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6

TORSION

OBJECTIVES:
This chapter starts with torsion theory in the circular cross section
followed by the behaviour of torsion member. The calculation of
the stress stress and the angle of twist will be also showed here.
Lastly, the topics that include the members having noncircular
cross sections will be discussed. The examples and exercises will
be included to better understanding.

5.1 Introduction

Torsion refers to the twisting of a structural member that is loaded by


couples or torque. It will produce rotation about the members longitudinal
axis. Couples that produce twisting of a bar are called torques, twisting
couples or twisting moments and may be represented in several ways.

The example of shafts;


a) Rotating Machinery; Propeller shaft, Drive shaft
b) Structural Systems; Landing gear strut, Flap drive mechanism

Figure 6.1: Example of driving shaft

Mechanics of Materials 177


5.2 Torsion theory of circular cross section

Figure 6.2 : The circular cross section

Shaft connecting gears and pulleys are a common application involving


torsion members. To examine the stress and deformation of a torsion
member, a prismatic bar with a circular cross section that is twisted by
torques, T acting at the ends will be considered as shown in Figure 6.2.

(a) Before deformation

(b) After deformation

Figure 6.3: Deformation of bar

To better understand the behaviour of a torsion member, superimpose a


grid on the surface of shaft and observe the deformation of the shaft as a
result of the applied torque, T. Hold the left end of the bar fixed in
position. When a bar or shaft of circular section is twisted by moment, its

Mechanics of Materials 178


called pure tension and the deformed element shown in Figure 6.3 are said
to be in a state of pure shear.

Referring to Figure 6.3 and 6.4, several


characteristics of torsional loading on the
circular prismatic bar is observed;
1. The longitudinal axis of the shaft
remains straight.
2. The shaft does not increase or
decrease in length.
3. Radial lines remain straight and
Figure 6.4 radial as the cross section rotates.
4. Cross sections rotate about the
axis of the member.

The warping does not occur in circular section. The theory of torsion with
the circular section is relatively simple.

5.2.1 Shear stress in circular section, (tau)

Tr

J

Where;
: Shear stress in the shaft if max=maximum shear stress occurs at the
outer surface @ tegasan ricih. (N/m2)

J : Polar moment of inertia of the cross sectional area @ moment


sifatekun kutub (m4)

T : Applied torque acting at the cross section (Nm)

r : Radius of the shaft (m)

Mechanics of Materials 179


5.2.2 Types of circular section

5.2.3 Angles of twist, ( phi ) @ sudut piuhan

TL

JG

Where;

= angle of twist (radians)


T = applied torque
L = length of member
G = shear modulus of material/ modulus of rigidity@modulus
ketegaran (N/m2)
J = polar moment of inertia

5.2.4 Power transmission

Circular bars or shafts are commonly used for transmission of power.


From design stand point, it is necessary for the shaft to be strong enough to
transmit power safely without exceeding the shaft material's elastic limit.

Power is defined as the work performed per unit of time. The work
transmitted by a rotating shaft equals to the torque applied times the angle
of rotation.

Work = Torque x Angular Displacement

Mechanics of Materials 180


Power = d/dt (Work)

If torque is not a function of time, then the equation for power simply
becomes:

P=T

Where;
is the angular velocity of the shaft (rad/s)
T : Applied torque acting at the cross section (Nm)
P : Power (W)(1W = 1 Nm/s)

For machinery, the frequency of a shafts rotation, f is often reported. This


is a measure of the revolutions number@cycles of the shaft.

P = 2 f T

Where;
f : frequency (Hz @ hertz) (1 Hz = 1 cycle/s)
: 2 f

It is important that we use consistent units for P, T, and . Power is


commonly specified in horsepower, HP. Angular velocity is usually given
in revolutions per minute or RPM. It should then be converted to rad/sec.
To do this multiply the value in RPM by 2 and divide by 60.

EXAMPLE 6.1

Determine the maximum torque of a hollow circular shaft with inside diameter of
60mm and an outside diameter of 100mm without exceeding the maximum
shearing stress of 70MPa.

