BATTLE EXPERIENCES

No. 1 3
I AUG 1944
*E?attleYhperiences@ r e p u b x s b d mlpibarly by t h i s heacla_uarbers to a enable a t e in t r a i n i n g to psf$t from %he ht~ast combat expeficmoes of o w troops now ff&ting the Gemm in F r ~ c e , Althstlgl? t h e experiences sf certain d t s a t a particular Iceation are not necessarily rpplicaliLe t o all.u n i t s 5x1 all situations, the item pb&hed wLll be those bsed an pmcideal e x p f i e n e e a d aye recommended f o r c a m M amsideration by units which m y enc:omnter ~ i m i h probIPemo &ports r of aomoboratf-va m cankraqy axperfmcss are p % i c d a r 8 y deah=ed in order t h a t t h e v&XBfw of t h e indfeated b t % l elesson may be d ! e t e m s d ,

I ~ e r a X , ,'An speratima1 memoramdm 02 t h e 1st I d a n t s y D i v i s i o n con%afPls , law-o-y recent a%atemerataempFFasiaing the. a,dvantage o ' con%bua3egmbfned f %rah&gof' %z%$a,n%ry and tank u n i t s &cla are %at fi&t tagether, Some exbracts fSPepn the h Mvisj.rnos &smssiom of t h e bfm%zy-$%nk t If&se=,r~ 3~0'01srn are given in su&=
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o 2 , Fonuafdm 02 the '%em,'A sa%isfactaqs o h % %sf~%he problem cxf $jiagAlm beheen * - a i m 5 believed ta E e in the a s f g n m n t ~ the Wmtiqr s by P of one of h b r i f l e S ~ I X ? %s ~aorbr , ~ the tank p P h % ~ m i a U a.%

maar%flof.t~m rou-ka P d.swd meansu pac-kise, The +;iaa&w cka-aaon %a=b'%-tat~k mines a m s 4aqinmmo

sf advance a d f - m h h e s i k ~ * ~ ~ t by poy rao tre ~ h x ~9 ~ 0s " The a~sfgpnent& o d d "be csntybu-~fisas tli-e.p f i a ~ s o n improves squad lmadgr s h o a be prm5dled w i t h an S C R - S radio for cen~~ wiW h i s pla%om a a company c70mmdcroa, h eotpn%ry i where 9flaeXy b k enemkgl"&dg e %hb k m nhay b mw9mced by a aquad z

The use of e o h channels for lers is no% almay.a feasiplffe, FmTP, dIses not p r o d d e auP%ieient%y close liaison, A nems of dirac:%crmmmica%%ambWem infantry and tan.la is r e q u 5 d o The Z a U m g Plavs hem % d s dd t h Bigpg ~ U ~ C ~ S a : S mniexusphcme c telephone slrr t2m ou%sfde ale certain tanks c m e c W w e . h h %h t s ~ ~ c a t i syskem of the b n k p prea~rmged b o n pymt(8cMesg rn smoke

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and a m silyJa38, Since the Frrr'antq? hand and arm signals are not exactdy Wle sane as those nomially used by the tanks, pre-arrangement i s necessary and practice i s adwtsable, The foll-g have been used by the lst Division and are rec0mmended.s a Target DesignatLon, Basic infantry hand signals for direction, ccwmence , firing, and cease ffring;* The squad or platoon leader who i s directing the progress of the tmh should be equipped with a mapon whch f i r e s tracer d t f o n I n order t o pin-point the target quiclilyo bo m s of bmditim For 7% EE9 the arm extended pointing with a l l fingers For PTP smoke, the s a w as f a r HE fo l l m d by covering the eyes w i t h the extehando 8 d y the tank will use machiae-gun f i r e unless the signal for HE or BP i s given, AP w i 1 1 be used only when the target' i s seen by the tank commandee Ce XWe.me~& standard vehicu3ss s i g n a l s are used t o c o n t r o l W

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%ere are given below s u b s b t i s l exbrqcts from some of the conclusians m c e ahd by a board of ofYicers which recently completed a study of certain operations involvFng close co-operation 'betmen ground and a i r farceso
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cases, even where the targets are ritkda range of Mandlg a t i l l e ~ , The z e b reason for .this i s the tremendous effect of 5OO-Lb and heavier bombs agaimt highly organized defenses and casemated positions, Large bombs, by their b b t , will damage f i r e control equipment and stun or k i l l the cmv& Casemates We tipped off level by near hits whch also somtimes put the gun out of action by pfllng d i r t i n f'mlit of the ports,, The gum w i l l . alwap be nautrallzed during tbs a i r attacko The accuracy of the m g KUI, dstermFne the duration of the period of neutralizationo The nature of the objective, not the a b i l i t y of the arM&ry to reach it, should determine whether aircraft Fs t o be use&
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lo Us8 of A i r W i t b h htiuery Bangee There i s a deFlnite need for air sap-

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Bp Gbllnd *es must M s h the a;ir forces d w d and com e l e regarding the a3.r objectives, including a statement of the effect

desiredo be T % d n g of the atr attack must be carefully and completely coordinated -with t grotpsj. f m s s pbns, including the ovffF-aU. f i r e plano h ea A g o d example of successful bo=ardbatim based on good plaaning i B fWnderhbd by a frequently employsd by cme UoS, division* Plan follcrs~s~ e r m B t h e planss arrive the a r t i l l e ~ smothers the target with fire, thereby red* t b loss from W Just befare the planes &ve, the a r t i l l e r y marks Gw t a r g e k d t h red smokeo 'Ehe a r 6 i l b r - y then withholds i t s fire tmtil the b d i n g i s finishbd* As t M ende, the NIAv resumes f i r e , cwering the advance of the W e O
Khich has been held outside of the danger ares during the bcdFng,

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TWELTH ARMY CROUP

BATTLE EXPERIENCES
No. 16
I0 AUC 1944
rgattla m p e r i e n c e s w e p u b l i s h e d r e g u l a r l y by t h i s headquarters t o e n a b l e u n i t s i n t r a i n i n g t o p r o f i t from t h e l a t e s t combat experiences of our t r o o p s n o r f i g h t i n g t h e G8-n~ i n m a c e , ~ l t h o u &t h e experiences of c e r t a i n units et a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n a r e not necessarily applicable t o a l l u n i t s i n all s i t u a t i o n s , t h e items publiahed rill be t h o s e based on p r a c t i c a l experience and a r e recomnended f o r c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n by u n i t s which may encounter s i m i l a r problem~l. ~ e p o r t a of c o r r o b o r a t i v e o r c o n t r a r y e x p e r i e n c e s are p a r t i c u l a r l y d e s i r e d i n o r d e r t h a t t h e v a l i d i t y of t h e i n d i c a t e d b a t t l e l e s s o n m y be determined.

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of t h e Army Group Corrmandbr 8

He B e LEWIS B r i e d i e r General, Z]SA ~ d j u t a n tGeneral
I l C I . c 3 "

The f o l l o w i n g i s f r m CO, I & R Platoon, Inf, 9 t h D i v i s i o n s T r a i n i n g i n booby treps, mines a n d demolitions should be given t o a 11 I & R parsorinel, The p l a t o o n s h o u l d be a u t h o r i z e d mine d e t e c t o r s f o r t h i s work. b e More emphasis i n training should be placed on i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of enemy armor, branches of s e r v i c e , r a n k or '@ado, and organizntion and employment of enemy u n i t e . c . S u f f i c i e n t narkermnship t r a i n i n g should be given men armed with t h e t o n w t o e n a b l e them t o f i r e from a n y p o s i t i o n . d. F i r s t a i d k i t s should be a u t h o r i z e d f a r I & R jeep8 and m r e thorough t r a i n i n g i n first a i d should be g i v e n I & R parsomel.
1,

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The f o l l o w i n g is f'rcan 3-2, Id, 9 t h D i v i s i o n ; . W should have i n our i n t e l l i g e n c e p l a t o o n a number of men who can speak French and/or German. Each a s s a u l t b a t t a l i o n should have a t l e a s t one interrogator who can speak t h e language of t h e c o u n t r y and of t h e enemy. b . ' m i n e d i n t e l l i g e n c e 2ersonnel should be amng. t h e f i r s t t o e n t e r a c a p t u r e d post, o r o t h e r inathllations t h a t rnay c o n t a i n documsnts or. f o r t i f i e d p o s i t i o n , con~~lsnd equipment of m i l i t a r y i n t e l l i g e n c e value.
2
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1. purposes and r e s u l t s . The 83rd D i v i s i o n has i n i t i a t e d , a n d v a l u e s t i & l y , a c o u r s e of ir~structionf o r mplacements. ~ t purpose is t o n d e b ~ k * s many of t h e i d e a s

t h a t t h e s e men h d plcked up p r i o r t o a r r i v a l , and t o i n s t r u c t them i n s p e c i a l f i g h t '310 a p p r e h e n s i o n of new men h a s been i q t e c h n i q u e s and t h e u s e of c e r t a i n weapons. reduced a n d t h e i r self-confidence and morale g r e a t l y b e n e f i t e d by t h e course.
2, Description. The c o u r s e lasts two and one-half days and is conducted by b a t t l e During t h e i n s t r u c t i o n t h e men a r e t r a i n e d i n g o u p s of 12 and experienced personnel. are a s s i g n e d - t o s u b o r d i n a t e u n i t s by those groups. T h i s r e d u c e s t h e s t r a n g e n e s s of t h e he s u b j e c t s s t r e a s e d d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e a r e t new o r e n i z a t i o n . a. H m t o l i v e i n a fax h o l e , T h i s i n c l u d e s c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e f o x h o l e and means of p r e s e r v i n g h e a l t h and b o d i l y c l a n l i n e s s under such c o n d i t i o n s . be The s p i r i t of t h e o f f e n s i v e . Emphasis is p l a c e d on t h e danger o f a l l o w i n g themselves t o become pinned down and s u b j e c t s d t o mrtar and a r t i l l e r y f i r e . c. The u s e and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e f r a g m e n t a t i o n grenade, a n t i t a n k grenade and t h e bazooka. About 25 p e r c e n t f i r e t h e a n t i t a n k grenade and thebazooka and a 1 1 observe t h e i r effectivenesa, d* 3ome t a c t i c s and technique of hedgerow f i g h t i n g .

111 FIELD IMPROVISATIONS.

1 U s a s of t h e SCH 300. A b a t t a l i o n commander i n t h e 8 3 r d D i v i s i o n h a s used t h e . SCR 300 e f f e c t i v e l y f o r cammunication w i t h t h e b a t t a l i o n ammunition DP t o d i r e c t t h e mvament o r r e a u p p l y q u i c k l y wherever needed* He a l s o recammends p l a c i n g an sCR 3120, when a v a i l a b l e , at t h e b a t t a l i o n a i d s t a t i o n t o a i d i n t h e e v a c u a t i o n of wourdedo I n general h e has f o u n d t h e set one of t h e most dependable means of colrnnunication w i t h i n the b a t t a l i o n .
2 Improvised m u n t s f o r U . The 2nd D i v i s i o n a d n a n c e u f f i c e r r e p o r t e t h e use of t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p e d i e n t s f o r d i r e c t machine gun f i r e a t r a n g e s of 100 y a r d s and l e s s . They a r e g e n e r a l l y used only f o r f i r i n g s h o r t b u r s t s w i t h t h e l i g h t machine m e o r more of t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s a r e s u p p l i e d t o each michine gun squad. a. I n s t a l l a t i o n of a BAR bipod on t r u n n i o n of t h e U G . ~n improvised s t o c k s i u lar i n shape t o t h a t of t h e German MG 42, made f r m s h e e t mtital, r e i n f a r c e d with wood, is a t t a c h e d by f o u r screws t o t h e p i s t o l grip. This, i n e f f e c t , c o n v e r t s t h e l 9 1 9 h t o a 1919~6. b . ~ t t a c h m e n tof two metal r o d s from t h e 105 m c l o v e r l e a f m u n i t i o n p c k , bent i n t o r o c k e r shape. They a r e a t t a c h e d lengthways on each s i d e , one end t o t h e t r u n n i o n and t h e o t h e r t o t h e e l e v a t i o n lug. ' f i e shoulder s t o c k d e s c r i b e d i n a above is used. c. Attachment of a s p i k e , 1 2 t o 15 i n c h e s l o n g and l 2 t o 314 of-an i n c h i n d i a / 'i'he yoke is meter, sharpened a t one end and f i t t e d with a simple yoke a t the o t h e r . a t t a c h e d t o t h e t r u n n i o n w i t h a b o l t . A f l a n g e , t h r e e i n c h e s i n diameter, i s a t t a c h e d t o t h e s t o c k about f o u r i n c h e s from t h e p o i n t . when a t t a c h e d , the s p i k e swings from t h e trunnion. b e s h o u l d e r s t o c k m y b e used o r t h e gun f i r e d w i t h j u s t t h e p i s t o l grip* d. I n emergency t h e gun i s sometimes f i r e d with no mount a t a l l . l'he b a r r e l i s l a i d o n a hedgerow or any convenient o b j e c t , and f i r e d i n s h o r t b u r s t s . Asbestos gloves a r e sometimes used by t h e gunner.

TWELTH ARMY CROUP

BATTLE EXPERIENCES
No. 1 7
I I AUC 1944
a m t t l e B p e r i e n c e s u a r e published r e g u l a r l y by t h i s headquarters t o enable units i n t r a i n i n g t o p r o f i t from t h e l a t e s t combat experiences of our t r o o p s now n f i g h t i n g t h e ~ m n i s France. Although t h e experierlces of c e r t a i n u n i t s a t a particular l o m t i o n a r e not necessarily applicable to a l l u n i t s i n a l l situations, t h e items published w i l l b e t h o s e based on p r a c t i c a l experience and a r e r e c o m n d e d far c a r e f u l c o n a i d e r a t i o n by u n i t s which may encounter s i m i l a r problems. Reports of c o r r o b o r a t i v e or c o n t r a r y experiences a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y d e s i r e d i n o r d e r t h a t t h e v a l i d i t y of t h e i n d i c a t e d b a t t l e l e s s o n m y be detarmined. By cormand of t h e Army Group C o m n d e r :

- - ------------.-----.--.-..
(NCTrE; ?he following m a t e r i a l i s e x t r a c t e d f r a m a document prepared by t h e chief of t h e A r m r e d S e c t i o n , Twelfth Army Group, a f t e r a v i s i t t o three s e p a r a t e tank b a t t a l i o n s which had p a r t i c i p a t e d in cambat.. These a x t r a c t s appear t o have s o m c h value far a l l tank u n i t s , and f o r mny u n i t s of o t h e r arms, t h a t they a r e reproduced i n t h i s farm t o permit wider d i s t r i b u t i o n . )
I TAM-INFANTRY - O E HN
C ~ C I I ~ O M .

