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# CEHYDRA Notes as of Sept 26, 2013

## Updated: Sept 08, 2014

Updated: Dec. 31, 2015

## Headloss Equations Using Friction Factor

Renan T. Tanhueco
Department of Civil Engineering
De La Salle University
Manila, Philippines
renan.tanhueco@dlsu.edu.ph

## A. Darcy-Weisbach Equation and Friction Factor

The Darcy-Weisbach equation is used to determine the pipe friction losses in the form of

2
= 2 (1)

Equation
Type of Flow Flow Description
64
=

The friction factor is linearly dependent on
Laminar Flow Reynolds number and calculated based on
Hagen-Poiseuille equation.
if < 2000

## Transition flow occurs in the region with 2

Transition 1 2.51
Reynolds number greater than 4,000 and
between = log [ + ]
prior to complete turbulence in rough pipes. 3.7
laminar and
turbulent
Colebrook and White
0.316
=
0.25
Blasius developed an equation for friction
factor of a smooth pipe with Reynolds
Turbulent flow number ranging from 3,000 to 100,000.
in smooth 1
conduits Von Karman developed an equation for = 2 log[] 0.8
friction factor using the data from
(i.e., > 6)

1
Von Karman found that at high Reynolds = 2 log [ ] + 1.14
Turbulent flow
number the nominal thickness of viscous
in rough
sublayer becomes smaller and the friction
conduits (i.e., < 0.3)
factor is independent of Reynolds number.
2
1 2.51
Free surface A condition may exist in a pipe that is = log [ + ]
flow flowing partially full of fluid 3

Proposal for HNICEM Conference: Pipe Sizing for District Cooling Distribution Network, Augusto, Culaba , Tanhueco
2013, De La Salle University

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CEHYDRA Notes as of Sept 26, 2013
Updated: Sept 08, 2014
Updated: Dec. 31, 2015

Figure 1.Composite Log-Law for smooth and rough pipes given by Moody Diagram using Colebrook and
White.
2
1 2.51
= log [ + ]
3.7

## An explicit expresion for F is from Swamee and Jain (1976):

2
1 0.9
= 1.325 { 0.27 () + 5.74 ( ) } (2)

Valid over a ranges: 0.01 > > 108 and 108 > > 5000

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CEHYDRA Notes as of Sept 26, 2013
Updated: Sept 08, 2014
Updated: Dec. 31, 2015

## Flows in Piping Systems

Renan T. Tanhueco
Department of Civil Engineering
De La Salle University
Manila, Philippines
renan.tanhueco@dlsu.edu.ph

## B. Minor Loss expressed in terms of a Loss Coefficient

The Minor Loss equation is expressed in terms of a loss coefficient K, defined by:

2
= (1)
2

The value K is obtained experimentally for various fittings and geometry changes of interest in piping systems. One
exception is the sudden expansion from area A1 to A2
2 2
= (1 1 ) 1
(2)
2 2
C. Equivalent lengt h of pipe
The loss coefficient can be expressed as an equivalent length of the pipe.

= (3)

## D. Piping Elements and Components

Piping elements are reaches of constant diameter piping and the components consists of valves, tees, bends, reducers or
any other devices that may create a loss to the system (source: Mechanics of Fluids, Potter et al., Chapter 11, p.546). The
pipe systems can be a single pipe, a distribution network, or a tree network (branching pipes.)

## E. Losses due to Friction in Pipe Elements

The headloss can be conveniently expressed as:
= (4)

where is the headloss over length L of th e pipe, R is the resistance coefficient, Q is the discharge in the pipe, and
is an exponent. Usually = 2 for Darcy-Weisbach and 1.85 for Hazen Williams method. Using Darcy-Weisbach:

= 22 (5)
8
= 2 5

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CEHYDRA Notes as of Sept 26, 2013
Updated: Sept 08, 2014
Updated: Dec. 31, 2015

Additional expressions for pipe frictional loses in use are the following:

## a) Hazen Williams relation:

1
= (6)

Where =1.85, m= 4.87 and C is the Hazen Williams Coefficient (see Table 11.1, Mechanics of Fluids) dependent only on
roughness. In SI, K1 = 10.59.

b) Manning equation:

10.29 2
= (7)
2 5.33
Where n is the Manning roughness coefficient and K2 = 1 for SI units.

