0 &
Not applicable in bouldery ground or steeply Noise and vibration caused by driving may be
sloping rockhead unacceptable
Section may be controlled by handling stress Displacement of soil during driving may lift
Load carrying capacity limited by driving stress adjacent piles or damage adjacent structures
May be susceptible to corrosion Preboring through obstructions can be expensive
May be damaged when driving through Cannot be driven in conditions of low headroom
obstructions
May suffer unseen damage that reduces load
carrying capacity
Founding conditions remain unknown

! + -+ 0 &
- . Pile material and welding can be thoroughly
inspected before driving
Large-diameter bored piles Not liable to squeezing or necking
Driven steel H-piles Easily spliced
Available in various lengths and sizes
Push-in steel H-piles
Construction operations not affected by
groundwater
High load carrying capacity
Displace small amount of soil during
installation

+ -+ 0 & + -+ 0 &
Can be jacked very long length Not applicable in bouldery ground or steeply
sloping rockhead
Can be designed to withstand high combined
bending, compressive and/or tensile stress Section may be controlled by handling stress
May be susceptible to corrosion
No limitation on working hours
May be damaged when jacking through
Every pile is load tested obstructions
No open hole to keep May suffer unseen damage that reduces load
No bentonite to handle carrying capacity
Easy installation and economical Founding conditions remain unknown
Working space required is quite large
$ -+ 0
! &
- . Pile material and welding can be thoroughly
inspected before installation
Large-diameter bored piles Not liable to squeezing or necking
Driven steel H-piles Easily spliced
Push-in steel H-piles Available in various lengths and sizes
Socketed steel H-piles High load carrying capacity
Displace very small amount of soil during
installation

$ -+ 0 $ -+ 0
& &
Can be designed to withstand high combined Installation procedure more complicated
bending, compressive and/or tensile stress Raking piles impractical
Projection above ground level advantageous to Construction procedure may affect groundwater
marine structures regime
Drilling of rock socket takes time
Founding conditions remain unknown
Difficult to install in conditions of low headroom

!
- . Type of structure to be supported
Load carrying capacity required
Large-diameter bored piles
Subsurface conditions
Driven steel H-piles
Availability of materials and plants
Push-in steel H-piles
Local experience
Socketed steel H-piles
Site constraints
Minipiles
Construction schedule
Overall economy
1 !
!

Structural failure of the foundations


Bearing capacity failure of the
supporting soils

! %

Ultimate
Ultimate Ultimate
Load
= Tip + Side
1 Carrying
q ult = cN c + qNq + BN Capacity
Resistance Resistance

2 Self
Weight

= i + c + s
Not to cause structural distress
Not to cause excessive tilting of the Immediate settlement (distortion
superstructure settlement) i
Satisfy seviceability requirements of Consolidation settlement c
the superstructure Secondary compression settlement s