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TORSION

OBJECTIVES:

This chapter starts with torsion theory in the circular cross section

followed by the behaviour of torsion member. The calculation of

the stress stress and the angle of twist will be also showed here.

Lastly, the topics that include the members having noncircular

cross sections will be discussed. The examples and exercises will

be included to better understanding.

5.1 Introduction

couples or torque. It will produce rotation about the members longitudinal

axis. Couples that produce twisting of a bar are called torques, twisting

couples or twisting moments and may be represented in several ways.

a) Rotating Machinery; Propeller shaft, Drive shaft

b) Structural Systems; Landing gear strut, Flap drive mechanism

5.2 Torsion theory of circular cross section

torsion members. To examine the stress and deformation of a torsion

member, a prismatic bar with a circular cross section that is twisted by

torques, T acting at the ends will be considered as shown in Figure 6.2.

grid on the surface of shaft and observe the deformation of the shaft as a

result of the applied torque, T. Hold the left end of the bar fixed in

position. When a bar or shaft of circular section is twisted by moment, its

called pure tension and the deformed element shown in Figure 6.3 are said

to be in a state of pure shear.

characteristics of torsional loading on the

circular prismatic bar is observed;

1. The longitudinal axis of the shaft

remains straight.

2. The shaft does not increase or

decrease in length.

3. Radial lines remain straight and

Figure 6.4 radial as the cross section rotates.

4. Cross sections rotate about the

axis of the member.

The warping does not occur in circular section. The theory of torsion with

the circular section is relatively simple.

Tr

J

Where;

: Shear stress in the shaft if max=maximum shear stress occurs at the

outer surface @ tegasan ricih. (N/m2)

sifatekun kutub (m4)

5.2.2 Types of circular section

TL

JG

Where;

T = applied torque

L = length of member

G = shear modulus of material/ modulus of rigidity@modulus

ketegaran (N/m2)

J = polar moment of inertia

From design stand point, it is necessary for the shaft to be strong enough to

transmit power safely without exceeding the shaft material's elastic limit.

Power is defined as the work performed per unit of time. The work

transmitted by a rotating shaft equals to the torque applied times the angle

of rotation.

Power = d/dt (Work)

If torque is not a function of time, then the equation for power simply

becomes:

P=T

Where;

is the angular velocity of the shaft (rad/s)

T : Applied torque acting at the cross section (Nm)

P : Power (W)(1W = 1 Nm/s)

is a measure of the revolutions number@cycles of the shaft.

P = 2 f T

Where;

f : frequency (Hz @ hertz) (1 Hz = 1 cycle/s)

: 2 f

commonly specified in horsepower, HP. Angular velocity is usually given

in revolutions per minute or RPM. It should then be converted to rad/sec.

To do this multiply the value in RPM by 2 and divide by 60.

EXAMPLE 6.1

Determine the maximum torque of a hollow circular shaft with inside diameter of

60mm and an outside diameter of 100mm without exceeding the maximum

shearing stress of 70MPa.

Solution;

Given;

di = 60mm, do = 100mm

max = 70MPa

J (100 4 604 ) 8.55x106 mm4

32

Tmax r

max

J

max J

Tmax

r

(70 x10 6 )(8.55 x10 6 )

11.97kNm

0.05

EXAMPLE 6.2

A hollow steel shaft has an outside diameter of 150mm and an inside diameter

100mm. The shaft is subjected to a torque of 35kNm. The modulus of rigidity for

the steel is 80GPa. Determine;

a) the shearing stress at the outside surface of the shaft.

b) the shearing stress at the inside surface of the shaft.

c) the magnitude of the angle of twist in a 2.5m length.

Solution;

J (150 4 100 4 ) 39.89 x106 mm4

32

Tr

out

J

35 x103 (0.075)

65.81MPa

39.89 x10 6

b) the shearing stress at the inside surface of the shaft

Tr

in

J

35 x103 (0.05)

43.9 MPa

39.89 x10 6

TL

JG

35x103 (2.5)

0.027rad

80 x109 (39.89 x10 6 )

EXAMPLE 6.3

A 3m long hollow steel shaft has an outside diameter of 100mm and an inside

diameter of 60mm. The shear modulus of steel is 80GPa. The maximum shearing

stress in the shaft is 80MPa and the angular velocity is 200rpm. Determine;

a) the power being transmitted by the shaft.

b) the magnitude of the angle of twist in the shaft.

