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Geology

Training Manual

MAPTEK Pty Ltd


VULCAN 4 Training Manual
Copyright 2003 Maptek Pty Limited

All rights reserved. No part of this manual shall be reproduced,


stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without written
permission from Maptek Pty Ltd. No patent liability is assumed with
respect to the use of the information contained herein. Although
every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this manual,
the publisher and author(s) assume no responsibility for errors or
omissions. Neither is any liability assumed for damages resulting
from the use of the information contained herein.

Trademarks

Microsoft Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft


Corporation.
AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk.

Conventions used in this manual

The following conventions are used throughout this manual.

Examples are written in bold italics.

Important points or references are written in bold.

Tip!
Hints, tips and warnings are in written between horizontal lines.

i
Contacting Maptek

Corporate
Web: http://www.maptek.com.au

VULCAN product
Website: http://www.vulcan3d.com

Sales
Email: Australia: info@maptek.com.au
North America: info@maptek.com
South America: info@maptek.cl
Europe: info@maptek.co.uk

Web: http://www.maptek.com.au/contact/contact.html

Telephone: Australia: 61-8-8338 9222


North America: 1-303-763 4919
South America: 56-2-234 4608
Europe: 44-115-947 2000

Support
Email: Australia: support@maptek.com.au
North America: support@maptek.com
South America: suporte@maptek.cl
Europe: tech@maptek.co.uk

Web: http://www.vulcan3d.com/support.html

Telephone: Australia: 61-8-6211 0099


North America: 1-303-763 4919
South America: 56-2-234 4608

ii
Europe: 44-115-947 2000

iii
Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1 : Introduction............................................................1
Chapter 2 : Database Management.............................................2
Design Format......................................................................... 3
Library Dictionary................................................................3
Headered Template...............................................................3
ODBC Design.......................................................................4
Creating a Design (Datasheet)..................................................4
Importing Data........................................................................ 8
Chapter 3 : Geology Drilling......................................................9
Introduction............................................................................. 9
Loading Drillholes....................................................................9
Opening a drillhole database.................................................9
Loading Drillholes By Name.................................................10
Loading Drillholes By Section..............................................11
Loading Drillholes By Polygon..............................................11
Load Drillholes By Sel File (selection file)..............................12
Load Drillholes By Extent....................................................12
Load Drillhole Collar Positions.............................................13
Modelling a structure logged by drilling..................................13
Onscreen Drillhole Analysis....................................................15
Identifying Drillholes..............................................................16
Labelling Drillholes................................................................17
Changing the Colour of Drillholes...........................................17
Interactive Composite Display.................................................18
Chapter 4 : Legends................................................................. 20
Creating a new Legend...........................................................20
Editing a Legend Schema.......................................................22
Deleting a Legend...................................................................22
Chapter 5 : Features................................................................23
Creating a Feature..................................................................24
Modifying a feature.................................................................25
Deleting Features...................................................................26
Chapter 6 : Compositing..........................................................27
Generating Composite Parameter Files....................................28

iv
Contents

Run Length Compositing Technique......................................28


Creating a Composite File.......................................................30
Displaying Composite Files.....................................................31
Chapter 7 : Geological Interpretations.....................................33
Creating the Interpretation.....................................................34
Chapter 8 : Statistics..............................................................38
Setting up your Statistics Session...........................................38
Selecting the Data for Statistics..............................................39
ISIS Databases...................................................................39
Mapfiles............................................................................. 41
Graphing Statistical Data.......................................................43
Chapter 9 : Appendix 1............................................................46
Glossary of Terms..................................................................46
Data file:...............................................................................................46
Database (DB):.....................................................................................46
Database Listing (dbl):.........................................................................46
Datasheet and Datasheet name (dsn):...................................................46
Design Database (dgd):........................................................................46
Drillhole Database:...............................................................................46
Fields:...................................................................................................46
Index File:............................................................................................46
ISIS Database system:..........................................................................47
Key:......................................................................................................47
Mandatory (field):................................................................................47
Optional Dataset Identifier <odi>:........................................................47
Project Code <proj>:............................................................................47
Record:.................................................................................................47
Synonym:.............................................................................................47

v
Chapter 1: Introduction about lithology, bleaching,
structure and assays. A
simulated geological
This manual introduces you to interpretation has been
some of the skills required and performed on some of the
tools available to complete available lenses. These lenses
geological tasks in VULCAN. are labelled TQ1 through to TQ3.
These tasks include creating
databases, importing data into
Refer to Appendix 1 for an
databases, generating
explanation of the files within
composited files from drillhole
the course directory.
databases and producing
geological interpretations.

The training course uses a


public domain dataset of the Sin
Quyen deposit in Vietnam. This
is a large undeveloped
copper/gold deposit located
within the Da River Mobile Belt
of northern Vietnam.

Seventeen ore bodies occur in


the form of veins or chains of
lenses developed along shear
fractures in metasomatised host
rocks which include gneissic
granites, mica schists and
metasomatites.

The dataset covers a small part


of the deposit. It has been
altered to simulate structural
and bleaching information not
available from the original data.
The drillhole database contains
77 drillholes, with information

1
Chapter 2: Database flexible naming routines. When
Management both of the above types of
databases are generated, a
database index file is
Databases are managed using automatically generated.
the Isis Database Editor. Isis
replaces the previous database
The type of data contained in a
editor called Dbeute.
database is denoted by the data
type suffix i.e. <----->.suffix.
Data used in VULCAN is This is the Design Name
managed using the ISIS - (referred to as Datasheet Name
Database system. The following in previous versions) <dsn>. File
terms are used throughout: prefixes are made up of the
Project Code <proj> and an
Optional Dataset Identifier <odi>.
VULCAN Databases
As the name suggests, the
dataset identifier is optional, and
VULCAN uses two broad types of is designed to allow the user to
databases, namely, those easily distinguish between
containing data originating from databases, particularly those
a source external to VULCAN, containing the same types of
and those generated by VULCAN. data. Therefore database names
An example of the first type of take the form:
database might be a Drillhole <proj> <odi>.<dsn>
Database. The second type of
database is typically a Design
Database containing spatial For user-defined designs
information (<proj><name>.dgd (formerly datasheets) it is a good
and <proj><name>.dgx). idea to use a set of standard
design (datasheet) names
depending on the type of
In the first case, the external information in the database.
source databases have a flexible These names are not mandatory
database structure that is but provide for more convenient
defined by the user, and are usage. The names commonly
flexible in how they are named. used include:
The second type of database has
dhd - drillhole database
a rigid structure, with less
geo - lithological database

2
asy - assay database Design Format
anl - analytical database
phy - geophysical database Three design formats can be
srv - survey database used in VULCAN:
tek - geotechnical database Library dictionary
Headered template
(N.B. All geotechnical databases ODBC design
must use tek as the datasheet
name.)
Library Dictionary
Databases generated by VULCAN
have the following datasheet
The library dictionary design is a
names:
standard Isis design and
dsr - downhole survey consists of the files:
dgd - spatial (design) <env><dsn>.ilb Design library
rsv - reserve inventory <env>dd.ilb Index to library

Each database requires an index


where
file of the form:
<env> = environment code
<proj> <odi>.<-->x
<dsn> = design name
where the file extension is
comprised of the first two letters dd = design definition
of the <dsn> plus x, e.g. dhx,
gex, asx, anx, phx, srx, tex, dsx, The design information includes
dgx and rsx. tables and records. Synonyms
are stored in a separate,
In this course we will automatically created, design:
concentrate on the types of <env><dsn>.syn - the synonym
databases containing data that design
originated from a source external <env>dd.syn - the index to the
to VULCAN, such as drillhole synonym sheet
databases.

