0 Up votes0 Down votes

67 views12 pagesa

Mar 17, 2017

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

a

© All Rights Reserved

67 views

a

© All Rights Reserved

- The Law of Explosive Growth: Lesson 20 from The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership
- Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Mathematicians Who Helped Win the Space Race
- Hidden Figures Young Readers' Edition
- The E-Myth Revisited: Why Most Small Businesses Don't Work and
- Micro: A Novel
- The Wright Brothers
- The Other Einstein: A Novel
- State of Fear
- State of Fear
- The Power of Discipline: 7 Ways it Can Change Your Life
- The Kiss Quotient: A Novel
- Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error
- Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions
- The 6th Extinction
- The Black Swan
- The Art of Thinking Clearly
- The Last Battle
- Prince Caspian
- A Mind for Numbers: How to Excel at Math and Science Even If You Flunked Algebra
- The Theory of Death: A Decker/Lazarus Novel

You are on page 1of 12

Updated: Dec. 31, 2015

Renan T. Tanhueco

Department of Civil Engineering

De La Salle University

Manila, Philippines

renan.tanhueco@dlsu.edu.ph

The Darcy-Weisbach equation is used to determine the pipe friction losses in the form of

2

= 2 (1)

Equation

Type of Flow Flow Description

64

=

The friction factor is linearly dependent on

Laminar Flow Reynolds number and calculated based on

Hagen-Poiseuille equation.

if < 2000

Transition 1 2.51

Reynolds number greater than 4,000 and

between = log [ + ]

prior to complete turbulence in rough pipes. 3.7

laminar and

turbulent

Colebrook and White

0.316

=

0.25

Blasius developed an equation for friction

factor of a smooth pipe with Reynolds

Turbulent flow number ranging from 3,000 to 100,000.

in smooth 1

conduits Von Karman developed an equation for = 2 log[] 0.8

friction factor using the data from

Nikuradse.

(i.e., > 6)

1

Von Karman found that at high Reynolds = 2 log [ ] + 1.14

Turbulent flow

number the nominal thickness of viscous

in rough

sublayer becomes smaller and the friction

conduits (i.e., < 0.3)

factor is independent of Reynolds number.

2

1 2.51

Free surface A condition may exist in a pipe that is = log [ + ]

flow flowing partially full of fluid 3

Proposal for HNICEM Conference: Pipe Sizing for District Cooling Distribution Network, Augusto, Culaba , Tanhueco

2013, De La Salle University

1|Page

CEHYDRA Notes as of Sept 26, 2013

Updated: Sept 08, 2014

Updated: Dec. 31, 2015

Figure 1.Composite Log-Law for smooth and rough pipes given by Moody Diagram using Colebrook and

White.

2

1 2.51

= log [ + ]

3.7

2

1 0.9

= 1.325 { 0.27 () + 5.74 ( ) } (2)

Valid over a ranges: 0.01 > > 108 and 108 > > 5000

2|Page

CEHYDRA Notes as of Sept 26, 2013

Updated: Sept 08, 2014

Updated: Dec. 31, 2015

Renan T. Tanhueco

Department of Civil Engineering

De La Salle University

Manila, Philippines

renan.tanhueco@dlsu.edu.ph

The Minor Loss equation is expressed in terms of a loss coefficient K, defined by:

2

= (1)

2

The value K is obtained experimentally for various fittings and geometry changes of interest in piping systems. One

exception is the sudden expansion from area A1 to A2

2 2

= (1 1 ) 1

(2)

2 2

C. Equivalent lengt h of pipe

The loss coefficient can be expressed as an equivalent length of the pipe.

= (3)

Piping elements are reaches of constant diameter piping and the components consists of valves, tees, bends, reducers or

any other devices that may create a loss to the system (source: Mechanics of Fluids, Potter et al., Chapter 11, p.546). The

pipe systems can be a single pipe, a distribution network, or a tree network (branching pipes.)