H. B. r n I S Brigadier Ceneral, U s Ad j u t a n t General

1 U1 t h r e e b a t t a l i o n s were e n t h u s i a s t i c about t h e telephones mounted on t h e . backs of tank8 f o r c o ~ i c a t i o n with i n f r n t r y leaders. They f e e l , however, t h a t f u l l actvantage i s not teken of t h i s equipment f o r t h e following reasonas: a . To nuke t h e i d e a completely e f f e c t i v e , a l l t a n k s ahould be s o equipped.. ?his h a s not been done, be B n y o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o o b t a i n tank f i r e support have been missed because a l l of t h e i n f a n t r y were not i a f o m d t h a t t h e telephones had been i n s t a l l e d .

11

W I N I N G OF TANK REPIACBENTS

1 The need is f e l t f o r t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s f o r both comnissioned and e n l i s t e d tank . replacements. Such courses, i f w e l l planned, would r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y and nrutual confidence. Reconnnendationa a r e f a r a two-weeh c o u r s e f o r each group, a l l o t h e r t r a i n i n g t o be suapended during t h e period. Reconmended s u b j e c t s a r e a s f o l l o w s f a. For Officers:: A r e f r e s h e r course of two weeks concentrated on r a d i o procedure and r a d i o presence t o g i v e confidence i n t a l k i n g over t h e r a d i o , p l a t o o n maneuvering, map reading, s l i d e x , f i r s t echelon tank maintenance (crew maintenance), tank weapons and tank driving.

be Far e n l i s t e d men: I n t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g i n d r i v i n g ; gunnery; r a d i o ; crew m i n tenance;, u s e of s i g h t s . binoculars and o t h e r tank equipment. These s u b j e c t s a r e recommended because replacements most r e q u i r e d a r e of tank c-nders , d r i v e r s and gunners.

I11 SUGGES'IXQIJS F R SPECIAL TACTICS AND TECHNIQUE. O
1 Use of a r t i l l e r y . . a . A r t i l l e r y preparation should be concentrated on improved r o a d s perpendicular t o t h e a x i s of advance. It has been found t h a t enemy tanks and AT weapons f r e q u e n t l y amplace themselves on t h e s e roads. b. A r t i l l e r y f i r e on hedgerows which do not contain a road should b e secondary. F i r e on f i e l d s i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e . . 2.. Suggestions f o r i n f a n t r y . a. I n f a n t r y acconpinying; tanks should a v o i d using an opening t h a t a tank has j u s t used. The enemy f r e q u e n t l y l a y s on these openings inmediately the passage of the tank i s observed. White phosphorous grenades hive been v e r y s u c c e s s f u l l y used by i n f a n t r y t o b. p o i n t o u t targeto t o t h e tanks. ce I n f a n t r y s u p p l i e s such a s grenades and amnunition, and even r a t i o n s and n o t a r , can be c a r r i e d i n boxes on the r e a r of tanks. This p l a n b s been used and bas been both s u c c e s s f u l and convenient.

IV RELIEF O TANKS FOR REPmSHbIENT. F
lLfter being i n a c t i o n f o r a considerable time, t a n k platoons must withdraw t o r e p l e n i s h a m n i t i o n a n d f u e l . When the i n f a n t r y observes t h i s withdrawal, they f e e l they a r e being d e s e r t e d and t e n 4 t o withdrew themselves. Thia has been avoided by t h e following method*. one tank platoon completely fueled and with a m u n i t i o n i s kept i n the r e a r . This platoon r e l i e v e s a platoon on t h e l i n e by i n f i l t r a t i o n , one tank a t a time. When t h e r e l i e v e d platoon is assembled, i t proceeds t o t h e company dump, r e p l e n i s h e s i t s f u e l and a,mmunition, and r e t u r n s t o a p o s i t i o n i n t h e r e a r of t h e l i n e and r e l i e v e s t h e n e x t platoon by t h e same method. The i n f e n t r p n seeing a tank move forward a t t h e same time a tank noves back r e a l i z e s that h i s support has not diminished.

V

INFAN?RY-ARTIUERY C O O R D ~ O N . (Obeervations mhde by the o f f i c e r s i n b c a t e d . )

1 A d d i t i o m l FO'so am t h i s country observation is l i m i t e d , and a forward ob. s e r v e r a t b a t t a l i o n s i s n ' t enough. W hive, t h e r e f o r e , placed a n a d d i t i o n a l forward e obeerver w i t h each f r o n t l i n e company, u s u a l l y about s i x on the d i v i s i o n f r o n t . me c o q a n y forward observer i s a s s i s t e d by one sergeant and a r e b o operator-driver. He has wire l i n e t o t h e l i a i s o n o f f i c e r a t t h e i n f a n t r y b a t t a l i o n and a n 8CR 610. As soon a s more open country is reached, t h e s e company observers w i l l not b e needed. However, a t p r e s e n t they l i v e with the i n f a n t r y wherever they goon--Executive O f f i c e r , 2nd Division A r t i l l e r y .
2- W n a c t i o n under a r t i l l e r y fire. nqe have had to have our i n f a n t r y withdraw two t o f o u r hundred yards b e f o r e s t a r t i n g a p r e p a r a t i o n before a n a t t a c k i n t h i s country. I t h i n k the G r a g e t a s c l o s e a s posaible t o our f r o n t l i n e s t o g a i n some p r o t e c t i o n em m f r m our e r t i l l e r y . ?hat seems t o be a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e i r t a c t i c s here. They w i l l n o t t a k e what Isavenworth would c a l l a good defense position. N matter how f a s t they o a r e r e t r e a t i n g , i f you s t o p and d i g i n , they w i l l i n f i l t r a t e r i g h t back to the next h e d g e r o r s e a - - ~ r t i l l e r y Commnder , 2nd Division.

TWELFTH ARMY CROUP

BATTLE EXPERIENCES
No. I8
12 AUC 1944
r a t t l e n p e r i e n c e s u are p u b l i s h e d r e g u l a r l y by t h i s h e a d q u a r t e r s t o e n a b l e u n i t s i n t r a i n i n g t o p r o f i t from t h e l a t e s t combat e x p e r i e n c e s o f o u r t r o o p s now i f i g h t i n g t h e ~ e r m n s n France. d t h o u & t h e e x p e r i e n c e s of c e r t a i n u n i t s a t a p r t i c u l a r l o c a t l o n are n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l u n i t s i n a l l s i t u h t i o n s , t h e itens p u b l i s h e d w i l l be t h o s e based on p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e and are recommended f o r c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n by u n i t s which may encounter s i m i l a r p r o b l w . R e p o r t s of c o r r o b o r a t i v e r x c o n t r a r y e x p e r i e n c e s a r e p a r t i c u l e r l y d e s i r e d i n o r d e r t h a t the v a l i d i t y of t h e i n d i c a t e d b a t t l e l e s s o n may be determined.
. By commnd of t h e ~ r m g w o u p C o m u n d e r ~ .

B r i g a d i e r General, U S ~ dj u t e n t G e n e r a l

I

IAUI\TCHIIJ'G O BAILEY BRIDGE BY ' I ! ! . F

The f o l l o w i n g i n c i d e n t of t h e I t h l i a n c a n ~ i g n s e x t r a c t e d from a p u b l i c a t i o n of i t h e B r i t i s h war Officeg: s m o t h e r i d e a developed d u r i n g t h e t r a i n i n g w s t h e l a u n c h i n g o f e ~ a i l e y a bricige by t a n k s . 'lb c a r r y o u t t h i s t a s k , two t s n k s were employed, both e s p e c i a l l y f i t t e d , and one having t h e t u r r e t and gun removed. , h e t a s k was a c t u l l y e x e c u t e d most succ e s s f u l l y d u r i n g t h e a s s a u l t , and t h e b r i d g e was s a f e l y h u n c h e d i n t h e f a c e of enem o p p o s i t i o n on t h e f a r bank. A t that p o i n t i t would have been m p o s s i b l e t o have b u i l ; r B a i l e y b r i d g e i n t h e n o m l way. T h i s b r i d g e was one o f t h e o n l y two a v a i l a b l e d u r . i n g t h e f i r s t day of t h e c r o s s i n g e l

"We a r e s u c c e s s f u l l y u s i n g b a n g a l o r e t o r p e d o e s t b blow o p e n i n g s i n hedgerows f o r t a n k s * We p l a c e two o r t h r e e t o r p e d c s s , d e p e n b n g on t h e h e i & t and growth of t h e hed@;e, a b o u t f o u r f e e t a p a r t and about o n e - t h i r d t h e h e i g h t of t h e mund from ~ t bast s fie have t h e t a n k s push t h e t o r p e d o e s through t h e h e a g e . * - - & p t a l n , E n g Combat gn.
I11 XEDIUb4 ARTILLERY.

1 . "re men i n a b a t t e r y should be trajined a s computerso I have t r a i n e d my t e l l phone o p e r t i t o r s , and, althougL t h e y my n o t be used a s computers, I f i n d t h a t they ca; do 6 much b e t t e r job a s t e l e p h o n e o p e r a t o r s by having had t h i s training.
nIn o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e our a n g l e of t r a v w s e , we r e v e r s e t h e t r a i l spade - k i n 2. i t f l u s h w i t h t h e ground t o f a c i l i t a t e r a p i d movement.

w'rirne f i r e , u n l e s s ob,sorveri, r e s u l t s i n hn e x c s s s i v e number of d u u s . need f ' o r a p e r c u s s i o n f u s e s i m i l a r t c t h t t used tiy l i & t a r t j I l e r y . * - - I , & JOT, i l l e r y Be t t a l j . o n (medium).
m. (Coriii11:s IV P I S FOR ,12.i.f-ig{s.
7,-

3.

*ere

- j.I't-

is

o f a l i e u t e n a n t i n tke
111

- i,m::>red

~ivlsicn)
I ~ W Ir a n l p u l a -

1. I n t r a l n l n g tank crews, t o o much p r h c t ~ e c t l o n chnnot b e C l - ~ e n .

acc1~l1.1 k si.eed ? n n

2. fl;ve &kt. i t SC,> t o f i r e i n t o till ?.tll t l u i l r , i r L c s , rcc they i:;vu~*ia l ; c o n t ~ i n b s n i p e r s a n d m c h l n e gunners. 'iie e l s o c u t c m n i c a t i c n l i . ~ l e s , s v4e c?c~rel:cs. 2

3. nun t h e r e c e n t b r e a k - t h r o u g h we m v e d o u r t h n k s i u colrura a l o x t h e rokliu ~ m t l l t h e l f t c ~ c iIj t & r A wtly i'irec on, t h e n w e a e p l o y e d o r pushed b y , de2enal1i.g on t h e m t u r e of t h e t e r r a i n . If w e were n o i e b l e t o knc~ck o u ~ h e enemy k r i c r a n ~ i t a n k.n from a t u f l a n k , vfe by-gassed it.
4 . Wrlhe anew u s e s .?'J c a l i b e r v;eapons e . g a i n s t t a n k s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r a n g e . A tank t h E t r e c e i v e s .30 c a l i b e r f i r e is v e r y l i k e l y t o get a s h e l l i n a s h o r t L l r n e .

5 Wr p r o t e c t i o n a e i n s t b u t t e r f l y tombs w e d i g a l a r c e t r e n c h ?rid p ~ r h t a n k o v e r i t , l e a v i n g a s m e l l e n t r t n c e h o l e on one end.
EI

6. f l C a s u t l t i e s a a o n e crews of o u r tanks t b a t heve been s e t o n f i r e are s u r p r i s l n g 1 j low, u s w l l y only one o r two. The s u l l erti,o f i r e d i r e c t e d a t crews, abandon] np tarrhs is v e r y ~ n a c c u r s t e ,

7 0 #NO i n f l a m b l e r i t e r i e l s s h o u l d ev;:r

be k e p t i n s i d e

b

tank.

8, WCcntinue t o f i r e a t a n eiieny t a n k u n t i l i t catch-es f i r e t o preveilt i t s r e 1 : ~ j . r end immediate u s e a s pillbox.

9.

W e m y weapons e r e u s u t l l y oic:sc: e t $he f i n e l d r i v e h o u s i n e of our t t ~ n k s . sh~uld wear s t e e l h e l m e t s o v e r t h e i r t a n k helmets.

l o o Wmnk crews

1 . flTanks s h o u l d adverice t h r o u c h t h e c e n t e r ~ f a field i n s t e a d of c l o s e t o t h e 1 hedgerows, i n o r d e r t o a v o i d bazookh fir6.n

1 ~ g u c c e s s f u l n d r a p i d e v a c u a t i o n o f wounded depends upon t . a a . A g g e s s i v e n e s s o f unit s u r g e o n s - - t h a t is, k e e p i n g p e r s o n n e l a n d i n s t s l l a t i ~ n s w e l l forward. b. C l o s e c o o r d i n a t i o n and c o n t a c t between d i v i s i o n s u r g e o n and s u r g e o n s o f subordirlate units. c. E s t a b l i s h i n g ambulance l o a d i n g p o i r ~ t sa l o n g axis of advance."--3urgeon, Armred Division.
2. % A r e e f f i c i e n t ambulance r o u t e m r k i n y s y s t e m from t h e f r o n t t o c l e a r l n e s t & t i o n s i s needed. bjany ambulance Cirivers l o s e t h e i r way and mdch t i m e 1s l o s t I n r e a c h ing t h e c l e a r i r ~station."-Captain, ~ 1st I n f a n t r ~ G i v i s i o n . ;

TWELFTH ARMY CROUP

BATTLE EXPERIENCES
No. 1 9

1 AUC 1944 3

a k t t l e Dpariencesn are published r e g u l a r l y by t h i e heradquartera t o enable u n i t s i n t r a i n i n g t o p r o f i t from t h e l a t e s t combat experiences of our troops nor f i g h t i n g t h e Germans i n France. U t h o u g h the experiences of c e r t a i n u n i t e a t a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n a r a not n e c e s s a r i l y a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l u n i t e i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s , t h e items published w i l l be t h o s e based on p r a c t i c a l experience and a r e reconmended f o r c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n by u n i t s which m y encounter similar problems. Reports of corroborative or c o n t r a r y experiences a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y d e s i r e d i n o r d e r t h a t the v a l i d i t y of the i n d i c a t e d b a t t l e l e s s o n may be determined. croup Carrmanderr t By colr~llandof t h e ~ r ? n y

Brigadier General, US1 Adjutant General

I COMBAT

YIIAIW1NG9.