F. Series Piping

When N pipe elements and a specified number of minor-loss components associated with each ith pipe element, the
minor loss can be expressed as:
2
= 22 (8)
In typical flow situations, the kinetic energy terms at the inlet and outlet are small relative to other terms of the energy
equation and that they become significant only when the velocities are relatively high. They can be neglected and that for
series piping, with =2, the expression for energy between A (inlet) and B (outlet) becomes:

( + ) ( + ) = (1 + 22 ) 12 + (1 + 22 ) 22 + + ( + 22 ) 2 (9)
1 2

( + ) ( + ) =
=1 ( + ) 2 (9b)
22

## in which is the resistance coefficient for the pipe i.

The statement of continuity for the series system is that the discharge in every element is identical:

1 = 2 =. . . = = . . . = = (10)

Note: For Category 1 problem, the right hand side of Eq. 9 is known and a solution for headloss is obtained. For a category
2, in which Q is unknown, a trial and error solution is required, since Re is unknown as well. (Question: How do you solve?)

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CEHYDRA Notes as of Sept 26, 2013
Updated: Sept 08, 2014
Updated: Dec. 31, 2015

G. Parallel Piping

Parallel piping arrangement is a set of N pipe elements joined at A (junction entry) and B (junction exit) with loss
components associated with each ith pipe element. The continuity equation at either A or B is given by:

=
=1 (11)

The algebraic sum of the energy grade line around any defined loop must be zero. In the absence of a machine (e.g. pump),
the headloss along the parallel elements (pipeline) in the direction of the flow between A and B are equal. As in the case of
series piping, it is assumed that :
2
2
<< ( + )

, ,

( + ) ( + ) = ( + 22 ) 2 = 1, , (12)

Typically the unknowns in parallel piping problems are the discharges and the difference in piezometric head
(hydraulic head) between A and B. Discharge Q into the system is known. To simplify the minor loss terms, one can use the
equivalent length approach (Section C of this document). For each pipe element i , the equivalent length Le for minor
loss components is:

( ) = (13)

## and Equation 12 simplifies to a form

( + ) ( + ) = 2 (14)

is given by:
in which the modified pipe coefficient
8 [ +( ) ]
= 2 5 (15)

A solution for parallel piping problems using successive substitution ( iteration) is presented below:

Lets define a variable W to represent the change in hydraulic grade line between A and B:

= ( + ) ( + ) (16)

And Equation 14 can be written as:
= 2 (17)

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CEHYDRA Notes as of Sept 26, 2013
Updated: Sept 08, 2014
Updated: Dec. 31, 2015

= (18)

## and combining this with Equation 11.,

1
=
=1 = =1 (19)

The remaining unknown W is taken out since it is the same in all pipes. (Question: What does it mean?)
Solving for W:

2

= ( 1 ) (20)

=1

## Summary of iterative procedure:

1. Assume flows in each line to be in the completely turbulent rough zone, and compute an initial estimate of the friction
factors in each line using Colebrook and White. (i.e. use the equation but remove the term with the Re)
2. Compute for each pipe and evaluate W. (eq.20)
3. Compute in each pipe using Eq. 18.
4. Update the estimates of the friction factors in each line using the current value of Q i and the full Colebrook and White
or Swamee and Jain.
5. Repeat steps 2 and 4 until unknowns W and Q do not vary according to desired variance.

H. Branch Piping
The branching network is made up of three elements connected to a junction and does not form closed loops (i.e. in
contrast to a parallel system). In the analysis, one assumes the direction of the flow in each element; then the energy
equation for each element is written using the equivalent length to account for minor losses.

( + ) ( + ) = 1 12 (21.a)

( + ) ( + ) = 2 22 (21.b)

( + ) ( + ) = 3 32 (21.c)

The piozometric heads a t locations A,C,D are known. The unknowns are the piezometric head at B and the discharges Q1,
Q2, and Q3.

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CEHYDRA Notes as of Sept 26, 2013
Updated: Sept 08, 2014
Updated: Dec. 31, 2015

## The continuity balance at the junction B is given by:

1 2 3 = 0 (22)

There are four unknowns with four equations. One solution is as follows:
1. Assume the discharge 1 in element 1 (with or without a pump). Establish the pizometric head H at the junction by
solving eq. 21 a.
2. Compute the discharge in the remaining branches using eqns. 21.b and 21.c.
3. Substitute the 1 into Eq. 22. to check for continuity balance. The flow imbalance at the junction will be non-zero.
1 2 3 =
4. Adjust the flow 1 in element 1 and repeat steps 2 and 3 until is within desired limits.

## If a pump exists in pipe 1: the equation can be written as:

( + ) ( + ) + = 1 12 (23)

## I. Simple Pipe System with a Pump

The head of the pump and the flowrate Q can typically be written as a

= 1 + 2 2 (4)
This is the system demand curve. The characteristics curve must be solved simultaneously to yield the desired flow rate. To
determine the power requirement of the pump, the efficiency must be used.