Headered Template

3
the design information includes
The headered template design is a flag indicating the design is for
an optimised Isis design that can use with external ODBC
be used for drillholes, samples, compliant databases such as MS
geotechnical and compositing Access or MS Excel. External
information (not for design data). ODBC compliant databases are
It consists of a single file: accessed within VULCAN
through a temporary database
<name>.dsf Design file that
that contains a copy of all the
stores all the information on
VULCAN data in the external
the design
database. Work is performed on
the copy and when finished is
The design information includes written back to the external
tables, records, keys, synonyms, database.
desurvey information, validation
checks and the version of the
Headered and ODBC databases
headered data system used in
do not require desurveying.
the creation of the design.
These database types desurvey
on the fly.
Once a database has been To create a new Headered
created, the design information Database, first we must create a
becomes part of the database Database Design.
(placed at the start of the
database, hence the name
headered). Any future access to
the database will be via the
database.
Creating a Design (Datasheet)
VULCAN V4.0 and later uses, by
default, the headered design A design (referred to as a
setup. datasheet in previous versions)
specifies the structure of a
database. Within the design you
ODBC Design can set the number of tables
(formerly referred to as records),
fields, field lengths, synonyms,
The ODBC design is identical to default values etc.
a headered design, except that

4
To check field contents and Designs and databases are
length specifications when displayed as either a Notebook or
creating the design, we as multiple floating windows.
recommend that you open an You can change the display
existing database or the tables method by using the View >
from which the data will be Preferences option. However, the
imported. In this case, open (in display of open designs and
Excel) the four ASCII files, databases is not affected.
Cscollar.asc, Csassay.asc,
Cssurvey.asc and Csgeol.asc.
5. In the Design Properties
section of the design enter,
Exercise 1-1 Create database or select from the drop-down
lists, the following
In this exercise you will create a
information. Bold text
standard drillhole database.
indicates the field in which
1. Left click on the VULCAN to enter the information.
Workbench Start button and
select ISIS.
2. Cancel the Open Database
panel.
3. Select the File > New Design a. Description
option. Exploration Holes

4. Leave the default Headered b. Type Drilling


template option checked and c. ODBC Link No
type DHD in the Design field d. Desurvey Style
then select OK. Tangent
6. Select the Table Insert menu
An empty design will be to display the first table for
displayed. you to complete, Figure 1.1.

Tip!

5
Figure 1-1 Design with one table

6
7. In the Table Properties Tip!
section of the panel enter, or There are four possible types:
select from the drop-down text, integer, single and double.
lists, the following Use Text for fields that contain
information. Bold text any alphabet characters, Integer
indicates the field in which for fields that contain integer
to enter the information. values (i.e. the positive and
a. Name Collar negative whole numbers), Single
for fields that contain numeric
b. Description borehole
data with fewer than seven (7)
ids and location
significant figures and Double
c. Synonyms for fields that contain numeric
HoleId,Location data with seven (7) or more
significant figures.
You will need to enter
manually the Location
synonym. Be sure to 9. To add the Key to the BHID
place a comma (but no field, right click on the cell to
space) between the the left of the Name field
synonyms. and select Primary Key.
8. Fill in the Collar table as
shown in the table below. The Field Properties section of
Use the Cscollar.asc file as a the table panel (lower right hand
guide. corner) varies with each field. To
access the properties for a
particular field, left click in the
Name Type Description
Name cell. Steps 10 and 11
BHID Text drillhole name
below set the field properties for
EAST Double collar easting
location
the BHID field.
NORTH Double collar northing 10. Left click in the BHID cell.
location
11. In the Field Properties
RL Single collar
elevation section of the panel enter, or
DEPTH Single total depth select from the drop-down
lists, the following
Table 2-1 Data required to information. Bold text
complete Collar table. indicates the field in which
to enter the information.
a. Length Use your 15. In the Table Properties
Cscollar.asc file to section of the new table
determine the length of enter, or select from the
this field. drop-down lists, the
b. Required Yes following information. Bold
text indicates the field in
c. Synonyms HoleId which to enter the
Tip! information.
In the Field Properties panel, if a. Name Survey
you select Yes in the Required b. Description survey
field, then data in the associated
data
field in your relevant ASCII file
must be complete. All key fields c. Synonyms Survey
should be required. Also, only 16. Enter the field properties for
use a synonym if you can find each field (follow steps 10 to
the match for your field. 13).

12. Complete steps 10 to 12 for The Survey Table is displayed in


the remaining fields. Figure 1-2.

13. Select the File > Save option.

This completes the design for the


first table. We will now create the
Survey table. Figure 1-2 Survey Table

14. Select the Table/Append


You have now created two tables.
option.
Try to create the remaining two
tables (Geol and Assay) yourself.
Tip!
The Insert option places a table The Geol table is displayed in
before the currently selected Figure 1-3 and the Assay table
table, whereas the Append in Figure 1-4.
option places the table after the
currently selected table.
4. Enter the Optional Data-
base Identifier (ODI)
CSVLOAD.
5. Leave the remaining panel
options set to their default
Figure 1-3 Geol Table and select Next.
6. Select Cscollars.asc from
the Collar drop-down list.
7. Select the Collar set field
connections radio button
and select Next.
Figure 1-4 Assay Table
8. Use the drop-down lists to
match the appropriate data
Once you are sure that your file to the database field, i.e.
database is correct, save the BHID to BHID, and select
design and then exit Isis. OK.
9. Select Cssurvey.asc from
Importing Data the Survey drop-down list.
In this exercise you will use the 10. Select the Survey set field
Envisage > File > Import CSV connections radio button
option to import the data into a
and select Next.
database created on the fly from
your design. 11. Select BHID from the Index
Field drop-down list.
12. Use the drop-down lists to
Exercise 1-2- Importing Data
match the appropriate data
1. Select the File > Import file to the database field, i.e.
Export > Import CSV option. AZIM to BRG, and select OK.

2. Change the data file 13. Repeat steps 10 to 12 for the


extension to .asc. remaining ASCII files (i.e.
Csassay.asc and Csgeol.asc)
3. Select the design (datasheet)
and select Next when the
name DHD from the Data
Data File to record
Sheet Name drop-down list.
connections panel is
redisplayed.
14. Save the specifications as
ASCIMPORT.

The drillhole data will now be


imported (the progress of the
importing will be displayed on
the screen) and the CSVLOAD
database will be created.

Exercise 1-3 Displaying drillholes


1. Select the Geology > Drilling
> Open Database option.
2. Select DHD from the
Datasheet name drop-down
list.
3. Select CSVLOAD from the
Optional Database
Identifier drop-down list.
4. Select the Geology > Drilling
> Load By Name option.
5. Leave the Load Drillholes
panel set to its default
values. This will ensure that
all of the drillholes are
loaded.
6. Select a colour scheme for
the drillholes.
Chapter 3: Geology Loading Drillholes
Drilling
Introduction Opening a drillhole database

The options under the Geology Before loading drillholes


Drilling Menu allow you to: onscreen we must first open the
drillhole database. Remember
Load drillholes onscreen. our database is called
thordemo.dhd.
Model structures logged in
drillholes.
Analyse drillholes. Exercise 2 - To open a drillhole
Change the displayed
database
colour schema of selected 1. Select
drillholes. Geology>Drilling>Open.
Display/edit the downhole
survey data for drillholes.
Access the Full Screen
Editor.
Load data into a VULCAN
database.