(From i n f a n t r y platoon l e a d e r s o f t h e 9 t h ~ i v i e i o n )

1 Move. none of t h e f a t a l mistakes made by i n f a n t r y replacements i a t o h i t t h e . ground and f r e e z e when f i r e d upon. Once I ordered a q u a d t o advance from one hedgaro t o another. During the movement one roan was h o t by a s n i p e r f i r i n g one round. Ihe e n t i r e squad h i t t h e ground a n d froze. ?hey were picked o f f , one by one, by t h e aam sniper.
2. Don't hwve. %!en should be taught t o play 'dead'--that i a , r a m i n p e r f e c t l y s t i l l - - i f wounded by s n i p e r f i r e . I f they move, t h e s n i p e r w i l l f i r e again.

-

3. Follow Barregee. *?here i e a tendency, e s p e c i a l l y among new men, t o became overconfident when the a t t a c k follows a heavy bmbardment such as t h a t o f 25 July 1944 hbny of them thought a l l t h e Germane i n t h e a r e a would be e i t h e r k i l ed or wounded, an a l l they had t o do was t o t a k e over t h e ground. In t r a i n i n g i t ahou d be c o n s t a n t l y s t r e a a e d t h a t a i r bombardment and a r t i l l e r y barrages do not d e s t r o y t h e m m but only e y d r i v e them under ground and temporarily disorganize them, thereby m k i n g them, f o r a s h o r t t i m e , m r e v u l n e r a b l e t o infantrynen following c l o s e behind t h e barrages.

t

mow t h e BAR. b e l i e v e t h e r e i a a need f o r more i n t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g with I have r e c e n t l y l o s t t h r e e men who claimed they were expert U F l men and w e e the BAR. so c l a s s i f i e d on t h e i r Form 20'a. These men were k i l l e d because they were not m f f c i e n t l y t r a i n e d i n t h e o p e r a t i o n of this weapon. B e BBR i s a m a t s f f e c t i v e weapon i n hedgerow f i a t i n g and should heve h i g h l y t r a i n e d personnel t o o p e r a t e it.

4 .

"

5 . Be A l e r t . won one occasion, t h e f a i l u r e of two n e w replacementa t o r e a l i z e t h v a l u e of c o n s t a n t watchfulnes and a l e r t n e e s r e s u l t e d i n t h e l o s s of two of my noncommissioned o f f i c e r s . The men on t h e l i s t e n i n g p o s t m v e d back t o r e p o r t ~emmnau s i n g

J L ~ ~ E R ~ r jF : ~ f ' s l l i n z o ~ itn 3ngI.l.sh. t ~ ch c p 12 2 t h e i r ahsc:r.ce, tni. GarrE~rs s l i p g e l ~ -r i n t o our u r e a arlu k i 1;ed ~vro ,'fmy r~oncornr:lissj.orlAd o L f l.cers bef0-e t h e y were discovered.
1..;,,, ,

fclllowiny coaii011ts e r e s u m r i z e d fr.om st;tenr:r.%.z nr.30 b y t h e cG, based upon ~ U G C ~ S S I operz.Lions com' ~ ~ ~ zi:::ic~~{: 2-5 J u l y 1 5 h i 4 t , 6. I l , E a c h i ~ ~ g s ; ~ r . , o r e c? r i r ~ c i g l = s ~ c ! t . e c t i c s u r : soundo ~ g : ~ r e s s i v e n e scapnot coi a ~r be i ~ ~ e ; c ~ i l e s i z e d . Sllccesu i n OLZ ~'ecenLY engzcenent is b e l i e v e d t o heve been c h i e f l y due t o t h e f t ~ c t' i k i ~ ; u ! i t ~ 'i:er'e o r d e r e d not $0 s t 0 2 b u t tc !:.eei: d r i . ~ i ~ i g .C s one occas i o n a ' u n i z r e p o r t e d i t was h e l d u;? by enemy m i n e f i e l d s * It was o r d e r e d t o cuah ,;:hen t h e l e ~ l d i n gt a n k drew fire, t h e o t h ' e ~ .t a n k s deployed tbsc,ugh s n d t a k e t h e l o s s e s . and o w h e d on throui!h, overrun;iing a n d knock] n ~ o u t ecerq r e s i s t e n c e or: t h e m v e . In Imst c e s e s ;he Germins ~r;c\ul.l f ' i r e e few ro1lr.d~and e i t h e r r e t r e e t o r s u r r e n d e r . W e a r e ccjnvinced t h a t 31,ck. e L E r e s e i l ~ e n e s smearis fewer l o s ~ e sir both men and equipment. Had vc s t c p p d ar?d at',e.m~ted.t c ruaneuver, t h e Garmiis would have brought a r t i l l e r y and 0i,f16r i r e s upon us. f '20 d e l a y or s t 0 2 i s p l a y i n g i n t c t h e enemy's hands. b e flour edvance w a s cc,ntinued even wken c n e b a t t s l i o n was c o n p l s t e ? y c u t o f f f o r 'The b a t t a l i o n in a b c u t 36 hours. 3 : i a b a t t a l i o n continued t o f i [ & t i t s way f s - ~ m r d ~ r e a r tilso pushed e h e a d and t h e r e s ~ l t was e v e ~ t u e l e e s tablisbment cf c o n t a c t between r

1 .

':he.

-

iw,:mc?d ijivisi.on > i u d menikera of h i s sthfl',

bll

.l:lits*"

111 LUCA'ilZi:IJ CF T ~ I i i l S I O i I.WTII.IkRY CP.
The a r t 1 l l e r y c o i m ~ n t i e ro f the 1st 11Ln~~iitrg i v i s j on broke p r e c e d e n t d u r i n g r e c e n t D o p e r a t i o n s by l o c a t i n g h i s CP approxirmt e l y 6000 y h r d s i n f r o n t of the D i v i s i o n CP. H i s a p l s A m t i o nwas:: I 1 l i k e my CP t o be i n the middle o f my b a t t a l i o n s . The communic a t l o r l s a r e s h o r t e n e d , arid I can k e e p up h e t t e r w i t h what I s going on. I visited the d j . v i s i n n cor-snander a t l e a s t twice each clay and k e p t a l i a i s o n o f f i c e r a t t h e d i v i s i o n CP a t a l l t i m e s . "

Th e Corps A r t i l l e r y C o m n c i e r r e p o r t e d t h e f o l l o m i n g p l a n f o r u s i n g a chemical Idortar B a t t a l i o n :
%e t h r e e c o n p a n i e s of t h e Corps chemical b a t t a l i ~ n were armed w i t h 1 2 m o r t a r s each. he f o u r t h was d i v i d e d i n t o a s e r v i c e company and a h e a d q u a r t e r s company. A f i r e d i r e c t i o n c e r t e r w a s o r e n i z e a a n d t r a i n e d i n each company. The companies ( t h r e e p l a t o o n s of four mortclrs e a c h ) were t r a i n e d under a r t i l l e r y d i r e c t i o n t o l a y and fire t h e m r t a r s l i k e a n y o t h e r a r t i l l e r y v!etpono All 36 o f t h e s e m r k r s were used i n t h e f i r e p l a n of t h e D i v i s i o n when t h a t u i t jumped o f f on 7 July. Ten minutes a f t e r t h e a r t i l l e r y p r e p a r a t i o n w s completed, the mrtar f i r e w s brought down, By t h i s a a tim t h e C-ermnshad c t ~ m u t cf t h e i r f a h o l e s and m n y were kil l e d by these mrtars o a s shown by examination of t h e i r bodies. The m o r t a r s were used later to r e i n f o r c e t h e f i r e s of t h e d i r e c t s u p p o r t tirtil3~e.r-ya n d d i d e x c e l l e n t work. To be used e f f e c t i v e 1 the m o r t a r crews muat be t r a i n e d a s u t i J l e r y m e n . f l

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TWELFTH ARMY CROUP

BATTLE EXPERIENCES
No. 2 0

14 AUC 1944

# B a t t l e Experiences* a r e gublished r e g u l a r l y by t h i s headquarters t o enable u n i t e i n t r a i n i n g t o p r o f i t from t h e l a t e s combat e q e r i e n c e s of our t r o o p s now f i g h t i n g t h e German8 i n France. Although t h e e x p e r i e n c e s of c e r t a i n u n i t s a t a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l u i t s i n a l l s i t u a t i ~ n s , t h e item8 published w i l l be those based on p r a c t i c a l experience and a r e recormnsnded f o r c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n by u n i t s which may encounter s i m i l a r p r o b l e m . R e ~ o r t s of corroborative o r c o n t r a r y e x p e r i e n c e s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y d e s i r e d i n o r d e r t h a t t h e v a l i d i t y of t h e i n d i c a t e d b a t t l e lesson may be determined.

Ey comnand of t h e Army Group Commander:

Brigadier General, USA Adjutant General

WARNING T PATROLS. O
"he Germans w i l l l e t a p a t r o l get erroneous information i n o r d e r t o waylay t h e troops t h a t t r y t o use the inf3rmation. O a e v e r a l occasions they have allowed cur n small p a t r o l s t o e n t e r v i l l a g e s and wander mound unmolested; when a combat p a t r o l came t o t a k e over t h e v i l l a g e , i t encountered atrong resistance.*--&mormdum of Corps, 24 June 1944. -

The method of having each d i r e c t support b a t t a l i o n r e i n f o r c e d by a g e n e r a l support b a t t a l i o n proved s u p e r i o r . It g e t 8 quick r e i n f o r c i n g f i r e s on m y t a r g e t holding up t h e i n f a n t r y advance ( i f of s u f f i c i e n t importance t o j u s t i f y use of g e n e r a l support Bns). It a l s o p e r m i t s planning f o r r e i n f o r c e d defensive f i r e s i n case of countera t t a c k . The t h i r d advantage i s t o g i i e each i c f a n t r y b a t t a l i o n continuous support duri n g displacement, s i n c e forward observers can f i r e e i t h e r b a t t a l i o n while t h e o t h e r is displacing.-- Unit Report of t h e 1st lTlfantry Division.

It has been found p a r t i c u l a r l y eaay f o r our air OF'S t o s p o t 88 rmn guns when they are f i r i n g a t high anglee againrrt our a i r c r a f t . When c l o s e a i r support m i s s i o n s a r e flown i n t h e V Corps Zone, a d d i t i o n a l a i r Opts a r e u s u a l l y employed t o t a k e advantage of t h i s s i t u a t i o n . These a r e u s u a l l y f u r n i s h e d f l a k maps i n advance by t h e a i r f o r c e i r t e l l i g e n c e t o d i r e c t ' t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o suspected AAA locations.--Report from V Corps.

IV

CHARACTERISTICS O F GHilKBN GUN POSITIONS.

A s y s t e m a t i c s t u d y of German gun p o s i t i o n s 80 f a r l o c a t e d i n t h e zone of t h e U S V Corps i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e b a t t e r i e s a r e u s u a l l y p l a c e d i n open f i e l d s w i t h open f i e l d s a l l around. They are n e v e r found i n woods and r a r e l y i n hedgerows. F r e q u e n t l y they o r e c l o s e t o a farmhouse which t h e p e r s o n n e l u s e f o r housing. F i r e ~ j o s i t i o n s f o r 3? guns are f r e q u e n t l y found about 300 yards a p a r t on s i d e roads. These guns u s u a l l y move a f t e r firing a feu rounds,-- Report from V Corps.

V

COMBAT RAIWINGS,

COments of R i f l e Cmpany Commander, 9 t h Division:

1, "It i s mandatory t h a t a l t e r n a t e mortar p o s i t i o n s be s e l e c t e d two o r t h r e e hedyerows over and two o r t h r e e hedgerows i n r e a r of t h e primary fiosition. F a i l u r e t o mzke use of a l t e r n a t e p o s i t i o n s c o s t me f i v e men of my m o r t a r platoon.

2 . "The American s o l d i e r i s t o o c a r e l e s s i n unduly exposine; h i m e l f when i n view of t h e enemy. I n d i v i d u a l l y he f e e l s t h a t some o t h e r n J o e n w i l l g e t s h o t and not he, U n t i l t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s c o r r e c t e d , t h e b e s t camouflage is of l i t t l e v a l u e , "

1. " I n a r e c e n t m i s s i o n againat t a n k s W s h e l l a were used, but t h e smoke ! ~ r o d u c ~ d by t h e burning phosphorous screened t h e withdrawal of some of t h e enemy t a n k s .

2. * A r t i l l e r y m e n need more p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g a c q u i r e d by d i g g i n g - - a s a r t i l l e r y p o s i t i o n s r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a b l e d i g g i n g in.*--Captain, FA, 1st D i v i s i o r .