Sources:

## Mechanics of Fluids, Potter M. et al., 3rd edition, 2010,CE-ENGAGE.

Pipe Sizing for District Cooling Distribution Network, Augusto G., Culaba A., Tanhueco, R. De La Salle University,
Proposal for HNICEM Conference 2013

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CEHYDRA Notes as of Sept 26, 2013
Updated: Sept 08, 2014
Updated: Dec. 31, 2015
Annex:
As the Colebrook-White equation is implicit in form for , an iterative solution is needed. The root-finding method that is
powerful and suitable to provide a stable solution is the Newton-Raphson method [1], [17]. The approximate solution in NRM
yields
( )
+1 = ()

## See paper by Augusto, Culaba and Tanhueco.

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CEHYDRA Notes as of Sept 26, 2013
Updated: Sept 08, 2014
Updated: Dec. 31, 2015
Selected Problems ( from: Mechanics of Fluids, Potter et al., 3rd ed.)
1. A liquid with a specific gravity of 0.68 is pumped from a storage tank to a free jet discharge through a
pipe of length L and diameter D. The pump provides a known amount of fluid power to the liquid.
Assuming a constant friction factor of 0.015, determine the discharge for the following conditions:
z1 = 24 m, p1 = 110 kPa, z2 = 18 , L = 450 m, d = 300 mm, W = 10kW

Solution:
1. Compute area A, friction headloss and

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CEHYDRA Notes as of Sept 26, 2013
Updated: Sept 08, 2014
Updated: Dec. 31, 2015
Selected Problems ( from: Mechanics of Fluids, Potter et al., 3rd ed.)

1. Problem.11.2 A pump is situated between two sections in a horizontal pipeline. The diameter D1 and
pressure P1 are given at the upstream section and D2 and P2 are given at the downstream section.
Determine the required fluid power of the pump for the following conditions.
Given:
D1 = 50 mm P1 = 350 kPa
D2 = 80 mm P2 = 760 kPa
Q = 95 L/min hL = 6.6m
Water is flowing at 20C

2. For the three pipes in series shown in Fig. P11.6 minor losses are proportional to the discharge squared
and the Hazen-Williams formula is used to account for friction losses. With the data given use Newtons
method to determine the discharge. Note that the minor losses can be neglected in order to initially
estimate Q. Given:
(p/ + z)A = 250 m and ((p/ + z)B = 107 m
Pipe L(m) D(mm) K C(Hazen-Williams)
1 200 200 2 100
2 150 250 3 120
3 300 300 0 90

3. A liquid with a specific gravity of 0.68 is pumped from a storage tank to a free jet discharge through a
pipe of length L and diameter D. The pump provides a known amount of fluid power to the liquid.
Assuming a constant friction factor of 0.015, determine the discharge for the following conditions:
z1 = 24 m, p1 = 110 kPa, z2 = 18 , L = 450 m, d = 300 mm, W = 10kW

4. For the figure shown in figure P11.11. Determine the water flow distribution and the piezometric head
at the junction using an ad hoc approach. Assume constant friction factors. The pump characteristic curve
is Hp = a-bQ2 .
Given: a = 20m, b = 30s2/m5, z1 = 10m, z2 = 20m, z3 = 18m
Pipe L(m) D(cm) f K
1 30 24 0.020 2
2 60 20 0.015 0
3 90 16 0.025 0

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CEHYDRA Notes as of Sept 26, 2013
Updated: Sept 08, 2014
Updated: Dec. 31, 2015

5. Problem 11.14. The water sprinkling system is applied from a large diameter pipe with constant
internal pressure P0 = 300kPa. The system is positioned in a horizontal plane. Determine the flow
distribution Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4 for the given data. Valve losses are included in the R values.
Pipe R
1 2.6 x 104
2 5.3 x 105
3 1.0 x 106
4 1.8 x 106

6. Problem11.18. Determine the flow distribution of water in the parallel piping system shown in the
figure below. Qin = 600 L/min.

## Pipe L (m) D (mm) f

1 30 50 0.020 3
2 40 75 0.025 5
3 60 60 0.022 1

7. Problem11.32.Water is flowing in the piping system shown in the figure below. Determine the flow
distribution using Hardy Cross method.

8. Problem 11.23.Determine the dlow distribution of water in the system shown in Fig. P11.23. Assume
constant friction factors, with f = 0.02. The head-discharge relation for the pump is Hp = 60 10Q2,
where Hp is in meters and the discharge is in cubic meters per second.

## Pipe L (m) D (mm) k

1 100 350 2
2 750 200 0
3 850 200 0
4 500 200 2
5 350 250 2

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Updated: Dec. 31, 2015

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