We have already examined the Figure 3-1 Open Drillhole


last two options listed above in database
the section on Database
Manipulation. In this section we
will cover all of the other options, 2. In the Open Geological
and also explore the Feature Edit Database panel select the
and Legend Edit options. Lets Datasheet Name box and
first look at the different ways to select the required
load drillholes onscreen. datasheet, i.e. select DHD,
Figure 3-1.
3. Enter the Optional Database
Identifier, i.e. enter DEMO.
4. Select OK.
Nothing will appear to have
happened but the database has
been opened.

There are five different ways to


load drillholes onscreen:
By Name
By Section
By Polygon
By Sel File (selection file)
By Extent

Tip!
To remove drillholes from the
screen select
Geology>Drilling>Remove.

Loading Drillholes By Name

This option allows you to load


drillholes by their drillhole
identifiers. Wild cards may be
used, either * for multiple
characters, or % for a single
character.

Tip!
This option will not work if the
screen has been set to a view
using
View>Change>View>Section.
Exercise 3 - Loading drillholes By To view the name of a drillhole
Name onscreen hover the cursor over
the drillhole trace.
1. Select Geology>Drilling>Load
By Name. Loading Drillholes By Section
2. In the panel enter the
drillhole name required or
use wildcards, i.e. enter *, This option allows you to load
Figure 3-2. drillholes by a distance from a
given section line. A section line
must be created before using
this option. Only those
drillholes whose collars are
within the bounds of the section
line will be loaded.

Figure 3-2 Loading drillhole


database by name Tip!
Drillholes may be loaded into a
section view using this option.
3. Select the colour schema to
load holes by, i.e. select CU,
Figure 3-3. Exercise 4 - Load drillholes By
Section

1. Select >Files>Design
Files>List Layers.
2. Select OK.
Figure 3-3 Drillhole colour 3. Select the layer named
schema SECTION. This will load a
layer of drill section strings.
4. Cancel.
4. The drillholes will then be
loaded onscreen. To remove 5. Select Geology>Drilling>Load
the name panel select By Section.
Cancel. 6. Select the section line.

Tip!
7. Enter the section width in
the panel, i.e. enter 100, 1. Select >Files>Design
Figure 3-4. Files>List Layers.
2. Select OK.
3. Select the layer named
POLYGON. This will load a
layer of drill selection
polygons.
Figure 3-4 Enter the section 4. Cancel.
width 5. Select Geology>Drilling>Load
8. Select the colour schema to By Polygon.
load drillholes by, i.e. select 6. Select the polygon.
LITH. 7. Select the colour schema to
9. The drillholes whose collars load drillholes by, i.e. select
fall within the designated LITH.
area will then be loaded. 8. The drillholes whose collars
fall within the designated
Tip! polygon will then be loaded.

The width is divided equally to


each side of the line. In this
Load Drillholes By Sel File
case the section will extend 50m
(selection file)
either side of your section line.

This option allows you to load


Loading Drillholes By Polygon drillholes using a selection file.
A selection file must be created
before using this option.
This option allows you to load Although a selection file may be
drillholes whose collars lie inside created manually, it is generally
a planar polygon. A polygon the output of a database query.
must be created before using
this option.
Exercise 6 Load drillholes By Sel
File
Exercise 5 - Load drillholes By
Polygon
1. Select Geology>Drilling>Load
By Sel File. 1. Select Geology>Drilling>Load
2. Select the selection file from By Extent.
the pick list, i.e. select 2. Enter the minimum and
thordemoa.sel, Figure 3-5. maximum x, y, z coordinates
in the Load Drillholes panel.
Enter X min. 78000, X max.
78200, Y min. 4400, Y max.
4800, Z min. -1000, Z max.
Figure 3-5 Load by selection 1000, Figure 3-6.
file panel

3. Select the colour schema to


load drillholes by, i.e. select
LITH.
4. The drillholes whose
identifier exists in the Figure 3-6 Define the area for
selection file will then be loading drillholes
loaded.
3. Select the colour schema to
load drillholes by, i.e. select
A selection file can also be LITH.
created using Geology>Drilling 4. The drillholes whose collars
Utilities>Create Selection File. lie within the coordinates
Try creating your own selection entered will then be loaded.
file by using the VULCAN help.
Load Drillhole Collar Positions

Load Drillholes By Extent


The Location option allows you
to load the collar positions of all
This option allows you to load holes as points. These points
drillholes by specifying the may be labelled to show the
coordinate extent of the area of drillhole names and then plotted
interest. as a drillhole collar position plot
if required.

Exercise 7 Load drillholes By


Extent Exercise 8 Load drillholes by
location
Tip!
To load the collar positions of a Collar positions are loaded as
drillhole database: points in the layer DIG$DRILL.
1. Select If you wish to save these points
Geology>Drilling>Location. transfer them to another layer.
2. In the drillhole name panel,
enter the drillhole names to
load, Figure 3-7.
Modelling a structure logged
by drilling

VULCAN allows you to model a


structure which has been logged
Figure 3-7 Load by drillhole in the drillholes. The structure
may be a fault or the top or
name panel
bottom of a particular horizon.

3. The drillhole locations are


Exercise 9-1 Model a structure
then loaded onscreen,
logged by drilling
Figure 3-8.
1. Load the drillholes onscreen
by the colour schema, which
contains the structure to be
modelled. For example if it
is an ore intercept, load
holes by LITH.
2. Select
Geology>Drilling>Model.
3. In the Model Horizon panel,
enter the field name where
the structure is recorded, i.e.
Figure 3-8 Drillhole collar LITH, Figure 3-9.
locations

4. Cancel.
other parameters if required,
Figure 3-10.
7. Select OK when finished.

Figure 3-10 Model create panel

Figure 3-9 The model horizon


panel 9. Indicate the origin point for
the model: select an
arbitrary point in the lower
4. We shall model a single left of the model area.
horizon. Enter the code
10. Indicate the maximum
used for the structure in the
extent of the model area:
database, i.e. enter TQ1.
select an arbitrary point in
5. Select the Save horizon the upper right of the model
points box and enter a layer area.
name and description. For
11. Confirm the modelling
example layer name POINTS,
operation: select model from
and description TQ1
the confirm box,
INTERCEPTS.
Figure 3-11.
6. Select OK.
7. In the Model Create panel
alter the grid mesh size and
Examine these surfaces closely
to determine the difference
between the grid and the
triangulation. You should find
Figure 3-11 Confirm create that the triangulation passes
model through the intercept points
exactly and that the grid is
12. A panel for the triangulation
smoothed so that it does not
name and properties will
honour the intercept points.
then be displayed. Select
the Solid shaded surface
button and choose a colour Exercise 9-2 Model a structure
for the triangulation, logged by drilling
Figure 3-12.

Experiment modelling other


surfaces in the database.

Onscreen Drillhole Analysis

In the Geology drilling menu


there are some useful options
that allow you to interactively
interrogate onscreen drillholes
as an aid to onscreen
interpretations.