The headloss can be conveniently expressed as:

= (4)

where is the headloss over length L of th e pipe, R is the resistance coefficient, Q is the discharge in the pipe, and

is an exponent. Usually = 2 for Darcy-Weisbach and 1.85 for Hazen Williams method. Using Darcy-Weisbach:

= 22 (5)

8

= 2 5

3|Page

CEHYDRA Notes as of Sept 26, 2013

Updated: Sept 08, 2014

Updated: Dec. 31, 2015

Additional expressions for pipe frictional loses in use are the following:

1

= (6)

Where =1.85, m= 4.87 and C is the Hazen Williams Coefficient (see Table 11.1, Mechanics of Fluids) dependent only on

roughness. In SI, K1 = 10.59.

b) Manning equation:

10.29 2

= (7)

2 5.33

Where n is the Manning roughness coefficient and K2 = 1 for SI units.

F. Series Piping

When N pipe elements and a specified number of minor-loss components associated with each ith pipe element, the

minor loss can be expressed as:

2

= 22 (8)

In typical flow situations, the kinetic energy terms at the inlet and outlet are small relative to other terms of the energy

equation and that they become significant only when the velocities are relatively high. They can be neglected and that for

series piping, with =2, the expression for energy between A (inlet) and B (outlet) becomes:

( + ) ( + ) = (1 + 22 ) 12 + (1 + 22 ) 22 + + ( + 22 ) 2 (9)

1 2

( + ) ( + ) =

=1 ( + ) 2 (9b)

22

The statement of continuity for the series system is that the discharge in every element is identical:

1 = 2 =. . . = = . . . = = (10)

Note: For Category 1 problem, the right hand side of Eq. 9 is known and a solution for headloss is obtained. For a category

2, in which Q is unknown, a trial and error solution is required, since Re is unknown as well. (Question: How do you solve?)

4|Page

CEHYDRA Notes as of Sept 26, 2013

Updated: Sept 08, 2014

Updated: Dec. 31, 2015

G. Parallel Piping

Parallel piping arrangement is a set of N pipe elements joined at A (junction entry) and B (junction exit) with loss

components associated with each ith pipe element. The continuity equation at either A or B is given by:

=

=1 (11)

The algebraic sum of the energy grade line around any defined loop must be zero. In the absence of a machine (e.g. pump),

the headloss along the parallel elements (pipeline) in the direction of the flow between A and B are equal. As in the case of

series piping, it is assumed that :

2

2

<< ( + )

, ,

( + ) ( + ) = ( + 22 ) 2 = 1, , (12)

Typically the unknowns in parallel piping problems are the discharges and the difference in piezometric head

(hydraulic head) between A and B. Discharge Q into the system is known. To simplify the minor loss terms, one can use the

equivalent length approach (Section C of this document). For each pipe element i , the equivalent length Le for minor

loss components is:

( ) = (13)

( + ) ( + ) = 2 (14)

is given by:

in which the modified pipe coefficient

8 [ +( ) ]

= 2 5 (15)

A solution for parallel piping problems using successive substitution ( iteration) is presented below:

Lets define a variable W to represent the change in hydraulic grade line between A and B:

= ( + ) ( + ) (16)

And Equation 14 can be written as:

= 2 (17)

5|Page

CEHYDRA Notes as of Sept 26, 2013

Updated: Sept 08, 2014

Updated: Dec. 31, 2015

= (18)

1

=

=1 = =1 (19)

The remaining unknown W is taken out since it is the same in all pipes. (Question: What does it mean?)

Solving for W:

2

= ( 1 ) (20)

=1

1. Assume flows in each line to be in the completely turbulent rough zone, and compute an initial estimate of the friction

factors in each line using Colebrook and White. (i.e. use the equation but remove the term with the Re)

2. Compute for each pipe and evaluate W. (eq.20)

3. Compute in each pipe using Eq. 18.

4. Update the estimates of the friction factors in each line using the current value of Q i and the full Colebrook and White

or Swamee and Jain.