* S n i p e r s have not been a s n m e r o u s d u r i n g t h e r e c e n t f a s t moving phase of t h e a t t a c k a s when t h e s i t u a t i o n was more s t a t i c . They u s u a l l y band t o g e t h e r i n s m a l l groups r a n g i n g from f i v e t o f i f t y men. Our means of d e a l i n g with s n i p e r s i s t o sweep t h e area a s c l e a n l y a s p o s s i b l e a s we advance, s p r a y i n g s u s p s c t e d s n i p e r positions w i t h BAR f i r e . Movements of p e r s o n n e l i n areas i n t h e immediate r e a r of f r o n t l i n e a s h o u l d be i n g r o u p s c o n s i s t i n g o f s e v e r a l men r a t h e r than g r o u p s of two or t h r e e , o r i n d i v i d u a l s . S n i p e r s w i l l not f i r e on l a r g e g r o u p s but w i l l a t t e m p t t o p i c k o f f i n d i v i d u a l s and groups of two o r t h r e e . A l l men n e a r t h e f r o n t should be r e q u i r e d t o remain i n f o x h o l e s d u r i n g b r i e f r e s t p e r i o d s o r o v e r n i g h t . Some t e n d t o leave t h e i r f o x holes and wander around over t h e a r e a . They not only s u b j e c t thsmselves t o s n i p e r f i r e , but i n v i t e a r t i l l e r y c o n c e n t r a t i o n s on t h e i r position^,^-- Company Cawnander, 1st Division.

TWELFTH ARMY CROUP

BATTLE EXPERIENCES
No. 21
I S AUC 1944
'Battle Gxperiencesn a r e published regularly by t h i s headquarters t o eaable unite i n t r a i n i n g t o p r o f i t f r o m t h e l a t e e t combat experiences of our troopn now f i g h t i n g the Germans i n France. Although the' experiences of c e r t a i n unite a t a p a r t i c u l a r location a r e not necessarily applicable t o a l l u n i t s in a l l s i t u a t i o n & , t h e itemu published w i l l be those based on p r a c t i c a l experience and a r e recamended f o r careful coneideration by u n i t s which may encounter simllar problgms. Reporta of corroborative o r contrary experiences are p a r t i c u l a r l y desired i n order t h a t t h e v a l i d i t y .of t h e indicated b a t t l e leaeon may be determined.
By command of the Army Group Connnrad@r I

...................................................................................
I
(~MEW YARNINGS.

Brigadier General, USA Ad jutant General

&

(From a Company Connnander, l e t ~ i v i e i o n . )

1 .

'Men ehould be required t o dig fox holea inetead of slit trencher.

Even

"hough they may not be overrun by tanks, they are much b e t t e r protected againat enemy

$ e l l f i r e and s t r a f i n g . Coverr ovem fox hole8 a r e e s s e n t i a l t o protect againet t r e e l u r s t e of artillery s h e l l s and b u t t e r f l y bombs. Recently there hae been a noticeable l a x i t y o r carelesaneas toward digging in, due t o t h e f a a t m v i n g eituation. Numerow c a n a l t i e s h a r e r e s u l t e d , especially in the v i c i n i t y of platoon and company C post8 t h a t were not dug in when it w a s known they would be t h e r e only f o r a s h o r t time. W r i c t e r adherence t o t a c t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s pertaining t o mvement of troop8 by = t o r s should be emphaeized. This appliee t o distances between vehicle8 and s e l e c t i o n Departure from establiehed principle8 of motor of entrucking and detrucking are-. movement has no doubt been caused by our overwhelming a i r s u p e r i o r i t y and pow ground observation due t o heavy vegetation and comparatively f l a t t e r r a i n . As we have m v e d south, we find t h e t e r r a i n t o be more r o l l i n g o r h i l l y , o f f e r i q b e t t e r observation e f o r t h e emmy, H i e ale0 f l y i n g mare air missions during daylight bours. On one occaeion, one unit warr loaded on t r u c b on t h e forward elope of a h i l l in view of en= ground observation. AD soon as t h e trucks were loaded and about t o move out, J e w opened up with h i s a r t i l l e r y , c a w i n g cerruoltier and damage t o vehicles.
2.
r tanka should be diaperred along t h e 3. When truck columrrs a r e = r i n g with W column. Unless t h i s is done, t h e ensmy w i l l l e t the tanka a t the head p ~ by and s open f i r e on the t r u c b I n the rear.

4. 'Z'ield jackete, especially a t night, r e f l e c t l i g h t , thereby increasing diecovery by the anmmy. W have smeared oure with green dye t o increase camou$'iags.R e

(From a Field Artillery Information Wllletin fllom the North African Theater)
1 @It . has been found that on long O l i n e s , the practice of eatabliahing t e s t P s t a t i o m , permansntly manned, a t the baas of t h e OP h~ been adrantagaoun. O theae n l i n e s t h e breaks are caused mainly by e h e l l f i r e , and i t is necessary t o repaix. the linea several times a day. The use of the forward t e a t etatione enables crews t o r and put the line back e t a r t a t both ends of the l i n e simultaneously, find the b& i n service with miniitam delay.
2. 'Oling t o the large number of c i r c u i t s t h a t follow the same routes, unite should devise some method of d i s t i n c t t a g marking of c i r c u i t e , e. g., large wooden tam stenciled with unit code name.

3. 'Wire crews soon learn the l i t t l e tricka t h a t simplify the whole conmnmicat i o n problem. They service a l i n e properly and c a r e f i l l y during i n s t a l l a t i o n 80 that breaks w i l l be minimized, thua allowing them t o get a normal amount of sleep. When wire does gp out, repair c r m , instead of running up and down a l i n e with t e s t c l i p s , check the location of enemy shelling and proceed t o the scene of the shelled area, uatjally finding t h e i r trouble r i g h t there."
1 1 TACTICS OF CHlMILN RVANTRY IIWTITUK D l D E X S S . 1

(Notes The substance of the following description of the antitank methods of German infantry units i a extracted from a B r i t i s h source.)
1 The defense planrs of G e m n infantry companies usually aaaign t o bazooka sec. tions the r o l e of defending narrow tank lanes and defilated approaches. Open area8 a r e covered by A. T. guzm.

2. The bazooka is regarded as relatively s t a t i c , t o be f i r e d from a prepared position. The grenade diecharger is treated as a mobile reserve weapon and held back a t antitank Company Bq. Bazooka sectiona a r e usually allqted t o the infantry corn paniea against which a tank a t t a c k is conaidered mst likely. Bazookae usually work i n group6 of three, s i t e d i n a @Vm formation es indicated i n the achematic diagram below. From t h i s formetion a t l e a s t two reapoars can engage a tank approaching from any direct ion. 4

-

"7"

3 . The emplacement f o r the bazooka is ueually a "VV"shaped p i t , with t h e prongs toward the enemy. The weapon is f i r e d from the m e t suitable prong, according t o the direction of approach of the hostile tank. After loading the weapon, the loader takes s h e l t e r from the back-blast i n t h e opposite arm. The loader, srmed w i t h a sub-machine gun, i a responeible for protection of the position again& ground troops.

TWELFTH ARMY CROUP

BATTLE EXPERIENCES
No. 22
16 AUC 1944
rmt t l e m a r i e n c e s f l a r e published regularly by t h i s headquartera to a m b l e units i n training to p r o f i t from the l a t e s t wmbat srperisnces of our troops nor fighting t h e t.Xmmm i n France. Uthough the w e r i e n c e s of oartain u n i t s a t a partiaular location a r e not necessarily applicable to a l l U t e i n a l l situatiolur, the iteme published w i l l Be those based on p a c t l e a l ezperienae and a r e reaom~bnded f a r careful coneideration by unita which m y encounter similar problems. Reports of oorroborative or contrary eo;prisncee a r e particularly desired i n order t h a t the v a l i d i t y of the indicated b a t t l e lesson mey be dsterminsd.

By

8

of the umy Group Cn~~.ander:

Brigpdiar Osnuwal* USA Adjutant Oeasral
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o o o o o ~ o o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

~

(NOTE: The following cam~ents were nrade by the Cnmanndlng General of an linmored ~ i v i sion r o w d i n g recent o f f a a i v e ao2ion by his unit.)
1. Fi&ting i n hedgerow aountry. a. W got i n t o trouble when w advanced too ' e e field. It w s too - 1 rapidly i n t o an open area which had been uaed an a 1an-g a 1 for our tanks t maneuver i n but large enough f m the enerqy t o coordinate t h e i r f i r e o ht in. B e y l e t ua advanoe about 500 yarda into i t before they opened up. W a we Aould have done was to send a oouple of tanks and eonm infantry acrosa ahead. @oneof our battalione which w s most suaceesful stayed w e l l away from t h e a b. hedgerows. B i e battalion advanaed rapidly and suffered a W t no loaaes frcun books fire. m t h e r thing thie battalion did was t o spray w e r y t r e e i n aight before aweing i n t o the open. Ibis took a l o t of Amraln.lticm, but i t a l s o got r i d of a l o t of m r otar obsaners. a. #On one occasion* one of our t a a k foraes euffered heavily from mortar tree burets while carroealed i n a woods. The l o m e s stopped when the f o r m me moved i n t o an open f i e l d . The martars were registered on the rooda but had no observation of t h e field. 2. Reconnaissance. a. *Our reconnaiaaanoe elements worked very closely t o us-jut ahead. They were alwaya accompanied by medium tanks. 'Iheir work w s vary efffeuta ive, as they could push aside minor reaietapce and furniah u s quiak and d e h i l e d infor-

=time

he reoonb. *slow thinking on one occasion oatwed ua aoneidarable l o e s of tiam. naiasance unit oent t o reoonnoitar f o r a r i v e r crossing advanoed t o a bridge through a narrow gorge which prevented the r e h i o l e r from leaving the road. They found B span out of the bridge but located a nearby f o r & Zhey r e m i n e d i n place t o guard both bridge and ford. when t h e engineer equipment t r i e d t o e o ~ l e forward to r w k , it could mt get paet t h e reeonrraieeance rshicles. The reoomnaiessace p a r t y ahould have left perearnel and reaporrs o f f the road at3 a guard. It should a l s o have prevebted other vehioler entaring ahead of the engineer equipmsnt.

3. speed of advan-. a. *l%e aomnandar of a n a r m r e d unit mmt be alert to take wary advantage of opportunitiee to use the roads, but he met be equally alert t o know- when they =tt be uaed. I do not know any way to t e l l how this can be b e - i t mat just be aenaed. A corplpander who can do i t oan aake a l o t of tirim with relat i v e l y f w losses. b . '(Zn one occasion one of r p ~ r combat conxmnde encountered strong opposition. It l e f t an i n f a n t r y force t o watch the h o e t i l e opposition and r e n t ole- around i t t o reach i t e objective*

4 Air-Tank Team. *& our advance became nnre rapid, four dive bombers aommpanied . each of our columns a l l the time. a A i r Farce o f f i c e r was with each ool1wnn. I think t h e planea aaved us severe lossee on a number of occasione. Onae we were threatened by a l a r g e number of Gerrrnn tanka. One of the bombere disappeared f o r a few minutea but soon came back with 15 o r 20 othcr planes* when rapid movement i a poseible, thia tank-dive bomber aombirmtion simply cannot be beaten. m e knowledge t h a t the plane8 a r e with then g r e a t l y inareasea the oonfidence of the armor. They h r they w i l l reoeive aarnlng of a t h r e a t and a r e willing t o move aheed boldly. I think t h i s team dsould always be USsd such ~ ~ r d i t i ~ ~ . m

1 l h e importame of complete and imPediate reporte of h o e t i l e & e l l i n g ehould be . emphasized in training. W e e r e p o r t s should b nmds t o the neareat a r t i l l e r y unit i n the quickeat m n e r poeaible. 'Ihey should i m l u d e avsrythiag rhioh may furnish the a r t i l l e r y with any information about the h o e t i l e b a t t e r y or b a t t e r i e s , including the deoigwition and location, by ooordinates, of the point Prom r h i a h the o b e m a t i o n -4 m s the d i r e a t i o n fronrrhich the s h e l l s a r r i v e , e a t i m t e d d i e t a m e t o the h o e t i l e dm w, tiere d u r i w r h i d the s h e l l i w ocourred, n u d e r an8 type of gum firing. number and caliber of s h e l l 8 and nature of the fir+-whether harraaeing, interdiction, eta.

% e l l iragp~enta, p a r t i c u l a r l y those which ehor the ahape and aaoring of t h e 2. r o t a t i n g band reoerrs, o r uhioh show the o r i g i n a l curvature of the ahell, o b u l d be r e n t t o the a r t i l l e r y with, or immdiately following, the report.

3. While these r e p o r t s do not always give the a r t i l l e r y s u f f i a i s n t infor~aation to b r i n g darn aotmter-battery on the h o s t i l e guns a t once, they frequently do ro and even where they do not, e i t h e r by thsmselves or eonsidered i n conneetion with other information, f'urnioh paluable indiaationa of h o ~ t i l e artillhabits of routine.-Report from V Corpe.

TWELFTH ARMY CROUP

BATTLE EXPERIENCES
No. 23

1 AUC 1944 6

r g a t t l e aFperienceem a r e published r e g u l a r l y by t h i a h e a d q u a r t e r s t o enablm u a i t e in t r a i n i n g t o p r o f i t from t h e l a t e s t combat e~rperienoesof our troops nor f i g P t i n g t h e Germns i n France. Although t h e e x p m r i e n c e ~of c e r t a i n units a t a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n are n o t n e a e s s a r i l y a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l u n i t e i n all e i t u a t i o n a , thm items published w i l l be t h o s e based on p r a c t i c a l e r p a r i a n o e and are r e c w n d d f o r c a r e f u l considaration by u n i t s which m y encounter s i m i l a r problemm. Reportr of c o r r o b o r a t i v e o r c o n t r a r y experiences are p a r t i c u l a r l y d e s i r e d i n order that t h e v a l i d i t y of t h e indioated b a t t l m l e s s o n m y be dstarmined.

BY e-nd

of t h e

may

Croup Camsindart

I

B r i g a d i e r General, USI Ad j u t a n t Genaral

The following items are e x t r a c t e d from Training Mumrandurn dated 8 July one of our- Corps i n I t a l y t

194.4, of

1 ~irplane 0 4 . ~ i e inveluable f o r r e l a y .

rn sm .