Identify a drillhole.
Figure 3-12 Naming the Step through and display
triangulation and setting each record for a drillhole.
properties Label drillholes by any field.
Reload a drillhole by another
colour schema.
13. The structure will then be
displayed as a grid and a Interactively composite a
triangulation. drillhole.
To use these options you must
load a drillhole database 1. Position the screen in a
onscreen. section view with the
drillholes displayed.
It is a good idea to change view 2. Select
into a sectional view to avoid Geology>Drilling>/Identify.
cluttering the screen. To do this 3. Select the drillhole to
select >View>Create Section, and identify.
select the method to change your
4. The drillhole will be
view, i.e. select by points and
highlighted and labelled with
indicate two points in the plane
its identifier. The COLLAR
of a drill section, Figure 3-13.
information will then be
displayed in the Envisage
report window and a confirm
box will appear, Figure 3-14.

Figure 3-14 Identifying a


drillhole on screen

Figure 3-13 Create Section


panel 5. Select the Next Header
Record to view the next
record in the database
(Figure 3-15) or select
Identifying Drillholes
Intercept to pick a drill
intercept directly.
Exercise 10 Identify onscreen
drillholes
4. Select the field to use from
the pick list, i.e. select LITH.
5. The selected hole will then
be labelled.
6. Select the next hole to label,
etc, Figure 3-16.
7. Cancel when finished.
Figure 3-15 Drillhole
information as reported in the Tip!
Envisage report window.
Labelling many drillholes can
6. Cancel using the right degrade workstation
mouse button to exit. performance, therefore only label
those holes that are required.
Labelling Drillholes

To remove drillhole labels select


Onscreen drillholes may be Geology>Drilling>Label Off.
labelled by any field in the record
currently used to load the holes.

For example, if drillholes are


loaded by LITH, this field is in
the GEOL record, the other
available fields for labelling are
FROM, TO and WIDTH.

Exercise 11 Labelling drillholes


on screen

1. Select
Geology>Drilling>Label On.
2. Select the selection criteria
to label holes, i.e. select by
object. This will label only
the selected hole. Figure 3-16 Labelling
3. Select the drillhole to label. drillholes on screen.
hole is recoloured using the CU
schema.
Changing the Colour of
Drillholes

Onscreen drillholes may be


recoloured by any field in the
record currently used to load the
holes.

For example, if drillholes are


loaded by CU, this field is in the
ASSAY record, the other
available fields for colouring are
FROM, TO, AU, RECOV, WIDTH,
BLEACH.

Figure 3-17 Changing the


Exercise 12 Colouring an
schema colour of a loaded
onscreen hole by another schema
Drillhole

1. Open your Drillhole Interactive Composite Display


database.
2. Load drillholes by name. This option allows you to
3. Select the colour schema to interactively interrogate a
use, i.e. select AU. drillhole for composited (length
4. Select weighted) grades over user
Geology>Drilling>Colour. defined intervals. The results
are displayed next to the hole as
5. Select the drillhole to colour.
well as in a report window.
6. Select the colour schema to
use, i.e. select CU.
7. Cancel using the right Exercise 13 Interrogating a
mouse button to exit. Drillhole for a composite grade

Figure 3-17 shows drillholes 1. Select


initially loaded by AU, then one Geology>Drilling>Composite.
2. Select the composite field
from the schema pick list,
i.e. select AU.
3. Enter the number of
decimals to be displayed,
i.e. 3.
4. Select the drillhole. The hole
will be highlighted.
5. Select the start intercept
(Note: the start intercept will
be chosen from the TO
position).
6. Select the end intercept
(Note: the end intercept will
be chosen from the TO
position).
7. The start and end intercepts,
Figure 3-18 Onscreen display
plus the composite length
of drillhole composite
and grade, will be displayed
on the selected drillhole as
well as in the report window,
Figures 3-18 and 3-19. The
vector components of the
composite interval are also
displayed in the report
window. Figure 3-19 Display from
report window showing
composite and vector
component of the composite

8. Continue selecting composite


intervals.
9. Cancel using the right
mouse button to finish.
Onscreen drillhole analysis
options can also be accessed
using the contents menu. Click
on the drillhole you wish to
interrogate then click the right
mouse button. The contents
menu will appear that relates to
drillholes, Figure 3-20.

Figure 3-20 Contents menu


for drillholes
Chapter 4: Legends

To display drillholes or composite


files onscreen, a colour schema
(legend) must be defined. If no
colour schema exists then you
will be prompted for the ranges
and colours every time you wish
to load drillholes or composites.
Figure 4-21 Cu drillhole
Colour schemas may be defined
schema
for both numeric and
alphanumeric fields. The colour
schemas are stored in the
Using the legend display option
<proj>.scd file. In this section
displays the schema in its own
we will look at how the existing
window. To display the schema
colour schemas are defined, how
in the client area use the
to create new colour schemas
Analyse>Legend Edit>Draw
and modify existing ones.
Legend option.

Exercise 14 Viewing a colour


schema
Creating a new Legend

1. Select Analyse>Display By
Legend. Lets create a new test legend for
2. Select the type of schema to the CU field in our
view, i.e. select DRILL. thordemoa.dhd database.
3. Select the legend to view, i.e.
select CU. Exercise 15 Creating a new
4. The following legend will schema (legend)
then be displayed,
Figure 4-1.
1. Select Analyse>Legend
Edit>Create.
2. Select the type of legend to
create, i.e. select DRILL.
3. Enter the legend identifier,
i.e. TEST, Figure 4-2. If
required you could select the
Use other colour table as
default option. This would
allow you to copy another
legend. For now ignore this.

Figure 4-22 Colour table Figure 4-23 Database fields


identifier panel in the create panel from create legend
legend option option

4. In the database field panel Tip!


enter the field name for this The field and record names must
legend, i.e. CU, Figure 4-3. match the datasheet otherwise
5. Select Alpha or Numeric, i.e. the colours will be incorrect.
select numeric.
6. Enter the record name, i.e. 12. Enter the colour ranges in
enter ASSAY. the From & To boxes and
7. Enter the To field name, i.e. select the appropriate colour
enter TO. for the interval, Figure 4-4.
8. Enter the From field name,
i.e. enter FROM.
9. Select the use colour for
non-logged intervals. Select
a colour, i.e.grey.
10. Select GELT for Range mode.
11. Select OK.
When creating an Alpha schema,
wild cards such as TQ*, can be
used. This would result in the
drillhole codes, such as TQ1,
TQ2 and TQ3a, all being
displayed as the same colour.

Editing a Legend Schema


Figure 4-24 The colour range
panel
Lets modify the legend we just
Tip! created. For example change the
grade ranges to highlight the
To add or delete rows from your
lower assay grades.
legend click the right mouse
button on the left-most column Exercise 16 Editing an existing
to display the contents menu, schema (legend)
Figure 4-5.

1. Select Analyse>Legend
Edit>Modify.
2. Select the Schema type to
modify, i.e. select DRILL.
3. Select the legend to modify,
i.e. select TEST.
4. Select OK in the Database
Field panel.

Figure 4-25 Contents menu 5. In the Colour Ranges panel


alter the ranges and colours
for schema creation
as required.
6. Select OK when finished.
11. When finished select OK. 7. Display the drillholes using
12. Display the drillholes using the new legend.
the new legend.