Solution;
Given;
di = 60mm, do = 100mm
max = 70MPa


J (100 4 604 ) 8.55x106 mm4
32

Mechanics of Materials 181


Tmax r
max
J
max J
Tmax
r
(70 x10 6 )(8.55 x10 6 )
11.97kNm
0.05

Remember: max=maximum shear stress occurs at the outer surface/radius.

EXAMPLE 6.2

A hollow steel shaft has an outside diameter of 150mm and an inside diameter
100mm. The shaft is subjected to a torque of 35kNm. The modulus of rigidity for
the steel is 80GPa. Determine;
a) the shearing stress at the outside surface of the shaft.
b) the shearing stress at the inside surface of the shaft.
c) the magnitude of the angle of twist in a 2.5m length.

Solution;

J (150 4 100 4 ) 39.89 x106 mm4
32

a) the shearing stress at the outside surface of the shaft.

Tr
out
J
35 x103 (0.075)
65.81MPa
39.89 x10 6
b) the shearing stress at the inside surface of the shaft

Tr
in
J
35 x103 (0.05)
43.9 MPa
39.89 x10 6

c) the magnitude of the angle of twist in a 2.5m length.

TL

JG

35x103 (2.5)
0.027rad
80 x109 (39.89 x10 6 )

Mechanics of Materials 182


EXAMPLE 6.3

A 3m long hollow steel shaft has an outside diameter of 100mm and an inside
diameter of 60mm. The shear modulus of steel is 80GPa. The maximum shearing
stress in the shaft is 80MPa and the angular velocity is 200rpm. Determine;
a) the power being transmitted by the shaft.
b) the magnitude of the angle of twist in the shaft.

Solution;

J (1004 604 ) 8.55x106 mm4
32

Tmax r
max
J
max J
Tmax
r
(80 x106 )(8.55 x10 6 )
13.68kNm
0.05

a) the power being transmitted by the shaft.

From the previous notes stated that angular velocity is usually given in revolutions
per minute or RPM. It should then be converted to rad/sec. To do this multiply the
value in RPM by 2 and divide by 60.

2T 2 (200)(13.68 x103 )
P Hp(horse power ) 286.55kW
60 60

b) the magnitude of the angle of twist in the shaft.


TL

JG
13.68 x103 (3)
0.06rad
80 x109 (8.55x10 6 )

Mechanics of Materials 183


EXAMPLE 6.4

A solid circular steel shaft 1.5m long transmits 200kW at a speed of 400rpm. If
the allowable shearing stress is 70MPa and the allowable angle of twist is 0.045
rad. The shear modulus of steel is 80GPa.
a) the minimum permissible diameter for the shaft.
b) the speed at the same power that can be delivered if the stress is not exceed
50MPa in a diameter of 75mm.

Solution;
Given L =1.5m
P = 200kW
= 400 rpm
allow = 70MPa
allow = 2.6 or 0.045 rad
G = 80GPa
a)
P T
2T

60
2 (400)T
200 x103
60
T 4.77kNm

Tr TL
i) allow ii) allow
J JG
d 4.77 x103 (1.5)
4.77 x103 0.045
2 d 4
allow (80 x109 )
d 4 32

32 9.109 x10 7
=
2385d d4
70 x106
0.0982d 4 d 0.067mm @ 67.1mm

70 x106 d 3 24287.2

d 0.07m @ 70.27mm

Pick d = 70.27mm
b) Given d = 75mm

d 4 (75) 4
J 3.11x106 mm 4
32 32
Tr

J

Mechanics of Materials 184


T (0.0375)
50 x106
3.11x10 6

T = 4.15kNm

P T
2T

60
2 (4.15x103 )
200 x103
60

= 461rpm

EXERCISE 6.1

A hollow circular shaft has an outside diameter D 2 of 100mm and an inside


diameter D1 of 60mm. Given the maximum allowable shearing stress is 55
N/mm2.

a) Show that its polar moment of inertia , J is 8.55x10 6 mm4.


b) Calculate the maximum torque, T that can applied to the shaft
c) Determine the shear stress at the inner surface of the hollow shaft

EXERCISE 6.2
A tubular shaft having an inner diameter of 30mm and outer diameter of 42mm is
to be used to transmit 90kW of power. Determine the frequency of rotation of the
shaft so that the shear stress will not exceed 50MPa.