5. Repeat steps 2 and 4 until unknowns W and Q do not vary according to desired variance.

H. Branch Piping

The branching network is made up of three elements connected to a junction and does not form closed loops (i.e. in

contrast to a parallel system). In the analysis, one assumes the direction of the flow in each element; then the energy

equation for each element is written using the equivalent length to account for minor losses.

( + ) ( + ) = 1 12 (21.a)

( + ) ( + ) = 2 22 (21.b)

( + ) ( + ) = 3 32 (21.c)

The piozometric heads a t locations A,C,D are known. The unknowns are the piezometric head at B and the discharges Q1,

Q2, and Q3.

6|Page

CEHYDRA Notes as of Sept 26, 2013

Updated: Sept 08, 2014

Updated: Dec. 31, 2015

1 2 3 = 0 (22)

There are four unknowns with four equations. One solution is as follows:

1. Assume the discharge 1 in element 1 (with or without a pump). Establish the pizometric head H at the junction by

solving eq. 21 a.

2. Compute the discharge in the remaining branches using eqns. 21.b and 21.c.

3. Substitute the 1 into Eq. 22. to check for continuity balance. The flow imbalance at the junction will be non-zero.

1 2 3 =

4. Adjust the flow 1 in element 1 and repeat steps 2 and 3 until is within desired limits.

( + ) ( + ) + = 1 12 (23)

The head of the pump and the flowrate Q can typically be written as a

= 1 + 2 2 (4)

This is the system demand curve. The characteristics curve must be solved simultaneously to yield the desired flow rate. To

determine the power requirement of the pump, the efficiency must be used.

Sources:

Pipe Sizing for District Cooling Distribution Network, Augusto G., Culaba A., Tanhueco, R. De La Salle University,

Proposal for HNICEM Conference 2013

7|Page

CEHYDRA Notes as of Sept 26, 2013

Updated: Sept 08, 2014

Updated: Dec. 31, 2015

Annex:

As the Colebrook-White equation is implicit in form for , an iterative solution is needed. The root-finding method that is

powerful and suitable to provide a stable solution is the Newton-Raphson method [1], [17]. The approximate solution in NRM

yields

( )

+1 = ()

8|Page

CEHYDRA Notes as of Sept 26, 2013

Updated: Sept 08, 2014

Updated: Dec. 31, 2015

Selected Problems ( from: Mechanics of Fluids, Potter et al., 3rd ed.)

1. A liquid with a specific gravity of 0.68 is pumped from a storage tank to a free jet discharge through a

pipe of length L and diameter D. The pump provides a known amount of fluid power to the liquid.

Assuming a constant friction factor of 0.015, determine the discharge for the following conditions:

z1 = 24 m, p1 = 110 kPa, z2 = 18 , L = 450 m, d = 300 mm, W = 10kW

Solution:

1. Compute area A, friction headloss and

9|Page

CEHYDRA Notes as of Sept 26, 2013

Updated: Sept 08, 2014

Updated: Dec. 31, 2015

Selected Problems ( from: Mechanics of Fluids, Potter et al., 3rd ed.)

1. Problem.11.2 A pump is situated between two sections in a horizontal pipeline. The diameter D1 and

pressure P1 are given at the upstream section and D2 and P2 are given at the downstream section.

Determine the required fluid power of the pump for the following conditions.

Given:

D1 = 50 mm P1 = 350 kPa

D2 = 80 mm P2 = 760 kPa

Q = 95 L/min hL = 6.6m

Water is flowing at 20C

2. For the three pipes in series shown in Fig. P11.6 minor losses are proportional to the discharge squared

and the Hazen-Williams formula is used to account for friction losses. With the data given use Newtons

method to determine the discharge. Note that the minor losses can be neglected in order to initially

estimate Q. Given:

(p/ + z)A = 250 m and ((p/ + z)B = 107 m

Pipe L(m) D(mm) K C(Hazen-Williams)

1 200 200 2 100

2 150 250 3 120

3 300 300 0 90

3. A liquid with a specific gravity of 0.68 is pumped from a storage tank to a free jet discharge through a

pipe of length L and diameter D. The pump provides a known amount of fluid power to the liquid.