Tip!
Deleting a Legend

Exercise 17 Deleting a legend


from the schema file

1. Select
Analyse>Legend Edit>Delete.
2. Select the type of legend to
delete, i.e. select DRILL.
3. Select the legend to delete.
4. The legend will then be
deleted from the colour
schema file.
using the information icon or
Chapter 5: Features Analyse>Details>Full option.
You will see that the layer name
is TQ1, its description is TQ1 ore
Features may be used to assign a zone, it belongs to the feature
set of properties to objects TQ1. We will now see that each
typically when the objects are of these properties was set in
created. This ensures that all advance in the feature TQ1.
objects of a particular type have
the same properties. A fairly
typical example of this is when Exercise 18 Viewing an existing
digitising known structures or defined feature
lithological contacts. A feature is
defined for each structure or
1. Select
contact. When that feature is
Design>Feature Edit>Modify.
used to digitise these objects we
can be assured that they will 2. Select TQ1 from the list.
have the desired properties. 3. The first panel defines the
feature description, the layer
name, TQ1, and layer
Features may also be used to aid
description, TQ1 ore zone.
in object selection for editing or
transforming. We are simply 4. Select the NEXT button to
assigning objects to sub-groups move to the next panel.
by feature name. Then when 5. The second panel defines the
selecting objects we may select object properties such as
by feature instead of object, colour, line thickness,
group or layer. grouping etc. Notice the
colour is bright green, the
line is solid and group name
In this section we will look at
is TQ1.
some existing features, see how
to create new features and 6. Select the arrow in the top
modify existing ones. right of the panel to move to
the next panel.
7. The final panel defines the
The layers which represent the
point properties such as
geological zones were all digitised
name, gradient, input mode
using features to assign unique
etc. Notice we are
properties to each layer. Load
connecting points as a
the layer TQ1 and interrogate it
string. If this is not selected,
objects will occur as non- 3. Enter the feature
connected points. description, i.e. enter TEST
8. Select Cancel to exit. FEATURE, Figure 5-2.
4. Lets ask the feature to
prompt us for a layer. Select
the prompt button under
layer Name and Description.
Type Enter Layer Name:.
5. Lets also ask the feature to
prompt us for a layer
description. Type Enter
Creating a Feature layer Description:.
6. Select NEXT.
Lets create a feature that we will
use to digitise blue polygons
filled with a diagonal line
pattern.

Exercise 19 Creating a new


feature

1. Select Design>Feature>Edit>
Create. Figure 5-27 Layer and Object
2. Enter the feature name, i.e. name for feature
POLY, Figure 5-1.
Select OK.
7. In the object attributes panel
force the layer to be blue,
with solid line type and
diagonal pattern, Figure 5-3.
8. Select the create closed
polygon option.
9. Select the create new object
Figure 5-26 Feature name
on cancel option.
panel
10. Select NEXT.
12. Select FINISH.
13. Cancel at the feature name
panel.
14. Use this feature to create
some polygons onscreen.
15. Select
Design>Create>Features.
16. Select feature POLY.

Figure 5-28 Object attribute


panel for feature Modifying a feature

11. In the Digitising panel select In the first part of this section
connect points as string, we looked at the features used to
Figure 5-4. create the ore zones for tq1,
tq1a, tq2, tq3 and nfault. At
present if we wanted to label
each of the objects with its layer
name we would have to change
the object name for each object
from the default to the layer
name. If we had thought a little
more about how we were going to
use these objects we could have
assigned the appropriate name
on creating the objects. However
we can still do this by modifying
our original feature and then
applying the feature to the
existing layers.

Exercise 20 Modifying a feature.


Figure 5-29 Digitise panel for
features
1. Select the feature TQ1 for Exercise 21 Designing a feature
modification.
2. In the layer/object name
In the Geological Interpretation
panel force the object name
section of this course we are
to be TQ1 and the object
going to use feature to define our
description to be tq1 ore
ore zones. Design features for
zone.
the following ore zones:
3. Select OK for each remaining
BTQ1
panel.
BTQ1a
4. Apply the feature TQ1 to the
tq1 layer by layer. i.e. Select BTQ2
Design>Attribute BTQ3 and
Edit>Feature.
a fault.
5. Select by layer.
6. Select the layer TQ1.
7. Select the feature TQ1.
8. Open a report window and Deleting Features
check the new object name
values.
9. We could now label each Exercise 22 Deleting a feature
object with its layer name.
Try this.
1. Select
Design>Feature Edit>Delete.
How else might we modify these 2. Select the feature to delete.
features to display useful
3. The feature will then be
information or aid in our
deleted.
digitising of these objects? You
may like to force all these strings
to be digitised clockwise
regardless of the actual direction
they were digitised in. Or you
may want to force a point name
or get the feature to prompt you
for a point name. Examine some
of the different properties that
are available to you.
In this section we will cover each
Chapter 6: Compositing of these techniques, focusing
mainly on the Run Length
technique, as this tends to be
Compositing is a method of the most commonly used
averaging assay values method.
throughout a drillhole database. The compositing menu is divided
It is commonly used to remove into three sections, Figure 6-1:
sampling bias as a precursor to
Generation
block modelling. It also has the
effect of smoothing assays across Running
drillholes. Viewing

VULCAN allows various types of


compositing techniques to be
used as required: Generation

Straight. This creates an


Running
ASCII copy of an ISIS
drillhole database.
Viewing
Run Length. This creates a
composite file with user Figure 6-30 Compositing
defined fixed length sample Menu
intervals.
Bench. This method will The options under Generation
create one composite per allow you to create parameter
user defined bench interval. files to store the composite
Intersect Select. This information. These files may be
allows the user to generate recalled for use at any time or
the longest composite edited to obtain new results.
intervals possible above a
specified grade cut-off.
The Running options allow you
Geology. This will create to use the parameter files to
one composite interval per create composite ASCII files
lithological zone. (mapfiles) or composite database
files (ISIS database files).
The Viewing options allow you to desired you could choose a
display the composite files parameter file to copy from,
onscreen. Figure 6-2.

Figure 6-31 Run Length


Generating Composite
Compositing panel
Parameter Files

In this section we will look at 3. Select the datasheet from


how to create composite the pick list, i.e. select DHD.
parameter files. 4. In the Composite Creation
panel enter the optional
datasheet identifier, i.e. enter
Run Length Compositing DEMOA, Figure 6-3.
Technique 5. Select Breakdown by geology
6. Select OK. The rest of the
options may be left as
The Run Length composite
default.
option allows you to set up a
parameter file that will generate Breakdown by
fixed length composite intervals geology: This option will
(except for the end of hole, cause the process to
geological or triangulation restart the compositing
boundaries). from a lithological
boundary defined by a
field in the database.
Exercise 22 Creating a Run Record majority
Length parameter file geology codes: This option
creates two new fields; the
first stores the majority
1. Select Geology>Compositing
lithological code in the
>Run Length.
interval and the second
2. Enter the new parameter file stores its percentage.
name, i.e. enter RUNL. If
Missing data: This
option allows the user to
either ignore values
flagged as missing data
(i.e. those equal to the
value assigned) or to
replace them with a user
defined value.
Non-sampled data:
This option works in the
same way as Missing data.
Assign a value to Figure 6-32 Composite
data not logged: This Creation Menu panel
option allows the user to
assign a value to data that
is not included in the 7. Enter the composite length,
drillhole log, i.e. where an i.e. enter 1.0 for composite
interval has not been intervals of 1.0 metre,
assayed. Figure 6-4.
Use selection file: This
option allows the use of a
selection file to composite
only a select group of
holes.
Abort compositing
for holes with errors: Use
Figure 6-33 Run Length
this option to exclude any
Composite Menu panel
holes containing logical
errors, i.e. from/to 8. Select the geology and assay
overlaps etc. records from the pick list,
i.e. select GEOL and ASSAY,
Figure 6-5.
Figure 6-34 Database Records
to Use panel