Solution;

J (1004 604 ) 8.55x106 mm4

32

Tmax r

max

J

max J

Tmax

r

(80 x106 )(8.55 x10 6 )

13.68kNm

0.05

From the previous notes stated that angular velocity is usually given in revolutions

per minute or RPM. It should then be converted to rad/sec. To do this multiply the

value in RPM by 2 and divide by 60.

2T 2 (200)(13.68 x103 )

P Hp(horse power ) 286.55kW

60 60

TL

JG

13.68 x103 (3)

0.06rad

80 x109 (8.55x10 6 )

EXAMPLE 6.4

A solid circular steel shaft 1.5m long transmits 200kW at a speed of 400rpm. If

the allowable shearing stress is 70MPa and the allowable angle of twist is 0.045

rad. The shear modulus of steel is 80GPa.

a) the minimum permissible diameter for the shaft.

b) the speed at the same power that can be delivered if the stress is not exceed

50MPa in a diameter of 75mm.

Solution;

Given L =1.5m

P = 200kW

= 400 rpm

allow = 70MPa

allow = 2.6 or 0.045 rad

G = 80GPa

a)

P T

2T

60

2 (400)T

200 x103

60

T 4.77kNm

Tr TL

i) allow ii) allow

J JG

d 4.77 x103 (1.5)

4.77 x103 0.045

2 d 4

allow (80 x109 )

d 4 32

32 9.109 x10 7

=

2385d d4

70 x106

0.0982d 4 d 0.067mm @ 67.1mm

70 x106 d 3 24287.2

d 0.07m @ 70.27mm

Pick d = 70.27mm

b) Given d = 75mm

d 4 (75) 4

J 3.11x106 mm 4

32 32

Tr

J

T (0.0375)

50 x106

3.11x10 6

T = 4.15kNm

P T

2T

60

2 (4.15x103 )

200 x103

60

= 461rpm

EXERCISE 6.1

diameter D1 of 60mm. Given the maximum allowable shearing stress is 55

N/mm2.

b) Calculate the maximum torque, T that can applied to the shaft

c) Determine the shear stress at the inner surface of the hollow shaft

EXERCISE 6.2

A tubular shaft having an inner diameter of 30mm and outer diameter of 42mm is

to be used to transmit 90kW of power. Determine the frequency of rotation of the

shaft so that the shear stress will not exceed 50MPa.

[Ans: f = 26.62Hz]

5.3 Composite Bars

A B C

Shaft 1 Shaft 2

a) T = Tshaft 1 + Tshaft 2 + ..Tshaft n

n = number of shaft

b) 1 2

TL

c)

JG

EXAMPLE 6.5

The composite bars with the different material is subjected to the torque is shown

in figure. Determine the maximum shear stress and the position. Determine the

angle of twist at C.

10kNm

A B C

4kNm

2m 0.3m AB 50 3x1010

BC 25 8x1010

Solution;

d 4 (1002 )

J AB 9.82 x106 mm4

32 32

d 4 (502 )

J BC 0.62 x106 mm4

32 32

10kNm

A B C T = outward ()

4kNm

T = inward ()

Rule

10kNm

A B C

6kNm 4kNm

TA

2m 0.3m

6kNm

TAB = 6kNm (T)

10kNm

T r 6 x106 (50)

AB AB AB 30.55N / mm2

J AB 9.82 x106

BC 6

161.3N / mm2

J BC 0.62 x10

TL TL TL

JG JG AB JG BC

0.0158rad

9.82 x106 (3x10 4 ) 0.62 x106 (8 x104 )

EXERCISE 6.3

point torques as shown in figure. A 40mm diameter hole has been drilled into the

portion CD of the shaft. By assuming that the entire shaft is made of steel and G

=70GN/m2, determine the angle of twist at end A.