Assuming a constant friction factor of 0.015, determine the discharge for the following conditions:

z1 = 24 m, p1 = 110 kPa, z2 = 18 , L = 450 m, d = 300 mm, W = 10kW

4. For the figure shown in figure P11.11. Determine the water flow distribution and the piezometric head

at the junction using an ad hoc approach. Assume constant friction factors. The pump characteristic curve

is Hp = a-bQ2 .

Given: a = 20m, b = 30s2/m5, z1 = 10m, z2 = 20m, z3 = 18m

Pipe L(m) D(cm) f K

1 30 24 0.020 2

2 60 20 0.015 0

3 90 16 0.025 0

10 | P a g e

CEHYDRA Notes as of Sept 26, 2013

Updated: Sept 08, 2014

Updated: Dec. 31, 2015

5. Problem 11.14. The water sprinkling system is applied from a large diameter pipe with constant

internal pressure P0 = 300kPa. The system is positioned in a horizontal plane. Determine the flow

distribution Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4 for the given data. Valve losses are included in the R values.

Pipe R

1 2.6 x 104

2 5.3 x 105

3 1.0 x 106

4 1.8 x 106

6. Problem11.18. Determine the flow distribution of water in the parallel piping system shown in the

figure below. Qin = 600 L/min.

1 30 50 0.020 3

2 40 75 0.025 5

3 60 60 0.022 1

7. Problem11.32.Water is flowing in the piping system shown in the figure below. Determine the flow

distribution using Hardy Cross method.

8. Problem 11.23.Determine the dlow distribution of water in the system shown in Fig. P11.23. Assume

constant friction factors, with f = 0.02. The head-discharge relation for the pump is Hp = 60 10Q2,

where Hp is in meters and the discharge is in cubic meters per second.

1 100 350 2

2 750 200 0

3 850 200 0

4 500 200 2

5 350 250 2

11 | P a g e

CEHYDRA Notes as of Sept 26, 2013

Updated: Sept 08, 2014

Updated: Dec. 31, 2015

12 | P a g e

- Fluid Dynamics - Is There a Way to Fill Tank 2 From Tank 1 Through Gravity Alone_ - Physics Stack ExchangeUploaded byBADRI VENKATESH
- Engineering Design Guideline Static Mixer Rev02webUploaded byWilfredo Suarez Torres
- Fluid PowerUploaded byGabriel Ak
- Fluid Mechanics Problems Quiz Multiple Choice Questions Download Free - Preparation for EngineeringUploaded byviswamanoj
- Slurry-non-newtonian-flow-rheologyUploaded byLuis Alberto Rios
- Baseflow and junkUploaded bytfavspam
- AMCA Publication 201 - Fans and SystemsUploaded byEzrizalSaidin
- Developed FrictionUploaded byKarenMelissaDiazRojas
- Newton's Laws of MotionUploaded bychand7790
- Static Behaviour of Natural GasUploaded byginetto2
- Transport 2Uploaded byDianah Najeeb
- Chapter 08_Flow in PipesUploaded bysalkan_rahmanovic810
- Book1Uploaded bySteve Wan
- Urban Water - Assignment Answers.docxUploaded byVivekka Olivia John
- 1-s2.0-S20904479140006471-mainUploaded byArii WAhyudii
- Exp 5 PashewUploaded byPashew Pirot
- RockRampDesignGuidelines_09-2007_508.pdfUploaded byRavee
- Asymptotic Generalizations of the Lockhart Martinelli Method for Two Phase FlowsUploaded byjesus_frimont
- GUploaded byAji
- STHexhelp.pdfUploaded byPriti Manoj Patil
- Bao 2003Uploaded bybajkiszon
- 1-s2.0-S0889974609001212-mainUploaded byMilan Nayek
- 1 ImpUploaded bysourabhkmr
- Flowmeter Selection - Be Tran VanUploaded byAnonymous SX6Fg17i9
- (1) Heat ExchangersUploaded byMervin Perez
- flow through fluidised beds.pptxUploaded bya_so8535
- Drag Force Lab - 4246802 (3)Uploaded byPaige Linden
- Flat Plate Lab.docxUploaded byhalim_flash92
- Laboratory Experiment of Air Residence Time in a Side Rectangular CavityUploaded bySEP-Publisher
- TurbUploaded bytarum