300 r a d i o on t h e regimental ohannel i n a l i a i s o n plane

2. G e o ~ a p h i aCode. ~n a fast moving s i t u a t i o n when r a d i o is the o n l y f e a s i b l e mesas of conmnn5cation, a simple, pre-arranged geographic code is v a l u a b l e t o coord i n a t e supporting fires of adjacent u n i t s and t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e epcecution of flank movements i n each o t h e r s ' zones.

3. Movement of cnnm~ndm e t e . a The CP reconneiseance m e t be mede by a n . o f f i o a r who has a u t h o r i t s t o m k e the f i n a l selection a t the time. Once correrlnicat i o n f a c i l i t i e s have bee6 conmitted, only major c o n s i d e r a t l o n e should cauae a change. b. 'Ihe e s t a b l i a b a e n t o f advance switching c e n t r a l e a t t h e next s e l e c t e d l o c a t i o n of the CP g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e s epeed and . f l e x i b i l i t y . c. Corps headquarters should be n o t i f i e d a t l e a a t s i x hours p r i o r t o movement o r a d i v i a i o n CP i f t h e nsr l o c a t l o n i a t o be near a Corps a x i a along which wire hae a l r e a d y been l a i d , and 24 hours i n advanae i f a change of a x i s i a involved. s d. S a r d c e troops t h a t r e q u i r e wire c ~ c a t i o n wt be wed with the CPta and bivouacked near them. I ~ n g i n e e t o supporting u n i t e l o c a t e d f a r t o the rear l cause a d r a i n on f a c i l i t i e s which r e s u l t s i n reduced commnicariaa f o r conbat troops. e. one d i v i s i o n employe t h e procedure of l e a v i n g t h e Chief of s t a f f a t the o l d o l o c a t l o n u n t i l t h e Commmding ~ e n e r a l r a s t a f f member telephones him from the new l o c a t i o n t o come forward. Thia i c r t h e b e s t poaeible method o f diaplacsment. I n some u n i t s when mire was not complete t o t h e new l o c a t i o n , a n a e s i a t a n t a t a f f member w i t h

i n s u f f i c i e n t knowledge of the a i t u a t i o n and no a u t h o r i t y to make decisions was l e f t a t the o l d l o c a t i o n , which was an unsatiefhctory s o l u t i o n t o the problem.

4 Command Responsibility. It is the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of corm~andsrst o g.t infor. m t i o n back to high- headquarters whether w i r e is in o r note AB long as a cormandor has one runner with him, he i s not rout of conrmnication*.
11 USE O GERMAN THREE INCH MDRTAR. F

1 *Captured Germin three inch martars a r e being used extensively by t h e heary . u weapon companies of t h i s division. O r a m m i t i o n i m i n t e r c h ~ n g e e b l ewith nmnrnit i o n of German three inch mortars, and we usually use . i t a s we have had prematurea with The G moktar has a range of 4500 yardr, and an captured Cenmn ammunition. excellent s i g h t which has a r e v e r e i b l e c o l l i n a t a r and mirror t h a t permits placing aiming atakes in rear of the morkr.
2. 'The range t a b l e for the & m m n mortar with our nmalnition i s the reame as our 81m range t a b l e except t h a t a @mils* oolumo m a t be added because the Gerrman mrtar s i g h t i a p a d u a t e d i n hiils*. For ranges between 3290 and 4.00 yards addiDivision. t i o n a l incrarneata are used.*--Ordnance Officar,

-

*When p r a c t i c a b l e I l i k e to i n i t i a t e t h e a t t a c k t h i r t y minutee p r i o r t o d a n . W h a r e c a u a t the m a b e off guard a t Uua time, and he does not l i k e night fighting. e In one instance m captured, with au& a n attack, a Gemmn position t h a t I do not believe we could haro taken i f we had waited u n t i l dawn t o attack. The met c a r e f u l ~eghental daylight reconnaieaance nuat be m d e p r i o r t o auch a n attacker-Infantry comndor, Division.

-

IV

AAA AS

FIEID ARTILLERY.

(Views of a n a s s i s t a n t Corps u t i l l e r y Commander and the Cnnm~nderof a n Group who have employed an CUP B e t t a l i o n a8 f i e l d a r t i l l a r y and have c r e d i t e d i t with d e s t r u c t i o n of a n anapurcition ctump, P f i e l d a r t i l l e r y b a t t e r y aad o t h e r targets.)

1 *one excellent use f c c t h e m weapons waa execution of 'tlme-oa-target* f i r e n . . Surprise and d m a l i z i n g e f f e c t m achieved by eynchronization, s o t h a t a l l initial e rounds from t h e b a t t a l i o n a r r i v e d et the t a r g e t together. The high v e l o c i t y and rapid r a t e of f i r e of the 90 mn gun are desirable o h a r a c t e r i s t i c e f o r t h i s type firm. Nonml t a r g e t s were bivouaa areas, corrmand poet areas, a n d known coneentratione of personnel.
a m s t r u e t i o n f i r e on protected t a r g e t s is not a f f e c t i v e using present a v a i l a b l e 2. amunition. It i s f e l t t h a t two-thirda point detonating and one-third white phoapharoug w o u l d be an e x e e l l e n t ameLnition r a t i o f a r use of the gun a a f i e l d artil1ary.m

TWELFTH ARMY C d 0 8 ~

BATTLE EXPERIENCES
No. 24
I8 AUC 1944
'Battle Experiencesm are published regularly by t h i s h4adquarters t o enable u n i t s i n t r a i n i n g t o p r o f i t from t h e l a t e a t c m b a t experienaes of our troope now f i g h t i = the Germane i n France. Although the experiences of c e r t a i n u n i t e e t a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n a r e not necessarily applicable t o a l l u n i t e i n a l l rituationtr, t h e items published rill be those based on p r a c t i o a l experience and a r e recoolmended f o r careful consideration by u n i t e which may enaounter aimilar p ~ b l e u u . Reports of a o m b o r a t i v e o r contrary exgeriencer a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y desired i n order t h a t the v a l i d i t y of the indicated b a t t l e l e r s o n may be determined,
By c d -

of t h e

lrmy

Croup Comnanders

Brigadier Genaral , USA Ad jutant Ganeral
-------------o---------------------o-----o-------------------------------------------

I

29th DIVISION BA!WU N O W (From an a f t e r combat report of t h e 29th Infantry Division f o r July)

Infantry against Armor. W experience has been t h a t properly t r a i n e d , w e s a i v e i n f a n t r y caa knock out enemy self-propelled guns and srmor i n c l o s e country where our offensive amnor cannot operate effectively. maaeuver Bhould always be employed t o g e t t h e enuuy vehicle i n t h e flank with the bazooka o r r i f l e grenade. It war, proved i n one b a t t l e t h a t German Panzer o u t f i t r without heavy i n f a n t r y aupport were unable t o cope with aggressive i n f a n t r y tactics.'
1 .