Generally, we deal with axisymmetric bodies and the shear strain is linear

through the entire body. However, non-circular cross-sections are not

axisymmetric causing complex behaviors, which may cause bulging or

warping when the shaft is twisted.

The mathematics is beyond the scope of the course, however there are

empirical formulas for various shapes.

EXAMPLE 6.6

The aluminum shaft shown in figure has a cross sectional area in the shape of an

equilateral triangle. Determine the largest torque, T that can be applied to the end

of the shaft if the allowable shear stress,

allow is = 56MPa and the angle of twist at

Solution;

20T

i) allow 3

a

20 T

56 N / mm2 3

40

T 179.2kNmm

46TL

ii) allow

a 4Gal

46T (1200mm) 46T (1.2m)

0.02rad or 0.02rad

N N

(40 4 mm)( 26 x103 ) (0.04 4 m)( 26 x109 )

mm 2 m2

T 24.12kNmm T 24.12 Nm

T 24.12kNmm

frameworks which is used in aircraft. In this section, we will analyze the

effects of applying a torque to a thin walled having a closed cross section.

The section does not have any breaks or slits along its length.

Due the applied torque, T, shear stress is developed on the front face of the

element. Shear flow in a solid body is the gradient of a shear stress through

the body. Shear flow is the product of the tubes thickness and the average

shear stress. This value is constant at all points along the tubes cross

section. As a result, the largest average shear stress on the cross section

occurs where the tubes thickness is small.

q avg t

5.5.2 Average shear stress, ave

In non-circular thin walled shafts for closed segments. We assume that the

stress is uniformly distributed across the thickness and that we can assume

an average shear stress. The average shear stress in the body is;

T

ave

2tAm

where,

ave - average shear stress

t - the thickness of the shaft at the point of interest

Am - mean area enclosed within the boundary of the centerline

of the shaft thickness.

T - the applied torque

ds

dF

ave

t h

ave

T dT h(dF )

h ( avet ds )

avet h ds

2 avet d Am

2 avet Am

T

ave

2tAm

Since q avg t , we can determine the shear flow throughout the cross

section using the equation;

T

q

2 Am

This angle can be determined by using the energy method. The angle given

in radians, can be expressed as;

TL ds

2

4 Am G t

Here the integration must be performed around the entire boundary of the

tubes cross sectional area.

where,

L - length of the section

G - modulus of rigidity of the section/shear modulus

EXAMPLE 6.7

The tube is made of bronze and has a rectangular section as shown in figure. If it

is subjected to the two torques;

a) determine the average shear stress in the tube at points A and B.

b) determine the angle of twist at end C. Given G = 38GPa.

Solution;

a)

25Nm

60Nm

C D E

60Nm

60Nm

OR

free body diagram is shown in figure. The internal torque

is 35 Nm.

T= T

The area, Am; Am (0.035)(0.057) 0.002m 2

57mm

35mm

T

ave

2tAm

35

A 1.75MPa

2(0.005)(0.002)

35

B 2.92 MPa

2(0.003)(0.002)

b)

The internal torques in regions DE and CD are 35Nm and 60Nm, respectively.

TL ds TL ds

2 2

4 Am G t CD 4 Am G t DE

9

2 2

4(0.002 )(38 x10 ) 5mm 3mm

2

35(1.5) 57mm 35mm

9

2 2

4(0.002 )(38 x10 ) 5mm 3mm

2

30

22.8 23.33 52.5 22.8 23.33

608000 608000

3 3

2.28 x10 3.98 x10

6.26 x10 3 rad

EXAMPLE 6.8

a) determine the average shear stress in the tube at point A if it is

subjected to a torque of 85Nm.

b) compute the angle of twist due to this loading. Given G al = 26GPa.

1.5m

Solution;

a)

The area, Am; Am (50)(50) 2500mm2

50mm

The shaded area = Am

T 50mm

85x103

avg 1.7 N / mm2

2tAm 2(10)(2500)

Since t is a constant because of the square tube, the average shear stress is the

same at all points on the cross section.

b)

Angle of twist;

TL ds

2

4 Am G t

4

4(2500) 2 (26 x103 ) 10mm

1.962 x10 4 (20)

3.92 x10 3 rad

Here, the integral represents the length around the centerline boundary of the tube.