[Ans: f = 26.62Hz]

Mechanics of Materials 185


5.3 Composite Bars

A B C

Shaft 1 Shaft 2

To solve the problem of combined/composite shaft;


a) T = Tshaft 1 + Tshaft 2 + ..Tshaft n
n = number of shaft

b) 1 2

TL
c)
JG

EXAMPLE 6.5
The composite bars with the different material is subjected to the torque is shown
in figure. Determine the maximum shear stress and the position. Determine the
angle of twist at C.
10kNm
A B C
4kNm

BAR r (mm) G(Pa)


2m 0.3m AB 50 3x1010
BC 25 8x1010

Solution;
d 4 (1002 )
J AB 9.82 x106 mm4
32 32

d 4 (502 )
J BC 0.62 x106 mm4
32 32

10kNm
A B C T = outward ()
4kNm

T = inward ()

2m 0.3m Or applied Right Hand


Rule

Mechanics of Materials 186


10kNm
A B C
6kNm 4kNm
TA

2m 0.3m

6kNm
TAB = 6kNm (T)

6kNm TBC = 4kNm(C)

10kNm

Maximum shear stress;


T r 6 x106 (50)
AB AB AB 30.55N / mm2
J AB 9.82 x106

TBC rBC 4 x106 (25)


BC 6
161.3N / mm2
J BC 0.62 x10

The maximum shear stress occurs in the bar of BC.

Angle of twist at the end of C;


TL TL TL

JG JG AB JG BC

(6 x106 )(2000) ( 4 x106 )(300)


0.0158rad
9.82 x106 (3x10 4 ) 0.62 x106 (8 x104 )

Mechanics of Materials 187


EXERCISE 6.3

The horizontal shaft AD is attached to a fixed support at D and is subjected to


point torques as shown in figure. A 40mm diameter hole has been drilled into the
portion CD of the shaft. By assuming that the entire shaft is made of steel and G
=70GN/m2, determine the angle of twist at end A.

5.4 Torsion of non-cylindrical member

Generally, we deal with axisymmetric bodies and the shear strain is linear
through the entire body. However, non-circular cross-sections are not
axisymmetric causing complex behaviors, which may cause bulging or
warping when the shaft is twisted.

Figure 6.5: Condition of bulging of non-circular shaft

Mechanics of Materials 188


The mathematics is beyond the scope of the course, however there are
empirical formulas for various shapes.

Table 6.1: Formula for various shapes

EXAMPLE 6.6

The aluminum shaft shown in figure has a cross sectional area in the shape of an
equilateral triangle. Determine the largest torque, T that can be applied to the end
of the shaft if the allowable shear stress,
allow is = 56MPa and the angle of twist at

its end is restricted to allow = 0.02 rad. Given Gal = 26GPa.

Mechanics of Materials 189


Solution;

By inspection, the type of shaft is equilateral triangle. Refer to Table 6.1,


20T
i) allow 3
a
20 T
56 N / mm2 3
40

T 179.2kNmm

46TL
ii) allow
a 4Gal
46T (1200mm) 46T (1.2m)
0.02rad or 0.02rad
N N
(40 4 mm)( 26 x103 ) (0.04 4 m)( 26 x109 )
mm 2 m2
T 24.12kNmm T 24.12 Nm

By comparison, the torque is limited due to the angle of twist.


T 24.12kNmm

5.5 Thin-walled Having Closed Cross Sections

Thin walled of noncircular shape are often used to construct lightweight


frameworks which is used in aircraft. In this section, we will analyze the
effects of applying a torque to a thin walled having a closed cross section.
The section does not have any breaks or slits along its length.

5.5.1 Shear flow, q.

Due the applied torque, T, shear stress is developed on the front face of the
element. Shear flow in a solid body is the gradient of a shear stress through
the body. Shear flow is the product of the tubes thickness and the average
shear stress. This value is constant at all points along the tubes cross
section. As a result, the largest average shear stress on the cross section
occurs where the tubes thickness is small.

q avg t

Mechanics of Materials 190


5.5.2 Average shear stress, ave

In non-circular thin walled shafts for closed segments. We assume that the
stress is uniformly distributed across the thickness and that we can assume
an average shear stress. The average shear stress in the body is;

T
ave
2tAm

where,
ave - average shear stress
t - the thickness of the shaft at the point of interest
Am - mean area enclosed within the boundary of the centerline
of the shaft thickness.
T - the applied torque

Am is shown in shaded area.