M t t l e Drille. W have found t h a t when battalion8 and l a r g e r u n i t s a r e out of the l i n e , ' e they ahould eonduct t r a i n i n g t o omphasiza m a r t n e a s and precieion and aimple b a t t l e d r i l l s t o inculcate swiftners of movement i n cambat. Thoae used i n t h i a d i v i s i o n ares a. The movement of e rquad f r o q hedgerow t o hedgerow at f u l l speed with at l e a s t t e n yardr i n t e r v a l between men. All more forward on cnnmnnd. be CoPling under eimulated a r t i l l e r y f i r e , t h a aquad brpake f o r the nearest corer t o the f r o n t and then continues t o advance during l u l l 8 i n t h e f i r e . c, Coming under simulated r i f l e o r machine gun f i r e , individuals use corer a v a i l a b l e , open f i r e , and the bulk of t h e squad 1imneUlrW8 rapidly under t h e l e a d e r t o outflank t h e f i r e , ' bbtorized Reinforcements. 'During the paet month, the d i v i r i o n ' a experience has shorn t h a t reinforcing mechanized cavalry, armor, a r t i l l e r y , eta., f a i l t o employ proper methods f o r approach t o combat. The move up i a too hurried and i n too l a r g e a maer, r e s u l t i n g i n t h e clogging of roads and camplete 'diexuption of wire communications, A r u f f i c i e n t f o r c e should be employed t o f e e l out the oppoaition while ataging t h e main body forward by bounds from covered poeition t o oorered position. When a we& spot is i t rnnr P O , c ,m
~~~-~i,,,-,,,+h,, n-,
1)

2.

3.

discovered, and not u n t i l then, the f u l l strength o f t h e uolumn ahould be dere1oped.n
Chin S t r a ~ s . 'It hae been foqnd t h a t ahin s t r a p s ahould be worn fastened t i g h t . If not fastened uhen going over hedgerows and uhen h i t t i n g t h e ground f a s t , the helmet must be held on with one hand o r i t w i l l be l o s t . The p r a c t i c e of not wearing the chin s t r a p arose a s a r e s u l t of b l a s t from heavy air bombs and heavy a r t i l l e r y f i r e , which a r e not present i n t h i s theater. However, a man without a helmet is l i a b l e t o head i n j u r i e s from amall arms f i r e and s h e l l s p l i n t e r s m m

4.

I1 E ' m E b R T I L u R Y USE. 3 m V
nIn my opinion the enemy has h a b i t u a l l y tucked himself i n c l o s e t o our f r o n t l i n e elements i n order to prevent ua fram bringing our mortar and a r t i l l e r y f i r e s e down on him. W h a b i t u a l l y have had t o place aome a r t i l l e r y preparation on t h e enemy The moat e f f e c t i v e uae of a r t i l l e r y I have found has been t o bring time front lines. f i r e dorn f o r about 20 minutes preceding the i n f a n t r y a s s a u l t and under cover of t h i s firm t o make a tank s o r t i e ( t a n k s with rhino attachments) t o a depth of about 308 t o 4 O O yards. The time f i r e prevents t h e enemy from ueing bazookas against the tanks, p i n s him t o t h e ground, and causes heavy c a s u a l t i e 8 among thoee who attempt t o evade Major Cen. W. M. Robertson. Camnanding 2nd hf. t h e tanke o r t o s h i f t t h e i r positions.'

--

I11 CHMdAN DEFEbWS AND SJCCIGSTIONS FOR USE OF 1 2 MORTAR .
1. P corpe chemical o f f i c e r recently inspected a German position, captured with exclusively t h e help of a r o l l i n g barrage f i r e d by 4.2 mortars. The mortar f i r e d and increased t h e range 200 yard8 a t specified t h a intervals. Some of the f a c t s and c o n c l u i o n a of t h e c h d c a l o f f i c e r 'a report followr

a 2. The mortar f i r e a s q u i t e accurate a8 t o rerrge but ms not always evenly yard8 wide. d i s t r i b u t e d along the l i n e of impact. lhch band of f i r e a s about

a

3 A l l of t h e hedgamws oacupied by the Germans had paths i n rear of them. m (Whether theee paths were made by t h e Oermanr o r whether the hedgerowe w e r e s e l e c t e d f o r oooupation becauee of the pathe, ms not indicated.) Sunken ramla w a r 0 uaed, e i t h e r a s positiona o r f o r coarrrmnicatiom.
d a t a (by platoons, i f necmsaary) ahould be calculated t o place t h e l h e 8 of ippgact on eunlron roads and on o r just back of hsdgerows, inetead of f i r i n g a rrgularr p a t t e r n on a a u a m r m n t basis. P l u u n w of t h e barrage aan be improved i f aerial photoe a r e available f o r elaminntion f o r possible positions. lbrward mvement of the barr g b should be on call of t h e i n f a n t r y , r a t h e r than on a time schedule. White ec phosphorous w i l l cause a b u t the same numbar of a a s u a l t i e s a8 HE on troops in the open and rill cause =re c a e u a l t i e s on troop8 dug in, if they do not have ovorherd cover. Its psychological e f f e a t a l s o is believed t o be p e a t a r . 'Ihe 4.2 awdrtar is coneidwed b e t t e r adapted f o r f i r i n g W than the 1P 0 howitzer, p a r t l y becauao of the g r e a t e r peraentage of VP anarmnition allowed (50% c o q a r e d with S). End

4.

To increase the effectivenese of mortar f i r e , t h e observer thought, f i r e

TWElgTH ARMY CROUP

BATTLE EXPERIENCES
No. 25

2 0 AUC 1944

BBattle Experienaer* a r e published reg-llarly by t h i s headquarters t o enable u n i t a i n t r a i n i n g t o p r o f i t fram the l a t e s t cambat experiences of our troops now f i g h t i n g t h e Germans i n France, Although the erperiencee of c e r t a i n u n i t a a t a p a r t i c u l a r location a r e not necessarily appliaable t o a l l u n i t s i n a l l e i t u a t i o n s t h e itam published w i l l be those baaed on p r a c t i c a l experience and a r e recommendad f o r careful conaideration by u n i t e which may encounter rimilar p r o b l a ~ . Reports of aorroborative o r contrary experiences a r e . p a r t i c u l a r l y desired i n order t h a t t h e r a l i d i t y o f the indicated b a t t l e lesson may be determined. By u m u n d of t h e Army Group commander:

--------.---..--------------..-------..-From t h e report of b AG? observer:
@Sinceonasaunicatione d i r e c t l y a f f e c t t h e b a t t l e e f f i c i e n c y of a u n i t , every r o l d i e r must be taught t o protect wires f a -em rm I have reen many instances where l i n e r had f a l l e n down and were being deatroyed by passirrg vehiclee i n the . preeenea of other r o l d i e r e who f a i l e d t o take even the eimplest atop t o correct the situation.
*It is reconmended t h a t a l l branches s t r e s s the f a e t t h a t wire l i n e s must be proa o l d i e r e regardleas of t h e i r branch o r rank. A l l Signal tected from harm by Corps u n i t e and o,.hers concerned with wire l i n e s m a t be taught not t o leave loose wirea on t h e made even i f t h i r wire is of no f u r t h e r value, The e i g h t of wire being run over and further d e e t r o y d cnnnot help but e r e a t e i n the mind of a s o l d i e r t h e Impreasion t h a t wire is not important.*
1 U S OF RADIOS IN FORWARD 1

H B, IS . Brigadier General, USA M ju t a n t General

3.1.a.

w. .

I m q m r i m c e d t m p s are o f t e n l e d t o believe t h a t use of low-gowered i n f a n t r y radio a e t s rill draw f i r e a s a r e s u l t of being located by Qerman d i r e o t i o n finding equipm ent. Careleaaness i n providing necessary camouflage and i n radio s e c u r i t y is t h e real reason these radio s e t s a r e subjected t o m m f i r e . Exposure of a aran o r a y vehicle carrying a radio o r reference i n t h e c l e a r t o a nearby landmark w i l l provide t h e enemy with a good t a r g e t , but d i r e c t i o n finding equipment rill not. Direation finding equipment of a s u f f i c i e n t aocuraay t o provide information f o r a r t i l l e r y f i r e n lines. The is r e l a t i v e l y immobile and muat be s e t up some milea i n r e a r of t h e e lor-powered i n f a n t r y radio eeta do not furniah s u f f i c i e n t s i g n a l f o r t h i s d i r e c t i o n finding equipment to obtain accurate information. Location by d i r e c t i o n f i n d i w bcomas a p o s a i b + l i t y only when done in conjunction with poor camouilage o r poor radio eocurity.

-

-I-

.,

Repmduced b /he Engineer Reproduct/onBet, y

/Zth Armv Group

SCOUTING

rn PmoLLmG.

1. A corga Camrgndar i n I t a l y make8 the following conmentst a , 'It should be slqphasized that ground once gained cheaply ahould be held. Tima a f t e r tiae a p a t r o l is s e n t out t o determine t h e enemy strength on aome h i l l and f i n d s that the h i l l i a unoccupied. Abmat invariably the e n t i r e p a t r o l comes back t o report. Then ~ a m su n i t is ordered forward t o occupy t h e

hill.

It morsa forward and f i n d s the h i l l a l i v e with Gewans who smother them r i t h f i r e from machine p i s t o l s , l i g h t machine guns, and mortars.

b. m'lhe same thing hold8 true at bridgea. Several times a p a t r o l h a found a bridge not b l o m end the e n t i r e p a t r o l haa come back t o report. Before sane other u n i t cam g e t up t o s e i z e the bridge, the Genaana have b l o m i t . 4 2. A b a t t a l i o n exeautf re i n I t a l y reaonnnends t 'At n i g h t , don't use b i r d o a l l e as eigndlm. m e r e are no birds i n the b a t t l e arm--they dl leave. However, cats and dog8 s t i c k around, s o dog barks and cat howle a r e a l l r i g h t i f well done. The Cernans m e cat howls a l o t . If a Cennan use8 a c a t howl, l i e down and anawer.him t h e rraeas ray. Be w i l l then mme toward you and you oan g a t him w i t h your bayonet

The followin& i e extracted from a B r i t i s h War Office publication dealing
with counter-mortar o r w i m t i o n effected by same u n i t 8 i n I t a l y ;

1, 'A d i v i s i o n found it neceesary t o s e t up a countar-mortar o r g a n i x a t i o ~ , on t h e l i n e s of a counter-battery organizarion. One division had a counter-mortar o f f i o e r with an a g e i s t a n t , together with an a s e i s t a o t aounter-mortar o f f i c e r i n each brigade. fFheee were a s s i s t e d by an adequate e t a f f and p r i d e d with n e a e a w y traawport. In general, all personnel were from the divisional a r t i l l e r y . a. w'lfre most sucaeomhrl methods of engaging located h o s t i l e mortars were i n t h e f o l l o r l n g ordarr 4.2 mortars, 3.7 a i r buret, guns f i r e d a t extraordinary elevation. be mortars were p l o t t e d and l i s t e d by tha d i v i s i o n a l counter-mortar officer. a. mcnnnplnicatian n s provided froan t h e divisional counter-mortar o f f i c e r t o e a d of the brigade a s s i s t a n t counter-mortar o f f i c e r s , t o divisional a r t i l l e r y Hqrs arad t o t h e d i v i r i o n a l oouater-battery o f f i c e r s . Comsrtnication ma a l s o provided fiam t h e a s s i a t a a t counter-mortar o f f i c e r t o eaoh 4.2 mortar company, t o eaah mortar O snd t o appropriate divioional a r t i l l e r y units. P
2. a. m&othsr unit s e t up tm counter-mortar OPB i n emah b a t t a l i o n and ~ited thaal a t l e a s t 9 0 yards apart. Theae w r e manned by e i t h e r o f f i c e r r or senior P rJOOs, Battalion O p a r t i e s were given i n s t r u c t i o n on the c h a r a c t e r i e t i c s of mrtar f i r e t o help thar i n l i s t e n i n g f o r and i n identify* aortare. b. ' O h made a Claortrep8 report which included time, t h e code eiga of the O an8 the g r i d bearing. If t h i s 8mortrepbgave an i n t e r s e c t i o n o r pointed P t o a known poeition, the unit aountar-mortar o f f i c e r arsanged f o r immediate countmrtar f i r e . '

End

TWELFTH ARMY CROUP

BATTLE EXPERIENCES
No. 26

26 AUC 1944

" B a t t l e Experiences" are published r e g u l a r l y by t h i s h e a d q u a r t e r s t o e n a b l e u n i t s i n t r a i n i n g t o p r o f i t from t h e l a t e e t combat e x p e r i e n c e s of o u r t r o o p 8 now f i g h t i n g t h e Germans i n France. Although t h e e x p e r i e n c e s of o e r t a i n u n i t s st a p a r t i c u l a r location a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y applicable t o a l l u n i t s i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s , t h e i t e m s published w i l l be t h o s e based on practical e x p e r i e n c e end a r e reconmended f o r c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n by u n i t s a h i c h may e n c o u n t e r s i m i l a r problems. R e p o r t s of c o r r o b o r a t i v e o r c o n t r a r y e x p e r i e n c e s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y d e s i r e d i n o r d e r t h a t t h e v a l i d i t y of t h e i n d i c a t e d b a t t l e l e s s o n may be determined.
E c a m a n d of t h e Army Group Commander: i y

B r i g a d i e r G e n e r a l , USA Ad j u t a n t General

I

FIGlfl'INC THE CWLIAN T N AND INFAMI'FlY TEAM. AK

1 . An o f f i c e r of t h e XM Corps on J u l y 28/29 had a n e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y t o o b s e r v e German armor and i n f a n t r y e t t a c k i n g us. The t a c t i c s employed by the Germans w i l l probably be r e p e a t e d . His n o t e s , which f o l l o w , a r e based on c l o s e o b s e r v a t i o n over a 36 hour p e r i o d .
2. "The e a s e and r a p i d i t y with which t h i s s m a l l a t t a c k i n g f o r c e made i t s penet r a t i o n , achieved end s a t on t h e o b j e c t i v e , denied t h e East-Rest r o a d and i n t e r f e r e d w i t h t r a f f i c on t h e North-South r o a d , p l u s t h e p r o b a b l e similar employment of s m a l l e r groups on i d e n t i c a l m i s s i o n s make t h i s a n a l y s i s of what t h e y d i d and how t h e y did it of more t h a n o r d i n a r y i n t e r e s t ; i t l i k e w i s e p o i n t s t o c e r t a i n remedial equipment, t r a i n i n g p r a c t i c e s , and t e c h n i q u e s t h a t can e a s i l y s t o p such p e n e t r a t i o n s i n t h e f u t u r e .

3. "The Germans advanced w e s t w a d i n t h r e e p a r a l l e l columns, each c o n s i s t i n g of t m k s accompanied by i n f a n t r y . The c e n t e r column moved down t h e main road s h o o t i n g It went from h i l l t o h i l l w i t h t h e accompanying r a p i d l y and moving a t a f a s t r a t e . i d a n t r y s p r e a d o n l y one f i e l d o u t on b o t h s i d e s d o g t r o t t i n g t h r o u g h t h e f i e l d s and over t h e hedgerows. The c e n t e r column t o t a l e d o n l y approximately eii;ht t r a c k - l a y i n g v e h i c l e s . ~t l e a s t t h r e e of t h e s e were t a n k s , one o r b;o were probably s e l f - l a r o p e l l e d guns and t h e o t h e r s probably h e l f - t r a c k t r o o p c w r i e r s . Tottil f o r c e s s e n t t o c a p t u r e of and hold t h e main c r o s s r o a d c o n s i s t e d of two c o m ~ ; a n i e s i n f a n t r y and p r o b a b l y n o t more t h a n t e n t a n k s . The number observed by t h i s o f f i c e r i n c l u d e d o n l y t h e t r a c k l a y i n g v e h i c l e s named above and p o s s i b l y a p l a t o o n of i n f a n ~ r y .