EXERCISE 6.4

If a =25mm and b = 15mm, determine the maximum shear stress in the circular

and elliptical shafts when applied torque is T=80Nm. By what percentage is the

shaft of circular section more efficient at withstanding the torque than the shaft of

elliptical cross section?

EXERCISE 6.5

The square shaft is used at the end of a drive cable in order to registrar the rotation

of the cable on a gauge. If it has the dimensions shown and is subjected to a torque

of 8Nm, determine the shear stress in the shaft at point A.

TUTORIAL 5

1.

a) If the shearing stress is not exceed 70 N/mm2, determine the maximum

torque that may be transmitted by a solid circular shaft of diameter

98.5mm and length of 1.62m. Take shear modulus of steel is 80kN/mm2.

the average shear stress in the tube if the mean dimension a = 200mm.

Each side has a thickness of t = 3mm.

2.

a) A hollow circular shaft has an outside diameter D 2 of 100mm and an

inside diameter D1 of 75mm. Show that its polar moment of inertia , J is

6.71x106 mm4. Given the maximum allowable shearing stress is 65

N/mm2. Calculate;

ii) the shear stress at the inner surface of the hollow shaft.

diameters 205mm and 105mm respectively. The shaft is fixed at the end A

and subjected to anticlockwise torques of 60kNm at B and 30kNm at C as

shown in figure. Take G = 80kN/mm2. Find the total angle of twist at the

end C.

3.

a) The figure shows the crosssectional of a hollow shaft. Prove the torsion

equation for concentrically hollow circular shafts is given by expression;

T max

J R2

where;

T = applied torque

R2 = outer radius of the shaft

R1 = inner radius of the shaft

max= shear stress at outer radius R2

J = polar moment of inertia

dr = an elementary ring of a thickness

at r, radius.

has an outside diameter of 150mm and inside diameter of 100mm. The

Modulus of Rigidity for the steel is 80GPa. Determine;

i) the shear stress on the outside surface of the shaft.

ii) the shear stress on the inside surface of the shaft.

iii) the maximum shear stress of the shaft.

iv) the twist angle for a 3.5m length of the shaft.

4.

a) Discuss THREE (3) assumptions to be made in the derivation of torsion

equation for a circular shaft.

Q4(a). Part AB has diameter 60 mm and length 1 m, and part BC has

diameter 30 mm and length 1.2 m. What is the allowable torque T if the

angle of twist between the ends of the bar is not to exceed 0.035 radians

and the shear stress is not to exceed 30 MPa? Assume Modulus of

Rigidity, Gsteel = 80 GPa.

Q4(b). Determine the wall thickness t so as not to exceed a shear stress of

80 MPa.

60 mm 30 mm

T A B C T

1m 1.2 m

Figure Q4(a)

50 mm

100 mm

Figure Q6(c)

5.

A hollow section as shown in Figure Q5 is subjected to a torque of 100Nm at

point A.

a) Sketch a thin wall tube to show elements subjected to torsion.

b) Derive the equation of average shear stress, ave in terms of internal torque,

T, the thickness of hollow section, t and the mean area enclosed within the

boundary of the centre line of the thickness of the hollow section.

d) Calculate the angle of twist assuming G = 200GPa.

A

20

L = 3m

200

20 All units in mm

150

Figure Q5

6.

a) Determine the torque T that can be applied to the rectangular tube if the

average shear stress is no exceed 85MPa. The mean dimensions of the tube are

shown and the tube has thickness of 3mm.

50mm

100mm

[Ans: a) T = 2.55kNm]

the two torques as shown in Figure Q3. Given Galuminum = 28GPa, Gbronze =

35GPa dan Gsteel = 83GPa. (Answer in unit N/mm2 ).

ii) Find the angle of rotation of the free end of the rod.

5 kN.m

Aluminum 2 kN.m

Steel Bronze

100 mm 75 mm

3m 2m 1.5 m

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