The relationship between shear stress, and torque, T;

ds
dF
ave

t h

ave

T dT h(dF )

Mechanics of Materials 191


h ( avet ds )
avet h ds

2 avet d Am
2 avet Am

T
ave
2tAm

Since q avg t , we can determine the shear flow throughout the cross
section using the equation;

T
q
2 Am

5.5.3 Angle of twist,

This angle can be determined by using the energy method. The angle given
in radians, can be expressed as;

TL ds
2
4 Am G t

Here the integration must be performed around the entire boundary of the
tubes cross sectional area.
where,

t - thickness of the interior segment


L - length of the section
G - modulus of rigidity of the section/shear modulus

Mechanics of Materials 192


EXAMPLE 6.7

The tube is made of bronze and has a rectangular section as shown in figure. If it
is subjected to the two torques;
a) determine the average shear stress in the tube at points A and B.
b) determine the angle of twist at end C. Given G = 38GPa.

Solution;

a)

25Nm
60Nm
C D E

60Nm TCD = 60Nm (T)


60Nm

25Nm 35Nm TDE = 35Nm (T)


60Nm

OR

The tube is subjected to the two torques at C and D. The


free body diagram is shown in figure. The internal torque
is 35 Nm.

T= T

60 = 25 ----> to balance (60-25)=35Nm

Mechanics of Materials 193


The area, Am; Am (0.035)(0.057) 0.002m 2

57mm

The shaded area = Am

35mm

The average shear stress at point A with t A = 5mm;


T
ave
2tAm
35
A 1.75MPa
2(0.005)(0.002)

The average shear stress at point B with t B = 3mm;

35
B 2.92 MPa
2(0.003)(0.002)

b)

The internal torques in regions DE and CD are 35Nm and 60Nm, respectively.

TL ds TL ds
2 2
4 Am G t CD 4 Am G t DE

60(0.5) 57mm 35mm


9
2 2
4(0.002 )(38 x10 ) 5mm 3mm
2

Mechanics of Materials 194


35(1.5) 57mm 35mm
9
2 2
4(0.002 )(38 x10 ) 5mm 3mm
2


30
22.8 23.33 52.5 22.8 23.33
608000 608000
3 3
2.28 x10 3.98 x10
6.26 x10 3 rad

EXAMPLE 6.8

A square aluminum tube has the dimensions as shown in figure.


a) determine the average shear stress in the tube at point A if it is
subjected to a torque of 85Nm.
b) compute the angle of twist due to this loading. Given G al = 26GPa.

1.5m

Solution;
a)
The area, Am; Am (50)(50) 2500mm2

50mm
The shaded area = Am

T 50mm
85x103
avg 1.7 N / mm2
2tAm 2(10)(2500)

Mechanics of Materials 195


Since t is a constant because of the square tube, the average shear stress is the
same at all points on the cross section.

b)

Angle of twist;
TL ds
2
4 Am G t

(85x103 )(1500) 50mm


4
4(2500) 2 (26 x103 ) 10mm
1.962 x10 4 (20)
3.92 x10 3 rad

Here, the integral represents the length around the centerline boundary of the tube.

EXERCISE 6.4

If a =25mm and b = 15mm, determine the maximum shear stress in the circular
and elliptical shafts when applied torque is T=80Nm. By what percentage is the
shaft of circular section more efficient at withstanding the torque than the shaft of
elliptical cross section?

[Ans: b) (max)c = 3.26MPa, (max)e = 9.05MPa, 178%]

Mechanics of Materials 196


EXERCISE 6.5

The square shaft is used at the end of a drive cable in order to registrar the rotation
of the cable on a gauge. If it has the dimensions shown and is subjected to a torque
of 8Nm, determine the shear stress in the shaft at point A.