4. "Throughout t h e n i g h t , t h e Germens r e a c t e d f o r c e f u l l y by f i r e and l i m i t e d movement t o any approach. T h e i r t a n k s moved s l o w l y and c o m p a r a t i v e l y s i l e n t l y . Immediately a f t e r f i r i n g , e a c h moved t o a new p o a i t i o n 25 t o 5 0 y a r d s away from t h e p o i n t w e d i n f i r i n g . The n o i s e d i s c i p l i n e of t h e t a n k crews and accompanying infant r y raa s u p e r i o r . No t a l k i n g , s h o u t i n g , o r any sound, except machine gun and cannon

f i r e and s t a r t i n g of motors, c a r r i e d over 100 yards. The Germans always eased t h e i r t a n k s forward, t r a v e l l e d a t low speed and were-remarkably q u i e t i n a l l operations e x w e p t f i r i r i g . They used long b u r s t s o f the!%? r a p i d f i r i n g machine guns t o discourage g u e s t s , I f pressed a t a l l , t h e y s h o t f l a r e s which brought down t h e i r own a r t i l l e r y and m o r t a r s on t h e i r f l a n k s . T h e i r handling of t h e i r t a n k s was bold and s u r e . They a c t e d as i f they knew e x a c t l y where they wanted t o go and how. and t h e n went t h e r e with vigor and determination.

5. * A similar d i s r u p t i o n by a comparable German e f f o r t can, I b e l i e v e , be preT vented i n f u t u r e by augmenting p r e s e n t A p r a c t i c e s by some of t h e following: a. Equip numerous v e h i c l e s w i t h a smoke grenade t h a t could be lashed t o zome well-known, widely disseminated, and r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e s p o t on t h e vehicle--possibly t h e s t e e r i n g column. Upon the approach of an enemy t a n k , use of the grenade i n t h e normal c a n a l i z e d r o u t e of tank sp1,rcach w i l l probably slow up t h e t a n k . The Germans f e a r our use of g a s , and no t a n k normally w i l l advance i n t o t h e unknown hazards of a smoke screen. t b. Give any u n i t s e n t out a l ~ n g h e main road down which enemy u n i t s may come a supply of standard mines. I f t h e s e a r e , a s a m a t t e r of p r a c t i c e , t i e d t o g e t h e r with a l i g h t cord p r e v i o u s l y l a i d a c r o s s t h e road, they can be pulled out on t h e road from a concealed p o s i t i o n a s t h e t a n k approaches. The l i b e r a l spraying of t h e hedgerow with t a n k machine gun f i r e completely d i s c. courages r i f l e m e n o r bazooka f i r e r s from aiming over o r around a hedgerow. For t h i s purpose s l o t s should be dug through t h e hedgerow a t such angles and l e v e l s t h a t f i r e from t h e t a n k ' s p o s i t i o n on t h e road. cannot go t h r o u g h t h e s l o t , but s o s i t e d a s t o permit a r i f l e grenade o r a bazooka t o be aimed and f i r o d when t h e t a n k reaches some a l r e a d y s e l e c t e d p o i n t . The f i r e r must have cover from t h e tank s p r a y while he is aiming and f i r i n g . When the f i r s t t a n k i s immobilized, and perhaps burning, t h e f i g h t becomes a standard i n f a n t r y f i g h t w i t h standard t e c h n i q u e s working a s e f f e c t i v e l y a s ever. a
11 SOKE BRITISH PATROLLING METHODS.
1. A r e p o r t from t h e I t a l i a n t h e a t e r d e s c r i b e s s p e c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and methods adopted by a E r i t i s h b a t t a l i o n d u r i n g a lteriod when i t s primary mission was p a t r o l l i n g , a. The b a t t a l i o n commander d ~ s i g n a t e da f i e l d o f f i c e r a s b a t t a l i o n p a t r o l l i n g o f f i c e r . The p a t r o l l i n g o f f i c e r e s t a b l i s n e d a p a t r o l l i n g headquarters and n p a t r o l l i n g OP i n t h e b a t t a l i o n area. The headquarters included a b r i e f i n g o f f i c e r , c e r t a i n i n t e l l i g e n c e personnel and o p e r a t o r s f o r t h e OP. The commanding o f f i c e r l a i d down g e n e r a l p o l i c i e s anu t h e p a t r o l l i n g o f f i c e r handled a l l d e t a i l s . b. One p a t r o l , with a raission of l i q u i d a t i n g an enemy o u t p o s t , e s t a b l i s h e d a base w i t h i n r a d i o range of p a t r o l l i n g h e a d q u a r t e r s and from t h a t base moved o u t on the mission. T h i s base, with its caannunication f a c i l i t i e s , permitted c o n t i n u a l c m u i c a t i o n with t h e b a t t a l i o n and would have c o n s t i t u t e d a s u r e r a l l y i n g p o i n t i f i t had been needed. It a l s o a s s i s t e d i n t h e evacuation of c a s u a l t i e s .

2 . Another p a t r o l , with t h e mission of determining whether a c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n was advanced unobserved t o within about 600 yards of t h e p o s i t i o n . occupied by t h e an-, The a r t i l l e r y then l a i d smoke on t h e suspected p o e i t i o n , following t h i s with a f i v e d n u t e HE concentration. When t h e a r t i l l e r y concentration was f i n i s h e d , t h e p a t r o l opened f i r e with f o u r Bren guns s ~ a r c h i n gsuspected a r e a s . Observers posted a t vantage p o i n t s i n r e a r waited f o r r e t u r n f i r e . The Germans opened with t h r e e guns from t h e suspected p o s i t i o n s end t h e s e uere e a s i l y and a c c u r a t e l y located by t h e observers, The p a t r o l withdrew without a cnsuhlty,

TWELFTH ARMY CROUP

BATTLE EXPERIENCES
No. 27

27 AUC 1944

.Battle Exparimcam a r e published r e a a r l y by t h i a headquartera t o =able unite in trainin& t o profit ?ram the latest aambat experionem of our t r o o p now fighting the G e m m m in Franoe. Although t h e slperianaes of o e r t a h unit8 a t a particular leuation a r e not neaeaearily applicable fa a l l units i n all eituations, the i t a m published w i l l be those barred on praatiaal eqmrlanae a8d are r e u e d for a a r d u l uonsidecation by units which may ancountor slmllar problaar. Reports ab c m b a r a t i v e or aaatrary ~ i o n u are ~ a pazeticulerly dmired i n ordm that tho v a l i d i t y of t h e W c a t a l b a t t l e lea8uai nuy be detsrminbd.

By euunand cb the

Group 6-m:

Te 1 p i r e and E4amuve.r. . h more fararable terrain and the m t u r e of Caman defense . r o e a t oparatiom M e made -sib18 mare &festive use o f maasurer. I n t h e i r withdrawals, the G noPaallg organize a t a r r a i n feattwo rlth a crmall group of iniantry and a f a w e l l mplaaal and ammaflagdl tanb. I hare f o a tht by wing o m unit t o aontaia the m a p a8b another unit of abmt similar rtrengbb ca t o m o i t the am@s ilanEr and rear, r e a r e ablo t o faroo the a e r y t o 8urrendar apt rlthdrar. W have alea fotmd t h a t ths terrrain is b e w a b g more fararable fm t h e . i e t plcrgmeat of hemy madine gum in support of r i f l e un5ts by -he& firs.
arem enoountard d -

20 ~ e i ~ a nObh8tivem. mm t t sssigning an objwtive t o a subordinate unit, mare attention, inaludixq ground reoonnaiaeanee wherever poeaible, ahould be girea to muho a approaoh and aziss of corrmaMi~tion. Rimant4 my r e g b m t rsa giren an obf jeative that c a d be reached by mg tanka emd W - t r a c k s anly after t ecimpanies ab m angSnears had worked a day d a night t o elear t h e i r rout.,

30 Pmoloment of 81 nau YaPrter8. ' .W8 ure new u n p l o y i q our mortars farther bmk than re did in the early etagee of t h e mngaign. Thir l a d w t o the reduotimi In the m r of snipers and ieolatsd groupe t h a t bad foraed t h e selection of forward mortar e positions f o r a e ~ u r i t y reaeao. W hare fotmd the f i r e of the 81 mn mortar t o be o 8 effective againat dug-in p i t i m a than that ab 105 mm artillery.

4. D Tnqv s n i p e r aotivities, in opinion, have been greatly n u q g q ' a t e d a Moat of the bullet8 dleged t o have been f i r e d by s n i p r e , actually were rioachets iran the fmt lines, f r o m individuals who ha& been by-paeaed, o r fran the reapom ai sane of our ~triggerr-happ~r~ individnals. During the f a t ming pbase of t a i a operati=, the snipare, if any, are retreating as rapidly as the delaying farase

3. Fezman Poaitiana. 'A n e w type of enemy maehine gun auplaeenent has bcm o b aer~ed reaently. ~t o o n s b t s of a care in a hedgeror large enough f o r a maahine gun, anmunition, several dwa of food supply, and two men. The only opening is on t h e forward s i d e of the hedgeror. h his disaourages withdraral and forcee men to fight u n t i l they a r e ldlled or have to s w e n d s r . w hnve found the f i r e f r a n t h e m poaitiam t o e be inaccurate-poasibly unaimed. On one oacasion an e n t i r e cunpany inourroil only meven oasualtiea while oroasing an opening w i t h i n the f i e l d of auch a position.
W have: used smoke effeotirely, both offeumirely and defemirel: ' e 6 . Uae of m e . One especially effeotive use of smoke oucnrred &en a canras out off from the rerminder of i t s battalion by f i r e of anmy tanka. O request of the b a t t a l i o n aannandar n aur a r t i l l e r y quickly plaaed smoke on t h e position. The company was a b l e t o r e j o i n the b a t t a l i o n and suffer& only a few tasualties. ,

7. German Markizw of t h e i r Frant Line. 'One of t h e f e u accaaioxm t h a t our goelt ions have been bombed by eatsay a i r c r a f t , the enemy ground t m o p f i r e d green f la~ertr t o mark t h e i r positions.
'The ~ermanea r e nar attempting t o c o d u s e us by rearing captured American helmeta and f i e l d jackets. A unit the s i z e oi a platoon rare seen marching along the road dreseed in t h i e manner. They w i l l also use tha m e of exposing thanselvea t~ vier i n our clothing, and y e l l i n g to our men in an sff o r t o entice than t o ahor thsmselvee.n--Rqimental C a m a n d o r , 12th Infan*.
8.
Enerqg W e a r k American Unifonae.

If

C l E T S OF AN INFANlRY BATTALION C OM S T

m

q

a

' am using l i g h t machine guns in my heavy ~~ caupnny, I f a r t h e r farward w i t h great= apeed while a u r r t a b h g fewer losmes T h e l i g h t machine gun is juet aa e f f e c t i v e foas the shorter rangee enaounterred in t h i n t y p e of terrain. I keep q y heaviee on my jeep t r a i l e r a s o they can be readily moved up if aacurate long range f i r e i8 dseired.
s m u t 8 a r e .quipped with tamny gun6 f o r use in spraying hedge20 Guns. r w positiom. The additional ammunition supply ha8 preeented no serioraa problan. I o have one jeep and trailer loaded with anmnmiticm with each r i f l e company, and one with each heavy reapom platoon.

3. 60 mn Y[ortars. .I have used my bo nm mortare rw off eatively againat automatie weapons. When moving agairmt intennittent remietame, o m mortar i m attached t o r i f l e platoon. When strong reeiatanae i a encountered, the mort8ra remert t o the weapon; platoon an3 are fifeti f'ran positions 75 t o 100 yarder in rear of the leading d€SW1nt8e
t Enemy ~ i a r m i t i o ~ nCo~$rergo ecnns repmtr coneemin& s~lemydispoeitione, I . r i f l m e n and autamatia reapom in positions one o r two hedgerow8 f of the* tanks.n-Battalion Cmmanrler, 22nd Infantry.
M e always enaountsred en-

4 .

TWELFTH ARMY CROUP

BATTLE EXPERIENCES
No. 28

28 AUC 1944

r g a t t l e D p e r i e n c e s n are published regularly by t h i s h e a d q u a r t e r s t o enable u n i t s i n t r a i n i n g t o p r o f i t i r m t h e l a t e s t combat experiences of our t r o o p s now f i g h t i n g t h e ~ s r r o a n ei n Fance. ~ l t h o u g ht h e experiences of c e r t a i n unit8 a t a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n a r e not n e c e s e a r i l y a p p l i c e b l e t o all u n i t s i n a l l s i t u a t i o n a , t h e itpublished w i l l be thoae based on p r a c t i c a l experienca azld a r e r e c o - m n d e d for c a r e f u l considera t i o n by u n i t s which may encounter s i m i l a r problems. Report8 of c o r r o b o r a t i v e or c o n t r a r y experiences a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y d e s i r e d i n o r d e r t h a t the v a l i d i t y of t h e i n d i c a t e d b a t t l e b s s o n nay be determined.

BY c-nd

of t h e w y cxoup Comtiandert m

B r i g a d i e r General, U a Adjutant General

I TANX RIDIN2 DOUGHBOYS.
1 Infantrymen rode tanks i n t o combat and b ~ t !i n f a n t r y . ~ e n t h u s i a s t i c about the r e s u l t s achieved by the 22nd I n f a n t r y Armred Regiraent i n t h e r e c e n t breakthrough. ?he Corrmending I n f a n t r y mkes t h e f o l l o w i n g c o m n t a r e g a r d i n g t h i s type of

and tank personnel were Regiment and t h e 66th O f f i c e r of the 22nd action.

2. a l b c t i c a l Advcrntagee. m a. m i n f m t r y tire above enemy machine gun f i r e which i s g e n e r a l l y e e t a t grazin& l e v e l . he i n f a n t r y becomes a m a r e f l e e t i n g t a r g e t f o r enemy autonratic weeponso It b. is d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e enemy t o t r a v e r s e and e l e v a t e a machine gun from a dug i n hedger w p o a i t i o n t o bring a c c u r a t e f i r e on a tank m v i n g from e i g h t t o t e n m i l e s per hour. o c. The tank t u r r e t a l s o provides some p r o t a c t i o n a g a i n a t s m a l l anne f i r e . d. ?he infantrymen on tanks a r e i n a good p o s i t i o n t o t o e s g e n a d e s i n t o fox holes. 8. The infantrymen a r e a b l e t o provide e x c e l l e n t p r o t e c t i o n f o r t h e tanks f'rm enemy bazooka and a n t i t a n k grenade f i r e . f The infantrymen h e l p t o provide o b s e r v a t i o n f o r t h e tank crews. . This p r a c t i c e undarmines t h e Gernrsn t a c t i c a l d o c t r i n e of s h o o t i n g t h e i n f a n t r y g. following the tanke. When G n d o c t r i n e i s undermined, t h e e f f i c i e n c y of t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s i s p e a t l y reduced, he When t h e advance i e r e t a r d e d by AT gune, i n f a n t r y can d i s m u n t , deploy and b r i n g a u t o m i t i c f i r e on enemy gun positions.

3. amoblems which ~ i s e , a . Command and staff o r ~ n i z a t i o n and coordination. b. T r a m p o r t a t i o n f o r i n f a n t r y s u p p o r t i n g weapons i n o r d e r t o rmke them r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r h o l d i n g the o b j e c t i v e .

4 'The i n f a n t r y and armr a r e n o t o r g n i z e d t o work t o g e t h e r , and c a r e f u l end . thorough planning a r e , t h e r e f o r e , e s e e n t i a l f o r such an operation. The command pror y b a t t a l i o n colnrrand&e r i d e i n t a n k s blem wals p a r t i a l l y solved by ha

-

with t a n k b a t t a l i o n oommndara--directing t h e a t t a c k by radio.'

1 ad+ of t h e V Oafpa r e p o r t s that i t has beccnm unnecesrsary t o r e q u i r e a G-4 . (3-4) p e r i o d i c r e p o r t d a i l y and has made it a weekly report. However, r e p o r t s of
b a t t l e l o s s e a of equipment a r e required d a i l y from t h e Divisionta ordnance Officer based on the Ordnance M a t e r i a l W e Report each day.