Figure 6-36 Assay Fields to


9. In the Geology Fields panel Use panel
select the From and
Rockcode fields, i.e. select
FROM and LITH, Figure 6-6. 11. Enter the CU grade cutoff.
Leave as default. If a cutoff
grade is entered, values
above this cutoff grade will
be set to the cutoff grade
value, Figure 6-8.
12. Select FINISH

Figure 6-35 Geology Fields to


Use panel

10. In the Assay Fields panel


select the From and Data
Fields to use, i.e. select Figure 6-37 Cutoff Values
FROM and CU, Figure 6-7. panel

13. In the Boundary definition


panel select CANCEL.

The parameter file is then


created. It will be called
thorrunl.cm1. If you want to
examine the file use a text editor, We have a choice of compositing
such as WordPad, to open it. to an ASCII file (a MAP file) or an
ISIS database file. Lets
composite to an ASCII file first.

3. Select Use Map File and


Creating a Composite File enter an Optional Map File
Identifier, i.e. enter RUNL,
Figure 6-9.
There are two options for
creating a composite file: 4. Enter a composite group
name for this run, i.e. enter
Run
runlength.
Selection
These options can produce either
Tip!
ASCII or ISIS database files.
The composite group name is
used to store multiple
The Run option allows the use of
compositing runs in the same
one parameter file only. The
file separated by their group
Selection option allows the use of
names. This can only be used in
two parameter files and is
an ISIS database.
dependent on the hole angle.
For ASCII files (a MAP file) there
We will look at the Run option as can only ever be one group
it is the most commonly used. name, therefore if compositing to
an ASCII file always composite to
a new file.
Exercise 23 Creating a Composite
file
5. Enter a run description, i.e.
Runlength composite using
1. Select 1 metre.
Geology>Compositing>Run. 6. Select OK.
2. In the Compositing
Parameter File panel select
the parameter file to use, i.e.
select RUNL.
2. In the Composite Display
panel select the Use Map
File button and select the
optional mapfile identifier,
i.e. select RUNL,
Figure 6-10.
3. Select Load as lines.

Figure 6-38 Compositing


Parameter File panel The variable order refers to the
top and bottom positions of the
composite interval (i.e. XYZXYZ)
The file containing the and the composite field (i.e. W).
composited data will be
thorrunl.map.
4. Change the line width to 3.
This will display the
Examine this file using WordPad. composites as thicker lines.
Notice the file contains a header 5. Select OK.
defining the header variables
and field names and their
properties. The data is arranged
below the header and is column
formatted.

Displaying Composite Files

Use the DISPLAY option to view


composite files onscreen.

Exercise 23 Displaying a Figure 6-39 Composite


Composite file Display panel

1. Select Geology>Compositing 6. In the Load Samples


>Display. Database panel enter the
group name, i.e. enter
RUNLENGTH. It is OK to
use a wildcard if you cannot
remember the group name,
Figure 6-11.
7. Select the assay field to
display, i.e. select AU.
8. Select OK.

Figure 6-40 Load Samples


Database panel

9. Select the colour schema to


use, i.e. select AU.
10. The composites will then be
loaded onscreen.

To remove the displayed


composites select
Geology>Compositing>Remove.
Chapter 7: Geological A quicker method would be to
Interpretations create the interpretation
onscreen using all the
information normally plotted.
Geological interpretations are This negates the need to create a
customarily done on section lot of section plots until the
plots using coloured pencils. interpretation is completed. The
These are then digitised into a geologist could rotate the
computer where the information to gain a true three
interpretation may be modelled, dimensional picture of the data
then plotted again for verification to be interpreted. This aids
or fine tuning, then digitised immensely in visualising the
again etc. The problem with this orebody before any interpretation
method is that it often results in has begun. The interpreted
double handling of data plus strings may be snapped precisely
time being spent plotting to the drillholes giving a much
sections and copying or redoing more accurate approximation of
an interpretation in various the true geometry. The biggest
section and plan orientations. It saving comes in the time spent
is often very difficult to visualise creating and fine tuning the
the orebody until the interpretation. What once used
interpretation has been to take weeks or months can
completed, and then if it is now be done in days.
perceived to be incorrect you
have to start again. Another
drawback of this method is that There are drawbacks to the
the geologist is always working in onscreen interpretation method
section planes to create the however. The first is that you
interpretation, however the may not be able to display all the
drillholes being used are information normally shown on a
generally not in the same plane, plotted section - it could degrade
resulting in an interpretation the performance of the computer
that only approximates the true to a frustrating degree. (The
geometry of the orebody. A increase in desktop computer
typical orebody interpretation performance means this is
using this method could take becoming less of an issue.) A
weeks or possibly even a few bigger problem is that so much
months to be completed. information could clutter the
screen making it difficult to
interpret the information.
Therefore you must learn to work 1. Load the database
with only the information thordemoa.dhd. Display the
required for the particular task, hole by LITH.
and later display any other
2. Load the layer SECTION.
information needed to complete
the interpretation. The biggest 3. Change view to one of the
problem is coming to terms with section lines, i.e. select
working in three dimensions View>Create Section.
rather than in section planes or 4. Set the slice width to 60 and
benches. Once this is overcome select the section plane by
however, the benefits in line.
productivity are immense. 5. Select OK.

In this section we will look at the


mechanics of onscreen
interpretation. We will restrict
ourselves to working in slices of
space for the sake of visibility,
and we will be interpreting in
three dimensions. The method
is simple but it does take some
getting used to.

Creating the Interpretation

Figure 7-41 Create Section


To begin we must first load the View panel
drillholes onscreen and restrict
6. Select the line to change
our view to a slice of space
view.
parallel to a drill section.
7. Zoom in on the area of
interest. Your screen should
look something like that
Exercise 24 Creating an shown below.
Interpretation
icon. To use a feature for
digitising select
Design/Create/Feature,

and select the feature.

Figure 7-42 Screen image of Figure 7-44 Snap to Point


cross section through icon
drillholes

8. Display a legend in a 10. Initially you should have


convenient position to one something that looks like the
side of the screen. Select screen image below. The
Analyse>Display Legend. interpretation has been
Select DRILL and LITH. snapped to the drillholes but
it does not go past the outer
drillhole limits.

Figure 7-43 Drillhole cross


section and legend

Figure 7-45 First step of


9. Begin digitising one of the interpretation
ore zones using the features
we created earlier and
snapping to the lithological 11. To tidy up the ends of the
boundaries on the drillholes, interpretation we use one of
i.e. use the snap to point the standard ENVISAGE
tools, namely
Design>Point Insert>Insert.
12. Select Design>Point
Insert>Insert. Select the
object. Select the line to
replace, i.e. the interp end,
Figure 7-6.