- Clean Air Asia BrochureUploaded byAngel Lisette Lao
- 2.1 Lecture - Hydraulic JumpUploaded byAngel Lisette Lao
- Handout-13 Hgl ElUploaded byRichard Bryan
- 1.1 Lecture - HGL, EGL, Head LossUploaded byAngel Lisette Lao
- pipeflow2_2008a_2upUploaded bymuhsen1991
- CHED-Memo-on-Moratorium-of-Field-Trips-and-Educ-Tours.pdfUploaded byAngel Lisette Lao
- rizalslettertothewomenofmalolosppt-131117185303-phpapp02Uploaded byAngel Lisette Lao
- Reference Material Hydraulic StruUploaded byAngel Lisette Lao
- CEHYDRA Lecture 1 Presentation NotesUploaded byAngel Lisette Lao
- Fluid Flow in PipesUploaded byitzGeekInside

- CE 1203 Mechanics of FluidUploaded byAnto Clitus
- FLUJO EN TUBERIAUploaded bygonzalezsgj
- Numerical Study of Passive and Active Flow Separation Control Over a NACA0012 AirfoilUploaded byKavi Perera
- BisokotuwaUploaded bynalakasa
- 03-Hydrostatics, Hydrokinematics, HydrodynamicsUploaded byAbdur Rahman
- MIT2_25F13_Solution6.4.pdfUploaded byfunk singh
- KAS SyllabiUploaded byneodoc16
- Power Team Couplers - CatalogUploaded byTitanply
- Ideas and Methods of Turbomachinery Aerodynamics; A Historical ViewUploaded byLos Magandos
- Fundamentals of Centrifugal Pumps.pdfUploaded byÁlvaro Martínez Fernández
- fluid mechanics reportUploaded byChan Jiun Haur
- Mechanika_2013_24.pdfUploaded byNithin Cp
- CFD Modelling of Slug Flowin Vertical TubesUploaded byDavid Reyes
- SEH Hydrodynamics Primer ProblemsUploaded bydosvutheam
- Application of CFD QuenchUploaded byluigi_mazzucco
- Karman Vortex bergUploaded byIsabel Belser
- Fluid Mechanics (Physics Chapter 12) PowerpointUploaded byAlec Abella
- MIT2_25F13_EquationSheetUploaded byMauricio Andrés Gutiérrez Bravo
- ECD en Hgh Temp WellsUploaded byWalter Mendoza
- Viscous Fluid FlowUploaded byPolly Kalogeropoulou
- (5) Hydraulic Pumps IIUploaded byDeepak Dani
- energies-10-01420.pdfUploaded byAlexander Robert Ortiz Vega
- Compressible BLUploaded byAnna Lucci de Martinez
- formelsamling 2009Uploaded bydunderdunder
- Stall PaperUploaded bygoddord
- Module 4 the Integral EquationUploaded bySAURABH JAISWAL 4-Yr B. Tech. Mechanical Engg., IIT (BHU)
- 20.pptUploaded bysreedeepu
- The Particle Image Velocimetry - Characteristics Limits and Possible ApplicationsUploaded byAdrian David
- Tut 1 (Ch 1-Intro FM).pdfUploaded byCairo Waliid
- Tutorial 3Uploaded byAndrew

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.