1 B e following a e c u r i t y procedure was developed i n t h e V Carps f o r a use i n a . s t a t i c situation: a. Division8 evacuated c i v i l i a n s from the area within a p p r o x h t e l y two kilometers of the f r o n t l i n e s , f i x e d i n place those i n t h e next two t o four kilometsra, and establ i s h e d a l i n e i n rear of which c i r c u l a t i o n f o r a n announced d i s t a n c e up t o six kilometere rae permitted. A l l o t h e r c i r c u l a t i o n required a pas8 from the C i v i l ~ f f a i r a Section. b. P a t r o l of these l i n e s , which created t h r e e zones, was miinteined by m i l i t a r y perraonnel in t h e forward a r e a s , and combined m i l i t a r y and c i v i l i a n p a t r o l s , plus a j o i n t MP--Gendarme-C~emtorized p a t r o l i n the r e a r areas. c. The evaauation of a i v i l i a n e was accomplished by Division C i v i l Affairs.Officera and C i v i l A f f a i r s Detachments, using d i v i s i o n refugee control p o i n t s and Corps t r a n a i t a r e a s , to ~ n q y assembly aenters.
2 . Thie system became inoperative a s d i v i s i o n s moved r a p i d l y forward i n the a t t a c k OKily a s i n g l e s e c u r i t y l i n e beceme necessary, f a n a r d of which c i v i l i a i u were evacuated and i n r e a r of which the presence of c i v i l i a n s waa desired s o a s t o provide p o t e n t i a l places for refugciew.

l? ?

ENEblY M a W M LOCATION BY FIEID AFCIULERY OBSERVATION BATTALIONe

"is b a t t a l i o n 'has demonetrated t h a t m o r t a r s can be looated with our present equipment under s p e c i a l conditions. I n t h i 8 instance t h e base waa a c r o s s the v a l l e y and a t a e l i g h t l y higher e l e v a t i o n thhn the mortars, ~t was noted t h a t mortars did not f i r e d i r e c t l y t o the f r o n t , but a t an oblique t o the f r o n t , which placed them close t o our lines. Thie apparently is a c o m n p r a a t i c e of the enanlye TO use our present equipment the base must be e x a c t l y surveyed i n , a s c l o s e t o the f r o u t l i n e 8 as p o s s i b l e , preferably w i t h i n 1200 t o 1500 metare, and t h e sound outpost located with and protected by f r o n t l i n e i n f a n t r y elements. Due t o t h e mobility of mortars, f i r e should be brought down on mortar8 inmediately a f t e r they a r e looated. A d i r e c t telephone l i n e between the mortar baee sound detachment Cp and nearby a r t i l l e r y w i l l f a c i l i t a t e t h i s . ~ p a r i m e n t sshould begin inrmediately, w i n g captured mortars and aranunition t o determine the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of our present equipuezat i n the l o c a t i o n of enemy martars.@--Report of 8 t h FA Obsarvktion ~ t t a l i o n .
HANDLEW O PWt3 BY DIVISION MP'S. F

V

"Ib.ree e n l i s t e d nen of the Division I Company are asslgaed t o each i d a n t r y @ regiment a s ESCORT G u m . p r i s o n e r s are taken from regimental CP(8, and in many cases b a t t a l i o n CPta, escorted t o the prisoner of war inclosure, and there i n cocjunatian with v a r i o u s i n t a r r o g a t i o n teams a r e searched, i n t e r r o g a t e d , and evacuated t o the ~ r m y r i s o n e r of w a r incl0sure.n -Repart of provost W a t h l , 2nd ~ n f p Dive

TWELFTH ARMY CROUP

BATTLE EXPERIENCES
No. 29

29 AUC 1944

r g e t t l e m p e r i e n c e s l a r e p u b l i a h e d r e g u l a r l y by t h i s h e a d q u a r t e r s t o e n a b l e u n i t e i n t r a i n i n g t o p r o f i t from t h e l a t e s t combat e x p e r i e n c e s of o u r t r o o p s now f i g h t i r i g t h e w r m s i n prranoe. ~ 1 t h o u g ; ht h e e x p s r i e n c e s of c e r t e i n u n i t e a t a P a r t i c u l a r l o a e t i o n are n o t n e c e e m r i l y a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l u n i t e i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s , t h e item p u b l i s h e d w i l l b e t h o s e based o n p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e a n d a r e r e c o r n e n d e d f o r c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n by u n i t s which may e n c o u n t e r s i m i l a r problems, Reports of c o r r o b o r a t i v e o r c o n t r a r y e x p e r i e n c e e a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y d e s i r e d i n o r d e r t h a t t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e i n d i c a t e d b a t t l e l e s s o n may be determined.

BY comnand of t h e w y c r o u p Comrsnderl m

B r i g a d i e r G e n e r a l , USA Adjutant ~ e n e r a l

I EhiPI.OYnlENT OF TANK D 3 l B O m .
1 # m e a t oare must b e e x e r c i s e d i n c m i t t i n g towed t a n k d e s t r o y e r s t o i m r e . t h a t r o u t e s e r e a v a i l a b l e f o r e a s y e n t r a n c e t o and e x i t from p o s i t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y rrhen t h e r e i s no tenk t h r e a t .
2. * I n p r e s e n t o p e r e t i o n s most r e c o n n a i s s a n c e s h o u l d b e done i n s m a l l v e h i c l e s end on f o o t u n l e e e an a c t u a l t a n k t h r e a t hes been e s t a b l i s h e d . The b+8'e of t h e r e c o n n a i s s p n c e p l a t o o n draw h o s t i l e a r t i l l e r y f i r e .

3. *The secondary misaion of TD'a should be e x p l o i t e d t? t h e f u l l e e t . gne comPanY m y have a n Z n d i r e c t f i r s m i s s i o n , 3hiSe t h e remaining two a r e on d i r e c t f i r e missions. By u s i n g t h e r e s e r v e company on t h e secondery m i s e i o n , a f i r e e f f e c t corol p a r a b l e t o t h a t of a f i e l d a r t i l l e r y b a t t a l i o n c a n b e o b t a i n e d , Another a d v a n t a g e i e t h e t f i r e m y be c a l l e d f o r t o e u p p o r t t h e companies engaged i n t h e i r p r i m r y m i e s i o n during a tank attack.

4 )Care must be taken t h a t units whose m i s s i o n i s e n t i t a n k d e f e n s e r e c e i v e com. p l e t e t a n k w a r n i n g based on f a c t s , % l e e a l e r t s t e n d t o mike gun crews s k e p t i c a l . some i n f s n t r y u n i t e r e p o r t any t r a c k v e h i c l e a 3 a t a n k , t h w d e s t r o y i n & t h e e f f i c i e n c y ~ R o f t h e a n t i t a n k warning e y s t e m . l - ~ ~ f t e r c t i o n e p o r t of 3 2 1 s t TD B a t t a l i o n .
XI IL??I!L~?Y
A I R OP PEFENSm

TACTICS.

"The Carmans b v e a p p a r e n t l y e t u d i e d t h e current e v a s i v s t a c t i c s of t h e a p p l a n e s , and t h e y t r y t o b r a c k e t them w i t h time f i r e . The h i r OPle have adopted t h e p o l i c y of avoidink: c r o s a r o a d e and perrmnent l m d m a r k s , because i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e Germans z a r o i n on t h e s e p o i n t s , t h e n r a i s e the b u r e t a when a p l a n e i s over.#--29th ~ivieion a r t i l l e r y Report.

#The Division Ordnance O f f i c e r devised a system of a s s i g n i n g m i n t e m n c e t e a m t o each r e g i m n t as i t is placed i n r e a e r v e o r o t h e r w i s e becones a v a i l a b l e , i n order t o supplement the maintenance of ordnance equipment and m k e necessary replacementee#-Report of G-4, 3 0 t h Division.

(The follorrirle c m e n t s are e x t r e a t e d from t h e A f t e r Action Report of t h e gi-gnal O f f i c e r o f t h e 30th ~ i ~ i s i o n . )
1 9 d i r e g t wire from +3 t o t h e D i v i s i o n ~ t i l l e r yS-3 speeds up a h e l l r e p o r t 8 . and o t h e r comrmnicationa and r e l i e v e s awitchboard o p e r a t a r s .
2. # A t e l e t y p e w r i t e r has been moved t o t h e G-2 t e n t and t h e convenience t h i s a f f c r d e ha8 been l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a 200 p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e i n t e l e t y p e t r a f f i c .

3 . # p a c s i m i l e equipment bas been u e d on s e v e r a l occasions t o t r a n s m i t l i n e route wpe t o h i ~ h e r heedquartera.
14. 9 Inasmuch a s t h e m a j o r i t y of t r o u b l e on f i e l d w i r e l i n e e r e s u l t s from opens, a s t a n d e r d t r o u b l e c a r d baa been introduced, acd the w i r e chief uses a n RE-65-Bt e a t s e t t o t a k e a c a p a c i t y reading. T h i s i e e n t e r e d on a c a r d , and the w i r e c h i e f a180 i n t e r y e t 8 it i n t o d i s t a n c e t o t h e t r o u b l e and @ v e s e t h i a infarlllation t o t h e t r o u b l e team when i t is dispatched. The c a r d becones a p e r m n e n t record f o r a p a r t i c u l a r l i n e , and i f r e p e a t e d t r o u b l e o c c u r s i n any v i c i n i t y , t h e wire chief r e f e r s the t r o u b l e t o t h e c o n a t r u c t i o n o f f i c e r , who i n v e s t i g a t e 0 t o s e e whether t h e l i n e should be re-policed o r re-routed.

5 'It is SOP f o r adjacent regiments i n d i f f e r e n t d i v i s j o n a t o monitor channel . of SCH 300 t o provide p r m p t o o r r e c t i o n in ceee,of f i r i n g on one another.#
BRITISH PA'IROLLIIG HINT l

33

A B r i t i s h p u b l i c a t i o n s t a t e s c aIn t r a i n i n g f o r p a t r o l l i n g , it is r a r e l y r e a l i z e d t h a t , once c o n t a c t has been m d e , c a u t i o n a n d concealment mst be o a e t aaide, and ut Noise, p r o p e r l y c o n t r o l l e d , is a powerful every man m s a c t b o l d l y and speedily. moral wea?on far t h e attackere.#

When t a n k 8 a r e ordered t o m v e at a i d t , a f t e r a bivouac has been e e t a b l i a h e d , t h e carmanding o f f i c e r s of i n f a n t r y u n i t s i n t h e v i c i n i t y ehould be n o t i f i e d , as the sound of t h e mvement of t h e t a n k s w i l l normolly draw a r t i l l e r y and m r t a r f ire.#-Report of 709th m k B a t t a l i o n .

Reproducedby I-hefngheer Reproducf/bnDeL, /2th Army G r o q

TWELFTH ARMY CROUP

BATTLE EXPERIENCES
No. 3 0
3 0 AUC 1944
a g e t t l e p p e r i e n c e s f l are published r e g u l a r l y by t h i s headquarters t o snable u n i t s i n t r a i n i n g t o p r o f i t frorn t h e l a t e s t combat experiences of our troops now f i g h t i n g t h e Germns i n France. ~ l t h o u g ht h e experiences of c e r t a i n u n i t s a t a p a r t i c u h r l o o a t i o n a r e not n e c e s e a r i l y a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l u n i t s i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s , the itema publiehed w i l l be those based on p r a c t i c a l experience and a r e recornended f o r c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n by u n i t s whlch mag encounter similar p r o b l e m . Reports of c o r r o b o r a t i v e or c o n t r a r y experiences are p a r t i c u l a r l y d e s i r e d i n o r d e r t h a t t h e v a l i d i t y of t h e i n d i c a t e d b a t t l e l e s s o n m y be determined. By ccmxrmnd of t h e Group C o m n d a r 8:

p i g a d i e r General, US^ hd jutant General
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 0 1 1 0 0 ~ ~ . 1 0 ~ I 0 ~ . 0 -

NOTBa l l axtra -c aTheafollowingtheparagraphsf aanrt reyaRegiment.c t e d from r e p o r t s snd comments of lion m ~ n d e r eof 22nd I n

batta-

'More emphasis in t r a i n i n g should be p h c e d on d i s c i p l i n e . In my b a t t a l i o n , campany wnrmandere who had w e l l d i s c i p l i n e d companies m v e d f a s t e r i n a t t a c k and i n c u r r e d e f e ~ c a s u a l t i e s than those i n whose companies d i s c i p l i n e was l a x . W a r e i n c u r r i n g a h ~ a v y a s u a l t i e s among our o f f i c e r s and noncomnissioned o f f i c e r s , p a r t l y because they c I9ave t o l i t e r a l l y l e a d t h e men by t h e hand t o i n s u r e accomplishment of t h e i r mi8sion.a

c a s u a l t i e e s i n c e D-Day have been i n c u r r e d while hold1. W l l y 75 percent of i n g ground i n rrtatic o r defensive o p e r a t i o n s . To a v o i d t h e e e c a s u a l t i e s , I hove used the following m a t h o b t o good advantage a a, w i n g t h e day I plaue m y automatic weapom i n d e f l l a d e on the high ground. and then n e t h e r e a t o f t h e b a t t a l i o n behind t h e high ground. b . ~t night 1 e s t a b l i s h w e l l a n n e d p l a t o o n o u t p o s t s and m v e t h e r e s t of t h e platoon8 back about 400 yards. I permit t h e outpoata to fire. If t h e i r f i r e dram enemy a r t i l l e r y f l r e , t h e main body of t h e u n i t is not eub jected t o it. c. o t h e r n i g h t s I have moved mgr e n t i r e b a t t a l i o n a a b o r t d i s t a n a e t o the flank on aeverd occasionr, s h e l l e d t h e vacated area throughout after dark. The t h e n i g h t , while my men d e p t p m c e f u l l y i n the new area.@

NOTE1 Similer mbthodr have been used m c c e s e f u l l y a e i n s t the Japansee i n t h e R c i f i ~ .

1.. Hold Your Fire. @Do not f i r e on enemy p a t r o l e . It diecloeea t h e l o c a t i o n of your flank8 ao t h a t a r t i l l e r y f i r e can be brought down on your po8ition.r
2. watch f o r WP, Wlhe only t i m I have Been t h e Gerrnana use rrhite phosphorus s h e l l s is when t h e y were determining range. You can alwaya look f o r a n a r t i l l e r y c o n c e n t r a t i o n t o f o l l o w e i t h e r a white phosphoru s h e l l o r a t i m e - f i r e b u r s t o r

1 have e f f e c t i v e l y used my 57 mn a n t i t a n k guns with HE 3. Uae HE and Move. s h e l l s on d i r e c t f i r e missions. ~t ie b e s t t o f i r e not m e than t e n rounds and t h e n g e t out.#

IV SUCCESSFUL INFAN'IRYGANX COOPERATI ON.
NOTE: a t a s op t t effect-e sThe c lt oasceki ndescribedr tbelowy -wasn k s uec c eosrfku lmadee rpaoisosni bdemonatratingr i ohr eplanning, i v e ~ sof fantry-a iller ta t m l e through p
e x c e l l e n t timing, and capable 1 eader ship.

Te 1 W b 22nd I n f a n t r y , advancing n o r t h , had reached t h e i r o b j e c t i v e i n the v i c i n . i t y of The regiment on t h e r i g h t had been unable t o take t h e i r o b j e c t i v e , a h i l l , due t o heavy f i r e from t h a t h i l l , of what was e s t i m a t e d to be one i n f a n t r y company. It was decided t o have a f o r c e of t h e 22nd Infantry. assist i n the capture of the h i l l by a t t a c k i n g from t h e north w i t h cne r i f l e company and one t a n k company. A map rctconnaissance was made and an a r t i l l e r y f i r e plan grepared by t h e c o m n d e r s concerned t h e n i g h t before t h e a t t e c k . The t i m e cf a t t a c k was s e t f o r 0835 and an LD s e l e c t e d about 1600 y a r d s from t h e o b j e c t i v e . m r i n g t h e day before the a t t a c k , t h e for- commander ( t h e I n f a n t r y B a t t a l i o n CO), t h e r i f l e company c o m n d e r , and t h o t m k c s q q v c o m n d e r , nsde s grcund reconnai8sance up t o the I ) where they r e r e stopged I by machine gun f i r e .
2 . Mfie a t t a c k jumped o f f on time with one platoon of r i f l e m e n r i d i n g on t h e tanka of each tank platoon and on r e i n f o r c i n g tank deetroyer vehiclea. A 45-minute a r t i l l e r y barrlage was placed i n f'ront of t h e e t t e c k i ~ l g o r c e , beginning .st H-hour and f moving forward a t 13-minute intervals. The o b j e c t i v e was taken at 10130 h he a t t a c k i n g f o r c e i n c u r r e d only two c a s u l t i e s , captured 40 prisonera, and e i t h e r k i l l e d c r f o r c e d t h e withdrawal of t h e remaining elements which had been occupying t h e hil1.r

. -

END

Reproducea'by Lnq~ Repro. L?e/r: /2th Army Group

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