Figure 7-47 Screen image of


inserted points

14. Cancel when finished


inserting points. Select Do
not interpolate W. This
relates to the W-value and is
irrelevant. The points will
Figure 7-46 Screen image of connect to form a high-
lighted line. Select retain.
line which will have points
inserted

13. Once the insertion plane has


been defined insert the
required points. Remember
to insert points from S to E
otherwise you will create
crossovers in the string.

Figure 7-48 Image of


connected points

15. You will then be prompted to


select the next line to
replace. Continue this
operation until the interp
string is finished.
16. When finished you should
end up with something like
the screen image below.

Figure 7-50 Screen image of


splined string

18. The string now looks more


natural, but this spline is
Figure 7-49 Screen image of
only superimposed on the
completed digitised interp
original line. It has not
string
inserted any new points.
Therefore we need to insert
17. This looks OK but it can be extra points along this new
made better by smoothing line to maintain the shape
the line and inserting points when modelling. To do this
at a given interval. This will select Design>Attribute
also aid in the development Edit>Insert Points On
of solid models later. To Spline, . Set the step to
smooth the string we apply a be 5. Select the object to
cubic spline using insert points. The object will
Design/Attribute Edit/Apply be highlighted showing the
Spline. resulting string. Select
retain if it looks OK.
19. If you were to label the Try to complete the
points now you would see a interpretation you have started
great many more than we or add to the one supplied.
digitised. Try this, notice Later we will use this
the original points have not interpretation to create a solid
been altered. model.

We have now finished the first


string in our interpretation.
Reset the screen and rotate to
view the final string, especially
the ends. You would now do
much the same for all the other
ore zones. You may find it easier
to complete one section before
moving to the next or you may
want to follow an ore zone
through each section, its up to
you.

Almost certainly you will be


required during the course of an
interpretation to use most if not
all of the other point editing
options. It is a good idea to
become familiar with each of
these so that you can choose the
best option to use for each task.
There is generally no right or
wrong way to do something in
ENVISAGE but there are
certainly better and worse ways
to do it.

Exercise 25 Completing
Interpretation
option. System defaults are
Chapter 8: Statistics generally adequate in preparing
well proportioned statistics
reports. The Set Up option
VULCAN provides users with a allows you to establish:
convenient mechanism, via external file logging of the
ENVISAGE, to create basic
statistics session
univariate and multivariate
statistics. The statistics module the number of graphs
is part of the "core" ENVISAGE available both in the X and Y
product and can be found under directions
the main menu option ANALYSE. the height and colours of the
text headings, labels and
annotations on graphs
Essentially a user can analyse
data from a number of sources,
both ASCII or binary, both All graphs created in the
graphical or model data. The statistics option are generated in
user can select, where a special ENVISAGE window
appropriate, any number of data called "GRAPHS". The user can
items for analysis as separate interchange between a working
entities, or analyse the window and the statistics
relationship between pair-wise "GRAPHS" very easily. The
combinations. default set-up establishes the
number of graphs as being 3 in
the X direction and 3 in the Y
In this session we will look at:
direction. Hence a total of 9
the data sources available graphs can be generated. This
basic unistat features can obviously be increased or
graphics display features decreased at the users
discretion.

Setting up your Statistics


Session

Figure 8-51 Statistics log file


It is optional to select the set-up
setup
parameters before engaging in a
session within the statistics
After selecting the number of As previously mentioned, data
graphs that can be generated, for input into the statistics
the user is asked for the option is varied. Essentially data
parameters and colours for the can be accessed from the
various aspects of graph following sources:
generation. You can modify this Graphics objects in
at any time. The initial panel, ENVISAGE
covering the number of graphs
ASCII datafiles
available for creation, is only
completed once by the user in an Evaluation data, that is
ENVISAGE session and cannot mapfiles, both ASCII and
be changed without exiting and binary
re-entering. General ISIS databases
VULCAN Block Models
VULCAN 2D Grid Models

Whilst all data sources are


generally extensively used, the
scope of this course will restrict
discussion to data from
geological/assay ISIS databases
and mapfiles. The concepts of
data selection and graphing are
Figure 8-52 Define text essentially the same despite the
variation in sources.
specifications panel

Now that the set-up has been ISIS Databases


completed, or at least
established initially, we can start
to investigate the data sources General Statistics, both
that can be analysed. univariate and multivariate, can
be generated by accessing any
ISIS database. Generally this is
applicable to geological
Selecting the Data for
databases, although any ISIS
Statistics
structure can be accessed. On
selection of the "databases"
menu item the following panel is
displayed requesting information
for the datasheet, database
identifier and whether data
restrictions are required. As
most drilling databases contain
missing data values that are
usually stored as negative
Figure 8-54 Select record type
numbers (eg. -99.00), then the
panel
inclusion of this data into the
statistics dataset would
invalidate the resulting Following the record selection
univariate statistics. Hence it is panel, and if restriction of data
normal to select the restrict data has been selected, the following
box to eliminate this potentially panel is displayed. Note that all
erroneous data. data fields within the previously
selected record panel can be
used to provide selection criteria
before data is selected for the
statistics dataset.

Figure 8-53 Open Database

After the initial database


selection menu is completed a
list of all available data records
within that database is displayed Figure 8-55 Selection criteria
and the user is requested to pick panel
one record from which the data
will be selected.
In the above example we have
indicated that we only wish to
accept data with the following
conditions met:
Copper assays between 0
and 100 (percentage values)
Gold assays between 0 and system. On completion of the
1000 (gram/tonne values) extraction process, if a report
window is open, univariate
statistics for all selected fields
We could equally have enhanced
are displayed. If a report window
the selection parameters by
is not available this report is
placing "MB*" in the bleaching
displayed on the originating X-
field to indicate that we only
window, generally hidden behind
wished to extract data with the
ENVISAGE. The user can
characteristic of being
request the univariate statistics
moderately bleached.
report at any time by ensuring a
report window is available and
After these parameters have selecting the "UNISTAT" option
been established the user is in the statistics menu, Figure 8-
asked to select the numeric 7.
fields on which to form a suite of
datasets. The user can select up
to four suites of information or
cancel after the final selection. If
a character field is selected it is
ignored, and a field cannot be
selected more than once.

Figure 8-57 Stats report

After the data selection has been


completed it is available
internally for further display and
investigation if required. This
investigation may be in the form:
Exporting to ASCII data for
Figure 8-56 Select fields panel direction to other systems
Creation of univariate and
bivariate graphs and reports.
After the final selection,
processing begins and data is
extracted from the database and
stored internally within the
This will be discussed further,
after we have looked at some In the above example a
other data accessing methods. traditional mapfile was requested
for data selection, filename
"au_cu.map", and five variables
Mapfiles are to be loaded: Easting (X),
Northing (Y), RL (Z), data-item
W1(1) and data-item W2(2). Up
Mapfiles are the results generally to four data-items can be used in
of compositing studies, usually the data selection. Also notice
regarded as evaluation that the data restriction box has
databases. Mapfiles can be been selected and the following
either traditional ASCII mapfiles conditions have been set:
with data definition information
in the header of the file, or ISIS
binary databases. Both data The first data-item will be
types can be accessed from this greater than or equal to 0.0
option. The concepts of data The second data-item will be
selection are very similar to greater than or equal to 0.0
those of data access from normal
ISIS databases. The user is first
On completion of the above form
presented with the following
the following panel appears. The
panel.
loading panel requests the
correlation of names from the
Mapfile to the XYZ12
specification used above. In the
example below we have equated:

DHID to the Name field


MIDX to the X field
MIDY to the Y field
MIDZ to the Z field
cu to the first data-item (W1)
au to the second data-item
Figure 8-58 Open mapfile (W2)
panel
The correlations are important to
allow a greater number of data
restriction capabilities as seen in
the following panels.