Mechanics of Materials 197


TUTORIAL 5

1.
a) If the shearing stress is not exceed 70 N/mm2, determine the maximum
torque that may be transmitted by a solid circular shaft of diameter
98.5mm and length of 1.62m. Take shear modulus of steel is 80kN/mm2.

b) The square thin walled tube is subjected to a torque of 150Nm. Determine


the average shear stress in the tube if the mean dimension a = 200mm.
Each side has a thickness of t = 3mm.

[Ans: a) ave = 1.25MPa]

2.
a) A hollow circular shaft has an outside diameter D 2 of 100mm and an
inside diameter D1 of 75mm. Show that its polar moment of inertia , J is
6.71x106 mm4. Given the maximum allowable shearing stress is 65
N/mm2. Calculate;

i) the maximum torque, T that can applied to the shaft.


ii) the shear stress at the inner surface of the hollow shaft.

b) A continuous circular shaft is made of two segments AB and BC with


diameters 205mm and 105mm respectively. The shaft is fixed at the end A
and subjected to anticlockwise torques of 60kNm at B and 30kNm at C as
shown in figure. Take G = 80kN/mm2. Find the total angle of twist at the
end C.

Mechanics of Materials 198


3.
a) The figure shows the crosssectional of a hollow shaft. Prove the torsion
equation for concentrically hollow circular shafts is given by expression;

T max

J R2

where;

T = applied torque
R2 = outer radius of the shaft
R1 = inner radius of the shaft
max= shear stress at outer radius R2
J = polar moment of inertia
dr = an elementary ring of a thickness
at r, radius.

b) A hollow steel shaft is subjected to receive a torque of 30kNm. The shaft


has an outside diameter of 150mm and inside diameter of 100mm. The
Modulus of Rigidity for the steel is 80GPa. Determine;
i) the shear stress on the outside surface of the shaft.
ii) the shear stress on the inside surface of the shaft.
iii) the maximum shear stress of the shaft.
iv) the twist angle for a 3.5m length of the shaft.

4.
a) Discuss THREE (3) assumptions to be made in the derivation of torsion
equation for a circular shaft.

b) A steel circular bar in torsion consists of two parts, as shown in Figure


Q4(a). Part AB has diameter 60 mm and length 1 m, and part BC has
diameter 30 mm and length 1.2 m. What is the allowable torque T if the
angle of twist between the ends of the bar is not to exceed 0.035 radians
and the shear stress is not to exceed 30 MPa? Assume Modulus of
Rigidity, Gsteel = 80 GPa.

c) A torque of 5 kNm is applied to the rectangular section shown in Figure


Q4(b). Determine the wall thickness t so as not to exceed a shear stress of
80 MPa.

Mechanics of Materials 199


60 mm 30 mm

T A B C T

1m 1.2 m

Figure Q4(a)

50 mm

100 mm

Figure Q6(c)

(FINAL EXAM SEM II 2007/2008 UTHM)

5.
A hollow section as shown in Figure Q5 is subjected to a torque of 100Nm at
point A.
a) Sketch a thin wall tube to show elements subjected to torsion.

b) Derive the equation of average shear stress, ave in terms of internal torque,
T, the thickness of hollow section, t and the mean area enclosed within the
boundary of the centre line of the thickness of the hollow section.

c) Determine the average shear stress in the hollow section at point A.

Mechanics of Materials 200


d) Calculate the angle of twist assuming G = 200GPa.

A
20

L = 3m
200

20 All units in mm
150

Figure Q5

(FINAL EXAM SEM I 2007/2008 UTHM)

6.
a) Determine the torque T that can be applied to the rectangular tube if the
average shear stress is no exceed 85MPa. The mean dimensions of the tube are
shown and the tube has thickness of 3mm.

50mm

100mm

[Ans: a) T = 2.55kNm]

b) The solid compound rod made of three different materials carried


the two torques as shown in Figure Q3. Given Galuminum = 28GPa, Gbronze =
35GPa dan Gsteel = 83GPa. (Answer in unit N/mm2 ).

i) Calculate the maximum shear stress in each material.


ii) Find the angle of rotation of the free end of the rod.

Mechanics of Materials 201


5 kN.m

Aluminum 2 kN.m
Steel Bronze

100 mm 75 mm

3m 2m 1.5 m

Mechanics of Materials 202