Figure 8-59 Load samples


panel

Figure 8-60 Specify


Further restrictions for data restrictions panel
selection provide extensive
capabilities to eliminate
unwanted data and provide In the above example the user
broad geographic control, as well has requested that data should
as very accurate elimination of only be accepted if it lies
data that does not reside within geometrically within a solid
a closed/solid triangulation. triangulation. The user will be
asked to select the triangulation
from the screen, as the example
screen below indicates.
Display graphs for univariate
data consists of the following
types:

Bar graphs
Line graphs
Pie charts

Figure 8-61 Selected Bivariate/multivariate data


triangulation displays can be done in the
following ways:
On selection of the triangulation
the process of data selection
commences, and finally a set of Ternary charts
univariate statistics is displayed Scatter plots
in the report window, similar to
Line plots
the format as discussed with
ISIS-Database loading. Control is given to the user in
the definition of titles, scales,
colours and patterns.

Graphing Statistical Data


Using the standard geology
course data, some examples of
As mentioned previously, once procedures for creating graphs
the data has been selected and are outlined below. The user is
loaded into the system it is encouraged to experiment and
available for use any number of create the styles of the graphs
times within the session. Note available, and to enhance the
that there is no physical limit to graphs using normal ENVISAGE
the size of the dataset that may functions, such as text and
be loaded into ENVISAGE. attribute editing, to create draft
Workstation system limits quality output.
(primarily memory, swap space
and processor speed) generally
dictate the maximum size of the On selecting a "bar graph" from
data that can be handled the menu, the panel below is
efficiently and effectively. displayed, requesting
information regarding data to be
plotted, title details and styles for
presentation. In this case the
data-item "cu" has been selected,
with the copper classes on the X
axis (titled "Copper Values (cu%)"
and frequency on the Y axis
(titled "Frequency). A bar chart
was selected, as distinct from a
line graph. Additions like log
Figure 8-63 Define intervals
scaling for the X-axis,
cumulative frequency, general panel
statistics and percentages for the
Y axis were not selected.
The graph below was created
from the above selection, based
on the Mapfile data selected in
the previous section. Note that
the basic style and presentation
has been improved using the text
editing features of ENVISAGE.
The graphs are created in a
special window called the graphs
window. This window is a 2D
Figure 8-62 Histogram display window with approximately the
panel same X and Y extent as the
primary window. The
parameters of this window can
On completion of this form the be viewed under the options
user is asked details about the X View>Windows>Edit. The user
interval classes required, as can swap between the primary
displayed in the panel below. window and the graph window
The default is for automatic by using the special view
intervals, however transformation options in the
experimentation with user statistics menu, or by using the
defined intervals ultimately select option under the WINDOW
generates better graph output. menu. After every graph
creation the user is asked which
window (primary or graph) to
return to.
Every graph created is placed in
successive order starting in the STGRAPH_<number>
lower left hand corner and
progressing right and then
upwards until the complete where the number varies
graphs window is full. At this depending on the maximum
point any new graphs will number of graphs that can be
replace those at the start, displayed.
beginning again at the lower left
hand corner. The number of All graphs can be plotted using
graphs available for creation is the normal ENVISAGE plotting
controlled by the initial set-up in options. The juxtaposition of
the statistics menu. Once set it statistics, both general and
cannot be altered in the current graphical, with normal geological
session of ENVISAGE. The user information, provides the user
will have to exit and re-enter with powerful presentation
ENVISAGE to change these capabilities. Graphs are both
fundamental settings. quick to produce and modify as
well as being very professional in
quality.

Figure 8-64 Histogram plot

All graphs are stored in the


standard ENVISAGE database as
normal layers. The layer is
logically grouped to allow easy
attribute editing. The layers
have the default names of:
Description, which consists of a
Chapter 9: Appendix 1 logical series of record
definitions.

Glossary of Terms
Design Database (dgd):
Data file: A Design Database contains
The data file contains the actual digitised information held in
database information, i.e. the points, objects and layers. The
drillholes or the design information is typically digitised
information. on screen or using a digitising
tablet. Data stored in this type
Database (DB): of database typically represents
designs, i.e. pit layouts,
A database consists of two files -
underground development,
a Data File structured according
geological interpretations, or
to the Datasheet Definition for
data imported to aid in the
that set of data, and an Index
design, i.e. digital terrain maps
File. Many different types of
(DTMs), existing designs.
data are stored in VULCAN
databases, including data from
Drillhole Database:
logging sheets and assay lab
reports stored on a drillhole A Drillhole Database contains
basis, spatial (often digitised) information held in keys, records
data and drafting (template) and fields. The data stored is
data. typically drilling information
arranged by the drillhole
Database Listing (dbl): identification number (key). The
information may have been
A Database Listing is an ASCII
imported into VULCAN from
dump of a VULCAN database.
some other source, or may have
been entered via the drillhole
Datasheet and Datasheet name
database editor (ISIS).
(dsn):
A Datasheet is the definition of a Fields:
data coding form used to
A field corresponds to a single
structure the data loaded into
entry within a coding form
the database. The user defines
record. Fields may contain
the database structure by
either numeric or non-numeric
establishing a Datasheet
information. Translations for
codes used in fields may be The optional dataset identifier is
defined in a code dictionary. an optional name given to a
database to allow the user to
Index File: differentiate different databases.
An index file stores a list of all The optional dataset identifier
the layer names or key names for may be anything the user
the related data file. chooses, however it generally has
some relevance to the data in the
database, e.g. an area or location
name, or something denoting the
ISIS Database system:
particular phase of drilling. The
An ISIS database is a proprietary optional dataset identifier is
structured indexed binary file. limited to 10 characters.

Key:
ISIS databases are divided into Project Code <proj>:
subsets of data referenced by
The project code is a sequence of
their key (indexed) field. The key
characters used to prefix all files
field is the name of a subset of
related to a particular job or
related data. For example, in a
project. The project code may
drillhole database the key field is
typically represent the deposit
normally the HOLEID (hole
name or mine site. The project
identifier) field. All other
code has a maximum length of
information related to this key
four characters.
(i.e. hole identifier) is ordered
directly below this key.
Record:
Mandatory (field): A datasheet is divided into
records, with a record
When the mandatory box is
corresponding to an entire line
selected on an EDIT FIELD
entry on a coding sheet. Each
panel, this field must contain
record is typically designed to
information. Otherwise an error
cater for a particular type of
will be posted and the
information. For example, a
importation of this key into a
COLLAR record may hold all the
VULCAN database will not
information relating to the
proceed.
drillhole collar location and
Optional Dataset Identifier <odi>: length, whereas the ASSAY
record may hold all the
information relating to the
drillhole assayed samples. Each
record is divided into fields.

Synonym:
A synonym is the VULCAN
standard name equivalent for a
specific project field name. For
example, the project name for a
field containing the drillhole
names may be BHID; the correct
synonym for this field is
HOLEID. This allows VULCAN to
treat the BHID field as if it was
named HOLEID.